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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237813, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278553

RESUMO

Abstract Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) is a grass species with high potential for exploitation, however, this raw material is easily attacked by xylophagous agents such as Coleoptera. The objective of this study is thus to analyse the presence of wood-boring beetles associated with Bambusa sp. in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study was carried out in a bamboo plantation, from August 2016 to July 2017. Two models of ethanolic traps were used, PET Santa Maria and ESALQ-84. Three families of wood-boring beetles were observed in this study: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae. 2,144 individuals were identified, belonging to 19 species, in four subfamilies and 11 tribes, and the species Xyleborus affinis was the most frequently collected. Thus, this study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of coleoborers associated with bamboo plantations, with the registration of the occurrence of species, as well as contributing to the knowledge of the entomofauna associated with species cultivated in the Southern Amazon.


Resumo O bambu (Bambusa sp.) é uma espécie de gramínea com alto potencial de exploração de fibras, no entanto, essa matéria-prima é facilmente atacada por agentes xilófagos, como os coleópteros. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a presença de besouros associados a Bambusa sp. em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em um plantio de bambu, no período de agosto de 2016 a julho de 2017. Foram utilizados dois modelos de armadilhas etanólicas, o PET Santa Maria e ESALQ-84. Três famílias de coleobrocas foram observadas neste estudo: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae e Curculionidae. Foram identificados 2,144 indivíduos, pertencentes a 19 espécies, em quatro subfamílias e 11 tribos, e Xyleborus affinis foi a espécie com maior número de indivíduos coletados. Assim, este estudo constitui-se em uma importante contribuição para o conhecimento de coleobrocas associadas a plantios de bamboo, com o registro de ocorrência de espécies, bem como contribui para o conhecimento da entomofauna associada a espécies cultivadas na Amazônia Meridional.


Assuntos
Animais , Besouros , Bambusa , Gorgulhos , Madeira , Brasil
2.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 64(1): 73-86, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845845

RESUMO

Wood is produced by the accumulation of secondary xylem via proliferation and differentiation of the cambium cells in woody plants. Identifying the regulators involved in this process remains a challenging task. In this study, we isolated PagSAG101a, the homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana SAG101, from a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) clone 84K and investigated its role in secondary xylem development. PagSAG101a was expressed predominantly in lignified stems and localized in the nucleus. Compared with non-transgenic 84K plants, transgenic plants overexpressing PagSAG101a displayed increased plant height, internode number, stem diameter, xylem width, and secondary cell wall thickness, while opposite phenotypes were observed for PagSAG101a knock-out plants. Transcriptome analyses revealed that differentially expressed genes were enriched for those controlling cambium cell division activity and subsequent secondary cell wall deposition during xylem formation. In addition, the tandem CCCH zinc finger protein PagC3H17, which positively regulates secondary xylem width and secondary wall thickening in poplar, could bind to the promoter of PagSAG101a and mediate the regulation of xylem differentiation. Our results support that PagSAG101a, downstream of PagC3H17, functions in wood development.


Assuntos
Populus , Câmbio/genética , Câmbio/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Madeira/genética , Xilema/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7428, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523846

RESUMO

This study aimed to test the hypothesis whether intrusive growth of initial cells is related to the increase in circumference of Robinia pseudoacacia vascular cambium-both qualitatively and quantitatively. The mode of intrusive growth of cambial initial cells was also studied. Samples collected from tree trunks were examined using series of semi-thin transverse sections. Anatomical reconstructions of radial and tangential planes of analysed fragments of cambial tissue were made. Observations and measurements have shown that the intrusive growth of R. pseudoacacia initial cells does not contribute to an increase in tangential dimension of observed tissue fragments where cell rearrangement occurs. Moreover, initially separated tangential walls of cells (between which cambial initial cell elongates intrusively) are transformed into obliquely oriented walls. These results stand in accordance with a statement that only symplastic growth of initials, not intrusive growth, is responsible for the increase in circumference in all woody plants with the continuous cambial cylinder. Moreover, we managed to capture the moment of transition of initial status from one cell to another for the first time. This phenomenon may be explained on the basis of the system of mechanical stresses operating not only in the secondary meristematic tissue but also in a whole plant organism.


Assuntos
Câmbio , Robinia , Meristema , Árvores , Madeira
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20201210, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507977

RESUMO

A bibliographic analysis was carried out to update the state of knowledge about aquatic fungi belonging to the subkingdom Dikarya in the Southern Cone of South America. The exhaustive search resulted in 38 articles reported. These papers correspond to those on taxonomic, ecological and biogeographic topics and include studies from lotic environments of the temperate ecoregions of Chile and Argentina. A total of 325 aquatic fungal taxa were reported, of which 318 belong to the phylum Ascomycota and 7 to the phylum Basidiomycota. According to the subgroups of these aquatic fungi 17 taxa were aero-aquatic, 199 facultative and 109 Ingoldian fungi. Regarding the methodologies, in these studies the information was obtained mainly by using lignocellulosic substrates such as leaf litter and wood as fungal source and wet chamber traditional working technique. However, more studies are still needed using other few-reported perspectives for the region such as ecological and molecular approaches as well as analyses of water environments belonging to unexplored biomes. This information can contribute to a better understanding of aquatic fungal communities and their role in ecosystems of the Southern Cone of South America.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Ecossistema , Fungos , Filogenia , Madeira/microbiologia
5.
Science ; 376(6593): 653-656, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511966

RESUMO

Anthropogenically elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentrations have been suggested to increase woody cover within tropical ecosystems through fertilization. The effect of eCO2 is built into Earth system models, although testing the relationship over long periods remains challenging. Here, we explore the relative importance of six drivers of vegetation change in western Africa over the past ~500,000 years (moisture availability, fire activity, mammalian herbivore density, temperature, temperature seasonality, CO2) by coupling past environmental change data from Lake Bosumtwi (Ghana) with global data. We found that moisture availability and fire activity were the most important factors in determining woody cover, whereas the effect of CO2 was small. Our findings suggest that the role of eCO2 effects on tropical vegetation in predictive models must be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Incêndios , Dióxido de Carbono , Gana , Madeira
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1974): 20220130, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538788

RESUMO

Microbial community members are the primary microbial colonizers and active decomposers of deadwood. This study placed sterilized standardized beech and spruce sapwood specimens on the forest ground of 8 beech- and 8 spruce-dominated forest sites. After 370 days, specimens were assessed for mass loss, nitrogen (N) content and 15N isotopic signature, hydrolytic and lignin-modifying enzyme activities. Each specimen was incubated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label metabolically active fungal and bacterial community members, which were assessed using amplicon sequencing. Fungal saprotrophs colonized the deadwood accompanied by a distinct bacterial community that was capable of cellulose degradation, aromatic depolymerization, and N2 fixation. The latter were governed by the genus Sphingomonas, which was co-present with the majority of saprotrophic fungi regardless of whether beech or spruce specimens were decayed. Moreover, the richness of the diazotrophic Allorhizobium-Neorhizobium-Pararhizobium-Rhizobium group was significantly correlated with mass loss, N content and 15N isotopic signature. By contrast, presence of obligate predator Bdellovibrio spp. shifted bacterial community composition and were linked to decreased beech deadwood decay rates. Our study provides the first account of the composition and function of metabolically active wood-colonizing bacterial and fungal communities, highlighting cross-kingdom interactions during the early and intermediate stages of wood decay.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Picea , Bactérias , Florestas , Fungos , Picea/microbiologia , Madeira/microbiologia
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 288: 119312, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450617

RESUMO

Herein, cellulose nanofibril (CNF) with various carboxyl amounts were prepared via regulating its oxidation degree using TEMPO oxidation. The CNF dispersion was dropped onto the interdigital electrode to be capacitive humidity sensor by the subsequent vacuum freeze-drying. Pure CNF-7 (NaClO content of 7 mmol/g) humidity sensor involves in orderly porous structure, which displays better performance than other CNFs for its moderate carboxyl content and dimension. As uniformly adding appropriate content of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQD) with larger surface area and active sites, it can be attached on the CNF to construct a three-dimensional interconnected porous structure for their excellent aqueous dispersity as well as differences in morphology and size. Consequently, the CNF/GOQD sensor exhibits the sensitivity as high as 51,840.91 pF/% RH, short response time (30 s)/recovery time (11 s) and excellent reproducibility. The proposed method can provide effective guidance for the design of humidity sensors based on nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Madeira , Celulose/química , Grafite , Umidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Madeira/química
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 288: 119364, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450627

RESUMO

This study presents an environmentally friendly process to produce high-purity cellulose (dissolving pulp) from birch wood by combining γ-valerolactone (GVL)/water fractionation and ionic liquid treatment of pulp, IONCELL-P (IP). A paper grade pulp was produced from optimal GVL cook with a similar composition to birch kraft pulp and was bleached with ECF sequence before the hemicelluloses were removed using the IONCELL-P process. The purity of the GVL-IP pulp significantly exceeded that of commercial prehydrolysis kraft (PHK) and prehydrolysis soda-anthraquinone (PH-Soda-AQ) pulps. IONCELL-P extraction removed more than 90% of the hemicelluloses, resulting in a dissolving pulp with a purity of 96% and a high molecular mass fraction, 2.3 times higher than that of a conventional PHK pulp. GVL-IP pulps are suitable not only for regenerated cellulose fibers or films, but also for high-purity, high-viscosity cellulose acetate and ethers, which cannot be produced in an environmentally friendly way by conventional processes.


Assuntos
Betula , Madeira , Celulose , Lactonas , Água
9.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265910, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427394

RESUMO

This protocol describes the different methods to collect and preserve bark and ambrosia beetles, detailing collecting tools, recording relevant data, and optimizing step-by-step methods to extract beetles from twigs, branches, bark, and trunks. It elaborates on trapping techniques, tools, lures, baits, and beetle preservation. The main rule of manual collecting is to not attempt to pry the insect out of the wood or bark, but instead, remove the wood/bark away from the beetle: gently and systematically. The main rule of trapping is that there is no general attractant; instead, attractants and traps should reflect the ecology of the targeted beetle taxa.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Ambrosia , Animais , Controle de Insetos , Casca de Planta , Madeira
10.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13726, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470929

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the partial replacement of roughage with wood kraft pulp (KP) on rumen fermentation and productivity of dairy cows. Eighteen cows were divided into control and KP groups. The KP group started adaptation to KP 3 weeks before calving; after calving, they were fed a total mixed ration for 12 weeks, wherein 18% Timothy hay was replaced with KP. The dry matter intake, body weight, and milk yield and composition were similar in the control and KP groups. The average daily rumen pH was higher with KP feeding, and the average daily ruminal temperature remained lower at 16 days after calving (P < 0.05). The concentration of volatile fatty acids remained unaltered, the molar proportion of acetic acid decreased, and the molar proportion of propionic acid increased, indicating a low acetic acid:propionic acid ratio (P < 0.05). Lipopolysaccharide activity in the rumen fluid was higher in the KP group (P < 0.05); however, the rumen microbiota were unaffected. The digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased 12 weeks after calving, whereas excretion of urinary nitrogen decreased (P < 0.05). Partial replacement of roughage with KP did not suppress rumen fermentation and maintained postpartum productivity.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Madeira
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6375, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430585

RESUMO

The natural forest ecosystem has been affected by wind storms for years, which have caused several down wood (DW) and dramatically modified the fabric and size. Therefore, it is very important to explain the forest system by quantifying the spatial relationship between DW and environmental parameters. However, the spatial non-stationary characteristics caused by the terrain and stand environmental changes with distinct gradients may lead to an incomplete description of DW, the local neural-network-weighted models of geographically neural-network-weighted (GNNWR) models are introduced here. To verify the validity of models, our DW and environmental factors were applied to investigate of occurrence of DW and number of DW to establish the generalized linear (logistic and Poisson) models, geographically weighted regression (GWLR and GWPR) models and GNNWR (GNNWLR and GNNWPR) models. The results show that the GNNWR models show great advantages in the model-fitting performance, prediction performance, and the spatial Moran's I of model residuals. In addition, GNNWR models can combine the geographic information system technology for accurately expressing the spatial distribution of DW relevant information to provide the key technology that can be used as the basis for human decision-making and management planning.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Madeira , Florestas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Regressão Espacial
12.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408536

RESUMO

Michelia formosana (Kanehira) Masamune is a broad-leaved species widespread in East Asia; the wood extract and its constituents possess antifungal activity against wood-decay fungi. Antifungal activities of leaf essential oil and its constituents from M. formosana were investigated in the present study. Bioassay-guided isolation was applied to isolate the phytochemicals from leaf essential oil. 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, and MS spectroscopic analyses were applied to elucidate the chemical structures of isolated compounds. Leaf essential oil displayed antifungal activity against wood decay fungi and was further separated into 11 fractions by column chromatography. Four sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified from the active fractions of leaf essential oil through bioassay-guided isolation. Among these sesquiterpenoids, guaiol, bulnesol, and ß-elemol have higher antifungal activity against brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus and white-rot fungus Lenzites betulina. Leaf essential oil and active compounds showed better antifungal activity against L. sulphureus than against L. betulina. The molecular structure of active sesquiterpenoids all contain the hydroxyisopropyl group. Antifungal sesquiterpenoids from M. formosana leaf essential oil show potential as natural fungicides for decay control of lignocellulosic materials.


Assuntos
Magnolia , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos , Antifúngicos/química , Fungos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Madeira/microbiologia
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448286

RESUMO

Due to its physical, chemical, and structural properties, oakwood is widely used in the production of barrels for wine ageing. When in contact with the wine, oak continuously releases aromatic compounds such as lignin, tannin, and cellulose to the liquid. Due to the release process, oak loses its characteristic aromatic compounds in time; hence, the flavour that it gives to the enclosed wine decreases for repeated wine refills and a barrel replacement is required. Currently, the estimation of the maximum number of refills is empirical and its underestimation or overestimation can impose unnecessary costs and impair the quality of the wine. Therefore, there is a clear need to quantify the presence of the aforementioned aromatic compounds in an oak barrel prior to a refill. This work constitutes a study to examine noninvasive optical biosensing techniques for the characterization of an oak barrel used in wine ageing, towards the development of a model to unveil its lifespan without inducing structural damage. Spectroscopic diagnostic techniques, such as reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman scattering measurements are employed to assess the change in the chemical composition of the oakwood barrel (tannin and lignin presence) and its dependence on repeated refills. To our knowledge, this is the first time that we present a benchmarking study of oak barrel ageing characteristics through spectroscopic methods for the wine industry. The spectroscopic data are processed using standard chemometric techniques, such as Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis. Results of a study of fresh, one-time-used, and two-times-used oak barrel samples demonstrate that reflectance spectroscopy can be a valuable tool for the characterization of oak barrels. Moreover, reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated the most accurate classification performance. The highest accuracy has been obtained by a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis model that has been able to classify all the oakwood samples from the barrels with >99% accuracy. These preliminary results pave a way for the application of cost-effective and non-invasive biosensing techniques based on reflectance spectroscopy for oak barrels assessment.


Assuntos
Quercus , Vinho , Benchmarking , Lignina/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Quercus/química , Análise Espectral , Taninos/análise , Vinho/análise , Madeira/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6282, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428370

RESUMO

The ethanol extract from the wood of Taxus Yunnanensis (TY) induced apoptosis in all cancer cell lines tested, which was mainly due to activation of an extrinsic pathway in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. The extrinsic pathway was activated by the upregulation of the expression levels of Fas and TRAIL/DR5, which led to the activation of caspase-8. Of note, the machinery of this increase in expression was promoted by the upregulation of MIR32a expression, which silenced MIR34a-targeting E2F3 transcription factor. Furthermore, ectopic expression of MIR32a or siR-E2F3 silencing E2F3 increased Fas and TRAIL/DR5 expression. Thus, the extract activated the extrinsic pathway through the MIR34a/E2F3 axis, resulting in the autocrine and paracrine release of TRAIL, and upregulated expression of death receptors Fas and DR5 in the treated DLD-1 cells, which were functionally validated by Fas immunocytochemistry, and using anti-Fas and anti-TRAIL antibodies, respectively. In vivo, TY showed significant anti-tumor effects on xenografted and syngeneic model mice. The extract may also aid in chemoprevention by selectively making marked tumor cells susceptible to the tumor immunosurveillance system.


Assuntos
Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Taxus , Animais , Apoptose , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Taxus/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo
15.
Prog Chem Org Nat Prod ; 118: 47-100, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416517

RESUMO

The phytochemistry of the fragrant infected heartwood of Aquilaria and Gyrinops species, agarwood (oud), is critically reviewed, highlighting the use of this remarkable natural raw material in perfumery. The chemistry of the two main groups of constituents of agarwood (sesquiterpenoids and chromones) is discussed, focusing particularly on the former structural type. The identities of the main key odorants of agarwood essential oil and of the smoke produced by heating the wood of agarwood are also discussed.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Cromonas/análise , Cromonas/química , Odorantes/análise , Sesquiterpenos/química , Thymelaeaceae/química , Madeira/química
16.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408530

RESUMO

Butvar B-98 and PDMS-OH both have a demonstrable ability as consolidants for archaeological wood. This makes them both potential treatment options for the Oseberg collection, which is one of the most important archaeological finds from the Viking era. Both Butvar B-98 and PDMS-OH are soluble in organic solvents, offering a useful alternative to aqueous-based consolidants. Extensive characterisation studies were carried out on both of these polymers, with the use of analytical ultracentrifugation and viscometry, for the benefit of conservators wanting to know more about the physical properties of these materials. Short column sedimentation equilibrium analysis using SEDFIT-MSTAR revealed a weight-average molar mass (weight-average molecular weight) Mw of (54.0 ± 1.5) kDa (kg · mol-1) for Butvar B-98, while four samples of PDMS-OH siloxanes (each with a different molar mass) had an Mw of (52.5 ± 3.0) kDa, (38.8 ± 1.5) kDa, (6.2 ± 0.7) kDa and (1.6 ± 0.1) kDa. Sedimentation velocity confirmed that all polymers were heterogeneous, with a wide range of molar masses. All molecular species showed considerable conformational asymmetry from measurements of intrinsic viscosity, which would facilitate networking interactions as consolidants. It is anticipated that the accumulated data on these two consolidants will enable conservators to make a more informed decision when it comes to choosing which treatment to administer to archaeological artefacts.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Madeira , Peso Molecular , Polímeros , Resinas Sintéticas , Siloxanas , Ultracentrifugação
17.
Food Chem ; 384: 132307, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413769

RESUMO

Ellagitannins are the main extractible phenolic compounds in oak wood. They can be extracted by eaux-de-vie aging in barrels but rapidly undergo chemical transformations, such as hydrolysis, reduction, oxidation, or even substitution reactions. Given gaps in knowledge about their composition in spirits, the goal of this work was to explore ellagitannin behavior during Cognac eaux-de-vie aging and search for new C-glucosidic ellagitannin-derived compounds. A purification protocol was followed to isolate the new formed compounds. UPLC-UV-Q-ToF and NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize a new C-glucosidic ellagitannin, named brandy tannin B. Two new forms of whiskey tannins were also isolated. The new compound, Brandy tannin B along with ß-1-O-ethylvescalagin and ß-1-O-ethylvescalin, and whiskey tannins were identified and quantified for the first time in Cognac eaux-de-vie. In addition, the organoleptic impact of brandy tannin B was evaluated. This work brings new insights into ellagitannin composition and their contribution to spirit quality.


Assuntos
Quercus , Vinho , Glucosídeos/análise , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Quercus/química , Taninos/análise , Vinho/análise , Madeira/química
18.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(5)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404430

RESUMO

Wood decomposition in water is a key ecosystem process driven by diverse microbial taxa that likely differ in their affinities for freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats. How these decomposer communities assemble in situ or potentially colonize from other habitats remains poorly understood. At three watersheds on Coiba Island, Panama, we placed replicate sections of branch wood of a single tree species on land, and in freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats that constitute a downstream salinity gradient. We sequenced archaea, bacteria and fungi from wood samples collected after 3, 9 and 15 months to examine microbial community composition, and to examine habitat specificity and abundance patterns. We found that these microbial communities were broadly structured by similar factors, with a strong effect of salinity, but little effect of watershed identity on compositional variation. Moreover, common aquatic taxa were also present in wood incubated on land. Our results suggest that either taxa dispersed to both terrestrial and aquatic habitats, or microbes with broad habitat ranges were initially present in the wood as endophytes. Nonetheless, these habitat generalists varied greatly in abundance across habitats suggesting an important role for habitat filtering in maintaining distinct aquatic communities in freshwater, estuarine and marine habitats.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Salinidade , Madeira
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(4): 1337-1343, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among cancer patients. The majority of lung cancer is the Non-Small Lung Carcinoma (NSLC). This study evaluated the potency of brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia sappan wood to induce apoptosis on non-small lung carcinoma cell line, A549, by examining the expression of p53, caspase-9, and caspase-3. METHODS: Brazilin was isolated from Caesalpinia sappan wood following a guided assay and it was determined by using Brazilin®SIGMA as standard. The activity of brazilin on the growth of A549 cell line was analysed by MTT assay and the apoptosis was evaluated by flowcytometer following Annexin V (FITC) and PI staining. The expression of p53, caspase-9, and caspase-3 was examined by immunocytochemistry. RESULT: The IC50 of brazilin on A549 cell line was 43µg/mL. Cell treatment with 20 µg/mL and 40 µg/mL of brazilin significantly increased early apoptosis (p<0.001). Cell treatment with 40 µg/mL  of Brazilin significantly increased late apoptosis (p<0.001). Brazilin significantly increased the expression of p53, Caspase-9, and caspase-3 (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed evidence of the activity of brazilin to induce intrinsic apoptosis on a NSLC cell line A549.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Células A549 , Apoptose , Benzopiranos , Caspase 3 , Caspase 9 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Madeira
20.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458728

RESUMO

It is well established that C-glucosidic ellagitannins contribute to wine quality, and new forms of ellagitannins have been found recently in cognac eaux-de-vie. The contribution of some ellagitannin-derived spirit compounds to eaux-de-vie taste has been demonstrated recently. However, there is a gap in our knowledge of the content, composition, and evolution of C-glucosidic ellagitannins in this matrix. Indeed, the quantification of these compounds and their evolutionary compounds have never before been researched in cognac eaux-de-vie. Thus, the aim of this study was not only to quantify these compounds, but also to study their kinetics and to observe how they are impacted by barrel toasting. For this purpose, barrels representing eight different toasting levels were used to age the same eau-de-vie during the first 18 months. Ellagitannin quantification was carried out by HPLC-Triple quadrupole. The results showed that the evolutionary trend of the eight ellagitannins is the same for all eight types of barrel toasting. The maximum concentrations of C-glucosidic ellagitannins were found after 3 months of aging (up to 23 mg/L) before decreasing to 18 months (9.7 mg/L), whereas ellagitannin-derived spirit compound concentrations increased throughout aging (up to 130.9 mg/L). In addition, barrel toasting had such an impact on ellagitannin content that barrels could be differentiated according to their levels. Eaux-de-vie in barrels with high toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations.


Assuntos
Quercus , Vinho , Glucosídeos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Vinho/análise , Madeira/química
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