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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3607-3613, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated timeliness of care at a safety-net hospital after implementation of a multidisciplinary breast program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective database of patients with breast cancer was created after multidisciplinary breast program initiation in 2018. Patients were tracked to obtain time to completion of diagnostic imaging, biopsy, and treatment initiation. Patients with breast cancer diagnosed from 2015-2017 were reviewed for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were identified. There was no statistical difference in time to completion of imaging, biopsy, and initial treatment between the 2018 and the 2015-2017 cohorts (p>0.05). No statistical difference was observed in time to completion of imaging, biopsy, and initial treatment between different races (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Within the same socioeconomic status, there was no differential delivery of screening, work-up, and treatment by race. Despite protocol implementations, efficiency of care remained limited in a safety-net hospital with lack of financial resources.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Idoso , Biópsia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(743): 1177-1181, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133096

RESUMO

Breast hypertrophy (macromastia) can cause various symptoms correlated with excessive breast volume and is usually associated with breast ptosis. Symptomatic macromastia can constitute a heavy burden on patient's global health. While conservative therapy does not allow for long term relief, breast reduction mammaplasty is an effective and safe treatment. Multiple techniques have been described, but all rely on common principles. Measures can be taken to lower surgical complications rates and implemented by primary care physicians in collaboration with the plastic surgery approach.


Assuntos
Mamoplastia , Satisfação do Paciente , Mama/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia/cirurgia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e25912, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160380

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The incidence of granulomatous mastitis (GLM) in multiparae as seriously affected the quality of life and breastfeeding of pregnant women after delivery, but the treatment is rarely reported. In this article, the development, healing, and lactation of 13 cases were reported and a retrospective analysis was performed. 10 cases of GLM were treated at the Breast Disease Prevention and Treatment Center of Haidian Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Beijing and 3 cases of GLM were treated in the Breast Department of Weihai Municipal Hospital of Shandong province from February 2017 to May 2019.Among the 13 patients, conservative symptomatic treatment was adopted during pregnancy and lactation: anti-infective therapy consisting of oral cephalosporin antibiotic for patients; ultrasound-guided puncture and drainage of pus or incision and drainage after abscess formation. Observation continued during the sinus tract phase. Postpartum breastfeeding was encouraged, especially on the affected side. In this study, the median healing time was 20 months and the average healing time was 30.4 months in 5 healthy breast lactation cases. In 8 cases of bilateral breast lactation, the median healing time was 30 months and the average healing time was 26.5 months. Linear regression test analysis: whether the affected breast was breast-fed after delivery had no effect on the postpartum wound healing time, P = .792. The wounds of 13 patients healed well after lactation, and none of them recurred since the last follow-up visit. There were no adverse events in all infants.Conservative symptomatic treatment for GLM of multiparous women during pregnancy and lactation and encouraging breastfeeding after delivery have no effect on infant health and the recovery time of patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Drenagem/métodos , Mastite Granulomatosa/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/cirurgia , Aleitamento Materno , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Mastite Granulomatosa/diagnóstico , Mastite Granulomatosa/epidemiologia , Mastite Granulomatosa/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação/fisiologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26262, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a new ultrasonic elastography technique for evaluating the hardness of living tissue by measuring the propagation velocity of shear wave in tissue, which is characterized by real-time, non-invasive and quantitative. The SWE technique can be used to diagnose the lesions of different tissues and organs, and the quantitative measurement of SWE is considered as more objective information about breast masses. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) is a new noninvasive Doppler ultrasound imaging method, which can display blood flow information with high spatial resolution and high frame rate, while keeping the minimum low-speed blood flow components. Therefore, SMI can diagnose diseases closely related to angiogenesis at a relatively early stage. However, the results of these studies have been contradictory. The present meta-analysis aimed at determining the accuracy of SWE combined with SMI in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant breast lesions. METHODS: We will search PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese biomedical databases from their inceptions to the April 18, 2021, without language restrictions. Two authors will independently carry out searching literature records, scanning titles and abstracts, full texts, collecting data, and assessing risk of bias. Review Manager 5.2 and Stata14. 0 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This systematic review will determine the accuracy of shear wave elastography combined with superb microvascular imaging in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant breast tumors. CONCLUSION: Its findings will provide helpful evidence for the accuracy of shear wave elastography combined with superb microvascular imaging in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant breast tumors. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: INPLASY202150075.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26277, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiosensitivity in the breasts increases the risk of carcinogenesis from exposure to the ionizing radiation of computed tomography (CT) administered in the course of medical attention. Bismuth shielding techniques have been used to reduce radiation, but image noise increased, degrading image quality. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate how the use of iterative reconstruction (IR) combined with bismuth shielding influences image quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged at least 20 years with body mass indexes <28 were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 CT scanning protocols without shielding, with a bismuth breast shield before the scout view, or with a bismuth breast shield after the scout view. All obtained images were reconstructed using an IR algorithm. To evaluate radiation dose, 2 Gafchromic films were placed over the clothes, 1 near each nipple. RESULTS: Average dose reduction was significant (27.99%, P < .05) when bismuth shielding was applied after the scout view. Using the contrast-to-noise ratio, the image quality was found to be superior when the IR algorithm was applied. Using quantitative evaluations by 2 radiologists applying a 4-point Likert scale, significant differences in image quality were not found among the 3 protocols. CONCLUSION: Bismuth breast shields, particularly when used after acquiring scout images, are effective at reducing radiation dose without undermining the diagnostic value of the images when the IR technique is applied.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Equipamentos de Proteção , Proteção Radiológica/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Artefatos , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Tolerância a Radiação
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26469, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160454

RESUMO

RATIONALE: With the absence of ophthalmopathy, thyroid dermopathy especially lesions at atypical locations is a very rare presentation. We herein report an original case of bilateral breast myxedema caused by Grave's disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 21-year-old unmarried woman presented with a 4-month history of Grave's disease and a 1-month history of progressive bilateral breast enlargement. She had symmetrical bilateral breast enlargement with redness and nonpitting thickening of the skin, diffusely enlarged thyroid glands, and no exophthalmos. DIAGNOSIS: Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging scan, and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral breast myxedema. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with multipoint subcutaneous injections of triamcinolone acetonide in each breast every month. OUTCOMES: The bilateral breast returned approximately to its normal size after therapy for 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our case illustrates that multipoint subcutaneous injection of glucocorticoids is beneficial for bilateral breast myxedema.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Doença de Graves/complicações , Mixedema/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Mamárias/etiologia , Doenças Mamárias/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mixedema/diagnóstico , Mixedema/etiologia , Mixedema/patologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Triancinolona Acetonida/administração & dosagem , Ultrassonografia Mamária , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ann Plast Surg ; 86(6S Suppl 5): S487-S490, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100804

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Adipose fat grafting (AFG) is a popular technique used to add volume in the face, breasts, and other tissue deficient areas of the body. In terms of scar release, not only has fat provided additional soft tissue coverage but also the relief of pain in scars in those patients suffering from disease processes, such as complex regional pain syndrome with steroid-induced atrophy, burn scars, morphea, and lupus. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the senior author's technique and outcomes of using AFG in the face and body for treating volume deficiency, atrophic scarring, and deformities.A retrospective chart review of 127 AFG procedures of the face and body from September 2006 to September 2019 was performed. Of these, 14 patients had scar releases performed with fat grafting of areas of scar contracture. Fat was harvested from the abdomen, thighs, and flanks using Toomey syringes or an enclosed power-assisted system with 3.7- or 3.0-mm cannulas. Grafting in small areas, such as the face, was performed with the 0.9-mm blunt cannula.The majority of AFG was completed in the face (45%), followed by breasts (22%), and scar contracture (16%). The mean volume of fat grafted in procedures involving the breasts, buttocks, and face was 102, 182, and 21 mL, respectively. For scar contracture, the mean volume was 38 mL and for deformations, 27 mL. Sixteen percent of the cohort required at least 1 additional AFG procedure to achieve satisfactory results. There were no major complications, such as skin loss, vascular injury, embolization, or blindness. Minor complications, such as erythema, edema, and hematoma at the fat harvest or graft site, did occur and were managed with local measures.Autologous fat grafting has consistently resulted in volume correction. In addition, in patients with autoimmune disorders, burn scars, and retracted scars, not only has there been volume correction but also decreased pain in the area of treatment. In our series of patients, we described our technique of AFG for the face, body, and scar contracture. Our results demonstrate that AFG remains an inexpensive, safe, and effective treatment option to achieve volume.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Contratura , Tecido Adiposo , Mama/patologia , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/patologia , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Contratura/etiologia , Contratura/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
9.
Eur J Radiol ; 141: 109809, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: We comprehensively searched the electronic databases PubMed and Embase from January 2000 to April 2020 for studies in English. Studies were included if they reported the sensitivity and specificity for identifying benign and malignant breast lesions using DWI or IVIM. Studies were reviewed according to QUADAS-2. The data inhomogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. In order to explore the influence of different field strengths and different b values on diagnostic efficiency, we conducted subgroup analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 79 studies, which included a total of 6294 patients with 4091 malignant lesions and 2793 benign lesions. Overall, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of ADC for detecting malignant breast tumors were 0.87 (0.86-0.88) and 0.80 (0.78-0.81), respectively. The PLR was 5.09 (4.16-6.24); the NLR was 0.15 (0.13-0.18); and the DOR was 38.95 (28.87-52.54). The AUC value was 0.9297. The highest performing parameter for IVIM was tissue diffusivity (D), and the pooled sensitivity and specificity was 0.85 (0.82-0.88) and 0.87(0.83-0.90), respectively; the PLR was 5.65 (3.91-8.18); the NLR was 0.17 (0.12-0.26); and the DOR was 38.44 (23.57-62.69). The AUC value was 0.9265. Most of parameters demonstrated considerable statistically significant heterogeneity (P < 0.05, I2>50 %) except the pooled DOR, PLR of D and the pooled DOR and NLR of D*. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis indicated that DWI and IVIM had high sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions; and compared with DWI, IVIM could not further increase the diagnostic performance. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Eur J Radiol ; 141: 109826, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical lesions found on percutaneous breast biopsy raise specific management issues. The aim of this study was to validate the previous performance of a decision tree defined by Forgeard et al to select a subset of patients at low-risk of surgical diagnostic upgrade that would be eligible for surveillance. METHODS: A consecutive series of 211 patients diagnosed with ADH on vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) of clustered microcalcifications alone, then operated in our institution, was reviewed. Histological findings on percutaneous cores were compared with definitive diagnoses on surgical specimens. The rate of cancer underestimation on VAB was analyzed in the four arms and two management attitudes defined in the scheme, using size and quality of microcalcification removal and the number of ADH foci. RESULTS: Ninety-eight women with ADH met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 20 cancers were diagnosed at surgery, showing a malignancy rate of 44% (17/39 patients) in the surgery group and of 5% (3/59 patients) in the surveillance group, which was not significantly different from the 2% rate in the monitored reference group (p > 0.64). The malignancy rate increased significantly with the size of clustered microcalcifications (0% when < 6mm, 17% when between 6mm and 21 mm, 48% when > 21 mm, p < 0001) and the number of ADH foci on VAB (14% when ≤ 2, 45% when > 2, p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our results corroborate - within the limits of large confidence intervals - those obtained with the reference decision tree. Due to statistical uncertainty, however, they need to be prospectively validated in a broader series.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Calcinose , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Mamografia , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 520: 95-100, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast malignancy is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide, and the diagnosis relies on invasive examinations. However, most clinical breast changes in women are benign, and invasive diagnostic approaches cause unnecessary suffering for the patients. Thus, a novel noninvasive approach for discriminating malignant breast lesions from benign lesions is needed. METHODS: We performed cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing on plasma samples from 173 malignant breast lesion patients, 158 benign breast lesion patients, and 102 healthy women. We then analyzed the cfDNA-based nucleosome profiles, which reflect the various tissues of origin and transcription factor activities. Moreover, by using machine learning classifiers along with the cfDNA sequencing data, we built classifiers for discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the classifiers. RESULTS: cfDNA-based nucleosome profiles reflected the various tissues of origin and transcription factor activities in benign and malignant breast lesions. The cfDNA-based transcription factor activities and breast malignancy-specific transcription factor-binding site accessibility profiles could accurately distinguish benign and malignant breast lesions, with area under the curve values of 0.777 and 0.824, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-principle study established a methodology for noninvasively discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Nucleossomos/genética , Curva ROC
14.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(7): 1201-1211, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Due to its safe, low-cost, portable, and real-time nature, ultrasound is a prominent imaging method in computer-assisted interventions. However, typical B-mode ultrasound images have limited contrast and tissue differentiation capability for several clinical applications. METHODS: Recent introduction of imaging speed-of-sound (SoS) in soft tissues using conventional ultrasound systems and transducers has great potential in clinical translation providing additional imaging contrast, e.g., in intervention planning, navigation, and guidance applications. However, current pulse-echo SoS imaging methods relying on plane wave (PW) sequences are highly prone to aberration effects, therefore suboptimal in image quality. In this paper we propose using diverging waves (DW) for SoS imaging and study this comparatively to PW. RESULTS: We demonstrate wavefront aberration and its effects on the key step of displacement tracking in the SoS reconstruction pipeline, comparatively between PW and DW on a synthetic example. We then present the parameterization sensitivity of both approaches on a set of simulated phantoms. Analyzing SoS imaging performance comparatively indicates that using DW instead of PW, the reconstruction accuracy improves by over 20% in root-mean-square-error (RMSE) and by 42% in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We then demonstrate SoS reconstructions with actual US acquisitions of a breast phantom. With our proposed DW, CNR for a high contrast tumor-representative inclusion is improved by 42%, while for a low contrast cyst-representative inclusion a 2.8-fold improvement is achieved. CONCLUSION: SoS imaging, so far only studied using a plane wave transmission scheme, can be made more reliable and accurate using DW. The high imaging contrast of DW-based SoS imaging will thus facilitate the clinical translation of the method and utilization in computer-assisted interventions such as ultrasound-guided biopsies, where B-Mode contrast is often to low to detect potential lesions.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Transdutores
15.
J Cell Sci ; 134(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096606

RESUMO

About 70% of breast cancers overexpress estrogen receptor α (ERα, encoded by ESR1). Tamoxifen, a competitive inhibitor of estrogen that binds to ER, has been widely used as a treatment for ER-positive breast cancer. However, 20-30% of breast cancer is resistant to tamoxifen treatment. The mechanisms underlying tamoxifen resistance remain elusive. We found that Yes-associated protein (YAP; also known as YAP1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2) and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61; also known as CCN1) are overexpressed, while ERα is downregulated in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. Inhibition of YAP, CTGF and Cyr61 restored ERα expression and increased sensitivity to tamoxifen. Overexpression of YAP, CTGF, and Cyr61 led to downregulation of ERα and conferred resistance to tamoxifen in ER-positive breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, CTGF and Cyr61 downregulated ERα expression at the transcriptional level by directly binding to the regulatory regions of the ERα-encoding gene, leading to increased tamoxifen resistance. Also, CTGF induced Glut3 (also known as SLC2A3) expression, leading to increased glycolysis, which enhanced cell proliferation and migration in tamoxifen-resistant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a novel role of YAP, CTGF and Cyr61 in tamoxifen resistance and provide a molecular basis for their function in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Tamoxifeno , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
17.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(22)2021 05 31.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060456

RESUMO

The Goldilocks mastectomy was first described in 2012 as a third option for patients who are not eligible for or want traditional modes of breast reconstruction. The technique involves performing a skin-sparing mastectomy using Wise pattern incisions and creating a breast mound from the residual lower mastectomy flap. In this case report, we present a 58-year old woman with breast cancer who was not eligible for traditional breast reconstruction, and instead an uncomplicated Goldilocks mastectomy was performed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064801

RESUMO

Specific link between high fructose uptake and cancer development and progression highlighted fructose transporters as potential means to achieve GLUT-mediated discrimination between normal and cancer cells. The gained expression of fructose-specific transporter GLUT5 in various cancers offers a possibility for developing cancer-specific imaging and bioactive agents. Herein, we explore the feasibility of delivering a bioactive agent through cancer-relevant fructose-specific transporter GLUT5. We employed specific targeting of GLUT5 by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol and investigated several drug conjugates for their ability to induce cancer-specific cytotoxicity. The proof-of-concept analysis was carried out for conjugates of chlorambucil (CLB) in GLUT5-positive breast cancer cells and normal breast cells. The cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed over 24 h and 48 h, and significant dependence between cancer-selectivity and conjugate size was observed. The differences were found to relate to the loss of GLUT5-mediated uptake upon increased conjugate size and hydrophobicity. The findings provide information on the substrate tolerance of GLUT5 and highlight the importance of maintaining appropriate hydrophilicity for GLUT-mediated delivery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/citologia , Clorambucila/farmacologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/metabolismo , Manitol/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Manitol/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
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