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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2794, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307972

RESUMO

Placing the origin of an undeciphered script in time is crucial to understanding the invention of writing in human history. Rapa Nui, also known as Easter Island, developed a script, now engraved on fewer than 30 wooden objects, which is still undeciphered. Its origins are also obscure. Central to this issue is whether the script was invented before European travelers reached the island in the eighteenth century AD. Hence direct radiocarbon dating of the wood plays a fundamental role. Until now, only two tablets were directly dated, placing them in the nineteenth c. AD, which does not solve the question of independent invention. Here we radiocarbon-dated four Rongorongo tablets preserved in Rome, Italy. One specimen yielded a unique and secure mid-fifteenth c. date, while the others fall within the nineteenth c. AD. Our results suggest that the use of the script could be placed to a horizon that predates the arrival of external influence.


Assuntos
Invenções , Madeira , Humanos , Polinésia , Redação , Itália
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 96, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331783

RESUMO

Eucalyptus was one of the most cultivated hardwood species worldwide, with rapid growth, good wood properties and a wide range of adaptability. Eucalyptus stem undergoes primary growth (longitudinal growth) followed by secondary growth (radial growth), which produces biomass that is an important source of energy worldwide. In order to better understand the genetic regulation of secondary growth in Eucalyptus grandis, Transcriptome analyses in stem segments along a developmental gradient from the third internode to the eleventh internode of E. grandis that spanned primary to secondary growth were carried out. 5,149 genes that were differentially expressed during stem development were identified. Combining the trend analysis by the Mfuzz method and the module-trait correlation analysis by the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis method, a total of 70 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) selected from 868 DEGs with high connectivity were found to be closely correlated with secondary growth. Results revealed that the differential expression of these DEGs suggests that they may involve in the primary growth or secondary growth. AP1, YAB2 TFs and EXP genes are highly expressed in the IN3, whereas NAC, MYB TFs are likely to be important for secondary growth. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events of secondary growth and provide a foundation for future studies on wood formation in Eucalyptus.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Transcriptoma , Eucalyptus/genética , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Madeira/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359077

RESUMO

Three yeast isolate candidates for a novel species were obtained from rotting wood samples collected in Brazil and Colombia. The Brazilian isolate differs from the Colombian isolates by one nucleotide substitution in each of the D1/D2 and small subunit (SSU) sequences. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences of the three isolates were identical. A phylogenetic analysis showed that this novel species belongs to the genus Ogataea. This novel species is phylogenetically related to Candida nanaspora and Candida nitratophila. The novel species differs from C. nanaspora by seven nucleotides and two indels, and by 17 nucleotides and four indels from C. nitratophila in the D1/D2 sequences. The ITS sequences of these three species differ by more than 30 nucleotides. Analyses of the sequences of the SSU and translation elongation factor 1-α gene also showed that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Ogataea. Different from most Ogataea species, these isolates did not assimilate methanol as the sole carbon source. The name Ogataea nonmethanolica sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The holotype of Ogataea nonmethanolica is CBS 13485T. The MycoBank number is MB 851195.


Assuntos
Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos , Saccharomycetales , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Brasil , Filogenia , Colômbia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Madeira , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química , Saccharomycetales/genética , Nucleotídeos
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 66, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305918

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality traits of broiler chickens raised on plastic-grid floors, traditional wood shavings, and wood shavings enriched with zeolite. The experimental design included the allocation of 504-day-old chicks to three different bedding materials, namely wood shavings, plastic-grid floors, and zeolite litter, each with four replications (42 birds per replicate). The chicks were individually weighed at birth and grouped according to their average body weights. An experiment involving 504 chicks was conducted, with each replicate consisting of 42 male chicks of similar body weight. At the end of the experiment, a total of 120 chickens were slaughtered with 10 chickens selected from each replicate for processing carcass and meat quality traits. The effects of different bedding materials on mortality (P = 0.812), body weight (P = 0.565), and body weight gain (P = 0.569) were not significant. The ANOVA test was conducted to compare the main effects of performance, carcass, and meat quality characteristics. The feed intake was significantly affected in the 2nd, and 3rd weeks (P = 0.001; 0.023); in addition, the feed conversion ratio was significant in the 2nd, 4th, and overall period (P = 0.003; P = 0.026; P = 0.038) by the bedding materials. The breast yield (P = 0.001), thigh yield (P = 0.028), and wing yield (P = 0.023) were significant. The type of bedding material used in broiler production significantly influenced the pH24 (P = 0.030), L* (P = 0.037), a* (P = 0.000), and CL (P = 0.028). It was concluded that both a plastic-grid floor and zeolite supplementation to wood shaving litter did not significantly affect overall growth performance in broiler chickens. However, the plastic-grid floor showed superior effects on breast meat yield and quality characteristics, particularly reducing cooking loss, when compared to zeolite supplementation in wood shaving litter. The plastic-grid floor led to a slight increase in the feed conversion ratio. Consequently, adopting a plastic grid floor emerges as a viable alternative to traditional wood shavings in broiler farming.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Zeolitas , Animais , Masculino , Madeira , Abrigo para Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peso Corporal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Carne/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e16250, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38188140

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play many pivotal roles in plant growth and development, especially in cell elongation and vascular development. Although its biosynthetic and signal transduction pathway have been well characterized in model plants, their biological roles in Eucalyptus grandis, a major hardwood tree providing fiber and energy worldwide, remain unclear. Here, we treated E. grandis plantlets with 24-epibrassinolide (EBL), the most active BR and/or BR biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole. We recorded the plant growth and analyzed the cell structure of the root and stem with histochemical methods; then, we performed a secondary growth, BR synthesis, and signaling-related gene expression analysis. The results showed that the BRs dramatically increased the shoot length and diameter, and the exogenous BR increased the xylem area of the stem and root. In this process, EgrBRI1, EgrBZR1, and EgrBZR2 expression were induced by the BR treatment, and the expressions of HD-ZIPIII and cellulose synthase genes were also altered. To further verify the effect of BRs in secondary xylem development in Eucalyptus, we used six-month-old plants as the material and directly applied EBL to the xylem and cambium of the vertical stems. The xylem area, fiber cell length, and cell numbers showed considerable increases. Several key BR-signaling genes, secondary xylem development-related transcription factor genes, and cellulose and lignin biosynthetic genes were also considerably altered. Thus, BR had regulatory roles in secondary xylem development and differentiation via the BR-signaling pathway in this woody plant.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Xilema , Madeira
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190334

RESUMO

Two yeast strains (NYNU 211162 and NYNU 211275) were isolated from rotting wood collected in the Baotianman Nature Reserve, Henan Province, central China. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed that the strains represent a phylogenetically distinct species within the genus Spencermartinsiella. The name Spencermartinsiella henanensis fa., sp. nov. is proposed for this species with holotype CICC 33543T (Mycobank MB 851142). S. henanensis sp. nov. differed by only 3 nt (~0.5 %) substitutions from the closest known species S. europaea NCAIM Y.01817T in the D1/D2 domain, but by 33 nt (~6 %) substitutions, 34 nt (~3.8 %) substitutions, 30 nt (~5.6 %) substitutions and 75 nt (~9.9 %) substitutions in the ITS region and the partial TEF1, COXII and RPB2 genes. Additionally, S. henanensis sp. nov. can be physiologically distinguished from S. europaea by its ability to assimilate inulin, inability to assimilate ethylamine and cadaverine, and incapability of growth at 30 °C.


Assuntos
Saccharomycetales , Madeira , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química , Saccharomycetales/genética
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193914

RESUMO

Wood is a sustainable and widely applicable building material. Wood products emit gaseous substances into the indoor air, which is why they should meet the same indoor air quality requirements as any other building product used indoors. The Commission on Indoor Air Hygiene (IRK) provides advice on how to ensure healthy indoor living conditions in the presence of wood products. Important requirements are the selection of low-emission woods and wood-based materials, compliance with health-related assessment standards, and a ventilation concept that is tailored to the usage and emission sources in the building. When considering these guidelines, wood and wood-based materials can be successfully used both in existing buildings and in newly constructed, airtight buildings with low energy requirements.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Madeira , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Comunicação , Higiene
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38179428

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a need to better understand the etiotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) beyond the tobacco-smoke (TS-COPD). Wood smoke COPD (WS-COPD) is characterized by greater airway compromise, milder emphysema, and slower rate of lung function decline than TS-COPD. However, it is unclear if these two etiotypes of COPD have differences in sputum biomarker concentrations. Objective was to compare sputum levels of selected sputum biomarkers between WS-COPD and TS-COPD, and healthy controls. Methods: Eighty-eight women (69±12 years) were recruited and classified into: WS-COPD (n=31), TS-COPD (n=29) and controls (n=28). Using ELISA, we determined induced sputum levels of metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), interleukin-8 (IL-8), chemokine ligand 16 (CCL16/HCC-4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-1). Differences were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests and correlation between airflow limitation and biomarkers by Spearman's test. Results: At similar degree of airflow obstruction, anthropometrics and medications use, the level of sputum CCL5 was higher in TS-COPD than WS-COPD (p=0.03) without differences in MMP-9, IL-8, CCL16/HCC-4, and VEGF-1. Women with WS-COPD and TS-COPD showed significantly higher sputum levels of MMP-9, IL-8 and CCL5 compared with controls (p<0.001). FEV1% predicted correlated negatively with levels of MMP-9 (rho:-0.26; P=0.016), CCL5 (rho:-0.37; P=0.001), IL-8 (rho:-0.42; P<0.001) and VEGF (rho:-0.22; P=0.04). Conclusion: While sputum concentrations of MMP-9, IL-8, and CCL5 were higher in COPD women compared with controls, women with TS-COPD had higher levels of CCL5 compared with those with WS-COPD. Whether this finding relates to differences in pathobiological pathways remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Feminino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Escarro/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Madeira , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ligantes , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo
10.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(44): 7-15, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38205567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CT information of the target undergoing motion/movement during its scanning has been questioned by many researchers for its preciseness as well as accuracy. The present study was taken with aim to validate the racimosa wood as lung equivalent and to assess the uncertainty in volume estimation during virtual simulation of non-static target of known dimension such as in lung cancer radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The racemosa wood was validated as lung equivalent material with the help of two methods. Wood insert with tumor model was put into the hollow cylinder space of dimension 6.4 cm in diameter provided in CIRS phantom. First CT image of rest position was taken and given name "No Movement". Subsequently the tumor was shifted +/-5mm, +/-15mm and +/-25 mm with respect to "Rest Position". CT images of the CIRS phantom containing tumor in wood cylinder were acquired after each movement given to wood cylinder. RESULTS: The relative electron density of racemosa wood corresponding to HU value -724 was found to be 0.275 gm/cm3. The true volume of the target was 7.8.cm3 however variation up to 9.5 cm3 was observed in CT produced volume of the target over the range of different movements. DISCUSSION: The racemosa wood was found to be having range of density (- 850 HU to - 400 HU) similar to real human lung density variation. Various studies have been performed using uniform density lung structures in their experimental setups to assess the accuracy in lung cancer radiation delivery. However, in the present work approximately real clinical setting was reproduced by putting the wood cylinder with density variation from 0.2 gm/cm3- 4.5 gm/cm3in hollow space provided in one lung structure the phantom used in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The racemosa wood was found to be lung equivalent which is available locally and cost-effective as well. Overestimation in the target volume (by CT imaging) showed a trend of increase with 3 directional movement amplitudes. The results of this study can be utilised in lung cancer radiotherapy as the same were derived from setup having clinical settings in terms of lung density variation, shape, compositions of the phantom maximally as found during the real patient radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Imagens de Fantasmas , Madeira , Incerteza
11.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 22, 2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217778

RESUMO

A new species of the yeast genus Blastobotrys was discovered on ancient ship timbers in the Netherlands. The species had developed on the wood of a river barge dating to the Roman period. The growth occurred after the preservative polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) was washed out of some of the timbers due to an undetected leak in the storage unit. Mycological analysis of various timber samples revealed the presence of Microascus melanosporus (predominant), Microascus paisii, a member of the Acremonium chrysogenum-clade, and a new Blastrobotrys species. The new species produced sporothrix-like conidiophores with clavate blastoconidia (3-7 × 1-3.5 µm) and was found to be osmotolerant, capable of growth on low water activity media like malt yeast 50% glucose agar (MY50G). In this article we formally describe and introduce Blastrobotrys nigripullensis (CBS 17879 T) based on its morphology, physiology and phylogenetic placement.


Assuntos
Saccharomycetales , Filogenia , Países Baixos , Leveduras , DNA Fúngico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Madeira/microbiologia
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(8): 11842-11856, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221559

RESUMO

This study aimed to construct a transboundary marine governance mechanism in the Kinmen-Xiamen waters through literature review, field survey, in-depth interview, and expert opinion survey. The study finds that monsoons, ocean currents, and tides are the main factors affecting the drift of marine debris in the Xiamen Sea area to the beaches of Kinmen. The marine debris mainly included marine plastic debris (MPD), bamboo, and wood in Kinmen and was documented impacting a variety of species, including the horseshoe crab to marine mammals the IndoPacific dolphin. In addition, the problem of marine micro-plastic pollution is becoming increasingly worrisome and hazardous to rare creatures in the Xiamen Sea area. The pollution sources of MPD in Xiamen Bay included coastal tourism activities, micro-plastic discharged from sewage treatment plants, plastic waste produced by lost and discarded marine aquaculture, and plastic drifting terrestrial waste transported from the Jiulong River Basin. Our results show that microplastic pollution in the Kinmen-Xiamen waters may have a greater impact on marine ecology and the surrounding environment. The relevant transboundary marine governance mechanisms are discussed in this study.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Animais , Taiwan , Resíduos/análise , Madeira/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mamíferos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(8): 12229-12244, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225496

RESUMO

Based on partial data, this paper uses BP neural network optimised by particle swarm optimisation algorithm to predict the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the line in the construction phase. The GHG emission efficiency is analysed by SBM (Slacks-Based Measure) super efficiency method. Finally, the grey relational analysis (GRA) is applied to sort the GHG emission correlation factors. Based on the existing design and quota document data of 16 stations and 16 sections of the Wuhu Monorail Line 1, we have employed a neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm to predict the total emissions of greenhouse gases during the construction phase of the entire line consisting of 25 stations and 24 sections. The GHG emissions of all stations and sections are 29,300 tons and 21,000 tons. The technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency of the stations and sections were high. As for stations, the order of influence degree is metal material consumption (0.9731) > cost (0.9486) > electric energy consumption (0.9481) > station area (0.9109) > concrete and cement consumption (0.9032) > other material consumption (0.8831) > gasoline and diesel consumption (0.7258). For the section, the order of influence degree is cost (0.9766) > concrete (0.9581) > steel reinforcement (0.9483) > other steels (0.874) > section length (0.8337) > power energy consumption (0.7169) > wood consumption (0.6684).


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Efeito Estufa , Inteligência Artificial , Gasolina , Madeira/química
14.
J Proteomics ; 294: 105074, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199305

RESUMO

The white rot fungi Pleurotus eryngii are environmental microorganisms that can effectively break down lignocellulosic biomass. However, understanding of the mechanisms by which P. eryngii is effective in degrading lignocellulose is still limited. This work aimed to examine the extracellular secretory proteins implicated in the breakdown of lignocellulose in P. eryngii and identify degradation tactics across various cultivation substrates. Thus, a comparative analysis of the secretory proteins based on Nanoliquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry was conducted among P. eryngii cultivated on sawdusts, bagasse, peanut shells, and glucose. In total, 647, 616, 604, and 511 proteins were identified from the four samples, respectively. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of protein expression differences identified pathways (hydrolytic enzymes, catalytic activity, metabolic processes, cellular processes, and response to stimuli) significantly enriched in proteins associated with lignocellulose degradation in P. eryngii. An integrated analysis of proteome data revealed specifically or differentially expressed genes secreted by P. eryngii in different cultivation substrates. The most prevalent carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in lignocellulose degradation in the secretome of the four samples were laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AaO), and copper radical oxidase (CRO). Among them, Lac 2 mainly involved in the lignin degradation of sawdust peanut shells, and bagasse by P. eryngii, and Mnp 3 was mainly involved in the degradation of peanut shells. AaO and Lac 4 were mainly involved in glucose substrate defense and oxidative stress. It was found that exogenous addition of sawdust and peanut shells significantly increased lignolytic enzyme abundance. These findings provide insight and guidance for improving agricultural waste resource recovery. In this study, the secretomes of P. eryngii grown on four different carbon sources were compared. The findings revealed the extracellular enzymes implicated in the degradation of lignocellulose, offering avenues for further investigation into the biotransformation mechanisms of P. eryngii biomass and the potential utilization of agricultural wastes. SIGNIFICANCE: The cost of the substrate for mushroom cultivation has increased as the production of edible fungus has risen year after year. Therefore, the use of these locally available lignocellulosic wastes as substrates offers a cost-cutting option. Further, the overuse of wood for the cultivation of edible mushrooms is also detrimental to the conservation of forest resources or the ecological environment. Consequently, the use of other agricultural wastes as an alternative to sawdust or other woody substrates is a viable approach for cultivating P. eryngii. The distribution of extracellular lignocellulosic degrading enzymes, inferred in the present study could help improve the cultivation efficiency of P. eryngii vis-à-vis managing agricultural waste.


Assuntos
Arachis , Celulose , Pleurotus , Madeira , Arachis/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Lignina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 258(Pt 2): 129132, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171433

RESUMO

Adhesives are used extensively in the wood industry. As resource and environmental issues become increasingly severe, the development of green and sustainable biomass-based adhesives has attracted increasing attention. In this work, a green wood adhesive is developed from poly(vinyl alcohol) and lignin with molecular designs of lignin extending beyond those in nature. The lignin undergoes extraction from corncob residue, aldehydration, and phenolisation (phenol, resorcinol, and catechol) to significantly increase the phenolic hydroxyl groups (over 7.92 mmol/g), which has the effect of enhancing the hydrogen bonding force between the adhesive and the wood, thereby greatly improving adhesive performance. Compared with pure PVA, polyphenol lignin-containing PVA showed improved adhesion strength and hydrophobicity. PVA/resorcinol-lignin has the significantly improved wood lap shear strength (6.27 MPa, 77.6 % improvement) and hydrophobicity (almost 100 % increase in wet shear strength). This research not only provides a green and high-performance alternative raw material for wood adhesives but also broadens the path for large-scale application of biomass.


Assuntos
Lignina , Polifenóis , Polifenóis/análise , Lignina/química , Álcool de Polivinil , Adesivos/química , Madeira/química , Fenóis/química , Metanol , Cloreto de Polivinila , Resorcinóis
16.
Food Chem ; 442: 138390, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241995

RESUMO

Aging is an important processing step of producing high quality apple brandy. In this study, apple brandies aged by traditional method and using three different toasted oak chips combined with or without ultra-high-pressure (UHP) treatment were prepared to compare their differences in chemical characterization and sensory properties. The results indicated that the brandies aged with toasted oak chip increased the levels of total acidity, volatile acidity and phenolic compounds. It also had the desirable color and taste. The brandy aged with toasted oak chip combined with UHP reached the highest levels of total acidity (1.06 g/L), total phenolic content (284.92 mg/L) and aromatic esters (49.37 %). Therefore, the aging with high toasted oak chip combined with UHP treatment could cut the traditional aging time to meet the same quality as traditional aging method. The results are very useful to develop a fast and efficient aging technique for brandy production.


Assuntos
Malus , Quercus , Vinho , Malus/química , Vinho/análise , Quercus/química , Madeira/química , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Fenóis/análise
17.
Fitoterapia ; 173: 105824, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244895

RESUMO

Two new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (1-2), two new sesquiterpenes (12-13), and twelve known compounds (3-11, 14-16) were isolated from agarwood of Aquilaria sinensis. These structures were confirmed by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of two new sesquiterpenes were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Among them, 7,8-dihydroxy-2-[2-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (2) was the first time found that the hydroxyl groups at both C-7/C-8 in agarwood. And Aseudesm B (13), the aldehyded methyl group at C-5 of eucalyptane sesquiterpenes was first discovered in natural products. In the bioassays, all compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-activated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 2-5, 7, 9-10, and 13-14 revealed notable inhibitory effects against NO production with IC50 values ranging from 4.0 to 13.0 µM.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Cromonas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Flavonoides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Thymelaeaceae/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Óxido Nítrico , Madeira/química
18.
Anal Chem ; 96(2): 917-925, 2024 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171538

RESUMO

A high-sensitivity, low-cost, self-powered biomass electrochemical biosensor based on the "evaporating potential" theory is developed for protein detection. The feasibility of experimental evaluation methods was verified with a probe protein of bovine serum albumin. The sensor was then used to detect lung cancer marker CYFRA21-1, and the potential of our sensor for clinical diagnosis was demonstrated by serum analysis. This work innovatively exploits the osmotic power generation capability of natural wood to construct a promising electrochemical biosensor that was driven by kinetics during testing. The detection methods used for this sensor, chronoamperometry and AC impedance, showed potential for quantitative analysis and specific detection, respectively. Furthermore, the sensor could facilitate new insights into the development of high-sensitivity, low-cost, and easy-to-use electrochemical biosensors.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Queratina-19 , Madeira , Soroalbumina Bovina , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos
19.
Biomacromolecules ; 25(2): 666-674, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194667

RESUMO

Understanding and controlling the diffusion of ions and chemicals within the secondary plant cell walls are pivotal in various applications of biomasses. Recent studies have shown that inorganic ion diffusion through secondary cell walls is controlled by a moisture-induced glass transition in amorphous polysaccharides, including amorphous cellulose and hemicelluloses. Understanding the diffusion of ions in these structures has been the subject of numerous recent experiments; however, a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms of interactions between ion atoms and water/hemicellulose molecules is still lacking. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the diffusion mechanisms of potassium and chloride ions in the cell walls under varying moisture content. The results reveal that a higher moisture content leads to the formation of solvent layers around the ions and reduces the charge interaction between the functional groups of wood polymers and ions. Hence, a higher moisture content results in an improved diffusion rate of ions within the domain. The simulation results also show that higher moisture content lowers the glass transition temperature, promoting diffusion of ions in the system. In contrast, increases in the ion concentration increase the glass transition temperature of the system and degrade the diffusion of ions in the system.


Assuntos
Vitrificação , Madeira , Temperatura de Transição , Madeira/metabolismo , Difusão , Parede Celular/química , Íons , Água/química , Temperatura
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2489, 2024 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38291097

RESUMO

Peatlands provide a variety of ecosystem services besides being important ecosystems for biodiversity. Sustainable peatland management requires that its impacts are identified, and all management is allocated in a cost-efficient manner. In this study, we assessed how peatland management influences the habitat suitability of red-listed plant species and the financial performance of management measured as net present value (NPV). The study was done in three landscapes in Finland. We considered four peatland management scenarios i.e., no management activity (NOMANAGE), hydrological restoration (REST), wood harvesting for bioenergy (BIOENERGY), and timber production (TIMBER). The NPVs of different management scenarios were compared to the habitat suitability of red-listed peatland plant species. A cost-impact analysis was used, with TIMBER as a baseline scenario, to find out which alternative scenario would be the most cost-efficient in contributing to habitat suitability. Our study shows that potential habitat areas were significantly different between the scenarios. REST provided the largest potential habitat areas, followed by BIOENERGY, NOMANAGE, and TIMBER. TIMBER provided the best financial performance when low interest rates were used. REST and BIOENERGY were more cost-efficient in enhancing potential habitat areas than NOMANAGE. REST would improve suitable habitats and provide financial benefits when a higher interest rate was used. In conclusion, even a win-win condition could be achieved in some cases (33%), in which higher NPV was achieved simultaneously with improved potential habitat areas. The study provides information for alleviating the economic barriers of restoration and targeting land use and management options cost-efficiently.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Finlândia , Madeira , Custos e Análise de Custo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
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