Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.891
Filtrar
1.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124969, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740586

RESUMO

A promising approach to help offset production costs for the cellulosic ethanol industry is to improve ethanol productivity while simultaneously generating value-added by-products. This study reports integration of an advanced fermentation approach (self-cycling fermentation) with the production of cellulose nanocrystals. Specifically, wood pulp was enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield dissolved sugars, which were fed to a self-cycling fermentation system for ethanol production, and residual solids were used for cellulose nanocrystals production via acid hydrolysis. Self-cycling fermentation achieved stable ethanol production for 10 cycles with significantly greater productivity than batch operation: ethanol volumetric productivity increased by 63-95% and annual ethanol productivity by 96 ± 5%. Additionally, the enzyme hydrolysis approach employed did not impede ethanol fermentation, and the cellulose nanocrystals generated displayed properties consistent with previous studies. Taken together, these results highlight the potential of this co-production strategy to produce both cellulosic ethanol and cellulose nanocrystals from a single feedstock.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanopartículas , Celulose/metabolismo , Etanol , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Madeira/metabolismo
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 503-512, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650359

RESUMO

Taking windfall woods of Picea schrenkiana in the southern mountainous area of the Ili Prefecture as the research object, tree-ring density chronologies were developed from the discs for maximum density (MXD), minimum density (MID), mean earlywood density (EWD), and mean latewood density (LWD) at five different stem heights (1.3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 m) to examine the climatic responses of tree-ring density by correlation analysis with local meteorological data. The results showed that there was a good coherence among the four types of tree-ring density chronologies for the same stem height, which was relatively significant for the data from 10, 15 and 20 m. The LWD had good coherence among different stem heights, while the climatic responses of tree-ring density at different stem heights varied. The MXD and LWD at 15 m were sensitive to mean tempera-ture from July to September in the previous year and from May to September in the current year. It might underestimate the response of P. schrenkiana to temperature if we sample tree-ring at 1.3 m.


Assuntos
Picea , Árvores , Temperatura , Madeira
3.
Waste Manag ; 125: 204-214, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711734

RESUMO

Steam co-gasification of banana peel with other biomass, i.e., Japanese cedar wood, rice husk and their mixture, was carried out for the hydrogen-rich gas production in a fixed-bed reactor. For the co-gasification process, the banana peels were physically mixed with rice husk, Japanese cedarwood and their mixture respectively by different mixing weight ratios. The effects of reaction temperature and the addition amount of banana peel on the gas production yield were investigated by comparing the experimental data with the calculated ones based on the individual biomass gasification at the same condition. It was found that the banana peel with a high content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) species exhibited not only high gasification reactivity but also a significant enhancing catalytic effect on the co-gasification process at the low temperature, especially with the biomass containing no silica species. The high content of silica species in the rice husk had a negative effect on the gasification reactivity of banana peel during the co-gasification since it could hinder the release of AAEM from the biomass and/or lead to the possible formation of inactive alkaline silicates. However, the combination of these three samples with the suitable weight ratio could improve the gasification performance at the low temperature due to the synergetic effect provided by high contents of potassium and calcium from banana peel and cedarwood respectively. Moreover, the addition of calcined seashells as the CaO source could further improve the gas production yield, especially the hydrogen gas yield at a relatively low gasification temperature of 750 ℃.


Assuntos
Musa , Vapor , Biomassa , Hidrogênio , Madeira
4.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586706

RESUMO

A versatile twin-screw extrusion process to provide an efficient thermo-mechano-chemical pre-treatment on lignocellulosic biomass before using it as source of mechanical reinforcement in fully bio-based fiberboards was developed. Various lignocellulosic crop by-products have already been successfully pre-treated through this process, e.g., cereal straws (especially rice), coriander straw, shives from oleaginous flax straw, and bark of both amaranth and sunflower stems. The extrusion process results in a marked increase in the average fiber aspect ratio, leading to improved mechanical properties of fiberboards. The twin-screw extruder can also be fitted with a filtration module at the end of the barrel. The continuous extraction of various chemicals (e.g., free sugars, hemicelluloses, volatiles from essential oil fractions, etc.) from the lignocellulosic substrate, and the fiber refining can, therefore, be performed simultaneously. The extruder can also be used for its mixing ability: a natural binder (e.g., Organosolv lignins, protein-based oilcakes, starch, etc.) can be added to the refined fibers at the end of the screw profile. The obtained premix is ready to be molded through hot pressing, with the natural binder contributing to fiberboard cohesion. Such a combined process in a single extruder pass improves the production time, production cost, and may lead to reduction in plant production size. Because all the operations are performed in a single step, fiber morphology is better preserved, thanks to a reduced residence time of the material inside the extruder, resulting in enhanced material performances. Such one-step extrusion operation may be at the origin of a valuable industrial process intensification. Compared to commercial wood-based materials, these fully bio-based fiberboards do not emit any formaldehyde, and they could find various applications, e.g., intermediate containers, furniture, domestic flooring, shelving, general construction, etc.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Biotecnologia/métodos , Lignina/química , Absorção Fisico-Química , Biomassa , Dessecação , Temperatura Alta , Água/química , Madeira/química
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 328: 124848, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611020

RESUMO

This study investigated the performance and microbiome of cyclic denitrification filters (CDFs) for wood and sulfur heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (WSHAD) of saline wastewater. Wood-sulfur CDFs integrated into two pilot-scale marine recirculating aquaculture systems achieved high denitrification rates (103 ± 8.5 g N/(m3·d)). The combined use of pine wood and sulfur resulted in lower SO42- accumulation compared with prior saline wastewater denitrification studies with sulfur alone. Although fish tank water quality parameters, including ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and sulfide, were below the inhibitory levels for marine fish production, lower survival rates of Poecilia sphenops were observed compared with prior studies. Heterotrophic denitrification was the dominant removal mechanism during the early operational stages, while sulfur autotrophic denitrification increased as readily biodegradable organic carbon released from wood chips decreased over time. 16S rRNA-based analysis of the CDF microbiome revealed that Sulfurimonas, Thioalbus, Defluviimonas, and Ornatilinea as notable genera that contributed to denitrification performance.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Processos Autotróficos , Reatores Biológicos , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Enxofre , Madeira
6.
Ultrasonics ; 113: 106357, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548756

RESUMO

This study describes the development and characterization of an agar-based soft tissue-mimicking material (TMM) doped with wood powder destined for fabricating MRgFUS applications. The main objective of the following work was to investigate the suitability of wood powder as an inexpensive alternative in replacing other added materials that have been suggested in previous studies for controlling the ultrasonic properties of TMMs. The characterization procedure involved a series of experiments designed to estimate the acoustic (attenuation coefficient, absorption coefficient, propagation speed, and impedance), thermal (conductivity, diffusivity, specific heat capacity), and MR properties (T1 and T2 relaxation times) of the wood-powder doped material. The developed TMM (2% w/v agar and 4% w/v wood powder) as expected demonstrated compatibility with MRI scanner following images artifacts evaluation. The acoustic attenuation coefficient of the proposed material was measured over the frequency range of 1.1-3 MHz and found to be nearly proportional to frequency. The measured attenuation coefficient was 0.48 dB/cm at 1 MHz which was well within the range of soft tissue. Temperatures over 37 °C proved to increase marginally the attenuation coefficient. Following the transient thermoelectric method, the acoustic absorption coefficient was estimated at 0.34 dB/cm-MHz. The estimated propagation speed (1487 m/s) was within the range of soft tissue at room temperature, while it significantly increased with higher temperature. The material possessed an acoustic impedance of 1.58 MRayl which was found to be comparable to the corresponding value of muscle tissue. The thermal conductivity of the material was estimated at 0.51 W/m K. The measured relaxation times T1 (844 ms) and T2 (66 ms) were within the range of values found in the literature for soft tissue. The phantom was tested for its suitability for evaluating MRgFUS thermal protocols. High acoustic energy was applied, and temperature change was recorded using thermocouples and MR thermometry. MR thermal maps were acquired using single-shot Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) gradient echo sequence. The TMM matched adequately the acoustic and thermal properties of human tissues and through a series of experiments, it was proven that wood concentration enhances acoustic absorption. Experiments using MR thermometry demonstrated the usefulness of this phantom to evaluate ultrasonic thermal protocols by monitoring peak temperatures in real-time. Thermal lesions formed above a thermal dose were observed in high-resolution MR images and visually in dissections of the proposed TMM.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Imagens de Fantasmas , Ágar , Artefatos , Desenho de Equipamento , Pós , Temperatura , Madeira
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 8754-8763, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590754

RESUMO

For sustainability and environmental friendliness, the renewable biomaterials including cellulose have been widely used in flexible electronics, such as pressure sensors. Herein, the carbonized bacterial nanocellulose with excellent conductivity and wood-derived cellulose nanofibrils are combined to prepare the aerogel through directional ice-templating and freeze-drying. The obtained composite aerogel, which has a porous structure and aligned channels, is further employed as an active layer to prepare the resistive-type pressure sensor on a paper substrate. This pressure sensor exhibits remarkable flexibility, fast response, reliability, and especially adjustable sensitivity in a wide pressure range (0-100 kPa). In addition, the sensor's working mechanism and potential applications, such as motion detection, footstep recognition, and communication with smartphones via Bluetooth, are also well demonstrated. Moreover, this work provides novel insights into the development of green pressure sensors and the utilization of sustainable natural biomaterials in high-tech fields.


Assuntos
Bactérias/química , Carbono/química , Monitorização Fisiológica , Nanofibras/química , Smartphone , Celulose/química , Géis/química , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Pressão , Propriedades de Superfície , Madeira/química
8.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(1): 36-40, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559580

RESUMO

Background: Angle grinders are a handheld power tool used for grinding and polishing stone, metal, and concrete. Some people, however, use them with a circular saw blade attachment for cutting wood and consequently, suffer injuries. We aimed to investigate the underlying cause and mechanisms of injuries caused by cutting wood with an angle grinder. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using medical records from our trauma center and identified 15 patients treated for angle grinder injury between 2017 and 2018. Moreover, we contacted the National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan for further information about angle grinder injuries. Results: Nine of the 15 patients used angle grinders improperly, of which only three patients were aware of the risk of injury. The details of the nine patients were as follows: the types of injuries: complete finger amputation (n = 2), partial finger amputation (n = 1), tendon injury with phalangeal fracture (n = 5), and tendon injury alone, (n = 1); the causes of accidents: kickback (n = 7) and glove entanglement (n = 2); and the accident situations: on-the-job (n = 5) and do-it-yourself (n = 4). Conclusions: The primary cause of angle grinder injury caused by cutting wood was a lack of user knowledge that an angle grinder cannot be used as a cutting tool. Appropriate feedback from hand surgeons are necessary to urge manufacturers to take safety measures.


Assuntos
Amputação Traumática/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Dedos/etiologia , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Madeira , Adulto Jovem
9.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(1): 146-149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528942

RESUMO

Evidence supports the link between air pollution and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, exposure to indoor pollution (IDP) is likely to be associated with the disease. The poor, refugees, and migrant workers who live in feeble conditions are the most vulnerable. The pandemic has caused many people to remain indoors, especially at-risk individuals (e.g., the elderly, diabetics, obese, cardiac, and chronic lung disease patients). Home isolation may be an underlying factor to other health problems among these populations if the place where they are socially isolating is not adequately ventilated. Therefore, understanding the consequences of the relationship between IDP and the COVID-19 pandemic is essential.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , /etiologia , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Esterco , Prognóstico , Refugiados , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Migrantes , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Trabalhadores Pobres
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 461993, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611119

RESUMO

The determination of the geographical origin of wood can be highly relevant for several reasons: On the one hand, it can help to prevent illegal logging and timber trade, on the other hand, it is of special interest for archaeological artefacts made of wood, as well as for a variety of biological questions. For this reason, different extraction methods were first tested for the analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A two-phase extraction with chloroform, methanol and water proved to be particularly successful. Subsequently, cedrela (Cedrela odorata) samples from South America were measured to distinguish geographic origin. Using multivariate data analysis, numerous origin-dependent differences could be extracted. The identification of the marker substances indicated that several metabolic pathways were affected by the geographical influences, some of them probably indicating pest infections.


Assuntos
Cedrela/metabolismo , Geografia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Madeira/metabolismo , Acetatos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclopentanos/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metanol/análise , Oxilipinas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
11.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112146, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601261

RESUMO

An understanding of the structural organisation and chemistry of the cell walls in woody tissues is crucial from the perspective of plant mechanical strength, water transportability, as well as subsequent commercial utilisation of the wood. Poplar trees (Populus sp.), grown on two reclamation substrates ("Humus" and "Sand") under the extreme soil conditions of an external coal mining spoil heap of the lignite mine in Belchatów (Central Poland), were examined. Conventional parameters - tree-ring width (TRW) and wood density (WD) resolved annually (years 2008-2017) were corroborated by a novel approach of Raman spectroscopic analysis. Annually resolved Raman spectroscopic data representing the lignin-to-cellulose ratio (Li/Ce) enabled to estimate trends of lignification. The above traits were obtained for the three poplar genotypes: H-275, Grandis, and Androscoggin to assess the suitability of their plantation on the reclaimed heap. Our results show a significant effect of genotype on TRW, WD, and the Raman Li/Ce, while the effect of the soil substrate was less pronounced. The highest Li/Ce was identified in the H-275 genotype grown on a substrate with hummus. H-275 also showed higher TRW values compared to the other genotypes. WD was significantly higher in Grandis and Androscoggin genotypes grown on the "Sand" substrate. Associations between tree-ring parameters and climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) were mostly low and not statistically significant. Our findings from individual tree rings indicate that the genotype is the crucial factor influencing the lignification of poplar trees grown on post-mining lands.


Assuntos
Populus , Solo , Carvão Mineral , Genótipo , Polônia , Populus/genética , Madeira
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 889, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563999

RESUMO

A key uncertainty in quantifying dead wood carbon (C) stocks-which comprise ~8% of total forest C pools globally-is a lack of accurate dead wood C fractions (CFs) that are employed to convert dead woody biomass into C. Most C estimation protocols utilize a default dead wood CF of 50%, but live tree studies suggest this value is an over-estimate. Here, we compile and analyze a global database of dead wood CFs in trees, showing that dead wood CFs average 48.5% across forests, deviating significantly from 50%, and varying systematically among biomes, taxonomic divisions, tissue types, and decay classes. Utilizing data-driven dead wood CFs in tropical forests alone may correct systematic overestimates in dead wood C stocks of ~3.0 Pg C: an estimate approaching nearly the entire dead wood C pool in the temperate forest biome. We provide for the first time, robust empirical dead wood CFs to inform global forest C estimation.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Madeira/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Clima , Florestas , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/classificação , Árvores/química , Árvores/classificação , Madeira/metabolismo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116766, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631690

RESUMO

Air pollution constitutes the greatest environmental threat to human health in the European Union. In Poland, the emission of particulate matter and harmful gases originating from local coal based boiler plants and the combustion of fuels in residential heating appliances is a considerable source of air pollution. The combustion of fuel in home furnaces is inefficient due to the use of cheap fuels of low heating parameters and the frequent addition of waste. For the purpose of the research, deciduous tree wood pellets were selected as the basic fuel with the admixture of plastic waste, rubber, waste paper, wood residues, diapers, textile waste, multi-material packaging, construction waste, biomass and alternative fuel (RDF). Examining ash samples to confirm the practices of combusting or co-combusting waste materials in heating appliances is considered to be one of the most reliable detection methods; however, the results of direct research require further data processing. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the obtained results arranged into a matrix enabled in a simple way to demonstrate the similarities between the examined samples of fuel and the samples of fuel mixed with waste materials in the parameters space as well as to analyze the similarities among the measured parameters (the content of particular elements in ash) in the space of the examined samples. The application of chemometric methods for the purpose of identifying the combusted fuels, and, in particular the co-combusted waste complements the currently used monitoring tools which control the use of low quality fuels or the combustion of waste of different origin.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Madeira , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Carvão Mineral/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia , Madeira/química
14.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129616, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that PM2.5 generated by traffic or burning wood is pro-inflammatory and induces various adverse health outcomes in humans. In Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, the main anthropogenic contributors to particulate matter (PM) air pollution are wood combustion heaters, on-road vehicles, and coal-fired power stations. However, the relative toxicity of these local sources has not to date been investigated. METHOD: PM2.5 was collected on filters from the same sampling site in Liverpool, one suburb of Sydney. According to the positive matrix factorisation and collection season, filters were representative of either day with high traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), wood smoke, or both TRAP and woodsmoke (mixed air pollution). The elemental composition of the PM was assessed by accelerator-based ion beam analysis techniques (i.e. PIXE & PIGE) and size by Dynamic Light Scattering. Toxicity and inflammation were assessed in-vitro in human bronchial epithelial cells by measuring interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) release, and MTT. RESULTS: Mixed air pollution (TRAP/wood smoke) PM had more nanometer (nm) sized PM than the other two groups. Using an in-vitro model of the lungs, the mixed air pollution PM was the most toxic, whereas the PM from woodsmoke induced greater IL-6 release than TRAP PM. There was no difference in the induction of IL-8 between the three sources of PM. CONCLUSION: Marked differences occur in the cellular response to PM from different sources, with differences in both toxicity and inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Austrália , Humanos , New South Wales , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Madeira/química
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144369, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429278

RESUMO

TRIAL DESIGN: We evaluated the impact of a biomass stove intervention on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations using an individual-level, stepped-wedge randomized trial. METHODS: We enrolled 230 women in rural Honduran households using traditional biomass stoves and randomly allocated them to one of two study arms. The Justa stove, the study intervention, was locally-sourced, wood-burning, and included an engineered combustion chamber and chimney. At each of 6 visits over 3 years, we measured 24-hour gravimetric personal and kitchen PM2.5 concentrations. Half of the households received the intervention after Visit 2 and half after Visit 4. We conducted intent-to-treat analyses to evaluate the intervention effect using linear mixed models with log-transformed kitchen or personal PM2.5 (separately) as the dependent variable, adjusting for time. We also compared PM2.5 concentrations to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. RESULTS: Arms 1 and 2 each had 115 participants with 664 and 632 completed visits, respectively. Median 24-hour average personal PM2.5 exposures were 81 µg/m3 (25th-75th percentile: 50-141 µg/m3) for the traditional stove condition (n=622) and 43 µg/m3 (25th-75th percentile: 27-73 µg/m3) for the Justa stove condition (n=585). Median 24-hour average kitchen concentrations were 178 µg/m3 (25th-75th percentile: 69-440 µg/m3; n=629) and 53 µg/m3 (25th-75th percentile: 29-103 µg/m3; n=578) for the traditional and Justa stove conditions, respectively. The Justa intervention resulted in a 32% reduction in geometric mean personal PM2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20-43%) and a 56% reduction (95% CI: 46-65%) in geometric mean kitchen PM2.5. During rainy and dry seasons, 53% and 41% of participants with the Justa intervention had 24-hour average personal PM2.5 exposures below the WHO interim target-3 guideline (37.5 µg/m3), respectively. CONCLUSION: The Justa stove intervention substantially lowered personal and kitchen PM2.5 and may be a provisional solution that is feasible for Latin American communities where cleaner fuels may not be available, affordable, or acceptable for some time. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02658383.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Material Particulado , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Feminino , Honduras , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , População Rural , Madeira/química
16.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111891, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434793

RESUMO

We introduce high frequency pulsed electrodialysis (hf-pED) to process the acidic filtrate of a Kraft pulp bleaching stage, tested in a pilot trial. Compared with conventional electrodialysis, hf-pED at 2,000 Hz allows a reduction in operational cost by 12%, estimated as 0.54 USD/m3 of acidic filtrate, while simultaneously preventing membrane fouling. The proposed sectorial stream treatment is demonstrated to significantly improve the quality of the final effluent, according to mass balances, making it more suitable for irrigation applications, considering requirements of irrigation norms. Thus, we estimate a reduction of 59, 21, and 20% in the concentration of chloride, sodium, and sulfate, respectively, in the final effluent of a conventional Kraft pulping mill. This strategy is presented as a sustainable and economic solution compared with the desalinization of the whole final effluent.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Purificação da Água , Madeira
17.
Food Chem ; 346: 128896, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421901

RESUMO

Type of the wood used for the aging highly influences the quality of alcoholic beverages. In this research we explored the potential of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to establish fingerprints characteristic for each wood and to enable determining the type of the wood used in the aging process. Eleven different wood samples were used to prepare three different types of spirits during 15 months. The highest extraction rate was obtained during the first month, while further aging was followed with almost constant amount of extracted polyphenols. Black locust, myrobalan plum, and mulberry extracts were discriminated from the spirits aged in oak and wild cherry wood when statistical analysis was applied. Although clear classification of all samples was not achieved, this long term study demonstrated a potential of both CV and DPV for differentiating wood species used in the aging, hence in the quality control of spirits.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Solventes/química , Madeira/química , Frutas/química , Química Verde , Fatores de Tempo , Madeira/microbiologia
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 325: 124650, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453659

RESUMO

The design, modeling and simulation of an integrated biorefinery plant assumed to convert different forestry assortments such as sawdust or shavings (sawmill waste) into bioethanol from cellulose and hemicellulose as the main product, and lignin as the most valuable co-product, was carried out. The proposed lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery plant was simulated with ProSimPlus. The model was based on experimental results and includes an Organosolv pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and distillation to obtain bioethanol. The investigated plant size processed 70,088 tons of biomass/year, with a production capacity of 11,650 tons ethanol/year. Ethanol productivity reached 351 L/ton of dry feedstock. Considering water consumption, approximately 4.8 L of water were needed to produce a liter of ethanol. Finally, the energy targeting through conventional pinch analysis lead to 16.4 MW and 16.07 MW of hot and cold utility energy demand for the entire process respectively with the cogeneration of electricity.


Assuntos
Lignina , Madeira , Biomassa , Etanol , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439117

RESUMO

Here, we describe three endosymbiotic bacterial strains isolated from the gills of the shipworm, Bankia setacea (Teredinidae: Bivalvia). These strains, designated as Bs08T, Bs12T and Bsc2T, are Gram-stain-negative, microaerobic, gammaproteobacteria that grow on cellulose and a variety of substrates derived from lignocellulose. Phenotypic characterization, phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene and whole genome sequence data, amino acid identity and percentage of conserved proteins analyses, show that these strains are novel and may be assigned to the genus Teredinibacter. The three strains may be differentiated and distinguished from other previously described Teredinibacter species based on a combination of four characteristics: colony colour (Bs12T, purple; others beige to brown), marine salt requirement (Bs12T, Bsc2T and Teredinibacter turnerae strains), the capacity for nitrogen fixation (Bs08T and T. turnerae strains) and the ability to respire nitrate (Bs08T). Based on these findings, we propose the names Teredinibacter haidensis sp. nov. (type strain Bs08T=ATCC TSD-121T=KCTC 62964T), Teredinibacter purpureus sp. nov. (type strain Bs12T=ATCC TSD-122T=KCTC 62965T) and Teredinibacter franksiae sp. nov. (type strain Bsc2T=ATCC TSD-123T=KCTC 62966T).


Assuntos
Bivalves/microbiologia , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Brânquias/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Oceano Pacífico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Washington , Madeira
20.
Nature ; 589(7843): 554-561, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505037

RESUMO

Historically, human uses of land have transformed and fragmented ecosystems1,2, degraded biodiversity3,4, disrupted carbon and nitrogen cycles5,6 and added prodigious quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere7,8. However, in contrast to fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, trends and drivers of GHG emissions from land management and land-use change (together referred to as 'land-use emissions') have not been as comprehensively and systematically assessed. Here we present country-, process-, GHG- and product-specific inventories of global land-use emissions from 1961 to 2017, we decompose key demographic, economic and technical drivers of emissions and we assess the uncertainties and the sensitivity of results to different accounting assumptions. Despite steady increases in population (+144 per cent) and agricultural production per capita (+58 per cent), as well as smaller increases in emissions per land area used (+8 per cent), decreases in land required per unit of agricultural production (-70 per cent) kept global annual land-use emissions relatively constant at about 11 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent until 2001. After 2001, driven by rising emissions per land area, emissions increased by 2.4 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent per decade to 14.6 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent in 2017 (about 25 per cent of total anthropogenic GHG emissions). Although emissions intensity decreased in all regions, large differences across regions persist over time. The three highest-emitting regions (Latin America, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa) dominate global emissions growth from 1961 to 2017, driven by rapid and extensive growth of agricultural production and related land-use change. In addition, disproportionate emissions are related to certain products: beef and a few other red meats supply only 1 per cent of calories worldwide, but account for 25 per cent of all land-use emissions. Even where land-use change emissions are negligible or negative, total per capita CO2-equivalent land-use emissions remain near 0.5 tonnes per capita, suggesting the current frontier of mitigation efforts. Our results are consistent with existing knowledge-for example, on the role of population and economic growth and dietary choice-but provide additional insight into regional and sectoral trends.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Combustíveis Fósseis , Atividades Humanas , Internacionalidade , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribução , Grão Comestível/provisão & distribução , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , América Latina , Esterco , Oryza , Carne Vermelha/provisão & distribução , Solo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Madeira
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...