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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133871, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964562

RESUMO

Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) coupled with ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was evaluated as extraction techniques for bioactive compounds from apple pomace. Seven natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) with different molar ratios were explored as green extraction solvents to evaluate extraction efficiency in terms of total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), lipid peroxidation inhibition (LBI) and antioxidant potential. The solvents which performed better than conventional solvent were DES1 (Choline chloride: glycerol (1:2)), DES2 (Choline chloride: lactic acid (1:3)) and DES5 ((Choline chloride: citric acid (1:1)). These solvents were further evaluated for optimisation of processing parameters in UAE-DES. The maximum TPC value was achieved using sonication time 40 min, water 30 %, solid/liquid ratio 1:30, temperature 40 °C, acoustic intensity 83.2 W/cm2 and duty cycle 75 %. HPLC of optimised extract was utilised for quantification of polyphenol compounds showing quercetin as main compound followed by chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, phloretin, phloridizin and rutin.


Assuntos
Malus , Colina , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Solventes
2.
Food Chem ; 402: 134529, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303373

RESUMO

A comprehensive UHPLC-QTOF-IMS based metabolomics investigation in skin and pulp of Malus domestica and Malus baccata was performed. M. domestica fruit parts had higher phenolic contents (25.75-43.05 mg GAE/g) as compared to M. baccata (18.10-28.37 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid content (1.34-9.59 mg RE/g) followed by promising antioxidant activity (MD_Skin DPPH 119.41 µg/mL and MB_Skin DPPH 148.24 µg/mL). Targeted metabolomics quantified higher chlorogenic acid in MD_pulp (929.54 mg/100 g) and phloridzin in MD_skin (722.54 mg/100 g). Amino acids, sugars, flavonoids, vitamins, nucleosides, quinones, fatty acids, and derivatives are among the 248 distinctive metabolites identified using non-targeted metabolomics. Multivariate data analysis, VIP projection and pathway interaction studies demonstrated the metabolic changes and differential distribution in both fruits. Using KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, the biosynthesis of flavone and flavonols is the most prevalent in both fruits. The current study found that M. baccata has a comparable metabolite distribution and should be considered for health-beneficial products.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Análise Multivariada
3.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104123, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309453

RESUMO

Biofilms serve as a reservoir for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and their removal from different surfaces is a recurring problem in the beverage industry. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a combination of natamycin (NAT, 0.01 mmol/l) and farnesol (FAR, 0.6 mmol/l) against biofilms on ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and stainless steel (SS) surfaces using apple juice as food matrix. The co-adhesion of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. kefyr (mixed-yeast) with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 (multi-species) in presence of NAT + FAR was evaluated for 2, 24, 48 h. In biofilms treated with NAT + FAR were observed by cell quantification and microscopy, inhibition of the filamentous yeast forms, disruption of the tri-dimensional structure and a high detachment of yeast cells. NAT + FAR affected the biofilms independently of the surfaces used and the presence (or not) of bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible (p < 0.001) in multi-species biofilms, followed by E. coli O157:H7 on both surfaces (p < 0.001), whereas the growth of S. enterica was reduced (p < 0.05) in SS but not in UF-membranes (p > 0.05). Since the combination NAT + FAR affected the structure and viability of yeast species and foodborne pathogens in multi-species biofilms developed on UF-membranes and SS surfaces, the combination proposed could be considered a promising control agent to prevent biofilms in apple juice processing lines.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Listeria monocytogenes , Malus , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Malus/microbiologia , Natamicina/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Aço Inoxidável , Leveduras , Biofilmes , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250505, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339347

RESUMO

Abstract The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest in the subtropical region of Brazil. This insect has tritrophic relation between wild fruits and parasitoids and is associated with apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. We thus investigated the degree of infestation of the fruit fly and natural parasitism in wild and cultivated fruits surrounding apple orchards. For this purpose, we collected fruits of Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer and Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) in apple orchards adjacent to the Atlantic Forest located in Campo do Tenente, Lapa and Porto Amazonas counties. In total, we collected 18,289 fruits during four growing years. The occurrence of A. fraterculus depends on the susceptible period of apple fruits. A. sellowiana and P. cattleianum were considered primary fruit fly multipliers and P. guajava was secondary, all occurring after the apple harvest (IS period). The group of parasitoids with A. fraterculus was Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) and Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) all of which are first records in the Atlantic Forest in Paraná. First record of O. bellus occurring in the State of Paraná, as well as, first record of the tritrophic association between host plant A. neosericea, parasitoids D. areolatus and O. bellus and fruit fly A. fraterculus. The host P. cattleianum stood out among the Myrtaceae species in regard to the high diversity of parasitoid species (81% of parasitoids). The total number of Figitidae species (76.5%) was higher than that of Braconidae species. The influence of climatic events in southern Brazil on wild fruit production should be further studied to understand the association of A. fraterculus with the tritrophic relationship.


Resumo Mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), é uma importante praga da região subtropical do Brasil. Este inseto tem relação tritrófico entre frutos silvestres e parasitoides e está associado a pomares de macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh.) adjacentes à Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Assim, investigamos o grau de infestação da mosca-das-frutas e o parasitismo natural em frutas silvestres e cultivadas ao redor de pomares de maçã. Para tanto, foram coletados frutos de Acca sellowiana (Berg.) Burret, Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart), Eugenia uniflora L., Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, Psidium guajava (L.), Annona neosericea Rainer e Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) em pomares de maçã adjacentes à Mata Atlântica localizados nos municípios de Campo do Tenente, Lapa e Porto Amazonas. No total, coletamos 18.289 frutos durante quatro anos de cultivo. A ocorrência de A. fraterculus depende do período de suscetibilidade dos frutos da maçã. A. sellowiana e P. cattleianum foram considerados multiplicadores primários de mosca-das-frutas e P. guajava foi secundário, todos ocorrendo após a colheita da maçã (período IS). Os parasitóides a associados a A. fraterculus foram Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Opius bellus (Gahan, 1930), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911) e Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti, 1911) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), todos os quais são primeiros registros na Mata Atlântica no Paraná. Primeiro registro de O. bellus ocorrendo no Estado do Paraná, assim como, primeiro registro da associação tritrófica entre o hospedeiro A. neosericea, parasitoides D. areolatus e O. bellus e mosca-das-frutas A. fraterculus. O hospedeiro P. cattleianum se destacou entre as espécies de Myrtaceae pela alta diversidade de parasitóides associados (81% dos parasitóides). O número total de espécies de Figitidae (76,5%) foi superior ao de espécies de Braconidae. A influência de eventos climáticos no sul do Brasil na produção de frutas silvestres deve ser mais estudada para entender a associação de A. fraterculus com a relação tritrófica.


Assuntos
Animais , Malus , Tephritidae , Himenópteros , Brasil , Florestas
5.
Food Chem ; 398: 133900, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986994

RESUMO

In this study, the use of co-immobilized amylase, pectinase and cellulase enzymes for clarification of apple, grape and pear juices were investigated. Four different co-immobilization method was applied and the highest activity was observed for co-immobilized enzymes onto silica gel. The effect of the enzyme units used in the co-immobilization, reaction temperature and time on turbidity and reducing sugar concentration were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) via Design Expert Software 8.0.7.1. applying 3-factor Box-Behnken design. Co-immobilized samples were reacted with the substrate solution in batch type and feedback packed bed column reactors and according to turbidity and reducing sugar concentration values, batch reactor efficiency was found to be higher. Finally, freshly squeezed apple, pear and grape juices were interacted with co-immobilized enzymes in the batch reactor system, and turbidity and reducing sugar concentrations were monitored over time. Changes were also observed in antioxidant activities depending on the enzyme treatment.


Assuntos
Celulase , Malus , Pyrus , Vitis , Amilases , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Poligalacturonase , Açúcares
6.
Food Chem ; 401: 134099, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099818

RESUMO

Different technologies commonly employed by the fruit processing industry affect the phenolic content. This study aimed to establish the extent to which different processing techniques and conditions, tested at an industrial scale, affect phenolics, color, and sensory attributes of fresh strawberries and apples. The effects of freezing, thermal treatments, and high-pressure processing were investigated. In strawberries, mild and standard thermal treatments showed similar patterns for most phenolic groups; an increase in proanthocyanidins, no change in ellagic acid conjugates, and a major decrease in flavonols and anthocyanins. In apples, mild treatments and high-pressure processing had similar effects in all phenolic groups, with increases in dihydrochalcones, hydroxycinnamics, and proanthocyanidins and decreases in flavonols. However, the standard thermal treatment increased flavonols and dihydrochalcones concentrations. This study shows that each fruit behaves differently, and both technology and processing conditions should be customized accordingly to preserve or even increase the phenolic content.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Malus , Proantocianidinas , Antocianinas , Ácido Elágico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis , Flavonóis
7.
Food Chem ; 402: 134226, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126580

RESUMO

The presence of watercored fruit with translucent mesocarp has attracted immense attention due to its unique morphology and taste, however, the metabolic reconstruction between watercored and non-watercored tissues remain elusive. Herein, the combined proteomic and metabolomic approach was carried out to characterize the protein abundance and metabolic profile in watercored apple. Results demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism was prioritized enriched in watercored apple, including highly accumulated sucrose and sugar alcohols, and the increased level of transcription factor WHIRLY2 (WHY2), which is required in sugar reallocation. More than 50% overlap of differently abundant proteins involved in calcium ion binding, starch and sucrose metabolism implied the involvement of calcium signaling in watercore development. Moreover, significantly lower calcium content was detected in watercored apples. Sucrose synthase (SUSY) protein, which is involved both in calcium ion binding and sugar metabolism, was the potential basis of apple watercore development, which provided a likely candidate in regulation of apparent quality.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Proteômica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sacarose/análise , Açúcares/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Álcoois Açúcares/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
8.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134504, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228474

RESUMO

Non-enzymatic browning is a severe problem in juice industry. Here, polyphenol mediated non-enzymatic browning and its inhibition in apple juice were investigated. Epicatechin (R = -0.83), catechin (CAT, R = -0.79), chlorogenic acid (CGA, R = 0.65) and caffeic acid (CAF, R = 0.65) were strongly correlated with browning. CAT and chlorogenic acid quinone (CGAQ) decreased during storage with the fastest CAT degradation rate (kCGA-enriched = 1.97 × 10-3 mg·L-1·h-1 and kCAT-enriched = 2.09 × 10-3 mg·L-1·h-1) at the initial stage, but CGA and catechin quinone (CATQ) hardly changed. It was possible that CGAQ oxidized CAT at initial stage, leading to the generation of CATQ but less browning. Then the formed CATQ reacted with CAT through the complex reactions, leading to the accumulation of yellow polymers, which might explain why browning increased faster during the secondary and tertiary stages. In addition, glutathione could effectively inhibit browning compared to ascorbic acid and oxygen blocking methods.


Assuntos
Catequina , Malus , Polifenóis , Ácido Clorogênico , Quinonas
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 534-547, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drying is one of the most important post-harvest processes in order to ensure that the products harvested in certain periods are consumed throughout the year. In this study, Golden Delicious, Oregon Spur and Granny Smith apple cultivars (fallen apples) were dried in open-sun, a controlled glasshouse, microwave oven (200 W), hybrid system (100 W + 60 °C), convective greenhouse (70 °C) and freeze-dryer (-55 °C) with and without ultrasound pretreatments. RESULTS: Present findings revealed that the longest drying duration was observed in freeze-drying and the shortest in microwave drying. The greatest color change (ΔE) was observed in ultrasound pretreated Oregon Spur apples dried in a controlled glasshouse. The greatest total phenolics (40.08 mg GAE g-1 ), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) inhibition activity (46.96%), FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) antioxidant activity (68.01 µg Trolox g-1 ) and ascorbic acid content (1.52 mg AAE g-1 ) were observed in open sun-dried Granny Smith apples without ultrasound pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, microwave and hybrid drying yielded better outcomes for bioactive, HMF (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural) and drying characteristics of windfall apples. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Dessecação/métodos , Fenóis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Liofilização
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 576-589, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The year-round availability of apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) depends on post-harvest technologies, which are essential for the retention of fruit sensory and chemical properties by delaying senescence. The effectiveness of strategies for preserving the quality of apples depends on complex interactions between the storage environment and endogenous biological factors. In the current work, we integrated instrumental, sensory, and transcriptional data to determine the role of conservation technologies cold storage, controlled atmosphere, and 1-methylcyclopropene-mediated ethylene blockage on the long-term conservation of apples. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that inhibition of the consumer's perception of the apples' ethylene content is essential for long-term cold storage, and such quality conservation can be achieved by reducing oxygen pressure. Overall appreciation of apples after storage was determined mainly by their texture, with crispness and juiciness contributing favorably, and mealiness contributing negatively. Reduced oxygen pressure and inhibition of ethylene perception exerted distinct effects on the transcription of candidate genes associated with ripening in apple. Hexose and cell-wall carbohydrate metabolism genes exhibit distinct expression patterns under storage. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of ethylene perception and reduction of relative oxygen pressure under cold storage both promote similar conservation of apple sensory traits under long-term cold storage. Texture was the main contributor to global appreciation of apples subjected to long-term storage. The conditions that were investigated were able to delay, but not fully prevent, senescence, as evidenced by physicochemical and gene expression analyses. The expression of gene-encoding enzymes involved in hexose metabolism was mainly developmentally regulated, whereas storage conditions exerted a stronger effect on the expression of genes associated with cell-wall metabolism. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/química , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Atmosfera , Oxigênio/análise
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 496-505, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36468616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the consumption of apples has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular diseases and some cancers, largely as a result of their micronutrient and phytoconstituent contents. Apple peel not only contains more polyphenols than the flesh, but also is likely to contain pesticide residues. The present study aimed to compare the contents of certain micronutrients and residual pesticide levels in peeled and unpeeled apples. RESULTS: Peeled apples contained fewer pesticide residues at lower concentrations than unpeeled apples. However, whether samples were peeled or not, the exposure values for pesticide residues in apples never exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI), but ranged between 0.04% and 2.10% of the ADI in adults for food intake estimated at the 95th percentile (277 g per person per day). Determination of polyphenol, fibre, magnesium and vitamin C levels showed that the nutritional differences observed between peeled and unpeeled apples were marginal. CONCLUSION: The consumption of apples, such as the apples tested in the present study, results in an exposure to pesticides that is low for unpeeled apples, and lower for peeled apples. Moreover, there was no significant loss of nutritional value from eating peeled apples based on the nutrients investigated. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Malus , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Adulto , Humanos , Nutrientes , Micronutrientes , Polifenóis
12.
Food Microbiol ; 110: 104166, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462821

RESUMO

This study evaluated Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination between inoculated fruits, waxing brush, and uninoculated fruits during apple wax coating and investigated the fate of L. monocytogenes on wax-coated apples introduced via different wax coating schemes. There were 1.8-1.9 log10 CFU/apple reductions of L. monocytogenes on PrimaFresh 360, PrimaFresh 606, or Shield-Brite AP-450 coated apples introduced before wax coating after 6 weeks of ambient storage (22 °C and ambient relative humidity). L. monocytogenes showed a similar trend (P > 0.05) on waxed apples under cold storage (1 °C and ∼ 90% relative humidity); there were 1.8-2.0 log10 CFU/apple reductions of L. monocytogenes during the 12 weeks of cold storage regardless of wax coating type. For cross-contamination study, a waxing brush was used to wax one inoculated apple (6.2 log10 CFU/apple); then, this brush was used to wax five uninoculated apples in a sequence. There were 3.7, 3.5, 3.3, 2.9, and 2.7 log10 CFU/apple and 3.6 log10 CFU/brush of L. monocytogenes transferred from the inoculated apple to uninoculated apple 1 to apple 5, and the waxing brush, respectively. The die-off rate of L. monocytogenes on wax-coated apples contaminated during wax coating was not significantly different from that contaminated on apples before wax coating, and 1.8-1.9 log10 CFU/apple reductions were observed during the 12 weeks of cold storage. The application of wax coatings, regardless of wax coating type, did not impact the survival of endogenous yeasts and molds on apples during ambient or cold storage. L. monocytogenes transferred onto waxing brushes during wax coating remained relatively stable during the 2-week ambient holding. Fungicide application during wax coating reduced (P < 0.05) yeast and mold counts but had a minor impact (P > 0.05) on the survival of L. monocytogenes on apples after 12 weeks of cold storage. Collectively, this study indicated that a high cross-contamination risk of L. monocytogenes during apple waxing, and L. monocytogenes on wax-coated apples introduced via different scenarios is stable during subsequent cold storage, highlighting the need for potential intervention strategies to control L. monocytogenes on wax-coated apples.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Listeria monocytogenes , Malus , Ceras/farmacologia , Frutas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
13.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112073, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461326

RESUMO

Fruits and vegetables juices present a high supply of polyphenols, making them highly exposed to enzymatic browning. In this work, we report a novel magnetized mesoporous silica material (Fe3O4NPs-UVM-7) functionalised with thiol and amine groups and evaluate their effect on the enzymatic browning as well as the physicochemical properties (pH and °Brix), bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols) and the antioxidant capacity of cloudy apple juice. From the obtained results, the mesoporous silica material magnetized by 11 % (w/w) with magnetite and functionalized with thiol groups reduce by 70 % the enzymatic browning in apple juice. It did not affect the physicochemical parameters such as pH or total soluble solids with respect to freshly squeezed juice. In addition, the content of flavonoids, vitamin C, and the antioxidant capacity measured by ABTS are also not affected by oxidation. However, the total content of polyphenols in the treated juice drops by 15 % compared to freshly squeezed juice, nonetheless, the loss is 20 % less than the control untreated. Thus, the material mitigates the loss of total polyphenols and also the antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Malus , Antioxidantes , Polifenóis , Frutas , Ácido Ascórbico , Flavonoides , Dióxido de Silício , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Fenômenos Magnéticos
14.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112061, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461388

RESUMO

Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is an important process of fruit ripening, mediated by the pheophorbide a oxygenase/phyllobilin (PaO/PB) pathway. Chl is catabolized to linear tetrapyrrolic phyllobilins that resemble the bile pigments. Determining the optimal harvest date is of pivotal importance for the fruit industry. Among the physiological changes at the onset of ripening and during shelf life, the breakdown of Chl appears as a promising indicator for fruit maturity. In addition, PBs are a frequently overlooked component of the human diet with antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. However, their relevance for a healthy diet and their potential as ripening indicator in fruit cannot be evaluated yet, as details on emergence and composition of PBs in fruit are yet elusive. Using apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Gala' as a model fruit, the Chl content and the emergence and identity of PBs were analyzed during a controlled shelf life period using UV/Vis spectroscopy and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). An in-house database with chromatographic and MS data from 51 PBs, revealed ten chlorophyll catabolites, including five NCCs, one YCC, and four DNCCs (including a previously unknown one). PBs were identified with increasing abundance and diversity from the onset of Chl degradation, suggesting a potential role as ripening indicators.


Assuntos
Malus , Humanos , Clorofila , Frutas , Espectrometria de Massas , Antioxidantes
15.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt B): 112077, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461394

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) is a highly water soluble, heat resistant and toxic fungal metabolite mostly contaminating apple juice. Due to its serious health effects, its removal from foodstuffs is required to ensure food safety. In this study, carboxy- and amine-terminated iron oxide spheres (Fe3O4-COOH and Fe3O4-NH2) were investigated for their adsorbing capacity of PAT in both aqueous solution and apple juice, and evaluated for being an effective detoxifying agent for PAT. The physical and chemical properties of adsorbents were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The maximum adsorption capacities Fe3O4-COOH and Fe3O4-NH2 for PAT obtained at 25 °C, pH 6 for 5 h were 0.206 mg/g and 0.104 mg/g, respectively. Best fitting adsorption isotherm and kinetics models of PAT adsorption process were Hill isotherm (Radj2 = 0.985) and pseudo-second kinetic models (Radj2 > 0.99) for carboxy groups and Langmuir isotherm (Radj2 = 0.974) and pseudo-second kinetic models (Radj2 > 0.99) for amine groups on the surface of adsorbents. These models with the experimental results confirmed the physical adsorption process, while thermodynamic analysis indicated that adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic between PAT and both adsorbents. Reusability study showed the effective removal of PAT at four cycles by both adsorbents. This study indicated that carboxy- and amine-terminated magnetic spheres have promising potentials in PAT removal from both aqueous solution and apple juice without affecting quality parameters of juice.


Assuntos
Malus , Patulina , Adsorção , Aminas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água , Fenômenos Magnéticos
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105246, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464333

RESUMO

Highly active and novel antifungal compounds are continuously researched from natural products for pesticide development. Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn, a species of Simaroubaceae, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat colds and upper respiratory infections. In this study, the active ingredients of P. quassioides and their antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi are investigated to explore the practical application of the plant in the agricultural field. The results showed that the extracts of P. quassioides exhibited highly significant preventive and curative effects on apple valsa canker (AVC) with a reduction of lesion diameter were 80.28% and 83.63%, respectively, and can improve the resistance of apple trees to a pathogen. Five antifungal compounds, namely, canthin-6-one (T1), nigakinone (T2), 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one (T3), 1-methoxycarbonyl-ß-carboline (T4), and 1-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxyl-ß-carboline (T5), are isolated from P. quassioides using the bioassay-guided method. This is the first report of 1-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxyl-ß-carboline as a natural product. Canthin-6-one shows strong in vitro inhibitory activity against 11 species of plant pathogenic fungi, and their EC50 values range from 1.49 to 8.80 mg/L. The control efficacy of canthin-6-one at 2000 mg/L are 87.88% and 94.37% against AVC and 80.10% and 84.73% against apple anthracnose (C. gloeosporioides), respectively. Additionally, V. mali is observed after treatment with cannin-6-one, although microscopic. This is the first study on the control of the secondary metabolites of P. quassioides against plant fungal diseases. The results show that P. quassioides is a potential resource for the development of botanical fungicides.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos , Produtos Biológicos , Malus , Picrasma , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos , Carbolinas
17.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 246, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scab, caused by the biotrophic fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most economically important disease of apples worldwide. During infection, V. inaequalis occupies the subcuticular environment, where it secretes virulence factors, termed effectors, to promote host colonization. Consistent with other plant-pathogenic fungi, many of these effectors are expected to be non-enzymatic proteins, some of which can be recognized by corresponding host resistance proteins to activate plant defences, thus acting as avirulence determinants. To develop durable control strategies against scab, a better understanding of the roles that these effector proteins play in promoting subcuticular growth by V. inaequalis, as well as in activating, suppressing, or circumventing resistance protein-mediated defences in apple, is required. RESULTS: We generated the first comprehensive RNA-seq transcriptome of V. inaequalis during colonization of apple. Analysis of this transcriptome revealed five temporal waves of gene expression that peaked during early, mid, or mid-late infection. While the number of genes encoding secreted, non-enzymatic proteinaceous effector candidates (ECs) varied in each wave, most belonged to waves that peaked in expression during mid-late infection. Spectral clustering based on sequence similarity determined that the majority of ECs belonged to expanded protein families. To gain insights into function, the tertiary structures of ECs were predicted using AlphaFold2. Strikingly, despite an absence of sequence similarity, many ECs were predicted to have structural similarity to avirulence proteins from other plant-pathogenic fungi, including members of the MAX, LARS, ToxA and FOLD effector families. In addition, several other ECs, including an EC family with sequence similarity to the AvrLm6 avirulence effector from Leptosphaeria maculans, were predicted to adopt a KP6-like fold. Thus, proteins with a KP6-like fold represent another structural family of effectors shared among plant-pathogenic fungi. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the transcriptomic profile underpinning subcuticular growth by V. inaequalis and provides an enriched list of ECs that can be investigated for roles in virulence and avirulence. Furthermore, our study supports the idea that numerous sequence-unrelated effectors across plant-pathogenic fungi share common structural folds. In doing so, our study gives weight to the hypothesis that many fungal effectors evolved from ancestral genes through duplication, followed by sequence diversification, to produce sequence-unrelated but structurally similar proteins.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Malus , Ascomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos do Gênero Venturia , Malus/genética , Malus/microbiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20510, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443327

RESUMO

The areas devoted to agriculture that depend on pollinators have been sharply increased in the last decades with a concomitant growing global demand for pollination services. This forces to consider new strategies in pollinators' management to improve their efficiency. To promote a precision pollination towards a specific crop, we developed two simple synthetic odorant mixtures that honey bees generalized with their respective natural floral scents of the crop. We chose two commercial crops for fruit production that often coexist in agricultural settings, the apple (Malus domesticus) and the pear trees (Pyrus communis). Feeding colonies with sucrose solution scented with the apple mimic (AM) or the pear mimic (PM) odour enabled the establishment of olfactory memories that can bias bees towards the flowers of these trees. Encompassing different experimental approaches, our results support the offering of scented food to improve foraging and pollination activities of honey bees. The circulation of AM-scented sucrose solution inside the hive promoted higher colony activity, probably associated with greater activity of nectar foragers. The offering of PM-scented sucrose solution did not increase colony activity but led to greater pollen collection, which is consistent with pear flowers offering mainly pollen as resources for the bees. Results obtained from apple and pear crops suggest that the offering of AM- and PM-scented sucrose solution increased fruit yields. This preliminary study highlights the role of in-hive olfactory learning to bias foraging preferences within pome fruit crops.


Assuntos
Malus , Pyrus , Urticária , Abelhas , Animais , Polinização , Odorantes , Produtos Agrícolas , Feromônios , Sacarose
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361131

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic condition where the body is resistant to insulin, leading to an elevated blood glucose state. Obesity is a main factor leading to T2D. Many clinical studies, however, have described a proportion of obese individuals who express a metabolically healthy profile, whereas some lean individuals could develop metabolic disorders. To study obesity as a risk factor, body fat distribution needs to be considered rather than crude body weight. Different individuals' bodies favor storing fat in different depots; some tend to accumulate more fat in the visceral depot, while others tend to store it in the femoral depot. This tendency relies on different factors, including genetic background and lifestyle. Consuming some types of medications can cause a shift in this tendency, leading to fat redistribution. Fat distribution plays an important role in the progression of risk of insulin resistance (IR). Apple-shaped individuals with enhanced abdominal obesity have a higher risk of IR compared to BMI-matched pear-shaped individuals, who store their fat in the gluteal-femoral depots. This is related to the different adipose tissue physiology between these two depots. In this review, we will summarize the recent evidence highlighting the underlying protective mechanisms in gluteal-femoral subcutaneous adipose tissues compared to those associated with abdominal adipose tissue, and we will revise the recent evidence showing antidiabetic drugs that impact fat distribution as they manage the T2D condition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Malus , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações
20.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366553

RESUMO

Erwinia amylovora is a quarantine phytopathogenic bacterium that is the causal agent of fire blight, a destructive disease responsible for killing millions of fruit-bearing plants worldwide, including apple, pear, quince, and raspberry. Efficient and sustainable control strategies for this serious bacterial disease are still lacking, and traditional methods are limited to the use of antibiotics and some basic agricultural practices. This study aimed to contribute to the development of a sustainable control strategy through the identification, characterization, and application of bacteriophages (phages) able to control fire blight on pears. Phages isolated from wastewater collected in the Apulia region (southern Italy) were characterized and evaluated as antibacterial agents to treat experimental fire blight caused by E. amylovora. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) conducted on purified phages (named EP-IT22 for Erwinia phage IT22) showed particles with icosahedral heads of ca. 90 ± 5 nm in length and long contractile tails of 100 ± 10 nm, typical of the Myoviridae family. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), assembly, and analysis of the phage DNA generated a single contig of 174.346 bp representing a complete circular genome composed of 310 open reading frames (ORFs). EP-IT22 was found to be 98.48% identical to the Straboviridae Erwinia phage Cronus (EPC) (GenBank Acc. n° NC_055743) at the nucleotide level. EP-IT22 was found to be resistant to high temperatures (up to 60 °C) and pH values between 4 and 11, and was able to accomplish a complete lytic cycle within one hour. Furthermore, the viability-qPCR and turbidity assays showed that EP-IT22 (MOI = 1) lysed 94% of E. amylovora cells in 20 h. The antibacterial activity of EP-IT22 in planta was evaluated in E. amylovora-inoculated pear plants that remained asymptomatic 40 days post inoculation, similarly to those treated with streptomycin sulphate. This is the first description of the morphological, biological, and molecular features of EP-IT22, highlighting its promising potential for biocontrol of E. amylovora against fire blight disease.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Erwinia amylovora , Malus , Erwinia amylovora/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Myoviridae/genética
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