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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149813, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461469

RESUMO

In China, excessive application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is common in intensive apple production. To resolve issues of benefit reduction and environmental pollution caused by excessive N, a two-year trial was conducted in an apple orchard with a split-plot design, in which the main factor was the N level (500, 400, 300, and 200 kg N ha-1 year-1, expressed as TN, TN80%, TN60%, and TN40%, respectively) and the deputy factor was whether or not to add 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP, expressed as +D). The effects of N reduction combined with DMPP on soil N transformation, fruit quality, economic benefits, and environmental effects were investigated. The results showed that DMPP reduced the production of nitrate and its vertical migration by inhibiting the abundance of AOB amoA and decreased N2O emission by reducing nirKC1 levels. Moreover, N reduction combined with DMPP improved N use efficiency (26.67-49.35%) and reduced N loss rate (15.25-38.76%). Compared with TN, TN60% + D increased the content of anthocyanin and soluble sugar by 21.15% and 13.09%, respectively, and decreased environmental costs caused by NH3 volatilization and N2O emission by 33.84%, while maintaining yield and N utilization rate at relatively high levels. Considering the agronomic, economic and environmental benefits, on the basis of traditional N application rate, 40% N reduction combined with DMPP (TN60% + D) could ensure target yield, corresponding quality and economic benefits, maintain soil N fertility, and reduce the risk of N losses to the environment. The present research could provide references for green, efficient, and sustainable development of apple production.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Malus , Agricultura , China , Iodeto de Dimetilfenilpiperazina , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131013, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509150

RESUMO

Malus micromalus Makino has great commercial and nutritional value. The regression and classification models were investigated by using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics to improve the efficiency of non-destructive detection. The successive projections algorithm (SPA), interval random frog, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling were employed to extract effective wavelengths sensitive to changes of soluble solid content (SSC) and firmness index (FI) information. Two types of assessment models based on full spectrum and effective wavelengths, namely partial least squares regression and extreme learning machine, were established to predict SSC and FI. In addition, the classification models based on the support vector machine improved by the grey wolf optimizer (GWO-SVM) and partial least squares discrimination analysis were constructed to differentiate maturity stage. The SPA-ELM and SPA-GWO-SVM models achieved satisfactory performance. The results illustrate that NIR-HSI is feasible for evaluation of the quality of Malus micromalus Makino.


Assuntos
Malus , Algoritmos , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
3.
Food Chem ; 370: 131015, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509943

RESUMO

The present study investigates the substitute of apple juice concentrate with some cheap sweeteners including glucose syrup, fructose syrup, and date concentrate, as the most common adulterants. For this purpose, pure and authenticated apple juice concentrate was individually adulterated with 10% to 50% of glucose syrup, fructose syrup, and date concentrate. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a refractive index detector (HPLC-RID) was applied to determine the carbohydrates profile of samples. The results of HPLC-RID were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results showed that the glucose/fructose ratio and maltose content were the best indicators to detect adulteration of apple juice concentrate. A set of glucose, sorbitol, sucrose, maltose, and glucose/fructose ratio was used as a discriminating factor. Using this approach, adulteration of apple juice concentrate with cheaper sweeteners was detected at a limit of 10%, depending on the adulterant.


Assuntos
Malus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutose , Glucose , Refratometria
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150035, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500275

RESUMO

The Loess Plateau is China's primary apple-growing area, and the orchard is a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to high nitrogen fertilizer input. Thus, a two-year field study was carried out to investigate the effects of apple wood derived biochar on GHGs emissions during apple orchard production, including soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCSR) and net global warming potential (NGWP) assessments. There are four treatments in this study: 20 t ha-1 biochar in a non-fertilized plot (B); no biochar in a fertilized plot (F); 20 t ha-1 biochar in a fertilized plot (FB); no biochar in a non-fertilized plot (CK). Results showed that the combined application of biochar and fertilizer stimulated CO2 emissions by 9.25% and 8.39% than either biochar or fertilizer alone. Meanwhile, biochar in fertilized plot increased annual N2O emissions by 32.6% as compared to fertilized plot without biochar amendment. Compared with CK, biochar had no significant effect on GHG emissions in unfertilized plot. The N2O emission factor of FB and F were 0.91% and 0.45% respectively in 2017-2018 and they were both 0.34% in 2018-2019. Moreover, compared with CK, the FB and B treatments increased the SOCSR by 316.52% and 354.78%, while, decreased the NGWP by 368.93% and 480.91%, respectively. Thus, biochar application may help reduce the impact of apple production on climate change by sequestering more soil organic carbon and decreasing the NGWP.


Assuntos
Malus , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , China , Aquecimento Global , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 366: 130654, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325246

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) is a potent mycotoxin commonly found in apples and apple-based products such as juice, thus affecting global food safety. Therefore, development of fast and simple analytical methods to effectively control its contamination is of great importance. This study developed and validated a technique for the analysis of PAT in samples of industrialized apple juice based on liquid-liquid extraction and using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent. Detection via mass spectrometry was performed after Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI). Mean recoveries of 97.5, 92.49 and 96.92% were reached for 4, 8 and 20 µg/L of PAT, respectively. The analyte was monitored with an APCI source in negative ion mode to identify its fragments. The 24 analyzed samples presented PAT levels below the limit of quantification. It may be concluded that the method fulfilled all of the validation criteria, thus being appropriate for routine surveillance of PAT in apple juice.


Assuntos
Malus , Patulina , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Patulina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103607, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656893

RESUMO

This study presented an alternative technique for processing electromyography (EMG) data with sporadic errors due to challenges associated with the field collection of EMG data. The application of this technique was used to detect errors, clean and optimize EMG data in order characterize and compare shoulder muscular load in farmworkers during apple harvesting in a trellised orchard. Surface EMG was used to take measurements from twenty-four participants in an actual field work environment. Anomalies in the EMG data were detected and removed with a customized algorithm using principal component analysis, interquartile range cut-off and unsupervised cluster analysis. This study found significantly greater upper trapezius muscle activity in farmworkers who used a ladder as compared to the alternative platform-based method where a team of mobile platform workers harvested apples from the tree tops and a second separate team of ground workers harvested apples from the tree bottoms. By comparing the unprocessed and the processed, anomaly-free EMG data, the robustness of our proposed method was demonstrated.


Assuntos
Malus , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Músculo Esquelético , Ombro
7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130833, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425342

RESUMO

To investigate the influences of different subcritical water conditions on apple pomace pectic polysaccharides (APP) extraction, 20 samples were successfully prepared and systematically analyzed. At low temperature region (100-120 °C), extraction effect was predominant and extracted APP was high molecular weight, esterification degree and galacturonic acid content as well as light color. At middle temperature region (140 °C), the balance of extraction and degradation effects was reached and led to the highest APP yield (14.89%). At high temperature region (160-180 °C), degradation effect was predominant and led to serious degradation of APP and more extraction of co-extracts, which endowed the APP with low viscosity and good antioxidant activities in vitro. Overall, the relationship between different subcritical water conditions and APP properties are preliminarily illuminated, which not only provides a promising way for directed extraction of specific APP, but also promotes the potential application of subcritical water to commercial pectin.


Assuntos
Malus , Pectinas , Polissacarídeos , Viscosidade , Água
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132404, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597634

RESUMO

The grass-waste management model affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and the microorganism community structure; however, studies on the relationship between the fungal community structure and the SOC chemical component at the aggregate level are poor. Solid-state 13C NMR and 18 S rDNA methods were used to evaluate the relationship between the SOC chemical composition and fungal community abundance at the aggregate level. Grass mulching significantly increased the percentage of labile carbon O-alkyl C (5.19%-11.79%) and decreased the instability of SOC (1.38-0.69). Microaggregates contained higher alkyl C (33.77%) and lower aromatic C (18.31%), and the A/O-A ratio (1.03) was higher than that of macroaggregates (0.89-0.96). Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota dominated the fungal community at the phylum level, and their abundance increased after grass mulching. Microaggregates supported more microbial diversity and richness and were rich in the Ascomycota (36.69%-67.49%) phylum, while LM aggregates were rich in Basidiomycota (5.62%-39.84%). We proved that changes in the O-alkyl C, carbonyl C, aromatic C and alkyl C of SOC chemical components were closely connected to fungal community composition, which together explained the change in fungal composition by 63.81%-71.99% among aggregates. We concluded that alterations in the chemical form of organic carbon were closely related to a change in the soil fungal community. This connection has a positive impact on soil nutrient utilization and SOC conversion in fruit-grass composite ecosystems and promotes the understanding of the relationship between the soil microbial community and nutrient cycling during long-term grass waste utilization.


Assuntos
Malus , Microbiota , Micobioma , Carbono/análise , China , Poaceae , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Food Chem ; 371: 131097, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537607

RESUMO

The conditions for the preparation of pectic oligosaccharides (POS) by high hydrostatic pressure-assisted enzymatic (E-HHP) method were explored. The optimal conditions consisted of the pressure of 350 MPa for 20 min, and enzymolysis for 60 min with 0.011 U/mL enzyme. The products were isolated by ion exchange chromatography, galacturonic acid, di- and tri-galacturonides (Tri-GalA) with high purity were obtained. Additionally, the effects of POS on activation and degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cells were investigated. It was found that Tri-GalA and POS could attenuate the release of ß-hexosaminidase and histamine, reduce the production of IL-4 and inhibit the extracellular Ca2+ influx of RBL-2H3 cells. Notably, 150 µg/mL POS significantly alleviated the IgE-mediated allergic reaction of RBL-2H3 cells. These results indicate that POS could be used as an inhibitor in regulating mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular , Malus , Pressão Hidrostática , Oligossacarídeos , Pectinas
10.
Food Chem ; 371: 131152, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583177

RESUMO

This study investigated the dynamic changes in the anaerobic metabolism end products (ethanol, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate) of different apple cultivars during 84-days of regular air (RA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage after 0-, 3-, 7- and 14-days of anoxia. Increasing the length of exposure to anoxia increased the anaerobic metabolites concentrations (AMC) in all cultivars. Fruit could recover from anoxia, and the AMC dissipated after 84-days of storage under both storage systems when the duration of anoxia was <7-days. The rate of metabolite dissipation following 14-days of anoxia differed among cultivars and storage systems. The reduction in AMC was faster under CA than RA-storage for 'Golden Delicious' and 'Jonagold' fruit, while the opposite trend was observed for 'Kanzi'. These results indicate that storage under CA post anoxia maintains better fruit quality during 84-days of storage than RA and effectively reduces the AMC.


Assuntos
Malus , Anaerobiose , Atmosfera , Frutas , Hipóxia
11.
Food Chem ; 372: 131117, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600198

RESUMO

During apple juice and cider-making processes, phenolic compounds undergo enzymatic oxidation. 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) is one of the major hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and it is the preferential substrate for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in apple juices. Consequently, CQA dehydrodimers (MW 706 Da) are among the main products resulting from CQA oxidation. CQA dehydrodimers were previously synthesized in a biomimetic apple juice model solution. Following their purification and characterization using UV-Visible spectra and mass spectrometry, the structures of seven CQA dehydrodimers were elucidated using 1H and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Six of them exhibited dihydrobenzofuran, benzodioxane, or dihydronaphtalene skeletons, which are caffeicin-like structures. Interestingly, a new dehydrodicaffeoyldiquinic acid molecule was also characterised for which two novel structures showing a symmetric dicatechol skeleton were also proposed.


Assuntos
Malus , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 241-249, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Half of all apple production worldwide comes from China. However, the geographic authentication of Chinese apples has not been well studied. We highlight the multi-element-based geographical discrimination of apples from the southwest cold highlands (SCH) of China. 565 samples from the SCH (138) and others (427) were obtained, and the content of fifteen elements were applied to construct models for discrimination. RESULTS: The SCH apples from 2017 to 2019 had higher concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Se, Pb, and Fe, but lower concentrations of Na, B, Ni, and P. With sufficient training, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) discriminated the SCH, and the testing accuracy averaged 92.5% and 92.2%. Nonlinear discrimination models were more suitable than the linear models. Optimized random forest analysis was the model with the best fit, and with averaged training and testing it obtained a level of accuracy of 98.2% and 98.5%. CONCLUSION: The multielement-based discrimination of SCH apples could aid further studies of geographical origins. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Malus/química , Oligoelementos/análise , China , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/classificação , Malus/classificação
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 330-340, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural abundance of stable isotope 15 N (δ15 N) in production systems has emerged as an alternative to distinguish organic products from conventional ones. This study evaluated the use of δ15 N values recorded for nitrogen fertilizers, soil and plant tissue in order to set the differences between organic and conventional agricultural production systems applied to rice, potatoes, apple and banana crops. RESULTS: Values of δ15 N recorded for N sources ranged from +5.58‰ to +18.27‰ and from -3.55‰ to +3.19‰ in organic and synthetic fertilizers, respectively. Values recorded for δ15 N in food from organic rice, potatoes and banana farms were higher than values recorded for δ15 N in conventional farms; the same was observed for values recorded for δ15 N in leaves from the four crops. CONCLUSION: Results have allowed for differentiation between production systems due to values of δ15 N recorded in leaves of all crops and food, for rice, potatoes and banana trees. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/normas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Certificação , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Malus/química , Musa/química , Oryza/química , Solanum tuberosum/química
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 425-433, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apple wine is a popular alcoholic beverage for its nutrition and fresh taste. However, the methanol existing in apple wine restricts its quality. Unfortunately, there are no methods to reduce the methanol content in fruit wine. To this end, bentonite (B), calcium chloride (CC) and their combination (B&CC) were added into apple juice in this study. The treated juice (0) and supernatant obtained by standing the juice at 25 °C for 24 h were fermented at 25 °C and 10 °C, respectively. RESULTS: Bentonite was an excellent methanol interrupter, a pectin retainer and a wine quality defender both at 25 and 10 °C. The lowest methanol content of 1.41 mg L-1 and higher pectin content of 84.74 mg L-1 were reached in the finished wine by B0 at 10 °C. Calcium chloride decreased pectin content, elevated methanol content and changed the profile of individual organic acids. In fact, the wine by B&CC0 at 25 °C showed dramatic changes in individual organic acids. The content of l-malic acid and succinic acid was only 2.22% and 6.29% of the control, respectively, while the lactic acid content was 17.72 times that of the control. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that B0 and fermented at 10 °C was the most effective way to decrease methanol content, retain pectin content and defend wine quality. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bentonita/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Metanol/química , Pectinas/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131693, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358886

RESUMO

Based on the sustainable development practice-zero growth in chemical fertilizer application, this article used bagasse organic fertilizer and rice husk derived biochar to investigate the response of soil bacterial community in apple orchard. Aimed at realize the soil quality improvement and biomass resource recovery to contribute agricultural and environmental sustainability. The co-trophic Proteobacteria was predominant in all the treatments (29-36 %) and enriched in non-nitrifying Alphaproteobacteria (9-11 %) and ammonia oxidant Betaproteobacteria (8-10 %), especially richest in bagasse fertilizer combine biochar treated soil. In addition, bacterial community variation was assessed by alpha and beta diversity, four treatments dispersed distribution and richer abundance observed in combined apply bagasse fertilizer and biochar treatment (3909.22 observed-species) than single application (3729.88 and 3646.58 observed-species). Biochar as microbial carrier combined organic fertilizer were established synergistic interaction and favorable to organic matter availability during sustainable agriculture. Finally, integrated biochar-bagasse fertilizer was richer than single organic or biochar fertilization in improving soil bacterial diversity, notably by promoting the metabolism of copiotrophic bacteria, nutrient cycling, plant growth and disease inhibit-related bacteria.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Malus , Agricultura , Bactérias/genética , Celulose , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131813, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388876

RESUMO

A novel genipin crosslinked calcium alginate/chitosan/polydopamine composite beads (g-Alg/CS/PDA) was synthesized for the removal of residual difenoconazole and nitenpyram during the clarification of apple juice. The composite beads with low potential health risks for all of the main materials were natural, green and biocompatible. Since g-Alg/CS/PDA can both clarify and adsorb, pesticide residues could be removed during the clarification of juice without additional steps. The g-Alg/CS/PDA beads were characterized, and the adsorption parameters, including the pesticide residue levels, adsorption time, pH, ionic strength, fructose concentration and adsorbent dose, were optimized. The adsorption data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.9604, 0.9625) and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9993, 0.9999). The results indicated that the adsorption behavior of beads was heterogeneous. Moreover, the rate was controlled by several factors. The adsorption mechanism of two pesticides was also discussed. Hydrophobic and π-π conjugation interactions played a dominant role for the adsorption of difenoconazole, while hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were the main factors for nitenpyram.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Malus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Alginatos , Dioxolanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Neonicotinoides , Triazóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 371: 131179, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808762

RESUMO

The challenge of the present comprehensive work was to study, from apple orchards to consumer's plate, the influence of high- and low-temperature thermal treatments on the most frequently occurring fungicides (boscalid, captan, pyraclostrobin) and insecticides (acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide) in apples and processing factor (PF) application for more realistic dietary risk assessment in the new EFSA methodology. Dry pasteurization and canning combined with previous preliminary treatment gave PFs = 0.25-1.8 of the five active substances. Acute exposure (expressed as %ARfD) in the raw commodity was demonstrated to be 168.1% for acetamiprid in the worst case (input - highest residue) and 307.9% for boscalid in the most critical case (input - MRL), and after re-calculation for PF, decreased to 139.5% for acetamiprid in canned product and 203.2% for boscalid in pasteurized apples. These novel data may be helpful in estimating new threshold residue levels significant in food safety especially intended for children.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Inseticidas , Malus , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Criança , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Pasteurização , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
18.
Curr Protoc ; 1(11): e288, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767311

RESUMO

Environmental factors influence many traits of biological interest, but reproducing an animal's natural habitat in a controlled laboratory environment is challenging. Environmental enrichment-adding complexity to the usually simplistic conditions under which laboratory animals are raised-offers a potential tool for better understanding biological traits while maintaining controlled laboratory conditions. For the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contrast between the natural environment and the laboratory conditions in which they are raised is enormous. Although several methods have been developed in an effort to complexify C. elegans laboratory conditions, there is still a need for an enriched controlled laboratory habitat in which C. elegans can be raised over several generations, the bacterial food availability is similar to that in traditional agar plates, and the animals are crawling as opposed to swimming or burrowing. To this end, we describe here a standardized protocol for creating controlled, reproducible, three-dimensional environments for multigenerational maintenance of C. elegans in the laboratory. These environments are derived from decellularized apple hypanthium tissue and have bacterial food uniformly distributed throughout. We also describe how traditional C. elegans methods of collecting synchronized eggs, cleaning contaminated stocks, and collecting animal populations are adapted to our scaffold environment. These methods can be adapted to host different bacteria or bacterial populations, and the resulting scaffolds can be used in a range of experimental designs for behavioral and phenotypical studies in C. elegans and other nematodes. © 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Decellularization and storage of apple tissue Basic Protocol 2: Preparation of plates from decellularized apple scaffolds Basic Protocol 3: Synchronization of eggs or animals and cleaning contaminated stocks from scaffold plates Alternate Protocol: Collection of non-synchronized larvae and adults from scaffold plates.


Assuntos
Malus , Nematoides , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Ecossistema , Frutas
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 797, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773176

RESUMO

Knowledge and up-scaling of status, availability, and distribution of soil micronutrients are hugely significant for enhancing crop productivity and profitability. However, regional database entailing spatial variability of key micronutrients for a major apple-producing region like the Kashmir Himalayan Region (KHR) is missing. We investigated 588 topsoil samples between 2016 and 2017 (to 30 cm depth) to estimate spatial variability of extractable Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe; develop spatial maps; and delineate potential management zones (MZs) in apple orchards using geo-statistical methods. Soil sampling was performed post-harvest season. Principal component analysis and fuzzy c-mean clustering were performed to develop MZs. Results exhibited wide variation, with high coefficient of variation (%) for Mn and Cu (123.9 and 114.4, respectively) and low (71.6) and medium (104) variability for Fe and Zn. Mean concentrations followed the order: Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn, with deficiencies evident towards central and northern regions of the study area. The best-fitted model was exponential. The nugget/sill ratio values were 0.41, 0.08, 0.37, and 0.38 for Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, respectively, indicating strong spatial dependence for Cu and moderate dependence for Fe, Zn, and Mn. Correlations between elevation, slope, and soil pH with micronutrients were negative, whereas with soil organic carbon and electrical conductivity positive relationships were identified. Three principal components accounted for 67·18% data variance. Based on the fuzzy performance index and modified partition entropy, five MZs were delineated, which exhibited variations from each other. These MZs highlighted the need for specific supplemental provisions in increasing soil fertility and apple productivity.


Assuntos
Malus , Poluentes do Solo , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Micronutrientes/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 530, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731308

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 300 broilers (Arbor Acre) were randomized to six treatments replicated 5 times (50 birds/treatment and 10 birds/replicate) from 2 days old till the sixth week of age in a 2 by 3 factorial layout consisting of dosages (5.0 mL/L and 10.0 mL/L ACV) and administration frequency (antibiotics following standard schedule, twice/week ACV and thrice/week ACV). At the sixth week, sixty birds (10 birds/treatment) were selected for carcass yield, cut part yield, organ weight, meat technological properties, lipid profiles, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level evaluation. Data obtained were subjected to two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test at a P < 0.05 significant level. Birds administered 5.0 mL/L ACV thrice weekly presented a significantly (P < 0.05) higher plucked, eviscerated, dressed, thigh and breast weight compared with the other treatments. The spleen of birds in the control group was significantly (P < 0.05) heavier than those administered ACV. The meat from the 5.0 mL/L ACV group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) water absorptive power and lower refrigeration loss, as depicted in the main effect table. Meat cholesterol, phospholipids, and MDA levels did not differ across the treatments except triglyceride, which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the 5.0 mL/L ACV thrice-weekly group. This study concludes that ACV administration could improve carcass yield and meat quality indices. Thus, its use as an alternative to conventional antibiotics for broiler chickens might be beneficial.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Malus , Ácido Acético , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Carne/análise , Triglicerídeos
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