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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 68, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-derived nanovesicles (PDNVs) are a novelty in medical and agrifood environments, with several studies exploring their functions and potential applications. Among fruits, apples (sp. Malus domestica) have great potential as PDNVs source, given their widespread consumption, substantial waste production, and recognized health benefits. Notably, apple-derived nanovesicles (ADNVs) can interact with human cell lines, triggering anti-inflammatory and antioxidant responses. This work is dedicated to the comprehensive biochemical characterization of apple-derived nanovesicles (ADNVs) through proteomic and lipidomic analysis, and small RNAs sequencing. This research also aims to shed light on the underlying mechanism of action (MOA) when ADNVs interface with human cells, through observation of intracellular calcium signalling in human fibroblasts, and to tackles differences in ADNVs content when isolated from fruits derived from integrated and organic production methods cultivars. RESULTS: The ADNVs fraction is mainly composed of exocyst-positive organelles (EXPOs) and MVB-derived exosomes, identified through size and molecular markers (Exo70 and TET-3-like proteins). ADNVs' protein cargo is heterogeneous and exhibits a diverse array of functions, especially in plant's protection (favouring ABA stress-induced signalling, pathogen resistance and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) metabolism). Noteworthy plant miRNAs also contribute to phytoprotection. In relation with human cells lines, ADNVs elicit spikes of intracellular Ca2+ levels, utilizing the cation as second messenger, and produce an antioxidant effect. Lastly, organic samples yield a substantial increase in ADNV production and are particularly enriched in bioactive lysophospholipids. CONCLUSIONS: We have conclusively demonstrated that ADNVs confer an antioxidant effect upon human cells, through the initiation of a molecular pathway triggered by Ca2+ signalling. Within ADNVs, a plethora of bioactive proteins, small RNAs, and lipids have been identified, each possessing well-established functions within the realm of plant biology. While ADNVs predominantly function in plants, to safeguard against pathogenic agents and abiotic stressors, it is noteworthy that proteins with antioxidant power might act as antioxidants within human cells.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Malus , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Verduras , Proteômica , Malus/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2318509, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375800

RESUMO

Crabapple is a valuable tree species in gardens due to its captivating array of flower and leaf colors, rendering it a favored choice in landscaping. The economic and ornamental values of Malus crabapple are closely associated with the biosynthesis of anthocyanin, a pigment responsible for its vibrant hues. The intricate regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis involves the concerted activity of various genes. However, the specific mechanism governing this process in crabapple warrants in-depth exploration. In this study, we explored the inhibitory role of MsMYB62-like in anthocyanin biosynthesis. We identified MsDFR and MsANS as two downstream target genes of MsMYB62-like. These genes encode enzymes integral to the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The findings demonstrate that MsMYB62-like directly binds to the promoters of MsDFR and MsANS, resulting in the downregulation of their expression levels. Additionally, our observations indicate that the plant hormone cytokinins exert a suppressive effect on the expression levels of MsMYB62-like, while concurrently upregulating MsDFR and MsANS. This study reveals that the MsMYB62-like-MsDFR/MsANS module plays an important role in governing anthocyanin levels in Malus crabapple. Notably, the regulatory interplay is modulated by the plant hormone cytokinins.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
Food Funct ; 15(4): 2314-2326, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323473

RESUMO

Certain types of soluble dietary fibre, such as pectin and pectic oligosaccharides from different sources, have demonstrated protective effects against inflammation in DSS-induced colitis mouse models. In this work, we have evaluated the impact of a diet enriched in apple pomace (AP-diet), an agricultural by-product with a significant content of pectin and that previously demonstrated prebiotic properties in human fecal batch fermentation models, on the gut microbiota composition, intestinal damage and inflammation markers in a DSS-induced colitis model. We found that the apple pomace enriched diet (AP-diet), providing a significant amount of pectin with demonstrated prebiotic properties, was associated with a slower increase in the disease activity index, translating into better clinical symptomatology of the animals. Histological damage scoring confirmed less severe damage in those animals receiving an AP-diet before and during the DSS administration period. Some serum inflammatory markers, such as TNFα, also demonstrated lower levels in the group receiving the AP-diet, compared to the control diet. AP-diet administration is also associated with the modulation of key taxa in the colonic microbiota of animals, such as some Lachnospiraceae genera and Ruminococcus species, including commensal short chain fatty acid producers that could play a role in attenuating inflammation at the intestinal level.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Dieta , Colo/patologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 201, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351118

RESUMO

Malus hybrid 'Flame' and Malus hybrid 'Royalty' are representative ornamental crabapples, rich in flavonoids and serving as the preferred materials for studying the coloration mechanism. We generated two sets of high-quality chromosome-level and haplotype-resolved genome of 'Flame' with sizes of 688.2 Mb and 675.7 Mb, and those of 'Royalty' with sizes of 674.1 Mb and 663.6 Mb, all anchored to 17 chromosomes and with a high BUSCO completeness score nearly 99.0%. A total of 47,833 and 47,307 protein-coding genes were annotated in the two haplotype genomes of 'Flame', and the numbers of 'Royalty' were 46,305 and 46,920 individually. The assembled high-quality genomes offer new resources for studying the origin and adaptive evolution of crabapples and the molecular basis of the accumulation of flavonoids and anthocyanins, facilitating molecular breeding of Malus plants.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Flavonoides , Cromossomos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306956

RESUMO

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has a promising application prospect in food surveillance. However, due to the complexity of food matrix and trace levels of pesticide residues, the effective and rapid detection of pesticides by IMS has been a challenge, especially when using electrospray ionization (ESI) as an ion source. In this study, low-temperature partitioning with dispersive solid-phase extraction (LTP-dSPE) was explored and compared with conventional procedures. Both methods were validated for the quantification of eight pesticides in apples, obtaining a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02-0.12 mg/kg for LTP-dSPE and 0.02-0.09 mg/kg for conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE), lower than those usually stipulated by government legislation in food matrices. For LTP-dSPE, the matrx effect (ME) ranged from -16.3 to -68.6 %, lower than that for the SPE method, ranging from -70.0 to -92.9 %. The results showed satisfactory efficiency and precision, with recovery values ranging from 67.9 to 115.4 % for LTP-dSPE and from 62.0 to 114.8 % for conventional SPE, with relative standard deviations below 13.0 %. Notably, the proposed LTP-dSPE/ESI-IMS has been shown to be more cost-effective, easier to use, more environment-friendly, more accessible, and, most importantly, less matrix effect than the conventional method, thereby being suitably applicable to a wide range of food safety applications.


Assuntos
Malus , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Temperatura , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338954

RESUMO

The identification of natural remedies for the management of the skin aging process is an increasingly growing issue. In this context, ursolic acid (UA), a ubiquitous molecule, mainly contained in Annurca apple (AA) fruit, has demonstrated valuable cosmetic potential. To this end, in the current study, the AA oleolite (AAO, extract in sunflower oil containing 784.40 ± 7.579 µg/mL of UA) was evaluated to inhibit porcine elastase enzymatic reactions through a validated spectrophotometric method. AAO has shown a valuable capacity to contrast the elastase enzyme with a calculated IC50 of 212.76 mg/mL, in comparison to UA (IC50 of 135.24 µg/mL) pure molecules and quercetin (IC50 of 72.47 µg/mL) which are used as positive controls. In this context and in view of the valuable antioxidant potential of AAO, its topical formulation with 2.5% (w/w) AAO was tested in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-arm clinical study on 40 volunteers. Our results indicated that after 28 days of treatment, a significant reduction of the nasolabial fold (-7.2 vs. baseline T0, p < 0.001) and forehead wrinkles (-5.3 vs. baseline T0, p < 0.001) were registered in combination with a valuable improvement of the viscoelastic skin parameters, where skin pliability/firmness (R0) and gross elasticity (R2) were significantly ameliorated (-13% vs. baseline T0, p < 0.001 for R0 and +12% vs. baseline T0, p < 0.001 for R2). Finally, considering the positive correlation between skin elasticity and hydration, the skin moisture was evaluated through the estimation of Trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin conductance.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Malus , Envelhecimento da Pele , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Pele , Cosméticos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Veículos Farmacêuticos , Elastase Pancreática
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339057

RESUMO

The red flesh coloration of apples is a result of a biochemical pathway involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. Based on apple genome analysis, a high number of regulatory genes, mainly transcription factors such as MYB, which are components of regulatory complex MYB-bHLH-WD40, and several structural genes (PAL, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, have been identified. In this study, we investigated novel genes related to the red-flesh apple phenotype. These genes could be deemed molecular markers for the early selection of new apple cultivars. Based on a comparative transcriptome analysis of apples with different fruit-flesh coloration, we successfully identified and characterized ten potential genes from the plant hormone transduction pathway of auxin (GH3); cytokinins (B-ARR); gibberellins (DELLA); abscisic acid (SnRK2 and ABF); brassinosteroids (BRI1, BZR1 and TCH4); jasmonic acid (MYC2); and salicylic acid (NPR1). An analysis of expression profiles was performed in immature and ripe fruits of red-fleshed cultivars. We have uncovered genes mediating the regulation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid signaling and described their role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, accumulation, and degradation. The presented results underline the relationship between genes from the hormone signal transduction pathway and UFGT genes, which are directly responsible for anthocyanin color transformation as well as anthocyanin accumulation during apple-fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Malus , Oxilipinas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339470

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin that adversely affects the health of humans and animals. PAT can be particularly found in products such as apples and apple juice and can cause many health problems if consumed. Therefore, accurate and sensitive determination of PAT is very important for food quality and human and animal health. A voltammetric aptasensor was introduced in this study for PAT determination while measuring the changes at redox probe signal. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.18 pg/mL in the range of 1-104 pg/mL of PAT in buffer medium under optimum experimental conditions. The selectivity of the PAT aptasensor against ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol mycotoxins was examined and it was found that the aptasensor was very selective to PAT. PAT determination was performed in an apple juice medium for the first time by using a smartphone-integrated portable device, and accordingly, an LOD of 0.47 pg/mL was achieved in diluted apple juice medium. A recovery range of 91.24-93.47% was obtained for PAT detection.


Assuntos
Malus , Patulina , Humanos , Patulina/análise , Bebidas/análise , Smartphone , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 53, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with aerial plant tissues (such as leaf, stem, and flower), root-associated microbiomes play an indisputable role in promoting plant health and productivity. We thus explored the similarities and differences between rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial community in the grafted apple system. RESULTS: Using pot experiments, three microhabitats (bulk soil, rhizosphere and root endosphere) samples were obtained from two-year-old apple trees grafted on the four different rootstocks. We then investigated the bacterial community composition, diversity, and co-occurrence network in three microhabitats using the Illumina sequencing methods. Only 63 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) out of a total of 24,485 were shared in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of apple grafted on the four different rootstocks (M9T337, Malus hupehensis Rehd., Malus robusta Rehd., and Malus baccata Borkh.). The core microbiome contained 8 phyla and 25 families. From the bulk soil to the rhizosphere to the root endosphere, the members of the phylum and class levels demonstrated a significant enrichment and depletion pattern. Co-occurrence network analysis showed the network complexity of the rhizosphere was higher than the root endosphere. Most of the keystone nodes in both networks were classified as Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota and Bacteroidetes and were low abundance species. CONCLUSION: The hierarchical filtration pattern existed not only in the assembly of root endosphere bacteria, but also in the core microbiome. Moreover, most of the core ASVs were high-abundance species, while the keystone ASVs of the network were low-abundance species.


Assuntos
Malus , Rizosfera , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Microbiologia do Solo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Solo/química
10.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338313

RESUMO

Conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and microbial metabolism lead to biotransformation of parent, native phenolic compounds from apples into different chemical forms. The aim of this work was to review current knowledge about the forms of phenolic compounds from apples in the gastrointestinal tract and to connect it to their potential beneficial effects, including the mitigation of health problems of the digestive tract. Phenolic compounds from apples are found in the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of forms: native (flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, flavonols, dihydrochalcones, and anthocyanins), degradation products, various metabolites, and catabolites. Native forms can show beneficial effects in the stomach and small intestine and during the beginning phase of digestion in the colon. Different products of degradation and phase II metabolites can be found in the small intestine and colon, while catabolites might be important for bioactivities in the colon. Most studies connect beneficial effects for different described health problems to the whole apple or to the amount of all phenolic compounds from apples. This expresses the influence of all native polyphenols from apples on beneficial effects. However, further studies of the peculiar compounds resulting from native phenols and their effects on the various parts of the digestive tract could provide a better understanding of the specific derivatives with bioactivity in humans.


Assuntos
Malus , Humanos , Malus/química , Frutas/química , Antocianinas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1292: 342199, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309856

RESUMO

In this study, a bimetallic surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrate consisting of AuNR@AgNCs was proposed for the rapid detection of dithianon. Due to the significant synergistic enhancement of the core-shell nanocuboids, the obtained AuNR@AgNC substrate exhibited excellent SERS performance. The simulation findings supported the practical SERS results and demonstrated that interactions were mainly maintained by the nitrile functional group. The AuNR@AgNCs could be used to detect dithianon with an LOD value of 20 nM. Moreover, dithianon in river water and apple juice could be detected with recovery in the satisfactory ranges of 97.41%-98.35% and 97.77%-98.70%, respectively, by using this substrate under optimal conditions, indicating that the AuNR@AgNC substrate could serve as an excellent SERS detection platform for pesticide residues in fruit.


Assuntos
Malus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Malus/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
12.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 16, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302919

RESUMO

Labels do not disclose the excess-free-fructose/unpaired-fructose content in foods/beverages. Objective was to estimate excess-free-fructose intake using USDA loss-adjusted-food-availability (LAFA) data (1970-2019) for high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and apple juice, major sources of excess-free-fructose, for comparison with malabsorption dosages (~ 5 g-children/ ~ 10 g-adults). Unlike sucrose and equimolar fructose/glucose, unpaired-fructose triggers fructose malabsorption and its health consequences. Daily intakes were calculated for HFCS that is generally-recognized-as-safe/ (55% fructose/45% glucose), and variants (65/35, 60/40) with higher fructose-to-glucose ratios (1.9:1, 1.5:1), as measured by independent laboratories. Estimations include consumer-level-loss (CLL) allowances used before (20%), and after, subjective, retroactively-applied increases (34%), as recommended by corn-refiners (~ 2012). No contributions from crystalline-fructose or agave syrup were included due to lack of LAFA data. High-excess-free-fructose-fruits (apples/pears/watermelons/mangoes) were not included. Eaten in moderation they are less likely to trigger malabsorption. Another objective was to identify potential parallel trends between excess-free-fructose intake and the "unexplained" US asthma epidemic. The fructose/gut-dysbiosis/lung axis is well documented, case-study evidence and epidemiological research link HFCS/apple juice intake with asthma, and unlike gut-dysbiosis/gut-fructosylation, childhood asthma prevalence data spans > 40 years. Results Excess-free-fructose daily intake for individuals consuming HFCS with an average 1.5:1 fructose-to-glucose ratio, ranged from 0.10 g/d in 1970, to 11.3 g/d in 1999, to 6.5 g/d in 2019, and for those consuming HFCS with an average 1.9:1 ratio, intakes ranged from 0.13 g/d to 16.9 g/d (1999), to 9.7 g/d in 2019, based upon estimates with a 20% CLL allowance. Intake exceeded dosages that trigger malabsorption (~ 5 g) around ~ 1980. By the early 1980's, tripled apple juice intake had added ~ 0.5 g to average-per-capita excess-free-fructose intake. Contributions were higher (~ 3.8 g /4-oz.) for individuals consuming apple juice consistent with a healthy eating pattern (4-oz. children, 8-oz. adults). The "unexplained" childhood asthma epidemic (1980-present) parallels increasing average-per-capita HFCS/apple juice intake trends and reflects epidemiological research findings. Conclusion Displacement of sucrose with HFCS, its ubiquitous presence in the US food-supply, the industry practice of adding more fructose to HFCS than generally-recognized-as-safe, and increased use of apple juice/crystalline fructose/agave syrup in foods/beverages has contributed to unprecedented excess-free-fructose intake levels, fructose malabsorption, gut-dysbiosis and gut-fructosylation (immunogen burden)-gateways to chronic disease.


Assuntos
Asma , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Malus , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Glucose , Doença Crônica , Asma/epidemiologia , Sacarose
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(2)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320958

RESUMO

A man in his 60s with a virgin abdomen presented with sudden-onset generalised abdominal pain and fevers. The night prior, he snacked on supermarket purchased dehydrated apples. CT abdomen and pelvis revealed small bowel obstruction (SBO) to the mid ileum and small amount of free fluid within the pelvis. The patient underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy. High-grade SBO was identified, caused by large obstructing phytobezoars, with three further proximal large phytobezoars identified. All four phytobezoars were extracted and found to be rehydrated pieces of dehydrated apple that had increased in size in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient was later found to have further phytobezoars in the stomach which passed conservatively. The patient recovered well. This case demonstrates the challenges of preoperative radiological diagnosis in phytobezoar-related SBO and the significance of enterotomy orientation and closure to ensure a safe repair to withstand the passage of any residual rehydrating phytobezoars.


Assuntos
Bezoares , Obstrução Intestinal , Malus , Masculino , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Bezoares/cirurgia , Ingestão de Alimentos
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 259(Pt 2): 129182, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176499

RESUMO

Increasing demand for high-quality fresh fruits and vegetables has led to the development of innovative active packaging materials that exhibit controlled release of antimicrobial/antioxidant agents. In this study, composite biopolymer films consisting of methylcellulose (MC) and chitosan nanofibers (ChNF) were fabricated, which contained lactoferrin (LAC)-loaded silver-metal organic framework (Ag-MOF) nanoparticles. The results indicated that the nanoparticles were uniformly distributed throughout the biopolymer films, which led to improvements in tensile strength (56.1 ± 3.2 MPa), thermal stability, water solubility, swelling index, water vapor barrier properties (from 2.2 ± 2.1 to 1.9 ± 1.9 × 10-11 g. m/m2. s. Pa), and UV-shielding effects. The Ag-MOF-LAC2% films also exhibited strong and long-lasting antibacterial activity against E. coli (19.8 ± 5.2 mm) and S. aureus (20.1 ± 3.2 mm), which was attributed to the slow release of antimicrobial LAC from the films. The composite films were shown to maintain the fresh appearance of apples for at least seven days, which was attributed to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Consequently, these composite films have the potential in the assembly of innovative active packaging materials for protecting fresh fruits and vegetables. However, further work is required to ensure their safety and economic viability.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Malus , Nanofibras , Nanopartículas , Metilcelulose , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lactoferrina , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biopolímeros , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 259(Pt 1): 129113, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181919

RESUMO

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that is abundant, biocompatible and exhibits effective antifungal activity against various pathogenic fungi. However, the potential intracellular targets of chitosan in pathogenic fungi and the way of activity of chitosan are far from well known. The present work demonstrated that chitosan could inhibit Penicillium expansum, the principal causal agent of postharvest blue mold decay on apple fruits, by binding to DNA and triggering apoptosis. UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and electrophoretic mobility assay proved the interaction between chitosan and DNA, while atomic force microscope (AFM) observation revealed the binding morphology of chitosan to DNA. Chitosan could inhibit in vitro DNA replication, and cell cycle analysis employing flow cytometry demonstrated that cell cycle was retarded by chitosan treatment. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and membrane potential analysis showed that apoptosis was induced in P. expansum cells after exposure to chitosan. In conclusion, our results confirmed that chitosan interacts with DNA and induces apoptosis. These findings are expected to provide a feasible theoretical basis and practical direction for the promoting and implementing of chitosan in plant protection and further illuminate the possible antifungal mechanisms of chitosan against fungal pathogens.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Malus , Penicillium , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Penicillium/genética , Frutas , DNA/farmacologia
16.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 24(1): 13, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236432

RESUMO

Malus baccata (L.) var. gracilis (Rehd.) has high ornamental value and breeding significance, and comparative chloroplast genome analysis was applied to facilitate genetic breeding for desired traits and resistance and provide insight into the phylogeny of this genus. Using data from whole-genome sequencing, a tetrameric chloroplast genome with a length of 159,992 bp and a total GC content of 36.56% was constructed. The M. baccata var. gracilis chloroplast genome consists of a large single-copy sequence (88,100 bp), a short single-copy region (19,186 bp), and two inverted repeat regions, IRa (26,353 bp) and IRb (26,353 bp). This chloroplast genome contains 112 annotated genes, including 79 protein-coding genes (nine multicopy), 29 tRNA genes (eight multicopy), and four rRNA genes (all multicopy). Calculating the relative synonymous codon usage revealed a total of 32 high-frequency codons, and the codons exhibited a biased usage pattern towards A/U as the ending nucleotide. Interspecific sequence comparison and boundary analysis revealed significant sequence variation in the vast single-copy region, as well as generally similar expansion and contraction of the SSC and IR regions for 10 analyzed Malus species. M. baccata var. gracilis and Malus hupehensis were grouped together into one branch based on phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast genome sequences. The chloroplast genome of Malus species provides an important foundation for species identification, genetic diversity analysis, and Malus chloroplast genetic engineering. Additionally, the results can facilitate the use of pendant traits to improve apple tree shape.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Malus , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Códon/genética
17.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 66(2): 265-284, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284786

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites induced by environmental stimuli and developmental signals. The positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been reported, whereas the anthocyanin repressors have been neglected. Although the signal transduction pathways of gibberellin (GA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and their regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been investigated, the cross-talk between GA and JA and the antagonistic mechanism of regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis remain to be investigated. In this study, we identified the anthocyanin repressor MdbHLH162 in apple and revealed its molecular mechanism of regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis by integrating the GA and JA signals. MdbHLH162 exerted passive repression by interacting with MdbHLH3 and MdbHLH33, which are two recognized positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis. MdbHLH162 negatively regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis by disrupting the formation of the anthocyanin-activated MdMYB1-MdbHLH3/33 complexes and weakening transcriptional activation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes MdDFR and MdUF3GT by MdbHLH3 and MdbHLH33. The GA repressor MdRGL2a antagonized MdbHLH162-mediated inhibition of anthocyanins by sequestering MdbHLH162 from the MdbHLH162-MdbHLH3/33 complex. The JA repressors MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 interfered with the antagonistic regulation of MdbHLH162 by MdRGL2a by titrating the formation of the MdRGL2a-MdbHLH162 complex. Our findings reveal that MdbHLH162 integrates the GA and JA signals to negatively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis. This study provides new information for discovering more anthocyanin biosynthesis repressors and explores the cross-talk between hormone signals.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Malus , Oxilipinas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
18.
J Food Sci ; 89(2): 1127-1142, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193192

RESUMO

Superfine grinding (SG), as an innovative technology, was conducted to improve the physicochemical and structural properties of fruit pulps. Nectarine, apple, and honey peach were selected as the materials. With the increase in SG frequency, the soluble solids content, viscosity, D[4, 3], D[3, 2], G' and G″ of fruit pulps were evidently decreased, whereas the turbidity was increased. The smallest D[4, 3] (294.90 µm) and D[3, 2] (159.67 µm) were observed in nectarine pulp under SG at 50 Hz. The highest turbidity (266.33) was shown in honey peach pulp under SG at 50 Hz. The active groups of the fruit pulps with SG were exposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Notably, the excessive destruction in structure was confirmed in SG with 50 Hz. With soy protein isolate (SPI) addition, D[4, 3] and D[3, 2] of complexes decreased, whereas G' and G″ increased. The formation of new fruit pulp-SPI complexes was demonstrated by FT-IR and LF-NMR analysis. The dense and uniform structure was found in complexes prepared by SPI and fruit pulp with 30 Hz SG. Especially, apple-SPI complex with 30 Hz SG showed the highest water-holding capacity (WHC) (0.75) and adhesiveness (7973.00 g s). A significant correlation between fruit pulps and the complexes was revealed. Taken together, the impact of SG modification on fruit pulps would enhance WHC, rheology, and textural properties of the fruit pulp-SPI complexes, especially for SG with 30 Hz. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research provided a comprehensive exploration of the potential of SG technology to modify fruit pulps, solving the diversity of textural customization problems and offering valuable insights for the development of semisolid food products.


Assuntos
Malus , Prunus persica , Proteínas de Soja/química , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade , Alérgenos/análise
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 413: 110576, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246025

RESUMO

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris has received much attention due to its unique thermo-acidophilic property and implication in the spoilage of pasteurized juices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sterilization characteristics and mechanisms of pulsed light (PL) against A. acidoterrestris vegetative cells and spores in apple juice. The results indicated that bacteria cells in apple juice (8-20°Brix) can be completely inactivated within the fluence range of 20.25-47.25 J/cm2, which mainly depended on the soluble solids content (SSC) of juice, and the spores in apple juice (12°Brix) can be completely inactivated by PL with the fluence of 54.00 J/cm2. The PL treatment can significantly increase the leakage of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proteins from cells and spores. Fluorescence studies of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) indicated that the loss of ATP was evident. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscope presented that PL-treated cells or spores had serious morphological damage, which reduced the integrity of cell membrane and led to intracellular electrolyte leakage. In addition, there were no significant negative effects on total sugars, total acids, total phenols, pH value, SSC and soluble sugars, and organic acid content decreased slightly during the PL treatment. The contents of esters and acids in aroma components had a certain loss, while that of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were increased. These results demonstrated that PL treatment can effectively inactivate the bacteria cells and spores in apple juice with little effect on its quality. This study provides an efficient method for the inactivation of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juice.


Assuntos
Alicyclobacillus , Malus , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Malus/microbiologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos , Esporos , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Açúcares
20.
Gene ; 904: 148164, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224923

RESUMO

C2H2-type zinc finger proteins are one of the most widely studied families in plants and play important roles in abiotic stress responses. In the present study, the physicochemical properties, chromosomal locations, evolutionary relationships, and gene structures of 54 C2H2 zinc finger protein (ZFP) family members were analyzed in apple. The MdC2H2-ZFP genes were phylogenetically clustered into seven subfamilies distributed in different densities on 16 chromosomes. The RNA-seq data from various tissues revealed that MdC2H2-ZFPs differentially expressed among root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruits. Quantitative analysis of its expression characteristics showed that the MdC2H2-ZFP genes were rapidly induced as exposure to abiotic stresses such as drought, salt and low temperature etc. Under drought stress, the expression of eight members was significantly up-regulated, and the highest was obtained from MdC2H2-17; as exposure to salt stress, nine MdC2H2-ZFPs was obviously up-regulated, with the highest expression of MdC2H2-13; and under low temperature stress, the expression of seven members was highly up-regulated, and MdC2H2-13 also demonstrated the highest expression which is same as the case under salt stress. Therefore, some members of MdC2H2-ZFP gene family considerably involve in the multiple abiotic stress responses, which may better understand the function of this family and facilitate the breeding of apple for stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2 , Malus , Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Filogenia , Dedos de Zinco/genética
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