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1.
Planta ; 254(4): 78, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536142

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: 51 MdbZIP genes were identified from the apple genome by bioinformatics methods. MhABF-OE improved tolerance to saline-alkali stress in Arabidopsis, indicating it is involved in positive regulation of saline-alkali stress response. Saline-alkali stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth all over the world. Members of the bZIP family play an important role in regulating gene expression in response to many kinds of biotic and abiotic stress, including salt stress. According to the transcriptome data, 51 MdbZIP genes responding to saline-alkali stress were identified in apple genome, and their gene structures, conserved protein motifs, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome localization, and promoter cis-acting elements were analyzed. Based on transcriptome data analysis, a MdbZIP family gene (MD15G1081800), which was highly expressed under stress, was selected to isolate and named as MhABF. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the expression of MhABF in the leaves of Malus halliana was 10.6-fold higher than that of the control (0 days) after 2 days of stress. Then an MhABF gene was isolated from apple rootstock M. halliana. CaMV35S promoter drived MhABF gene expression vector was constructed to infect Arabidopsis with Agrobacterium-mediated infection. And overexpression MhABF gene plants were obtained. Compared with wild type, transgenic plants grew better under saline-alkali stress and the MhABF-OE lines showed higher chlorophyll content, POD, SOD and CAT activity, which indicated that they had strong resistance to stress. These results indicate that MhABF plays an important role in plant resistance to saline-alkali stress, which lays a foundation for further study on the functions in apple.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112734, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482065

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a phytotoxic heavy metal accumulated in plants and fruits, has significant adverse effects on plant growth and development as well as human health. In particular, Cd pollution has become a serious agricultural issue in recent years. Apple is one of the most popular fruits consumed at the global scale. Improving apple Cd resistance via reductions in Cd absorption can benefit apple tree growth and ensure fruit safety. In this study, we determined that, under the 200 µM Cd treatment, 35S::MdIAA24 apple plants exhibited more biomass and less Cd accumulation in the tested tissues compared to wild type (WT). Furthermore, the 35S::MdIAA24 apple plants demonstrated more favorable photosynthesis characteristics, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a greater amount of active antioxidant enzymes under the Cd condition than WT. The expression levels of the Cd uptake genes were observed to be lower in the 35S::MdIAA24 apple plants compared with those of the WT under the Cd treatment. The results highlight the ability of the overexpression of MdIAA24 to enhance apple Cd resistance by improving antioxidant capacity and reducing Cd absorption.


Assuntos
Malus , Cádmio/toxicidade , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 433, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol (Res), a phytoalexin, has been widely reported to participate in plant resistance to fungal infections. However, little information is available on its role in abiotic stress, especially in iron deficiency stress. Malus baccata is widely used as apple rootstock in China, but it is sensitive to iron deficiency. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the role of exogenous Res in M. baccata seedings under iron deficiency stress. Results showed that applying 100 µM exogenous Res could alleviate iron deficiency stress. The seedlings treated with Res had a lower etiolation rate and higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate compared with the apple seedlings without Res treatment. Exogenous Res increased the iron content in the roots and leaves by inducing the expression of MbAHA genes and improving the H+-ATPase activity. As a result, the rhizosphere pH decreased, iron solubility increased, the expression of MbFRO2 and MbIRT1 was induced, and the ferric-chelated reductase activity was enhanced to absorb large amounts of Fe2+ into the root cells under iron deficiency conditions. Moreover, exogenous Res application increased the contents of IAA, ABA, and GA3 and decreased the contents of DHZR and BL for responding to iron deficiency stress indirectly. In addition, Res functioned as an antioxidant that strengthened the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thus eliminated reactive oxygen species production induced by iron deficiency stress. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol improves the iron deficiency adaptation of M. baccata seedlings mainly by regulating iron absorption.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/deficiência , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/induzido quimicamente , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 632, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important group of the multidrug efflux transporter family, the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family has a wide range of functions and is distributed in all kingdoms of living organisms. However, only two MATE genes in apple have been analyzed and genome-wide comprehensive analysis of MATE family is needed. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 66 MATE (MdMATE) candidates encoding putative MATE transporters were identified in the apple genome. These MdMATE genes were classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis with MATE genes in Arabidopsis. Synteny analysis reveals that whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication events played a major role in the expansion of MATE gene family in apple. MdMATE genes show diverse expression patterns in different tissues/organs and developmental stages. Analysis of cis-regulatory elements in MdMATE promoter regions indicates that the function of MdMATE genes is mainly related to stress response. Besides, the changes of gene expression levels upon different pathogen infections reveal that MdMATE genes are involved in biotic stress response. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we systematically identified MdMATE genes in apple genome using a set of bioinformatics approaches. Our comprehensive analysis provided valuable resources for improving disease resistance in apple and further functional characterization of MATE genes in other species.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360688

RESUMO

Plant response to osmotic stress is a complex issue and includes a wide range of physiological and biochemical processes. Extensive studies of known cultivars and their reaction to drought or salinity stress are very important for future breeding of new and tolerant cultivars. Our study focused on the antioxidant activity, accumulations of osmotica, and the content of abscisic acid in apple (cv. "Malinové holovouské", "Fragrance", "Rubinstep", "Idared", "Car Alexander") and cherry (cv. "Regina", "Napoleonova", "Kastánka", "Sunburst", "P-HL-C") cultivated in vitro on media containing different levels of polyethylene glycol PEG-6000. Our results indicated that the studied genotypes responded differently to osmotic stress manifested as reduction in the leaf relative water content (RWC) and increment in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline, sugars, and abscisic acid content. Overall, cherry cultivars showed a smaller decrease in percentage RWC and enzymatic activities, but enhanced proline content compared to the apple plants cultivars. Cultivars "Rubinstep", "Napoleonova", and "Kastánka" exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and accumulation of osmoprotectants like proline and sorbitol that can be associated with the drought-tolerance system.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Pressão Osmótica , Prolina/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Açúcares/análise , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/fisiologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Prunus avium/química , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Prunus avium/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360850

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved degradation pathway for recycling damaged organelles and aberrant proteins, and its important roles in plant adaptation to nutrient starvation have been generally reported. Previous studies found that overexpression of autophagy-related (ATG) gene MdATG10 enhanced the autophagic activity in apple roots and promoted their salt tolerance. The MdATG10 expression was induced by nitrogen depletion condition in both leaves and roots of apple plants. This study aimed to investigate the differences in the growth and physiological status between wild type and MdATG10-overexpressing apple plants in response to nitrogen starvation. A hydroponic system containing different nitrogen levels was used. The study found that the reduction in growth and nitrogen concentrations in different tissues caused by nitrogen starvation was relieved by MdATG10 overexpression. Further studies demonstrated the increased root growth and the higher nitrogen absorption and assimilation ability of transgenic plants. These characteristics contributed to the increased uptake of limited nitrogen nutrients by transgenic plants, which also reduced the starvation damage to the chloroplasts. Therefore, the MdATG10-overexpressing apple plants could maintain higher photosynthetic ability and possess better growth under nitrogen starvation stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Autofagia , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445535

RESUMO

Apples (Malus domestica Borkh) are prone to preharvest fruit drop, which is more pronounced in 'Honeycrisp'. Hexanal is known to improve fruit retention in several economically important crops. The effects of hexanal on the fruit retention of 'Honeycrisp' apples were assessed using physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic approaches. Fruit retention and fruit firmness were significantly improved by hexanal, while sugars and fresh weight did not show a significant change in response to hexanal treatment. At commercial maturity, abscisic acid and melatonin levels were significantly lower in the treated fruit abscission zone (FAZ) compared to control. At this stage, a total of 726 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between treated and control FAZ. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that hexanal downregulated ethylene biosynthesis genes, such as S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAM2) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidases (ACO3, ACO4, and ACO4-like), while it upregulated the receptor genes ETR2 and ERS1. Genes related to ABA biosynthesis (FDPS and CLE25) were also downregulated. On the contrary, key genes involved in gibberellic acid biosynthesis (GA20OX-like and KO) were upregulated. Further, hexanal downregulated the expression of genes related to cell wall degrading enzymes, such as polygalacturonase (PG1), glucanases (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase), and expansins (EXPA1-like, EXPA6, EXPA8, EXPA10-like, EXPA16-like). Our findings reveal that hexanal reduced the sensitivity of FAZ cells to ethylene and ABA. Simultaneously, hexanal maintained the cell wall integrity of FAZ cells by regulating genes involved in cell wall modifications. Thus, delayed fruit abscission by hexanal is most likely achieved by minimizing ABA through an ethylene-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361028

RESUMO

The growth and productivity of several apple rootstocks have been evaluated in various previous studies. However, limited information is available on their tolerance to osmotic stress. In the present study, the physiological and molecular responses as well as abscisic acid (ABA) levels were assessed in six apple rootstocks (M26, V3, G41, G935, B9 and B118) osmotically stressed with polyethylene glycol (PEG, 30%) application under greenhouse conditions. Our results showed that V3, G41, G935 and B9 had higher relative water content (RWC), and lower electrolyte leakage (EL) under stress conditions compared to M26 and B118. Additionally, water use efficiency (WUE) was higher in V3, G41 and B9 than M26, which might be partially due to the lower transpiration rate in these tolerant rootstocks. V3, G41 and B9 rootstocks also displayed high endogenous ABA levels which was combined with a reduction in stomatal conductance and decreased water loss. At the transcriptional level, genes involved in ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways, e.g., SnRK, DREB, ERD and MYC2, showed higher expression in V3, G41, G935 and B9 rootstocks compared to M26 in response to stress. In contrast, WRKY29 was down-regulated in response to stress in the tolerant rootstocks, and its expression was negatively correlated with ABA content and stomatal closure. Overall, the findings of this study showed that B9, V3 and G41 displayed better osmotic stress tolerance followed by G935 then M26 and B118 rootstocks.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445149

RESUMO

Anthocyanins contribute to the quality and flavour of fruits. They are produced through the phenylpropanoid pathway, which is regulated by specific key genes that have been identified in many species. The dominant anthocyanin forms are reversibly transformed at different pH states, thus forming different colours in aqueous solutions. In plants, anthocyanins are controlled by specific factors of the biosynthetic pathway: light, temperature, phytohormones and transcription factors. Although great progress in research on anthocyanin structures and the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has been made, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis in different plants remain less clear. In addition, the co-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this review, we summarise previous findings on anthocyanin biosynthesis, including the biochemical and biological features of anthocyanins; differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis among fruit species, i.e., apple, red pear, and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; and the developmental and environmental regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. This review reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in different plant species and provides valuable information for the development of anthocyanin-rich red-skinned and red-fleshed apple and pear varieties.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 390-399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404010

RESUMO

Various abiotic stressors, particularly drought stress, affect plant growth and yield. Zinc finger proteins play an important role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we isolated the apple MdZAT10 gene, a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis STZ/ZAT10. MdZAT10 was localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in leaves and fruit. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT10 contained several response elements and the transcription level of MdZAT10 was induced by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdZAT10 was responsive to drought treatment both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. MdZAT10-overexpressing apple calli decreased the expression level of MdAPX2 and increased sensitivity to PEG 6000 treatment. Moreover, ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis reduced the tolerance to drought stress, and exhibited higher water loss, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. In addition, MdZAT10 reduced the sensitivity to abscisic acid in apple. Ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis promoted seed germination and seedling growth. These results indicate that MdZAT10 plays a negative regulator in the drought resistance, which can provide theoretical basis for further molecular mechanism research.


Assuntos
Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2 , Malus , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(7): 653-663, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196858

RESUMO

Upon damage by herbivores, plants release herbivory-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). To find their prey, the pest's natural enemies need to be fine-tuned to the composition of these volatiles. Whereas standard methods can be used in the identification and quantitation of HIPVs, more recently introduced techniques such as PTR-ToF-MS provide temporal patterns of the volatile release and detect additional compounds. In this study, we compared the volatile profile of apple trees infested with two aphid species, the green apple aphid Aphis pomi, and the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea, by CLSA-GC-MS complemented by PTR-ToF-MS. Compounds commonly released in conjunction with both species include nonanal, decanal, methyl salicylate, geranyl acetone, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl 2-methyl-butanoate, (E)-ß-caryophyllene, ß-bourbonene and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate. In addition, benzaldehyde and (E)-ß-farnesene were exclusively associated with A. pomi, whereas linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were exclusively associated with D. plantaginea. PTR-ToF-MS additionally detected acetic acid (AA) and 2-phenylethanol (PET) in the blends of both trees attacked by aphid species. In the wind tunnel, the aphid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), responded strongly to a blend of AA and PET, much stronger than to AA or PET alone. The addition of common and species-specific HIPVs did not increase the response to the binary blend of AA and PET. In our setup, two host-associated volatiles AA + PET appeared sufficient in the attraction of C. carnea. Our results also show the importance of combining complementary methods to decipher the odor profile associated with plants under pest attack and identify behaviourally active components for predators.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Malus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206687

RESUMO

Apple trees (Malus domestica Borgh) are a rich source of dihydrochalcones, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Considering the increasing demand for these phytochemicals with health-benefitting properties, the objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of the main bioactive compounds-phloridzin, phloretin, chlorogenic acid and rutin-in apple tree bark, leaves, flower buds and twigs. The variety in the phenolic profiles of four apple tree cultivars was monitored during the vegetation period from March to September using chromatography analysis. Phloridzin, the major glycoside of interest, reached the highest values in the bark of all the tested cultivars in May (up to 91.7 ± 4.4 mg g-1 of the dried weight (DW), cv. 'Opal'). In the leaves, the highest levels of phloridzin were found in cv. 'Opal' in May (82.5 ± 22.0 mg g-1 of DW); in twigs, the highest levels were found in cv. 'Rozela' in September (52.4 ± 12.1 mg g-1 of DW). In the flower buds, the content of phloridzin was similar to that in the twigs. Aglycone phloretin was found only in the leaves in relatively low concentrations (max. value 2.8 ± 1.4 mg g-1 of DW). The highest values of rutin were found in the leaves of all the tested cultivars (10.5 ± 2.9 mg g-1 of DW, cv. 'Opal' in September); the concentrations in the bark and twigs were much lower. The highest content of chlorogenic acid was found in flower buds (3.3 ± 1.0 mg g-1 of DW, cv. 'Rozela'). Whole apple fruits harvested in September were rich in chlorogenic acid and phloridzin. The statistical evaluation by Scheffe's test confirmed the significant difference of cv. 'Rozela' from the other tested cultivars. In conclusion, apple tree bark, twigs, and leaves were found to be important renewable resources of bioactive phenolics, especially phloridzin and rutin. The simple availability of waste plant material can therefore be used as a rich source of phenolic compounds for cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and food supplement preparation.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Florizina/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rutina/metabolismo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 351, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In nature, green apple are associated with the accumulation of chlorophyll, while red apple varieties are associated with anthocyanins accumulation. Notably, in this study, the green skin color apple variety 'white winter pearmain' treated with ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exhibited red skins and marked anthocyanin accumulation, while visible light could not. But there are few reports on the biosynthesis difference of anthocyanins in green apple by visible light and UV-B-treatment. Here, we explored the difference of metabolites and genes expression level in green apple by transcriptomic and metabolic. RESULTS: The metabolic analysis revealed that there were 152 and 178 significantly changed metabolites in the visible light and UV-B-treated green apple, respectively, compared to the control, and flavone, flavonol, and anthocyanin were the most significantly increased; and transcriptomic analysis showed that 37,110 and 37,709 differentially expressed genes, including 382 and 475 transcription factors (TFs) were detected in light and UV-B-treatment fruit, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) results confirmed changes in the expression levels of genes encoding metabolites involved in the flavonoid synthesis pathways. The flavonoid metabolic flux in the UV-B treatment increased the accumulation of cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside compared to under the light-treatment. Furthermore, we performed qRT-PCR analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and predicted the gene of MD00G1134400 (a UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase) may be a candidate gene for anthocyanins accumulation and highly expressed in UV-B-treatment fruit. Expression profiles of several transcription factors of the families MYB, bHLH, NAC were highly correlated with the content of the anthocyanin. CONCLUSIONS: The composition and contents of anthocyanins in green apple in UV-B-treatment very greatly. A series of metabolites and candidate genes were revealed through combined analysis of metabolome and transcriptome. These results provide an important data for dissecting candidate genes and molecular basis governing green apple color formation in response to visible light and UV-B light.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Metaboloma , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207697

RESUMO

Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a significant problem in apple orchards that causes root tissue damage, stunted plant growth, and decline in fruit quality, size, and overall yield. Dysbiosis of apple root-associated microbiome and selective richness of Streptomyces species in the rhizosphere typically concurs root impairment associated with ARD. However, possible roles of Streptomyces secondary metabolites within these observations remain unstudied. Therefore, we employed the One Strain Many Compounds (OSMAC) approach coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMSn) to evaluate the chemical ecology of an apple root-associated Streptomycesciscaucasicus strain GS2, temporally over 14 days. The chemical OSMAC approach comprised cultivation media alterations using six different media compositions, which led to the biosynthesis of the iron-chelated siderophores, ferrioxamines. The biological OSMAC approach was concomitantly applied by dual-culture cultivation for microorganismal interactions with an endophytic Streptomyces pulveraceus strain ES16 and the pathogen Cylindrocarpon olidum. This led to the modulation of ferrioxamines produced and further triggered biosynthesis of the unchelated siderophores, desferrioxamines. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using HRMSn and by comparison with the literature. We evaluated the dynamics of siderophore production under the combined influence of chemical and biological OSMAC triggers, temporally over 3, 7, and 14 days, to discern the strain's siderophore-mediated chemical ecology. We discuss our results based on the plausible chemical implications of S. ciscaucasicus strain GS2 in the rhizosphere.


Assuntos
Malus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Streptomyces/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Malus/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
15.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071301

RESUMO

The new screening method for rapid evaluation of major phenolic compounds in apples has been developed. Suitability of coupling HPLC/UHPLC separation with the diode-array detection and universal charged aerosol detection with respect to the presence of interfering substances was tested. Characteristics of both detection techniques were compared and method linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, and selectivity of them determined. Student t-test based on slopes of calibration plots was applied for the detailed comparison. The diode-array detection provided the best results regarding sensitivity and selectivity of the developed method in terms of evaluation of phenolics profiles. The response of the charged aerosol detector was negatively affected by co-eluting substances during rapid-screening analyses. Coulometric detection was used for advanced characterization of extracts in terms of antioxidant content and strength to obtain more complex information concerning sample composition. This detection also allowed evaluation of unidentified compounds with antioxidant activity. HPLC/UHPLC separation using a combination of diode-array and coulometric detectors thus represented the best approach enabling quick, yet complex characterization of bioactive compounds in apples.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Eletroquímica/métodos , Malus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Fenol/química , Fenóis/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073724

RESUMO

Water deficit adversely affects apple (Malus domestica) productivity on the Loess Plateau. Autophagy plays a key role in plant responses to unfavorable environmental conditions. Previously, we demonstrated that a core apple autophagy-related protein, MdATG8i, was responsive to various stresses at the transcript level. Here, we investigated the function of this gene in the response of apple to severe drought and found that its overexpression (OE) significantly enhanced drought tolerance. Under drought conditions, MdATG8iOE apple plants exhibited less drought-related damage and maintained higher photosynthetic capacities compared with the wild type (WT). The accumulation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) was lower in OE plants under drought stress and was accompanied by higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. Besides, OE plants accumulated lower amounts of insoluble or oxidized proteins but greater amounts of amino acids and flavonoid under severe drought stress, probably due to their enhanced autophagic activities. Particularly, MdATG8iOE plants showed higher root hydraulic conductivity than WT plants did under drought conditions, indicating the enhanced ability of water uptake. In summary, the overexpression of MdATG8i alleviated oxidative damage, modulated amino acid metabolism and flavonoid synthesis, and improved root water uptake, ultimately contributing to enhanced drought tolerance in apple.


Assuntos
Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Secas , Malus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse Fisiológico , Autofagia , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1127-1139, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973072

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to mediate ABA response. The plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonistically regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. However, the association between BR and ABA signaling is less clear. Here, we identified MdBZR1 in apple (Malus domestica) and demonstrated that it was activated by BRs and could respond to ABA treatment. Overexpression of MdBZR1 in apple calli and Arabidopsis reduced ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that MdBZR1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Subsequently, we found that MdBZR1 directly bound to the promoter region of MdABI5 and suppressed its expression. MdABI5 was significantly induced by ABA treatment. And overexpression of MdABI5 in apple calli increased sensitivity to ABA. Ectopic expression of MdABI5 in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. In addition, overexpression of MdBZR1 partially attenuated MdABI5-mediated ABA sensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to antagonistically mediate ABA response. Our work contributes to the functional studies of BZR1 and further broadens the insight into the between BR and ABA signaling.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Salino/genética
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(19): 5491-5499, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973475

RESUMO

Cinmethylin is a well-known benzyl-ether derivative of the natural terpene 1,4-cineole that is used industrially as a pre-emergence herbicide in grass weed control for crop protection. Cinmethylin detoxification in plants has not been reported, but in animals, it prominently involves hydroxylation at the benzylic C15 methyl group. Here, we show enzymatic ß-glycosylation of synthetic 15-hydroxy-cinmethylin to prepare a putative phase II detoxification metabolite of the cinmethylin in plants. We examined eight Leloir glycosyltransferases for reactivity with 15-hydroxy cinmethylin and revealed the selective formation of 15-hydroxy cinmethylin ß-d-glucoside from uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose by the UGT71E5 from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). The UGT71E5 showed a specific activity of 431 mU/mg, about 300-fold higher than that of apple (Malus domestica) UGT71A15 that also performed the desired 15-hydroxy cinmethylin mono-glycosylation. Bacterial glycosyltransferases (OleD from Streptomyces antibioticus, 2.9 mU/mg; GT1 from Bacillus cereus, 60 mU/mg) produced mixtures of 15-hydroxy cinmethylin mono- and disaccharide glycosides. Using UDP-glucose recycling with sucrose synthase, 15-hydroxy cinmethylin conversion with UGT71E5 efficiently provided the ß-mono-glucoside (≥95% yield; ∼9 mM) suitable for biological studies.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Malus , Glicosilação , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Glucose/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 209, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bagging is one of the most important techniques for producting high-quality fruits. In the actual of cultivating, we found a new kind of browning in peel of apple fruit that occurs before harvest and worsen during storage period. There are many studies on metabonomic analysis of browning about storage fruits, but few studies on the mechanism of browning before harvest. RESULTS: In this study, five-year-old trees of 'Rui Xue' (CNA20151469.1) were used as materials. Bagging fruits without browning (BFW) and bagging fruits with browning (BFB) were set as the experimental groups, non-bagging fruits (NBF) were set as control. After partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), 50 kinds of metabolites were important with predictive VIP > 1 and p-value < 0.05. The most important differential metabolites include flavonoids and lipids molecules, 11 flavonoids and 6 lipids molecules were significantly decreased in the BFW compared with NBF. After browning, 11 flavonoids and 7 lipids were further decreased in BFB compared with BFW. Meanwhile, the significantly enriched metabolic pathways include galactose metabolism, ABC membrane transporter protein, flavonoid biosynthesis and linoleic acid metabolism pathways et al. Physiological indicators show that, compared with NBF, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2-) in peel of BFW and BFB were significantly increased, and the difference of BFB was more significant. Meanwhile, the antioxidant enzyme activities of BFW and BFB were inhibited, which accelerated the destruction of cell structure. In addition, the metabolome and physiological data showed that the significantly decrease of flavonoid was positively correlated with peel browning. So, we analyzed the expression of flavonoid related genes and found that, compared with NBF, the flavonoid synthesis genes MdLAR and MdANR were significantly up-regulated in BFW and BFB, but, the downstream flavonoids-related polymeric genes MdLAC7 and MdLAC14 were also significantly expressed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that the microenvironment of fruit was changed by bagging, the destruction of cell structure, the decrease of flavonoids and the increase of triterpenoids were the main reasons for the browning of peel.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Reação de Maillard , Metaboloma
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 231, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aroma is one the most crucial inherent quality attributes of fruit. 'Ruixue' apples were selected from a cross between 'Pink Lady' and 'Fuji', a later ripening yellow new cultivar. However, there is little known about the content and composition of aroma compounds in 'Ruixue' apples or the genetic characters of 'Ruixue' and its parents. In addition, the metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of aroma volatiles and aroma-related genes remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Volatile aroma compounds were putatively identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results show that the profile of volatile compounds changes with ripening. Aldehydes were the dominant volatile compounds in early fruit development, with alcohols and esters increasing dramatically during maturation. On the basis of a heatmap dendrogram, these aroma compounds clustered into seven groups. In ripe fruit, esters and terpenoids were the main aroma volatiles in ripening fruit of 'Pink Lady' and 'Fuji' apples, and they included butyl 2-methylbutanoate; propanoic acid, hexyl ester; propanoic acid, hexyl ester; hexanoic acid, hexyl ester; acetic acid, hexyl ester and (Z, E)-α-farnesene. Interestingly, aldehydes and terpenoids were the dominant volatile aroma compounds in ripening fruit of 'Ruixue', and they mainly included hexanal; 2-hexenal; octanal; (E)-2-octenal; nonanal and (Z, E)-α-farnesene. By comparing the transcriptome profiles of 'Ruixue' and its parents fruits during development, we identified a large number of aroma-related genes related to the fatty acid, isoleucine and sesquiterpenoid metabolism pathways and transcription factors that may volatile regulate biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial study facilitates a better understanding of the volatile compounds that affect fruit flavour as well as the mechanisms underlying differences in flavour between 'Ruixue' and its parents.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genótipo
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