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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9757-9771, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373492

RESUMO

BAK1 effects on plant stress responses have been well documented, but little is known regarding its effects on plant growth. In this study, we functionally characterized MdBAK1. Overexpressing MdBAK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana and apple trees promoted growth. Longitudinal stem cells were longer in transgenic plants than in wild-type plants. The size and number of cells and the area of the transverse stem were greater in the transgenic lines than in the wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic A. thaliana and apple plants were more sensitive to an exogenous brassinosteroid. A transcriptome analysis of wild-type and transgenic apple revealed that MdBAK1 overexpression activated the brassinosteroid and ethylene signals, xylem production, and stress responses. Trend and Venn analyses indicated that carbohydrate, energy, and hormone metabolic activities were greater in transgenic plants during different periods. Moreover, a weighted gene coexpression network analysis proved that carbohydrate, hormone, and xylem metabolism as well as cell growth may be critical for MdBAK1-mediated apple tree growth and development. Compared with the corresponding levels in wild-type plants, the endogenous brassinosteroid, cytokinin, starch, sucrose, trehalose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar contents were considerably different in transgenic plants. Our results imply that MdBAK1 helps to regulate the growth of apple tree through the above-mentioned pathways. These findings provide new information regarding the effects of MdBAK1 onplant growth and development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Food Chem ; 298: 125017, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260967

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate an elevated (3.0 °C) and low (1.0 °C) storage temperature combined with dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) and chlorophyll fluorescence (DCA-CF) on anaerobic metabolism, physiological storage disorders and overall quality of 'Nicoter' ('Kanzi®') apples after 5.5 and 8.0 months of storage plus 7d shelf-life. Fruit stored under DCA-RQ 2.0 accumulated the highest amounts of anaerobic metabolites (acetaldehyde, ethanol and ethyl acetate), regardless of storage temperature and timing of storage outturn evaluation, but it did not result in higher electrolyte leakage. Flesh breakdown, core breakdown and cavity formation were reduced at 3 °C. Storage at 3 °C combined with DCA maintained higher flesh firmness after 8.0 months storage plus 7d shelf-life. 'Nicoter' apples can be stored at 3 °C using a DCA system, based either on CF or on RQ, to save electrical energy.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Atmosfera , Clorofila/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8783-8793, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310107

RESUMO

Red-fleshed apples are popular as a result of their high anthocyanin content. MdMYB10 and its homologues are known to be important regulators of anthocyanin synthesis in apple, but the roles of other transcription factors are not well-understood. Here, we explored the role of MdWRKY11 in regulating anthocyanin synthesis in apple flesh. Overexpression of MdWRKY11 in apple callus could significantly promote anthocyanin accumulation, and the expression of some MYB transcription factors and structural genes increased significantly. In binding analyses, MdWRKY11 bound to W-box cis-elements in the promoters of MdMYB10, MdMYB11, and MdUFGT. However, MdWRKY11 did not interact with MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, or MdWD40 proteins, the members of the MBW complex. Sequence analyses revealed that another W-box cis-element was present in the promoter of MdHY5 (encoding a photoresponse factor), and MdWRKY11 was able to bind to the promoter of MdHY5 and promote its activity. Our findings clarify the role of MdWRKY11 in anthocyanin synthesis in red-fleshed apple and imply that other novel genes may be involved in anthocyanin synthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Plant Sci ; 286: 68-77, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300143

RESUMO

Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit worldwide; however, the development of the apple industry is limited by fungal disease. Apple bitter rot caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most devastating apple diseases, leading to large-scale losses in apple quality and production. WRKY transcription factors have important functions in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, their biological and molecular functions in non-model plants, including apple, remain poorly understood. Here, we isolated MdWRKY100 from 'Hanfu' apple. The MdWRKY100 protein fused to green fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus, and MdWRKY100 in yeast cells displayed transcriptional activation activity, which is consistent with the function of a transcription factor. Additionally, several putative cis-acting elements involved in abiotic stress responsiveness were also identified in the MdWRKY100 promoter. Transcriptional analysis revealed that MdWRKY100 was expressed ubiquitously in all examined apple organs. Overexpression in apple increased resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, while RNAi silencing transgenic plants were more sensitive to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Collectively, our data demonstrate that MdWRKY100 is a positive regulator of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resistance in apple.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Malus/metabolismo , Malus/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 296: 142-149, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202298

RESUMO

Little data are available on the impact of pomace pre-treatment, notably drying, on the nature and yield of polyphenols. Pomace from two apple varieties ('Avrolles' and 'Kermerrien'), pressed with and without oxidation, were air-dried to different degrees. Drying led to the loss of native molecules, notably 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and flavan-3-ols. Total polyphenol yields, after sequential pressurized liquid extraction (water 10 MPa, 70 °C, then ethanol 48%, 10 MPa, 70 °C), varied between 5 and 15 g/kg dry weight but showed no marked trend with drying. Extracts from dried pomace contained few native polyphenols. Water extracts from 'Kermerrien' contained flavonols, flavanols and phloridzin and those from 'Avrolles' contained phloridzin. Water:ethanol extracts were rich in procyanidins, especially from 'Avrolles', where they represented >80% of analysable polyphenols. Presence of polyphenol molecules with modified structures in the extracts of dried pomaces might lead to different biological properties than those with native molecules.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Malus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Flavanonas/química , Malus/metabolismo , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Proantocianidinas/química
7.
Food Chem ; 294: 9-18, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126510

RESUMO

Hot water is an easily implementable process for polyphenols extraction. To evaluate the effect of this process on apple pomace, the overall polyphenolic composition was assessed before and after hot water extraction, followed by extractions with aqueous/organic solutions. As determined by UHPLC-DAD, flavan-3-ols were the main apple native polyphenols. Their amount decreased 50% after hot water extraction, while the other classes remained unchanged. Dihydrochalcones and hydroxycinnamic acid oxidation products, were also observed, alongside with non-extractable oxidised procyanidins that represented more than 4-fold the amount of native apple polyphenols in the pomace. Microwave superheated-water extraction of the insoluble cell wall material in water/acetone solutions and the high amounts of polyphenols that were insoluble in water/ethanol solutions suggested that oxidised procyanidins could be covalently linked to polysaccharides. These complexes represented up to 40% of the available polyphenols from apple pomace, potentially relevant for agro-food waste valuation.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Polifenóis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Malus/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Água/química
8.
Food Chem ; 294: 518-525, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126494

RESUMO

Ancient apple cultivars are known for their organoleptic properties over a small geographic area, but little is known of their nutraceutical properties, which might be useful in large-scale breeding programmes. Nine ancient apple cultivars from Tuscany (Italy) were characterized for their organoleptic properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity. These cultivars had high polyphenol concentrations (principally flavanols and phenolic acids) and high total antioxidant capacity compared with most commercial apple cultivars. Fruits from the cultivars 'San Michele' and 'Del Debbio' showed a good compromise between fruit size and solid soluble content, and might be suitable for fresh consumption, while fruit from 'Benito', 'Della Piastra', 'Lugliese Grisanti', 'Del Sangue' and 'Ruggine' had high polyphenol contents and excellent antioxidant capacity, and may be suitable for breeding programmes. 'Ruggine' fruit could also be used for sweet juices with good nutraceutical properties due to their high soluble solid content and high flavanol concentration.


Assuntos
Malus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Flavanonas/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Itália , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 353, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bagging is commonly used to enhance red pigmentation and thereby improve fruit quality of apples (Malus domestica). The green-skinned apple cultivar 'Granny Smith' develops red pigmentation after bagging removal, but the signal transduction pathways mediating light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel are yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms underpinning red pigmentation in 'Granny Smith' after bag removal based on transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: The anthocyanin content in apple peel increased considerably after bag removal, while only trace amounts of anthocyanins were present in the peel of unbagged and bagged fruits. RNA sequencing identified 18,152 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among unbagged, bagged, and bag-removed fruits at 0, 4, and 10 days after bag removal. The DEGs were implicated in light signal perception and transduction, plant hormone signal transduction, and antioxidant systems. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of DEGs generated a module of 23 genes highly correlated with anthocyanin content. The deletion of - 2026 to - 1870 bp and - 1062 to - 964 bp regions of the MdMYB1 (LOC103444202) promoter induced a significant decrease in glucuronidase activity and anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel. CONCLUSIONS: Bagging treatment can induce red pigmentation in 'Granny Smith' via altering the expression patterns of genes involved in crucial signal transduction and biochemical metabolic pathways. The - 2026 to - 1870 bp and - 1062 to - 964 bp regions of the MdMYB1 promoter are essential for MdMYB1-mediated regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in the 'Granny Smith' apple cultivar. The findings presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of coloration in the peel of 'Granny Smith' and other non-red apple cultivars.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Malus/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
10.
Plant Sci ; 283: 32-40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128702

RESUMO

Light is an important environmental factor affecting plant growth and development. Additionally, HY5 is a central factor that coordinates light signal transduction and regulates the expression of flower color-related genes. However, there are few reports describing the co-regulation of apple fruit coloration by MdHY5 and MYB transcription factors. In this study, we detected a light-inducible gene, MdMYBDL1, which encodes a MYB-like domain and is homologous to AtMYBD in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we observed that MdHY5 binds to the G-box element of the MdMYBDL1 promoter to upregulate expression. The overexpression of MdMYBDL1 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in apple calli and inhibited the expression of MdMYB16 and its homolog, MdMYB308. Furthermore, MdMYB16 can form a dimer with MdMYB308 and functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Interestingly, MdMYB16 and MdMYB308 promoter activities were inhibited by MdMYBDL1 and MdHY5. These findings imply that MdHY5 responds to light signals and functions upstream of different types of MYB transcription factors, ultimately regulating anthocyanin accumulation in apples.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
11.
Plant Sci ; 283: 396-406, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128710

RESUMO

In plants, hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) proteins are involved in stress responses, especially biotic stress. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of HIR-mediated biotic resistance in plants are rarely reported. We found that apple (Malus domestica) MdHIR4 was localized in the cell nucleus and membrane similar to AtHIR1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, salicylic acid and the bacterial flagellin flg22 (a conserved, 22-amino acid motif), which are relevant to biotic stress, could induce MdHIR4 expression. Additionally, the transcription level of MdHIR4 was increased by Methyl jasmonate treatment. Ectopic expression of MdHIR4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana reduced sensitivity to Methyl jasmonate and enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 (Pseudomonas syringae tomato DC3000). The interaction between MdHIR4 and AtJAZs proteins (AtJAZ3, AtJAZ4, and AtJAZ9) implied that MdHIR4 participated in the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. We found the expression of JA-related genes and PRs to change in transgenic plants, further demonstrating that MdHIR4 mediated biotic stress through the JA signaling pathway. Repressing the expression of MdHIR4 in apple leaves and calli increased resistance to Botryosphaeria dothidea by influencing the transcription of resistance-related genes. Our findings reveal the resistant function to biotic stress of MdHIR4 in transgenic plants, including Arabidopsis, tobacco, and apple, and identify the regulating mechanism of MdHIR4-related biotic resistance.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Ascomicetos , Western Blotting , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pseudomonas syringae , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
12.
Plant Sci ; 283: 51-59, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128715

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds in fruit are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and are responsible for organoleptic properties. To establish the distribution of these secondary metabolites at the tissue and sub-cellular scales, mapping of fluorescence in apple epidermis and outer cortex tissue in cryogenic condition was performed after deep-UV excitation at 275 nm. Douce Moën and Guillevic cider apple varieties were sampled and frozen after harvest, after 30 days at 4 °C and after 20 days at room temperature. Image analysis of fluorescence emission images acquired between 300 and 650 nm allowed the assignment of fluorescence signals to phenolic compound families based on reference molecules. Emission attributed to monomeric and/or condensed flavanol was localized in whole tissue with major fluorescence in the cuticle region. Hydroxycinnamic acids were found predominantly in the outer cortex and appeared in the cell wall. Fluorescent pigments were mostly found in the epidermis. The distribution of flavanols in the sub-cuticle and phenolic acids in the outer cortex distinguished apple varieties. Storage conditions had no impact on phenolic distribution. The proposed fluorescent imaging and analysis approach enables studies on phenolic distribution in relation to fruit development, biotic/abiotic stress resistance and quality.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Epiderme Vegetal/anatomia & histologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 630-641, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039504

RESUMO

Melatonin, an evolutionarily conserved molecule, is implicated in numerous physiological processes in plants. To explore the potential roles of melatonin in response to UV-B radiation, we examined the influence of exogenous melatonin on Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings under two levels of UV-B radiation. Under UV-B stress, seedlings showed significant reduction in plant growth, biomass production, and root system development. However, 1 µM melatonin solution markedly alleviated these effects, especially at the higher dosage of UV-B radiation. The inhibitory effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, stomatal apertures, chlorophyll levels and leaf membrane damages were also markedly alleviated with melatonin application. Melatonin treatment was also associated with higher activity and expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase) and greater decline of H2O2 content in leaves exposed to UV-B. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment and UV-B stress increased the concentration of endogenous melatonin. The content of several phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, phloridzin and quercetin-3-galactoside, also increased under UV-B stress, and these were further elevated significantly with melatonin addition. This study provides insight into the role(s) of endogenous melatonin in response to UV-B stress, and will facilitate application of exogenous melatonin in agriculture.


Assuntos
Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 290: 263-269, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000046

RESUMO

Blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the important diseases of apple fruit during storage. Phenylpropanoid pathway is an important induction mechanism that can utilize downstream metabolites of shikimate pathway to synthesize a series of secondary metabolites. Apple fruit (cv. Fuji) were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to study its effect on blue mould, shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. The results showed that 1.0 mmol L-1 SNP significantly inhibited lesion development of apple fruit inoculated with P. expansum. The results also indicated that SNP enhanced MdDHQS, MdSKDH, MdSK and MdEPSPS genes expressions, increased shikimic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine contents in apple fruit. The activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase, 4-coumarate: coenzyme A, ligase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, lignin, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents in apple fruit were also increased by SNP treatment. These results suggest that SNP might modulate shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways to enhance disease resistance of apple fruit.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Propanóis/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Propanóis/análise , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/análise
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1367-1372, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994300

RESUMO

Fifteen-year-old 'Gala'/M. hupehensis Rehd. trees and 15N trace technique were used to explore the effects of split combined application of organic-inorganic fertilizers on plant growth, 15N absorption, utilization and loss. The main results were as follows: compared to control, combined application of organic-inorganic fertilizers significantly increased the root-shoot ratio, chlorophyll content, total nitrogen content of leaves and mean fruit mass. The effects of split combined application of organic-inorganic fertilizers treatment were more obvious than one time combined application. Combined application of organic-inorganic fertilizers treatment improved the capacity of 15N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) of different organs, with the effects of split combined application of organic-inorganic fertilizers treatment being more significant. The Ndff value of fruits in different treatments were the highest, followed by leaves, biennial branches, fine roots, large roots and perennial branches, and lowest in trunks. Total N content of plant and 15N-urea utilization rate of the split combined application of organic-inorganic fertilizers treatment were 395.39 g and 28.4% respectively, which were obviously higher than the treatments of one time combined application (342.77 g and 21.1%) and no organic fertilizer application (296.41 g and 14.6%), while 15N loss rate was 51.3%, which was obviously lower than the treatments of one time combined application (57.5%) and no organic fertilizer application (60.6%).


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes , Malus/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Frutas , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Solo , Ureia
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1373-1379, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994301

RESUMO

A field experiment was carried out in a six-year old 'Fuji3'/M26/Malus hupehensis Rehd. apple with 15N and 13C labeled tracers, to understand 13C assimilation capability and the characteristics of translocation and distribution of 13C-photosynthate and 15N to fruit under different nitrogen application levels (urea 0%, 0.6%, 1.2%, 1.8%, 2.4%, CK, N1, N2, N3, N4, respectively) to smear the leaves within 20 cm around the fruit at late stage of fruit enlargement. The results showed that, with the increases of urea application, the chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, net photosynthetic rate, sorbitol and sucrose content, sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (S6PDH) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities, 13C assimilation capability of leaves were first increased and then decreased, with the highest value in 1.8% urea smear treatment and the lowest value with the treatment of clear water. The 13C of self retention (self leaves and self branches) was the highest in clear water (81.6%) and the lowest in 1.8% urea smear treatment (63.5%). The 13C was mainly allocated to fruit, followed by unlabeled perennial branch, and the lowest in unlabeled leaves. With the increases of urea application, the 13C absorption of fruit was first increased and then decreased, with the highest value in 1.8% urea smear treatment (1.21 mg·g-1) and the lowest value in clear water (0.51 mg·g-1). The 15N absorption of fruit was enhanced with the increases of urea application. These results indicated that foliage application of urea solution improved translocation and distribution of leaf photosynthate and nitrogen to fruit with varying degrees, which was the highest in 1.8% urea smear treatment and could avoid excessive intake of nitrogen to fruit.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Malus/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1380-1388, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994302

RESUMO

We explored the effects of multiple times of topdressing nitrogen application under equal level on the characteristics of absorption, utilization, accumulation, and distribution of 15N and 13C in four-year-old potted winter jujube during fruit developmental periods using the stable isotope tra-cer technology. The results showed that with the increases of nitrogen application times, the 15N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) in each organ significantly increased at the fruit maturity. The distribution rates of 15N in reproductive organ (fruit) and vegetative organs (leaf, deciduous spur, new branch, and fine root) were highest under four-time application, and lowest under one-time application. The opposite pattern was observed in storage organs (trunk, perennial branch, and coarse root). The 15N utilization rate under four-time application was 27.4% and 15.5% higher than one-time and two-time application, respectively. The more times N being applied, the more total N content and 15N absorption amount of plant. Soil 15N abundance and total N content continued to drop under one-time application and increased at the beginning and then declined with the time under two-time application. The relatively stable soil 15N abundance and total N content appeared in four-time application, which was significantly higher than those in the other treatments in later treatment stages. The chlorophyll content, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic rate displayed an order of four-time application > two-time application > one-time application during fruit white-mature period to fruit harvest period. The accumulation and distribution of 13C varied across different treatments. Increasing nitrogen application times would promote more 13C being transported to fruit and storage organs but decrease that in annual vegetative organs. Our findings indicated that four-time nitrogen application could enhance and optimize the accumulation and distribution of photosynthetic products by ensuring steady and adequate supply of nitrogen and improving the absorption and utilization of nitrogen during fruit development period, which facilitates the growth, yield and quality of winter jujube.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Malus/fisiologia , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo , Ziziphus
18.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(6): 421-426, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937688

RESUMO

The B-box proteins (BBXs) are zinc finger proteins containing one or two B-box domain(s) and involved in regulation of development processes as transcription factors in plants. Here, seven BBX genes in Malus domestica genome (MdBBXs) were identified and found to be up-regulated under abiotic stresses, with 2-12 folds in roots. All recombinant MdBBXs expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) enhanced the cell's tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses, respectively. Deficiency of B-box domain of MdBBX10 led to the loss of anti-stress functions. Five conservative cysteines in B-box domain played crucial roles in stress resistance, which are involved in two of metal iron binding sites of zinc finger motifs in BBXs. All the above results suggested MdBBXs confer stress tolerance to E. coli cell against abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco/genética
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5149-5156, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient due to its anticarsinogenic properties and positive influence on human immune system. Fortification of some fruits based on their rates of consumption and availability all year round appears to be an effective way to supplement Se in the human diet. In this study the possibility of augmenting Se content in 'Starking Delicious' apple fruit during two growing seasons was investigated. In 2016, the impact of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg Se L-1 by foliar application on Se accumulation and fruit ripening as well as quality attributes was investigated. In 2017, the effects of 1.5 mg Se L-1 foliar application on fruit Se content and changes in the antioxidant system and storability were studied with a 30-day interval during 6 months storage at 0 ± 1 °C. RESULTS: Foliar application of Se significantly increased both leaf and fruit Se concentration. The increase in Se content enhanced the flesh firmness, titrable acidity, and soluble solid content of the fruit. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were markedly amplified by Se treatments as compared to the control, resulting in lower superoxide anion radical (O2 -• ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) contents, correspondingly higher membrane integrity as revealed by lower ion leakage and malondialdehyde accumulation and the fruit with lower water core. CONCLUSION: Application of Se was efficient in increasing fruit Se content and nutraceutical properties, retarding the flesh firmness reduction, and postponing fruit ripening resulting from lower ethylene biosynthesis rate, thereby positively affecting apple fruit quality and storability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Malus/química , Ácido Selênico/análise , Selênio/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/análise , Biofortificação , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5250-5264, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008599

RESUMO

Cytosine DNA methylation plays an important role in plants: it can mediate gene expression to affect plant growth and development. However, little is known about the potential involvement of cytosine DNA methylation in apple trees as well as in response to alternate bearing. Here, we performed whole-genome bisulfate sequencing to investigate genomic CG, CHG, and CHH methylation patterns, together with their global mRNA accumulation and small RNA expression in "Fuji" apple trees. Results showed that "Fuji" apple trees have a higher CHH methylation than Arabidopsis. Moreover, genomic methylation analysis revealed that CG and CHG methylation were robustly maintained at the early stage of flower induction. Additionally, differentially methylated regions (DMRs), including hypermethylated and hypomethylated DMRs, were also characterized in alternate bearing (AB) apple trees. Intriguingly, the DMRs were enriched in hormones, redox state, and starch and sucrose metabolism, which affected flowering. Further global gene expression evaluation based on methylome analysis revealed a negative correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Subsequent small RNA analyses showed that 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs were activated and maintained in non-CG methylated apple trees. Our whole-genome DNA methylation analysis and RNA and small RNA expression profile construction provide valuable information for future studies.


Assuntos
Citosina/metabolismo , Malus/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
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