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1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1443-1457, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700103

RESUMO

The apple is a highly perishable fruit after harvesting and, therefore, several storage technologies have been studied to provide the consumer market with a quality product with a longer shelf life. However, little is known about the apple genome that is submitted to the storage, and even less with the application of ripening inhibitors. Due to these factors, this study sought to elucidate the transcriptional profile of apple cultivate Gala stored in a controlled atmosphere (AC) treated and not treated with 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP). Through the genetic mapping of the apple, applying the microarray technique, it was possible to verify the action of treatments on transcripts related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, response to hormonal stimuli, nucleic acid metabolism, reduction of oxidation, regulation of transcription and metabolism of cell wall and lipids. The results showed that the transcriptional profile in the entire genome of the fruit showed significant differences in the relative expression of the gene, this in response to CA in the presence and absence of 1-MCP. It should be noted that the transcription genes involved in the anabolic pathway were only maintained after six months in fruits treated with 1-MCP. The data in this work suggests that the apple in the absence of 1-MCP begins to prepare its metabolism to mature, even during the storage period in AC. Meanwhile, in the presence of the inhibitor, the transcriptional profile of the fruit is similar to that at the time of harvest. It was also found that a set of genes that code for ethylene receptors, auxin homeostasis, MADS Box, and NAC transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of post-harvest ripening after storage and in the absence of 1-MCP.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
Food Chem ; 332: 127382, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619943

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries have high biological value as a rich source of phenolic compounds, fatty acids and vitamins A, C, E. Due to the high organic acid content and sour taste, the fruits are rarely used in juice production. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the metabolic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis and Oenococcus oeni strains along with the dynamics of changes in organic acids, sugars, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during 72-h fermentation of 100% sea buckthorn and mixed with apple (1:1) juices. The strongest malolactic conversion was in mixed juices (to 75.0%). The most efficient strains were L. plantarum DSM 10492, 20174 and 6872. L. plantarum strains caused an increase in flavonols and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn-apple juices. The results can be used to select conditions and strains in industrial-scale fermentation, to produce novel sea buckthorn products and increase their consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/química , Hippophae/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110832, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563158

RESUMO

Ozone (O3), an oxidizing toxic air pollutant, is ubiquitous in industrialized and developing countries. To understand the effects of O3 exposure on apple (Malus) and to explore its defense mechanisms, we exposed 'Hongjiu' crabapple to O3 and monitored its responses using physiological, transcriptomics, and metabolomics analyses. Exposure to 300 nL L-1 O3 for 3 h caused obvious damage to the leaves of Malus crabapple, affected chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, and activated antioxidant enzymes. The gene encoding phospholipase A was highly responsive to O3 in Malus crabapple. McWRKY75 is a key transcription factor in the response to O3 stress, and its transcript levels were positively correlated with those of flavonoid-related structural genes (McC4H, McDFR, and McANR). The ethylene response factors McERF019 and McERF109-like were also up-regulated by O3. Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) decreased the damaging effects of O3 on crabapple and was most effective at 200 µmol L -1. Treatments with MeJA altered the metabolic pathways of crabapple under O3 stress. In particular, MeJA activated the flavonoid metabolic pathway in Malus, which improved its resistance to O3 stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584862

RESUMO

The 'Fuji' line includes many varieties with a similar genetic background and consistent inducement factors with epigenetic occurrence, thus it may be considered an ideal candidate for epigenetic research. In this study, 91 bud mutations of 'Fuji' apple were used as the test materials. Using the genetic variation within 'Fuji' as the control, the characteristics of epigenetic variation at different levels in both varieties and mutant groups were examined. The results showed that: (1) the global genomic DNA methylation level of the 91 bud mutants of 'Fuji' ranged from 29.120%-45.084%, with an average of 35.910%. Internal cytosine methylation was the main DNA methylation pattern. Regarding the variation of methylation patterns of 'Fuji' mutants, the vast majority of loci maintained the original methylation pattern existed in 'Fuji'. CHG methylation variation was the main type of variation; (2) the variation in methylation patterns between the mutant groups was greater than that of methylation levels. Among these patterns, the variation in CHG methylation patterns (including CHG hypermethylation and CHG demethylation) was expected to be dominant. The observed variation in methylation levels was more important in the Color mutant group; however, the variation in methylation patterns was more obvious in both the early maturation and Spur mutant groups. Moreover, the range of variation in the Early-maturation group was much wider than that in the Spur mutant group; (3) epigenetic diversity and genetic diversity were both low between the mutant groups. In the 'Fuji' mutant groups, there was few correlation between genetic and epigenetic variation, and epigenetic differentiation resulted in more loci with moderate or greater differentiation; (4) the purifying selection seemed to play a major role in the differentiation of different groups of 'Fuji' mutants (65.618%), but epigenetic diversity selection still occurred at nearly 35% of loci. Sixteen epigenetic outlier loci were detected.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas , Epigênese Genética , Loci Gênicos , Malus , Mutação , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 330: 127120, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526646

RESUMO

Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant-derived proteins can improve their quality by offering opportunities for food applications. In this study, three proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, trypsin, Alcalase®) were used, alone or combined, to produce faba bean protein hydrolysates (PHs). Their functional, nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated, and the peptidomic profile was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Hydrolysis improved solubility of faba proteins at acidic and neutral pH, and their antioxidant properties. Peptidomic analysis identified 2031 peptides in the different PHs. Among them, 9 showed 100% homology with previously known antioxidant peptides and several others had antioxidant motifs in their sequences. Sensory data analysis showed that after addition of PHs to apple juice, no significant differences were perceived between control and some of the PHs. This study demonstrates that enzymatic hydrolysis enhances the functional and antioxidant properties of faba bean proteins. Specifically, hydrolysates can be used as functional food ingredients to produce fortified beverages.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Vicia faba/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrólise , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 328: 126967, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505057

RESUMO

Different particle sizes in cloudy apple juice were obtained following filtration with different mesh sizes (100, 200, 300, and 400-mesh). The effects of cloud particle size on the stability, nutrient content, and volatile flavor of cloudy apple juice were evaluated. With increasing mesh number, particle size decreased (p < 0.05) and particle shape changed. Particle size had an effect on volatile flavor compounds, especially nitrogen oxides, alcohols, and aromatic compounds. The content of pectin and total phenol decreased with decreasing particle size, while the content of soluble protein was not affected. The reduction of cloud particle size increased absolute value of ζ-potential, cloud stability, and apparent viscosity and decreased turbidity and cloud values. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between particle size and quality indicators, except for soluble protein.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Álcoois/análise , Malus/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Viscosidade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555619

RESUMO

Seeds stored in controlled conditions in gene banks, faster or slower lose their viability. The effects of seed moisture content levels (ca. 5, 8, 11%) combined with storage temperatures (-3°, -18°, -196°C) were investigated in terms of the description of seeds defined as orthodox under oxidative stress after seed storage, during germination, and initial seedling growth. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ascorbate (Asc) were analyzed in relation to seed germinability and seedlings emergence in three species: Malus sylvestris L., Prunus avium L. and Prunus padus L. The effect of seed storage conditions on H2O2 levels appeared in germinated seeds after the third year of storage in each species. The H2O2 levels were negatively correlated with the germination and seedling emergence of P. avium seeds after three years of storage under all examined combinations. The emergence of P. padus seedlings was not linked to any of the stress markers tested. The P. padus seed biochemical traits were least altered by storage conditions, and the seeds produced tolerant seedlings of relatively high levels of H2O2 and TBARS. To cope with different H2O2 levels, TBARS levels, and Asc levels in seeds of three species varying storage conditions different molecular responses, i.e. repairing mechanisms, were applied during stratification to compensate for the storage conditions and, as a result, seeds remained viable and seedlings were successfully established.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Temperatura
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375166

RESUMO

Malus halliana is an iron (Fe)-efficient apple rootstock growing in calcareous soil that shows obvious 'greenness' traits during Fe deficiency. Recent studies have shown that exogenous sugars can be involved in abiotic stress. To identify the key regulatory steps of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis in M. halliana under Fe deficiency and to verify whether exogenous sucrose (Suc) is involved in Fe deficiency stress, we determined the contents of the Chl precursor and the expression of several Chl biosynthetic genes in M. halliana. The results showed that Fe deficiency caused a significant increase in the contents of protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in M. halliana compared to the Fe-sensitive rootstock Malus hupehensis. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) also showed that the expression of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX), which synthesizes Proto IX, was upregulated in M. halliana and downregulated in M. hupehensis under Fe deficiency. Exogenous Suc application prominently enhanced the contents of porphobilinogen (PBG) and the subsequent precursor, whereas it decreased the level of δ-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), suggesting that the transformation from ALA to PBG was catalyzed in M. halliana. Additionally, the transcript level of δ-aminolevulinate acid dehydratase (ALAD) was noticeably upregulated after exogenous Suc treatment. This result, combined with the precursor contents, indicated that Suc accelerated the steps of Chl biosynthesis by modulating the ALAD gene. Therefore, we conclude that PPOX is the key regulatory gene of M. halliana in response to Fe deficiency. Exogenous Suc enhances M. halliana tolerance to Fe deficiency stress by regulating Chl biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Protoclorifilida/metabolismo , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 324: 126903, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361095

RESUMO

Cuticular wax chemicals differ among fruit cultivars and contribute to storage ability. However, wax analysis in apple cultivars, particularly during storage, has not been described. In this work, the chemicals and crystal structures of cuticular wax in 10 apple cultivars were analyzed to observe wax functions in apple during storage. Results showed that alkanes and primary alcohols decreased while fatty acids increased in stored fruits of all cultivars compared with the fruits before storage. Terpenoids, aldehydes, and phenols were observed in stored fruits but not in the fruits before storage in all cultivars except 'Red Star' fruit. The weight loss rate was significantly correlated with six components including C13 alcohol, C14 alkanes, total alkanes, total wax, C13 alkanes and C54 alkanes in 10 cultivar apple fruits during storage. Our findings indicate that the total wax, particularly alkanes, in the peel of apple fruits is essential for storage and quality control.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Ceras/química , Álcoois/metabolismo , Aldeídos/análise , Alcanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Terpenos/análise , Ceras/análise
10.
J Plant Physiol ; 249: 153166, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422487

RESUMO

Carotenoids are plastid isoprenoid pigments that play critical roles in light harvesting, photoprotection, and phytohormone biosynthesis. They are also vitamin-A precursors and antioxidant molecules important for human nutrition. Apples (e.g. Malus x domestica Borkh), one of the most widely consumed fruits with high nutrient levels, have a very low carotenoid concentration in flesh, compared with other fruits and vegetables. This could be explained by a deficiency in carotenoid synthesis/accumulation and/or accelerated degradation. We analysed the contribution of M. domestica cv. 'Fuji' phytoene synthase (PSY) in the biosynthesis of carotenoids and determined that among four MdPSY genes present in the organism, MdPSY2 and MdPSY5 are highly expressed in leaves and during fruit ripening in line with an increment in carotenoid content in fruits. Furthermore, two representative polymorphic MdPSY2 variants were found, one with a Tyr358Phe substitution (MdPSY2_F) and the other that additionally has a six-amino-acid deletion in the signal peptide (MdPSY2_CG). MdPSY2, MdPSY5, MdPSY2_F and MdPSY2_CG are all localised in plastids. Interestingly, the polymorphic MdPSY2_F and MdPSY2_CG variants show lower enzymatic activity than the wild-type form in a heterologous complementation assay, which could be attributed to the Tyr358Phe substitution close to the active-site pocket, as was suggested by 3-D modelling analysis. The presence of polymorphic MdPSY2 variants with lower enzymatic activity could be partially responsible for the low carotenoid content in Fuji apple fruits.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Simulação por Computador , Malus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Food Chem ; 318: 126450, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151921

RESUMO

The objective of this work was the development of an on-line extraction/fractionation method based on the coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the separation of phenolic compounds from apple pomace. Several variables of the process were evaluated, including the amount of water of the first stage (0-120 mL), temperature (60-80 °C), solid-phase extraction adsorbent (Sepra, Isolute, Strata X and Oasis) and activation/elution solvent (methanol and ethanol). The best results were observed with the adsorbent Sepra. The temperature had a small effect on recovery, but significant differences were observed for phlorizin and a quercetin derivative. Results indicate that ethanol can be used to replace methanol as an activation, extraction/elution solvent. While using mostly green solvents (water, ethanol, and a small amount of methanol that could be reused), the developed method produced higher or similar yields of acids (2.85 ± 0.19 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.97 ± 0.11 mg/g) than conventional methods.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Malus/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Florizina/análise , Florizina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pressão , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
12.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(4): 723-733, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141196

RESUMO

As the most important transcription factor in the brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction pathway, BES1 not only affects growth and development of plants but also regulates stress resistance of crops. The physicochemical properties, gene structure, cis-acting elements and gene chip expression of apple BES1 transcription factors were analysed using bioinformatics, and expression of this gene family was analysed with qRT-PCR. There were 22 members of the apple BES1 transcription factors, distributed on eight chromosomes, divided into seven subtribes (I-VII), and the same subtribe contained the same basic motifs. Gene structure analysis showed that the number and position of exons differed, and there was no upstream and downstream structure. Analysis of cis-acting elements indicated that BES1 transcription factors contain response elements for hormones and abiotic stress, as well as organ-specific elements. Gene chip expression profile analysis revealed that expression patterns of BES1 transcription factors differed in different apple hybrids and different organs. In addition, expression of apple BES1 genes was higher in flowers, young fruits, mature fruits and leaves. qRT-PCR demonstrated that expression of MdBES1 genes was highest 12 h after BR induction. At the same time, there were differences in expression in response to PEG, NaCl and MeJA. This paper provides a theoretical basis for analysis of the biological function and stress resistance mechanism of BES1 transcription factors in apple.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Malus , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005382

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation promotes anthocyanin synthesis in many plants. Although several transcription factors promote anthocyanin synthesis in response to UV-B radiation, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the MdWRKY72 transcription factor gene was isolated from the 'Taishanzaoxia' apple genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the genes encoding enzymes and transcription factors involved in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway (MdANS, MdDFR, MdUFGT, and MdMYB1) were more highly expressed in MdWRKY72-overexpressing transgenic calli than in the wild-type 'Orin' apple calli. The results indicated that MdWRKY72 increases anthocyanin synthesis in transgenic calli exposed to UV-B radiation. The results of a gel shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation proved that MdWRKY72 promotes MdMYB1 expression indirectly by binding to a W-box element in the MdHY5 promoter and directly by binding to a W-box element in the MdMYB1 promoter. Thus, MdWRKY72 increases anthocyanin synthesis via direct and indirect mechanisms. These findings may be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying UV-B-induced anthocyanin synthesis mediated by MdWRKY72.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Malus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005395

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation plays a vital role in the response of plants to pathogens. Although the microRNA397 family has been implicated in physiological processes as an important regulator, little is known about its function in the resistance of plants to pathogens. Here, Malus hupehensis miR397, which was induced by Botryosphaeria dothidea infection, was identified to directly target M. hupehensis Laccase7 (MhLAC7). The expression analysis of mature Mh-miR397 and MhLAC7 revealed their partly opposite expression patterns. The coexpression of Mh-miR397b in MhLAC7 overexpressing Nicotiana benthamiana suppressed the accumulation of exogenous MhLAC7 and endogenous NbLAC7, which led to decreased lignin content and reduced plant resistance to Botrytis cinerea. As reflected by increasing disease severity and pathogen growth, overexpression of miR397b in both the resistant M. hupehensis and susceptible M. domestica 'Gala' resulted in an increased sensitivity to B. dothidea infection, owing to reduced LAC7 expression and lignin content; however, the inhibition of miR397 had opposite effects. MicroRNA397 functions as a negative regulator in the resistance of Malus to B. dothidea by modulating the LAC7 expression and lignin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Malus/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/biossíntese , Lignina/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035250

RESUMO

Ornamental crabapple is an important woody ornamental plant with flower colors ranging from white to pink to red, and the degree of redness is directly related to the anthocyanin content. To explore the molecular mechanism leading to the variation in flower color in ornamental crabapple, transcriptome sequencing using the Illumina and PacBio Sequel platforms revealed the difference in gene expression between the petals of plants with white and red flowers in the half-sib family. In total, the analysis identified 603 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 449 upregulated and 154 downregulated genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of the DEGs showed that the oxidation-reduction process and catalytic activity were more active in red petals, and most of the DEGs were involved in secondary metabolite synthesis and plant hormone signaling. Among the 603 DEGs, 10 were enriched as structural genes. Transcription factors related to anthocyanin synthesis and five genes related to anthocyanin transport and degradation were highly expressed in red petals. In addition, this study found that five AUX gene signals were differentially expressed in the two petal types. The discovery of these DEGs indicates that plant endogenous hormones also exert a regulatory effect on flower color.


Assuntos
Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Malus , Pigmentação , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088579

RESUMO

Drought can activate many stress responses in plant growth and development, including the synthesis of epidermal wax and the induction of abscisic acid (ABA), and increased wax accumulation will improve plant drought resistance. Therefore, an examination of wax biosynthesis genes could help to better understand the molecular mechanism of environmental factors regulating wax biosynthesis and the wax associated stress response. Here, we identified the MdCER2 gene from the 'Gala' (Malus× domestica Borkh.) variety of domestic apple, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis AtCER2. It possesses a transferase domain and the protein localizes on the cell membrane. The MdCER2 gene was constitutively expressed in apple tissues and was induced by drought treatment. Finally, we transformed the MdCER2 gene into Arabidopsis to identify its function, and found ectopic expression of MdCER2 promoted accumulation of cuticular wax in both leaves and stems, decreased water loss and permeability in leaves, increased lateral root number, changed plant ABA sensitivity, and increased drought resistance.


Assuntos
Secas , Malus , Epiderme Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Ceras , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/genética , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição , Ceras/metabolismo
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 75, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major fleshy tissues of the apple fruit are spatially separable into cortex and pith. These tissues display differential growth during development. Key features of such differential growth, and sink metabolic programs supporting it have not been investigated previously. We hypothesized that differential growth between these fruit tissues is supported by differential sink metabolic programs, particularly during early development. Growth, metabolite concentrations, and transcript abundance of metabolism-related genes were measured to determine characteristics of differential growth and their underlying metabolic programs. RESULTS: The cortex displayed > 5-fold higher growth than the pith during early fruit development, indicating that differential growth was established during this period. Further, when resource availability was increased through sink-removal, cortex growth was preferentially enhanced. Greatest diversity in metabolic programs between these tissues was evident during early fruit development. Higher cortex growth during early development was facilitated by increased catabolism of imported carbon (C) resources, sorbitol and sucrose, and the nitrogen (N) resource, asparagine. It was also associated with enhanced primary C metabolism, and C storage as malate and quinate. The pith metabolic program during this period involved limited allocation of C and N to growth, but greater allocation to storage, and enhanced sucrose-sucrose cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data indicate that the fruit cortex tissue displays a resource intensive metabolic program during early fruit development. This provides the C backbones, proteins, energy and osmolytes to support its higher growth.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 36-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898814

RESUMO

Miracle fruit's potential benefit is encouraging as a powerful antioxidant and sweetness enhancer due to its novel ability to modify sour taste to sweet. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the practicality of different miracle fruit products. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the taste modification effects of different miracle fruit products on different sour foods. For this, 10 trained subjects (80% female, 50% white, Mean ± SE = 27.3 ± 3.9 years old) performed a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis using a Latin Square design with three replications. One session was composed of pre- and posttest for miracle fruit administration. Five food samples (green apple, goat cheese, lemonade, plain fat-free yogurt, and cucumber pickle) and four miracle fruit products (three different brands of miracle fruit pill-Y, G, M and one powder product-P) were used and data were analyzed using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The typical effects of miracle fruit, sweetness increase and sourness suppression were observed for all food samples albeit to different degrees. Y and M pills were most impactful while powder product was least, and goat cheese and yogurt had the most pronounced impact at increasing sweetness. Prior Miracle Fruit administration significantly decreased bitterness and increased creaminess in yogurt. However, it increased off-flavor in lemonade and pickle. Results suggest that miracle fruit usage for increasing sweetness is effective but the degree of taste-modifying effect differs according to the types of miracle fruit product and food samples applied. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research confirms miracle fruit's unique taste-modifying abilities and demonstrates a high potential as a sweetness enhancer to benefit human health. The results can be used to optimize miracle fruit's application and can be applied by food industry and health care provider to develop clinical remedies or disease prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Synsepalum/metabolismo , Adulto , Queijo/análise , Cor , Feminino , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar , Iogurte/análise , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Chem ; 312: 126124, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926461

RESUMO

Apple is rich in flavonol glycosides, which are believed to contribute to putative health benefits associated with apple consumption. Glycosylation, catalyzed by uridine diphospho-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), is the last step in flavonol biosynthesis, which confers molecular stability and solubility to the flavonol. In the present study, the involvement of two UGTs, MdUGT75B1 and MdUGT71B1, in flavonol biosynthesis in apple was investigated. The major flavonols are quercetin 3-O-glycosides, and UV-B and blue light treatment significantly enhanced the accumulation of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol 3-O-galactoside. Transcript levels of MdUGT75B1 and MdUGT71B1 in fruit subjected to different treatments were correlated well with flavonol accumulation. MdUGT75B1 showed flavonol-specific activity with a preference for UDP-galactose as the sugar donor, while MdUGT71B1 using UDP-glucose exhibited a wider substrate acceptance. Thus, MdUGT75B1 and MdUGT71B1 are key UGTs involved in flavonol biosynthesis and may have important roles in regulating accumulation of these health-promoting bioactive compounds in apple.


Assuntos
Galactosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Quempferóis/biossíntese , Malus/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Quercetina/biossíntese , Uridina/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928678

RESUMO

Ethylene response factor (ERF) is a plant-specific transcription factor involved in many biological processes including root formation, hypocotyl elongation, fruit ripening, organ senescence and stress responses, as well as fruit quality formation. However, its underlying mechanism in plant pathogen defense against Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. dothidea) remains poorly understood. Here, we isolate MdERF11, an apple nucleus-localized ERF transcription factor, from apple cultivar 'Royal Gala'. qRT-PCR assays show that the expression of MdERF11 is significantly induced in apple fruits after B. dothidea infection. Overexpression of MdERF11 gene in apple calli significantly increases the resistance to B.dothidea infection, while silencing MdERF11 in apple calli results in reduced resistance. Ectopic expression of MdERF11 in Arabidopsis also exhibits enhanced resistance to B. dothidea infection compared to that of wild type. Infections in apple calli and Arabidopsis leaves by B. dothidea respectively cause an increase in endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) followed by induction of SA synthesis-related and signaling-related gene expression. Taken together, these findings illustrate a potential mechanism by which MdERF11 elevates plant pathogen defense against B. dothidea by regulating SA synthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Malus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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