Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.365
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127479, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688181

RESUMO

Calcium treatment effects on malate metabolism and the GABA pathway in 'Cripps Pink' apple fruit during storage were investigated. Postharvest apple fruit treated with 1% and 4% calcium chloride solutions were stored at 25 ± 1 °C. The 4% calcium treatment suppressed declines in titratable acidity and malate content and increased succinate and oxalate concentrations. Calcium treatment also reduced the respiration rate and decreased ethylene production peak during storage. Moreover, 4% calcium treatment significantly enhanced cyNAD-MDH and PEPC activities and upregulated MdMDH1, MdMDH2, MdPEPC1 and MdPEPC2 expression while inhibiting cyNADP-ME and PEPCK activities and downregulating MdME1, MdME4 and MdPEPCK2 expression. Surprisingly, calcium treatment changed the content of some free amino acids (GABA, proline, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate), two of which (glutamate and GABA) are primary metabolites of the GABA pathway. Furthermore, calcium application enhanced GABA pathway activity by increasing MdGAD1, MdGAD2, MdGABA-T1/2 and MdSSADH transcript levels.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127607, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711279

RESUMO

We present a simple and sensitive method for the determination of patulin at µg·kg-1 level in apple-based products. Our method relies on the application of an in-line molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction microcartridge in capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Capillary zone electrophoresis method has been developed and parameters affecting the in-line process have been carefully optimized. Validation parameters were assessed for patulin, giving LOQ of 1 µg·kg-1 and linearity range 1-100 µg·kg-1 with R2 ≥ 0.997. The LOQ was below the maximum content of patulin requested by the European Union in this type of products. The precision of the peak area and the migration time were less than 14.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Patulin has been analyzed in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is the main interference in this kind of matrix. The method was applied to assay patulin content in various apple-based products.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Malus/química , Patulina/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Furaldeído/química , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Molecular , Polímeros/química
3.
Food Chem ; 336: 127667, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758802

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidin (PAC) profiles of apples (a-PAC), cranberries (c-PAC), and peanut skins (p-PAC) were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Deconvolution of overlapping isotopic patterns indicated that in apples, only 5% of the PAC oligomers contain one or more A-type bonds, whereas in cranberries and peanut skins, 96% of the PAC oligomers contain one or more A-type bonds. MALDI-TOF MS data combined with multivariate analysis, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were used to differentiate and discriminate a-PAC, c-PAC, and p-PAC from one another. Mixtures of c-PAC with either a-PAC or p-PAC at different w/w ratios were evaluated by LDA modeling. The LDA model classified the training, testing, and validation sets with 99.4%, 100%, and 94.2% accuracy. Results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS and multivariate analysis are useful in determining authenticity of PAC from different sources and mixtures of PAC sources.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Proantocianidinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Arachis/química , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Malus/química , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Proantocianidinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127785, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798825

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) contaminant causes severe food safety issue throughout apple industry. Although adsorption is the feasible approach to remove PAT, the limited adsorption capacity and separation difficulty of most adsorbent is the major drawback that remains to be overcome. Here GO-SH doped aerogel was prepared and used for removal PAT from apple juice. The intrinsic porous of the aerogel and abundant active sites including -COOH, -NH2 and -SH offered the PAT adsorption capacity of 24.75 µg/mg that superior to most reported adsorbents. Furthermore, it could reduce 89 ± 1.23% PAT in real apple juice without juice quality deterioration and cytotoxicity. Importantly, the aerogel with good mechanical strength and structure stability could endure the complex juice solution so that there was no any residue after convenient separation of the aerogel, which proved that the proposed aerogel was a promising adsorbent to be applied to apple juice industry for PAT removal.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Grafite/química , Malus/química , Patulina/química , Patulina/isolamento & purificação , Enxofre/química , Adsorção , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Géis
5.
Food Chem ; 336: 127616, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763733

RESUMO

This study is an example of apple by-products (AP) recycling through a designed fermentation by selected autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum AFI5 and Lactobacillus fabifermentans ALI6 used singly or as binary cultures with the selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae AYI7. Compared to Raw-, Unstarted- and Chemically Acidified-AP, Fermented-AP promoted the highest levels of total and insoluble dietary fibers, DPPH scavenging capacity, and free phenolics. The binary culture of L. plantarum AFI5 and S. cerevisiae AYI7 had the best effect on the bioavailability phenolic compounds as resulted by the LC-MS/MS validated method. The accumulation of phenolic acids derivatives highlighted the microbial metabolism during AP fermentation. Bio-converted phenolics were likely responsible for the increased DPPH scavenging capacity. The potential health-promoting effects of Fermented-AP were highlighted using Caco-2 cells. With variations among single and binary cultures, fermented-AP counteracted the inflammatory processes and the effects of oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells, and preserved the integrity of tight junctions.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Malus/química , Fenóis/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Food Chem ; 337: 127753, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777566

RESUMO

The effects of treatment with melatonin on ripening of 'Fuji' apples during storage at 1 °C for 56 d were investigated. The apples were harvested at the commercial ripening stage and treated with 1 mmol L-1 melatonin. Compared with the control, melatonin treated apples had significant reduced ethylene production (28 d-56 d) and weight loss (14 d-56 d) during storage (p < 0.05). Also, the melatonin treatment maintained better apple skin structure throughout storage. The reduced ethylene production was regulated by the decreased expressions of MdACO1, MdACS1, MdAP2.4 and MdERF109, based on RNA-Seq analysis, which was validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the activity of 3 enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were significantly increased in melatonin treated fruit (p < 0.05). Taken together, this study highlights the inhibitory effects of melatonin in ethylene biosynthesis and factors influencing postharvest quality in apple.


Assuntos
Etilenos/biossíntese , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Malus/enzimologia
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 318: 124237, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091690

RESUMO

The valorization of organic waste into lactic acid (LA) via co-digestion has attracted tremendous research interests in recent years. This study investigated the feasibility of intensifying the LA accumulation from anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure (SM) by adding apple waste (AW) or potato waste (PW). Results indicated that AW or PW obviously enhanced the accumulation of LA, and when the optimal mixing ratio of AW or PW to SM of 75:25, the maximum concentrations of LA were 27.61 and 8.91 g COD/L, which were around 3.53- and 1.14-folds of that of the mono-digestion of SM, respectively. Meanwhile, the co-digestion of SM and AW showed significantly higher LA production than that of SM and PW (p < 0.05). High reducing sugar content of AW contributed to LA accumulation in AD process. In addition, AW increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, thus benefited the production of LA.


Assuntos
Malus , Solanum tuberosum , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Ácido Láctico , Esterco , Metano , Suínos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044972

RESUMO

Different densities have a great influence on the physiological process and growth of orchard plants. Exploring the molecular basis and revealing key candidate genes for different densities management of orchard has great significance for production capacity improvement. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of apple trees was carried out at three different sampling heights to determine gene expression patterns under high density(HD) and low density(LD) and the physiological indices were measured to determine the effect of density change on plants. As a result, physiological indexes showed that the content of Chlorophyll, ACC, RUBP and PEP in the LD was apparently higher than that in control group(high density, HD). While the content of PPO and AO in the LD was noticeably lower than that in the HD. There were 3808 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between HD and LD, of which 1935, 2390 and 1108 DEGs were found in the three comparisons(middle-upper, lower-outer and lower-inner), respectively. 274 common differentially expressed genes (co-DEGs) were contained in all three comparisons. Functional enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis found these genes were involved in Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, Circadian rhythm, Photosynthesis - antenna proteins, Photosynthesis, chlorophyll metabolism, Porphyrin, sugar metabolism and so on. Among these genes, LHCB family participated in photosynthesis as parts of photosystem II. In addition, SPA1, rbcL, SNRK2, MYC2, BSK, SAUR and PP2C are involved in Circadian rhythm, the expression of genes related to glycometabolism and hormone signaling pathway is also changed. The results revealed that the decrease of plant density changed the photosynthetic efficiency of leaves and the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, which provide a theoretical basis for the actual production regulation of apples.


Assuntos
Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108896, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070085

RESUMO

Penicillium expansum is the most common apple fruit postharvest spoilage agent that causes a disease known as Blue Mold. Disease control is based on fungicide use. However, development of resistance to fungicides hampers the success of this control method. Fungicide sensitivity monitoring studies in Greece revealed the presence of pathogen strains exhibiting simultaneous resistance to different chemically unrelated compounds (multidrug resistance, MDR). This study was initiated aiming primarily to test the hypothesis that the MDR phenotype is associated with overexpression of efflux transporter genes and to determine the fitness of the MDR isolates. The monitoring study (n = 264) and the measurements of sensitivity in terms of EC50 values to 9 different compounds revealed that almost 5% of the population was of the MDR type. In the selected MDR isolates, the highest resistant factors were calculated for fludioxonil and pyraclostrobin, while the same isolates were moderately resistant to cyprodinil, thiophanate methyl and fluxapyroxad. In the resistant strains no target site mutations were detected in the target genes of each fungicide class, while in addition, a synergistic activity was observed between fungicides and the drug transporter modulator verapamil in some isolates. To obtain a direct insight on the resistance mechanism, the transcriptome of 2 MDR and 1 sensitive isolates was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2500 and differences in efflux transporter gene expression profile were figured out. Gene expression profiling analysis was performed before and after the exposure of fungal mycelia to fludioxonil. This analysis revealed the up-regulation of several MFS transporter genes and a limited number of ABC transporter genes either before or after the exposure to fludioxonil in the MDR isolates. Expression results for genes with the highest expression levels were verified by qRT-PCR assays. Fitness components measurements revealed that MDR isolates were of lower mycelial growth and pathogenicity compared to sensitive strains but they were producing higher number of conidia. The above mentioned data represent the first report of MDR in P. expansum associated with overexpression of drug efflux transporters and contribute to our knowledge in the mechanisms associated with fungicide resistance development in this fungal species.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Malus/microbiologia , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/genética , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/patogenicidade , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/patogenicidade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970702

RESUMO

Apple replant disease (ARD) is a serious threat to producers of apple trees and fruits worldwide. The ARD etiology is not unraveled and managing options are either economically not applicable or environmentally harmful. Thus, interest is given in biomarkers that allow to indicate ARD situations at early time points in order to classify soils according to ARD severity but also to analyze the effectiveness to potential countermeasures. This study aimed at (i) identifying ARD biomarkers on the transcriptional level in root tissue by analyzing the expression of previously identified candidate genes in ARD soils of different origin and texture and (ii) testing the specificity of these marker genes to ARD. In vitro propagated M26 plantlets were submitted to a bio-test with three ARD soils, either untreated or disinfected by γ-irradiation. Expression of seven candidate genes identified in a previous transcriptomic study was investigated by RT-qPCR in a time course experiment. Already three days after planting, a prominent upregulation of the phytoalexin biosynthesis genes biphenyl synthase 3 (BIS3) and biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4Hb) was observed in the untreated ARD variants of all three soils. The phytoalexin composition in roots was comparable for all three soils and the total phytoalexin content correlated with the expression of BIS3 and B4Hb. The third promising candidate gene that was upregulated under ARD conditions was the ethylene-responsive transcription factor 1B-like (ERF1B). In a second experiment M26 plantlets were exposed to different abiotic stressors, namely heat, salt and nutrient starvation, and candidate gene expression was determined in the roots. The expression levels of BIS3 and B4Hb were highly and specifically upregulated in ARD soil, but not upon the abiotic stress conditions, whereas ERF1B also showed higher expression under heat stress. In conclusion, BIS3 and B4Hb are recommended as early ARD biomarkers due to their high expression levels and their high specificity.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
12.
Plant Dis ; 104(11): 2851-2859, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902358

RESUMO

A TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene was developed for the quantification of Venturia inaequalis in leaves and fruits of Malus × domestica and in spore trap samples. The designed primers and hydrolysis probe amplified a specific 86-bp fragment for V. inaequalis. The specificity of the assay was tested using 35 strains of V. inaequalis and 20 different fungal species, including common pathogens of apple and other species of Venturia. The limit of detection was 20 fg, which is lower than a single genome of V. inaequalis. The selectivity of the assay was tested using DNA from three cultivars of Malus × domestica, and no influence on pathogen amplification was found. The assay was also validated for repeatability and reproducibility. With this assay, it was possible to detect and quantify V. inaequalis in four cultivars (Ambrosia, Florina, Golden Delicious, and Mondial Gala) in both symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves and in symptomatic Golden Delicious apple fruit stored for 2 months. Furthermore, the assay was successfully tested on spore trap samples originating from apple orchards. The quantification of the molecular assay when compared with the estimated number of V. inaequalis cells, using an optical microscope, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8186. The developed technique could be used to detect V. inaequalis in asymptomatic samples without any cross-reaction with other fungal species. Furthermore, to improve the efficacy of disease management with a timely application of fungicides, this assay could be used for the analysis of spore trap samples by using an implemented extraction method.


Assuntos
Malus , Frutas , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(11): 2866-2874, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924872

RESUMO

Apple fruits with anthracnose symptoms were collected from commercial apple orchards in different regions of the Republic of Korea, and isolations were made on potato dextrose agar to isolate the causal agents. The fungal isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics, growth rates, and multigene sequences. Nine isolates were identified via phylogenetic analysis: three Colletotrichum fructicola, two C. fioriniae, one C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto (s.s.), two C. nymphaeae, and one C. siamense isolates. The pathogenicity of the Colletotrichum isolates was tested using detached apple fruits under laboratory conditions. This study also reidentified six Colletotrichum isolates responsible for apple anthracnose, which were deposited in the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection. Among the six isolates, three were identified as C. siamense (deposited as C. gloeosporioides s.s.), and three were C. nymphaeae (deposited as C. acutatum s.s.). All the Colletotrichum species identified in this study were highly sensitive to tebuconazole in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth (EC50 value of 0.12 to 2.1 µg/ml).


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Fungicidas Industriais , Malus , Colletotrichum/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , República da Coreia , Virulência
14.
Extremophiles ; 24(6): 897-908, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968825

RESUMO

A psychrotolerant Sphingobacterium sp. was isolated from the apple orchard situated in the Kufri region of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India using an enrichment culture technique having chlorpyrifos (CP) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA analysis, the strain was identified as Sphingobacterium sp. C1B. The bacterium C1B was able to degrade chlorpyrifos ≥ 42 ppm and ≥ 36 ppm within 14 days at 20 °C and 15 °C, respectively. The strain was also able to degrade chlorpyrifos ≤ 35 ppm at 28 °C within 14 days. The enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase might be responsible for the initial degradation of CP by the strain C1B. Based on the HPLC and GCMS analysis, a probable degradation pathway has been proposed, which followed the path from chlorpyrifos to 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol to benzene, 1,3-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) and then entered into the TCA cycle. Our current study revealed that the bacterium C1B was found to be a useful strain for the degradation of pesticide chlorpyrifos in the cold climatic environment.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Malus/microbiologia , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Sphingobacterium/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Índia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sphingobacterium/genética
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 154: 636-645, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912493

RESUMO

In order to define translocation characteristics of 13C-photoassimilates to fruit during the fruit development stage in 'Fuji' apple, the 13C labeled tracer method was used in whole five-year-old 'Fuji'3/M26/Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder apple trees at different days after flowering (DAF). The changes in 13C translocation to the fruit, source strength of the leaves, and sink strength of the fruits were assessed. The results indicated that the δ13C value and 13C distribution rate of the fruit increased first and then decreased with the increase in the fruit development period, being higher from 120 to 135 DAF. The leaves appeared to moderately senesce in an attempt to maintain high photosynthesis during 120-135 DAF, which promoted the outward transport of photoassimilates. The single fruit weight and longitudinal and transverse diameter of the fruit increased rapidly during 120-150 DAF, which increased the sink zone for the unloading of photoassimilates in the fruit. The activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and amylase (AM), the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the gibberellin (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the fruit flesh, and the gene expression levels of MdSOT1, MdSOT2, MdSOT3, MdSUT1, and MdSUT4 in the fruit stalk tissue were higher during 120-135 DAF. At this point, the difference in the sorbitol content between the fruit stalk and fruit flesh was also at the highest level of the entire year. These factors together increased the sink activity of the fruit, thus improving the photoassimilate transport efficiency to the fruit.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta
16.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(11): 1969-1980, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789556

RESUMO

The aim of study was to characterize patterns of interception and distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in an apple orchard and to examine its relationship with morphophysiological characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apple trees. The experiments were conducted during three production cycles in two distinct orchard areas, one covered by black anti-hail netting and another uncovered (control). We analyzed PAR characteristics with data from meteorological sensors installed on the canopy, as well as growth, anatomical, and physiological variables of apple trees. The reduction of PAR by netting influenced the components of radiation balance. PAR intercepted, absorbed, transmitted, and reflected by the canopy under netting decreased by 33%, 31%, 32%, and 46%, respectively, in comparison to uncovered canopy. When leaf area index (LAI) was 1.5 (under netting) and 2.5 (uncovered), maximum PAR interception efficiency was reached. During the three production cycles, a light extinction coefficient of 1.09 and 0.76 was found under netting and in the control, respectively. Plant height was greater under netting in all three cycles for both cultivars. Number of leaves, LAI, and shape index did not differ between treatments. At stage 85, leaves of "Royal Gala" under netting showed lower chlorophyll content and thinner parenchymas in comparison to the control. However, physiological and anatomical characteristics of Fuji "Suprema" did not change under anti-hail netting.


Assuntos
Malus , Energia Solar , Brasil , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785243

RESUMO

Knowledge about population genetic structure and dispersal capabilities is important for the development of targeted management strategies for agricultural pest species. The apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae), is a pre-dispersal seed predator. Larvae feed on rowanberries (Sorbus aucuparia), and when rowanberry seed production is low (i.e., inter-masting), the moth switches from laying eggs in rowanberries to apples (Malus domestica), resulting in devastating losses in apple crops. Using genetic methods, we investigated if this small moth expresses any local genetic structure, or alternatively if gene flow may be high within the Scandinavian Peninsula (~850.000 km2, 55o - 69o N). Genetic diversity was found to be high (n = 669, mean He = 0.71). For three out of ten tetranucleotide STRs, we detected heterozygote deficiency caused by null alleles, but tests showed little impact on the overall results. Genetic differentiation between the 28 sampling locations was very low (average FST = 0.016, P < 0.000). Surprisingly, we found that all individuals could be assigned to one of two non-geographic genetic clusters, and that a third, geographic cluster was found to be associated with 30% of the sampling locations, with weak but significant signals of isolation-by-distance. Conclusively, our findings suggest wind-aided dispersal and spatial synchrony of both sexes of the apple fruit moth over large areas and across very different climatic zones. We speculate that the species may recently have had two separate genetic origins caused by a genetic bottleneck after inter-masting, followed by rapid dispersal and homogenization of the gene pool across the landscape. We suggest further investigations of spatial genetic similarities and differences of the apple fruit moth at larger geographical scales, through life-stages, across inter-masting, and during attacks by the parasitoid wasp (Microgaster politus).


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mariposas/genética , Oviposição/fisiologia , Animais , Frutas/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/parasitologia , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Mariposas/fisiologia , Oviposição/genética , Dispersão de Sementes/genética , Sorbus/genética , Sorbus/parasitologia
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461362, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797841

RESUMO

Exploring new material as adsorbent for the efficient enrichment of pollutants is always of great significance in analytical chemistry. In this work, a magnetic azobenzene framework (labeled as MAzo) was constructed as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent by a simple and environmentally benign strategy. The MAzo exhibited the attractive features of strong magnetism, outstanding adsorption performance, as well as good reusability. Combining MAzo-based MSPE with high performance liquid-phase chromatography, a simple and effective method was developed for simultaneous determination of four phenylurea herbicides in pear juice and apple juice samples. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method offered low limits of detection of 0.05-0.15 ng mL-1, high recoveries of 86.7-109.2% with RSD less than 7%. Density functional theory calculation indicated that the good adsorption performance of MAzo for PUHs can be ascribed to the strong H-bonding forces and weak π-π interactions. The facile, green, low-cost synthesis method together with the excellent adsorption performance endows the MAzo great application prospect in sample preparation.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Poluentes Ambientais/isolamento & purificação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Malus , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Compostos de Fenilureia/isolamento & purificação , Pyrus
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(1): 59-79, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860179

RESUMO

The possibility of inducing resistance to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in 'Gala' apple trees growing under optimal fertilization or nitrogen-deficiency conditions was investigated. The effects of jasmonic acid (JA) at 1.5 and 2.5 mM, and acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzothiadiazole, BTH) at 0.5 and 1.5 mM, applied separately or together, on the fecundity of T. urticae females in a laboratory test as well as on the population growth of the pest in a greenhouse experiment were determined. The influence of both elicitors on the induction of LOX and PAL gene expression was assessed in a parallel experiment using real-time PCR. Jasmonic acid showed significantly higher effectiveness in inducing apple tree resistance to T. urticae, as compared to BTH. This was particularly evident in the reduction in pest numbers that was observed in the greenhouse experiment and was also confirmed by increased LOX gene expression after treatment with JA. BTH induced the expression of the PAL gene more strongly than jasmonic acid; however, this was not reflected in the performance of the two-spotted spider mite in the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. It was also found that the antagonistic effect of BTH on JA might lead to decreased effectiveness of the jasmonic acid used to induce apple tree resistance to the two-spotted spider mite. Although nitrogen fertilization stimulated the development of spider mite populations, the resistance induction mechanism was more effective in N-fertilized plants, which was especially evident at the higher jasmonic acid concentration.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Tetranychidae , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilização , Nitrogênio
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2952-2959, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790197

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profiles in the extracts and digesta (after in vitro digestion) of different red-fleshed apple fruit parts and to assess the effects of digestion on the in vitro antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity. The main polyphenols were identified by UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC. Our results indicate that the digesta had less total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, but more free phenolic acids, than the extracts. An analysis of the in vitro antioxidant capacity (including ABTS radical scavenging activity, DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], and cellular antioxidant activity [CAA]) revealed that the digestion decreased the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP values, but increased the CAA values, relative to the corresponding values for extracts. These results suggest that the digestion improved the effectiveness of the phenolic substances. Moreover, our findings imply that the digestion promoted the antiproliferative activity of red-fleshed apple peels and flesh relative to the extracts. Future in vivo investigations are warranted based on the results of the current study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The effects of an in vitro digestion on the phenolic compounds as well as the antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of red-fleshed apple were evaluated. The resulting data may clarify the bioavailability of the polyphenols in red-fleshed apple and enable scientists and consumers to exploit natural polyphenols.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Malus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Digestão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA