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1.
Clin Imaging ; 109: 110129, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are incidentally observed on mammograms, yet their implications remain unclear. We investigated lifestyle, reproductive, and cardiovascular determinants of BAC in women undergoing mammography screening. Further, we investigated the relationship between BAC, coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) risk. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained reproductive history and CVD risk factors from 215 women aged 18 or older who underwent mammography and cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) within a 2-year period between 2007 and 2017 at hospital. BAC was categorized as binary (present/absent) and semi-quantitatively (mild, moderate, severe). CAC was determined using the Agatston method and recorded as binary (present/absent). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, accounting for age as a confounding factor. ASCVD risk over a 10-year period was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. RESULTS: Older age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, higher parity, and younger age at first birth (≤28 years) were significantly associated with greater odds of BAC. Women with both BAC and CAC had the highest estimated 10-year risk of ASCVD (13.30 %). Those with only BAC (8.80 %), only CAC (5.80 %), and no BAC or CAC (4.40 %) had lower estimated 10-year risks of ASCVD. No association was detected between presence of BAC and CAC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that BAC on a screening mammogram may help to identify women at potentially increased risk of future cardiovascular disease without additional cost and radiation exposure.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias , Calcinose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Calcificação Vascular , Feminino , Humanos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Mamografia/métodos , Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e942581, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain among women globally. Pharmacological therapy for endometriosis includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hormonal contraceptives, while surgical therapy often involves either laparoscopic excision and ablation of endometriosis implants or open surgery. Surgical therapy is one of the mainstays of treatment especially for extrapelvic endometriomas. However, little guidance exists for the treatment of non-palpable or intermittently palpable lesions of this nature. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old woman with a previous cesarean section presented with complaints of intermittent discomfort in the area between her umbilicus and the surgical incision, for the previous 7 years, that worsened during her menstrual cycle. A 3×3-cm area of fullness was only intermittently palpable during various clinic visits, but was visualizable on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Given the lesion's varying palpability, a Savi Scout radar localization device was placed into the lesion pre-operatively to aid with surgical resection. The mass was excised, pathologic examination revealed endometrial tissue, and the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course with resolution of her symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Surgical removal of extrapelvic endometrioma lesions can be made difficult by varying levels of palpability or localizability due to a patient's menstrual cycle. The Savi Scout, most commonly used in breast mass localization, is a useful tool in guiding surgical excision of non-palpable or intermittently palpable extrapelvic endometrioma lesions.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Laparoscopia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Endometriose/cirurgia , Endometriose/complicações , Cesárea , Mama/patologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Dor Pélvica/complicações , Dor Pélvica/cirurgia
5.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 52(5): 408-421, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575184

RESUMO

Metastasis is the most common pathway of cancer death. The lack of effective predictors of breast cancer metastasis is a pressing issue in clinical practice. Therefore, exploring the mechanism of breast cancer metastasis to uncover reliable predictors is very important for the clinical treatment of breast cancer patients. In this study, tandem mass tag quantitative proteomics technology was used to detect protein content in primary breast tumor tissue samples from patients with metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer at diagnosis. We found that the high expression of yin-yang 1(YY1) is strongly associated with poor prognosis in high-grade breast cancer. YY1 expression was detected in both clinical tumor tissue samples and tumor tissue samples from mammary-specific polyomavirus middle T antigen overexpression mouse model mice. We demonstrated that upregulation of YY1 expression was closely associated with breast cancer metastasis and that high YY1 expression could promote the migratory invasive ability of breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, YY1 directly binds to the UGT2B7 mRNA initiation sequence ATTCAT, thereby transcriptionally regulating the inhibition of UGT2B7 expression. UGT2B7 can regulate the development of breast cancer by regulating estrogen homeostasis in the breast, and the abnormal accumulation of estrogen, especially 4-OHE2, promotes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, ultimately causing the development of breast cancer metastasis. In conclusion, YY1 can regulate the UGT2B7-estrogen metabolic axis and induce disturbances in estrogen metabolism in breast tumors, ultimately leading to breast cancer metastasis. Disturbances in estrogen metabolism in the breast tissue may be an important risk factor for breast tumor progression and metastasis SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In this study, we propose for the first time a regulatory relationship between YY1 and the UGT2B7/estrogen metabolism axis and explore the molecular mechanism. Our study shows that the YY1/UGT2B7/estrogen axis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of breast cancer. This study further elucidates the potential mechanisms of YY1-mediated breast cancer metastasis and the possibility and promise of YY1 as a predictor of cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios , Homeostase , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo
6.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 8(1): 42, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI) models for clinical applications requires access to clinical and imaging data cohorts. Reusing of publicly available datasets has the potential to fill this gap. Specifically in the domain of breast cancer, a large archive of publicly accessible medical images along with the corresponding clinical data is available at The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). However, existing datasets cannot be directly used as they are heterogeneous and cannot be effectively filtered for selecting specific image types required to develop AI models. This work focuses on the development of a homogenized dataset in the domain of breast cancer including clinical and imaging data. METHODS: Five datasets were acquired from the TCIA and were harmonized. For the clinical data harmonization, a common data model was developed and a repeatable, documented "extract-transform-load" process was defined and executed for their homogenization. Further, Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine (DICOM) information was extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and made accessible and searchable. RESULTS: The resulting harmonized dataset includes information about 2,035 subjects with breast cancer. Further, a platform named RV-Cherry-Picker enables search over both the clinical and diagnostic imaging datasets, providing unified access, facilitating the downloading of all study imaging that correspond to specific series' characteristics (e.g., dynamic contrast-enhanced series), and reducing the burden of acquiring the appropriate set of images for the respective AI model scenario. CONCLUSIONS: RV-Cherry-Picker provides access to the largest, publicly available, homogenized, imaging/clinical dataset for breast cancer to develop AI models on top. RELEVANCE STATEMENT: We present a solution for creating merged public datasets supporting AI model development, using as an example the breast cancer domain and magnetic resonance imaging images. KEY POINTS: • The proposed platform allows unified access to the largest, homogenized public imaging dataset for breast cancer. • A methodology for the semantically enriched homogenization of public clinical data is presented. • The platform is able to make a detailed selection of breast MRI data for the development of AI models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Inteligência Artificial , Mama
7.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 409(1): 117, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oncologic safety and surgical completeness of remote-access thyroidectomies are not yet clearly established. This study evaluates the oncologic outcomes and surgical completeness of three prevalent remote-access thyroidectomies: the gasless transaxillary approach (GTAA), bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA), and transoral approach (TOA), in comparison with conventional transcervical thyroidectomy (CTT). METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, covering the period from 2000 to 2023. Network meta-analyses were performed on selected studies, focusing on recurrence and surgical completeness. Surgical completeness was assessed using stimulated serum thyroglobulin levels and the count of retrieved lymph nodes. RESULTS: The review included 48 studies, encompassing a total of 16,356 patients. The number of retrieved lymph nodes was comparable among BABA, TOA, and CTT, while GTAA might be less effective. Stimulated serum thyroglobulin levels showed no significant differences across the four groups. However, the proportion of patients with stimulated thyroglobulin levels below 1.0 ng/mL was significantly lower in GTAA compared to the other groups. The overall recurrence rates were 1.31% for CTT, 0.89% for GTAA, 0.62% for BABA, and 0% for TOA, with no significant differences in recurrence rates when adjusted for follow-up duration. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the oncologic outcomes of GTAA, BABA, and TOA are comparable to those of CTT, based on recurrence rates. In terms of surgical completeness, BABA and TOA showed equivalence to CTT, whereas GTAA might be inferior to the other techniques.


Assuntos
Tireoglobulina , Tireoidectomia , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Mama , Bases de Dados Factuais
8.
Med Oncol ; 41(5): 112, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592510

RESUMO

Despite recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (BC), patient outcomes in terms of survival, recurrence, and disease progression remain suboptimal. A significant factor contributing to these challenges is the cellular heterogeneity within BC, particularly the presence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). These cells are thought to serve as the clonogenic nexus for new tumor growth, owing to their hierarchical organization within the tumor. This descriptive review focuses on the evolving strategies to target BCSCs, which have become a pivotal aspect of therapeutic development. We explore a variety of approaches, including targeting specific tumor surface markers (CD133 and CD44), transporters, heat shock proteins, and critical signaling pathways like Notch, Akt, Hedgehog, KLF4, and Wnt/ß-catenin. Additionally, we discuss the modulation of the tumor microenvironment through the CXCR-12/CXCR4 axis, manipulation of pH levels, and targeting hypoxia-inducible factors, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CXCR1/2 receptors. Further, this review focuses on the roles of microRNA expression, strategies to induce apoptosis and differentiation in BCSCs, dietary interventions, dendritic cell vaccination, oncolytic viruses, nanotechnology, immunotherapy, and gene therapy. We particularly focused on studies reporting identification of BCSCs, their unique properties and the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in targeting these cells. By dissecting these approaches, we aim to provide insights into the complex landscape of BC treatment and the potential pathways for improving patient outcomes through targeted BCSC therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Mama , Imunoterapia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245217, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578640

RESUMO

Importance: Premastectomy radiotherapy (PreMRT) is a new treatment sequence to avoid the adverse effects of radiotherapy on the final breast reconstruction while achieving the benefits of immediate breast reconstruction (IMBR). Objective: To evaluate outcomes among patients who received PreMRT and regional nodal irradiation (RNI) followed by mastectomy and IMBR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a phase 2 single-center randomized clinical trial conducted between August 3, 2018, and August 2, 2022, evaluating the feasibility and safety of PreMRT and RNI (including internal mammary lymph nodes). Patients with cT0-T3, N0-N3b breast cancer and a recommendation for radiotherapy were eligible. Intervention: This trial evaluated outcomes after PreMRT followed by mastectomy and IMBR. Patients were randomized to receive either hypofractionated (40.05 Gy/15 fractions) or conventionally fractionated (50 Gy/25 fractions) RNI. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was reconstructive failure, defined as complete autologous flap loss. Demographic, treatment, and outcomes data were collected, and associations between multiple variables and outcomes were evaluated. Analysis was performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Results: Fifty patients were enrolled. Among 49 evaluable patients, the median age was 48 years (range, 31-72 years), and 46 patients (94%) received neoadjuvant systemic therapy. Twenty-five patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the breast and 45 Gy in 25 fractions to regional nodes, and 24 patients received 40.05 Gy in 15 fractions to the breast and 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions to regional nodes, including internal mammary lymph nodes. Forty-eight patients underwent mastectomy with IMBR, at a median of 23 days (IQR, 20-28.5 days) after radiotherapy. Forty-one patients had microvascular autologous flap reconstruction, 5 underwent latissimus dorsi pedicled flap reconstruction, and 2 had tissue expander placement. There were no complete autologous flap losses, and 1 patient underwent tissue expander explantation. Eight of 48 patients (17%) had mastectomy skin flap necrosis of the treated breast, of whom 1 underwent reoperation. During follow-up (median, 29.7 months [range, 10.1-65.2 months]), there were no locoregional recurrences or distant metastasis. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found PreMRT and RNI followed by mastectomy and microvascular autologous flap IMBR to be feasible and safe. Based on these results, a larger randomized clinical trial of hypofractionated vs conventionally fractionated PreMRT has been started (NCT05774678). Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02912312.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Mastectomia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mama/patologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612711

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing. It is currently mainly treated by clinical chemotherapy, but chemoresistance remains poorly understood. Prefolded proteins 4 (PFDN4) are molecular chaperone complexes that bind to newly synthesized polypeptides and allow them to fold correctly to stabilize protein formation. This study aimed to investigate the role of PFDN4 in chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer. Our study found that PFDN4 was highly expressed in breast cancer compared to normal tissues and was statistically significantly associated with stage, nodal status, subclasses (luminal, HER2 positive and triple negative), triple-negative subtype and disease-specific survival by TCGA database analysis. CRISPR knockout of PFDN4 inhibited the growth of 89% of breast cancer cell lines, and the triple-negative cell line exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect than the non-triple-negative cell line. High PFDN4 expression was associated with poor overall survival in chemotherapy and resistance to doxorubicin and paclitaxel through the CREBP1/AURKA pathway in the triple-negative MDAMB231 cell line. This study provides insightful evidence for the value of PFDN4 in poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Aurora Quinase A , Prognóstico , Mama , Células MCF-7
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612786

RESUMO

Brain metastasis is a significant challenge for some breast cancer patients, marked by its aggressive nature, limited treatment options, and poor clinical outcomes. Immunotherapies have emerged as a promising avenue for brain metastasis treatment. B7-H3 (CD276) is an immune checkpoint molecule involved in T cell suppression, which is associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Given the increasing number of clinical trials using B7-H3 targeting CAR T cell therapies, we examined B7-H3 expression across breast cancer subtypes and in breast cancer brain metastases to assess its potential as an interventional target. B7-H3 expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays of three clinical cohorts: (i) unselected primary breast cancers (n = 347); (ii) brain metastatic breast cancers (n = 61) and breast cancer brain metastases (n = 80, including a subset of 53 patient-matched breast and brain metastasis cases); and (iii) mixed brain metastases from a range of primary tumours (n = 137). In primary breast cancers, B7-H3 expression significantly correlated with higher tumour grades and aggressive breast cancer subtypes, as well as poorer 5-year survival outcomes. Subcellular localisation of B7-H3 impacted breast cancer-specific survival, with cytoplasmic staining also correlating with a poorer outcome. Its expression was frequently detected in brain metastases from breast cancers, with up to 90% expressing B7-H3. However, not all brain metastases showed high levels of expression, with those from colorectal and renal tumours showing a low frequency of B7-H3 expression (0/14 and 2/16, respectively). The prevalence of B7-H3 expression in breast cancers and breast cancer brain metastases indicates potential opportunities for B7-H3 targeted therapies in breast cancer management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mama , Encéfalo , Agressão , Fatores de Transcrição , Antígenos B7/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612922

RESUMO

Precision oncology is based on deep knowledge of the molecular profile of tumors, allowing for more accurate and personalized therapy for specific groups of patients who are different in disease susceptibility as well as treatment response. Thus, onco-breastomics is able to discover novel biomarkers that have been found to have racial and ethnic differences, among other types of disparities such as chronological or biological age-, sex/gender- or environmental-related ones. Usually, evidence suggests that breast cancer (BC) disparities are due to ethnicity, aging rate, socioeconomic position, environmental or chemical exposures, psycho-social stressors, comorbidities, Western lifestyle, poverty and rurality, or organizational and health care system factors or access. The aim of this review was to deepen the understanding of BC-related disparities, mainly from a biomedical perspective, which includes genomic-based differences, disparities in breast tumor biology and developmental biology, differences in breast tumors' immune and metabolic landscapes, ecological factors involved in these disparities as well as microbiomics- and metagenomics-based disparities in BC. We can conclude that onco-breastomics, in principle, based on genomics, proteomics, epigenomics, hormonomics, metabolomics and exposomics data, is able to characterize the multiple biological processes and molecular pathways involved in BC disparities, clarifying the differences in incidence, mortality and treatment response for different groups of BC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Mama , Oncologia
13.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612962

RESUMO

Previous research has indicated an association between the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in breast cancer tissue and a favorable prognosis. This study aimed to further evaluate the prognostic potential of VDR located in the nuclear membrane or nucleus (liganded). The VDR protein levels were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in tumor samples from 878 breast cancer patients from Lund, Sweden, included in the Breast Cancer and Blood Study (BCBlood) from October 2002 to June 2012. The follow-up for breast cancer events and overall survival was recorded until 30 June 2019. Univariable and multivariable survival analyses were conducted, both with complete case data and with missing data imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE). Tumor-specific positive nuclear membrane VDR(num) staining was associated with favorable tumor characteristics and a longer breast cancer free interval (BCFI; HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.95) and overall survival (OS; HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34-0.78). Further analyses indicated that VDRnum status also was predictive of overall survival when investigated in relation to ER status. There were significant interactions between VDR and invasive tumor size (Pinteraction = 0.047), as well as mode of detection (Pinteraction = 0.049). VDRnum was associated with a longer BCFI in patients with larger tumors (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14-0.93) or clinically detected tumors (HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09-0.83), while no association was found for smaller tumors and screening-detected tumors. Further studies are suggested to confirm our results and to evaluate whether VDR should and could be used as a prognostic and targetable marker in breast cancer diagnostics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Receptores de Calcitriol , Prognóstico , Mama
14.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613033

RESUMO

There is emerging interest in the relationship between several serum micronutrients and the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. The relationship between serum zinc and copper levels and breast cancer prognosis is unclear. In our study, we included 583 patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2015 in the region of Szczecin, Poland. In a blood sample obtained before treatment, serum zinc and copper levels were quantified by mass spectroscopy. Each patient was assigned to one of four categories (quartiles) based on the distribution of the elements in the entire cohort. Patients were followed from diagnosis to death over a mean of 10.0 years. The 10-year overall survival was 58.3% for women in the highest and 82.1% for those in the lowest quartile of serum copper/zinc ratio (p < 0.001). The multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for breast cancer death was 2.07 (95% CI 1.17-3.63; p = 0.01) for patients in the highest quartile of serum copper/zinc ratio compared to those in the lowest. There is evidence that the serum zinc level and copper/zinc ratio provide an independent predictive value for overall survival and breast cancer-specific survival after breast cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Cobre , Zinco , Mama , Espectrometria de Massas
15.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated how the maternal gut, breast milk, and infant gut microbiomes may contribute to the effects of a relaxation intervention, which reduced maternal stress and promoted infant weight gain. METHODS: An RCT was undertaken in healthy Chinese primiparous mother-infant pairs (340/7-376/7gestation weeks). Mothers were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (IG, listening to relaxation meditation) or the control group (CG). Outcomes were the differences in microbiome composition and the diversity in the maternal gut, breast milk, and infant gut at 1 (baseline) and 8 weeks (post-intervention) between IG and CG, assessed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of fecal and breastmilk samples. RESULTS: In total, 38 mother-infant pairs were included in this analysis (IG = 19, CG = 19). The overall microbiome community structure in the maternal gut was significantly different between the IG and CG at 1 week, with the difference being more significant at 8 weeks (Bray-Curtis distance R2 = 0.04 vs. R2 = 0.13). Post-intervention, a significantly lower α-diversity was observed in IG breast milk (observed features: CG = 295 vs. IG = 255, p = 0.032); the Bifidobacterium genera presented a higher relative abundance. A significantly higher α-diversity was observed in IG infant gut (observed features: CG = 73 vs. IG = 113, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings were consistent with the hypothesis that the microbiome might mediate observed relaxation intervention effects via gut-brain axis and entero-mammary pathways; but confirmation is required.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Leite Humano , Mães , Mama
16.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 173, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597967

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations in any of three major genes, BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2, are associated with high-risk hereditary breast cancer susceptibility frequently seen as familial disease clustering. PALB2 is a key interaction partner and regulator of several vital cellular activities of BRCA1 and BRCA2, and is thus required for DNA damage repair and alleviation of replicative and oxidative stress. Little is however known about how PALB2-deficiency affects cell function beyond that, especially in the three-dimensional setting, and also about its role during early steps of malignancy development. To answer these questions, we have generated biologically relevant MCF10A mammary epithelial cell lines with mutations that are comparable to certain clinically important PALB2 defects. We show in a non-cancerous background how both mono- and biallelically PALB2-mutated cells exhibit gross spontaneous DNA damage and mitotic aberrations. Furthermore, PALB2-deficiency disturbs three-dimensional spheroid morphology, increases the migrational capacity and invasiveness of the cells, and broadly alters their transcriptome profiles. TGFß signaling and KRT14 expression are enhanced in PALB2-mutated cells and their inhibition and knock down, respectively, lead to partial restoration of cell functions. KRT14-positive cells are also more abundant with DNA damage than KRT14-negative cells. The obtained results indicate comprehensive cellular changes upon PALB2 mutations, even in the presence of half dosage of wild type PALB2 and demonstrate how PALB2 mutations may predispose their carriers to malignancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Reparo do DNA , Células Epiteliais , Mama , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300622, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603682

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most often diagnosed cancers in women, and identifying breast cancer histological images is an essential challenge in automated pathology analysis. According to research, the global BrC is around 12% of all cancer cases. Furthermore, around 25% of women suffer from BrC. Consequently, the prediction of BrC depends critically on the quick and precise processing of imaging data. The primary reason deep learning models are used in breast cancer detection is that they can produce findings more quickly and accurately than current machine learning-based techniques. Using a BreakHis dataset, we demonstrated in this work the viability of automatically identifying and classifying BrC. The first stage is pre-processing, which employs an Adaptive Switching Modified Decision Based Unsymmetrical Trimmed Median Filter (ASMDBUTMF) to remove high-density noise. After the image has been pre-processed, it is segmented using the Thresholding Level set approach. Next, we propose a hybrid chaotic sand cat optimization technique, together with the Remora Optimization Algorithm (ROA) for feature selection. The suggested strategy facilitates the acquisition of precise functionality attributes, hence simplifying the detection procedure. Additionally, it aids in resolving problems pertaining to global optimization. Following the selection, the best characteristics proceed to the categorization procedure. A DL classifier called the Conditional Variation Autoencoder is used to discriminate between cancerous and benign tumors while categorizing them. Consequently, a classification accuracy of 99.4%, Precision of 99.2%, Recall of 99.1%, F- score of 99%, Specificity of 99.14%, FDR of 0.54, FNR of 0.001, FPR of 0.002, MCC of 0.98 and NPV of 0.99 were obtained using the proposed approach. Furthermore, compared to other research using the current BreakHis dataset, the results of our research are more desirable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Felis , Perciformes , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Areia , Mama , Peixes , Algoritmos
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8487, 2024 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605059

RESUMO

Breast cancer has rapidly increased in prevalence in recent years, making it one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Among all cancers, it is by far the most common. Diagnosing this illness manually requires significant time and expertise. Since detecting breast cancer is a time-consuming process, preventing its further spread can be aided by creating machine-based forecasts. Machine learning and Explainable AI are crucial in classification as they not only provide accurate predictions but also offer insights into how the model arrives at its decisions, aiding in the understanding and trustworthiness of the classification results. In this study, we evaluate and compare the classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores of five different machine learning methods using a primary dataset (500 patients from Dhaka Medical College Hospital). Five different supervised machine learning techniques, including decision tree, random forest, logistic regression, naive bayes, and XGBoost, have been used to achieve optimal results on our dataset. Additionally, this study applied SHAP analysis to the XGBoost model to interpret the model's predictions and understand the impact of each feature on the model's output. We compared the accuracy with which several algorithms classified the data, as well as contrasted with other literature in this field. After final evaluation, this study found that XGBoost achieved the best model accuracy, which is 97%.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Mama , Aprendizado de Máquina , Hidrolases
19.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 12: 23247096241246621, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606534

RESUMO

Breast pain is a common concern among women in primary care clinics. A rare cause of breast pain is Mondor's disease (MD), which can present as an acute, painful, erythematous, cord-like induration on the breast or anterior chest wall. The disorder is caused by sclerosing superficial thrombophlebitis of the anterolateral thoracoabdominal wall veins. There does not appear to be a racial or ethnic propensity for this condition; however, it is important to understand that it may be more difficult to see in darker skin types (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) and requires close attention on physical exam. The cause of MD is poorly understood but may be related to direct trauma, strenuous exercise, or hormone changes. We review a case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with an anterior chest wall palpable cord, better visualized with adequate lighting and skin traction, ultimately diagnosed as MD based on clinical findings and imaging studies. Mondor's disease often resolves spontaneously with supportive care, as in this patient's case; however, clinicians should be aware of this rare cause of breast pain and its association with hypercoagulable state, vasculitis, and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mastodinia , Parede Torácica , Tromboflebite , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mastodinia/etiologia , Mastodinia/complicações , Mama , Tromboflebite/diagnóstico , Tromboflebite/complicações
20.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(4): 190, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recognizing unmet care needs among cancer patients is crucial for improving a person-centered and tailored approach to survivorship care. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs, pinpointing entity-specific areas of burden, and to identify factors associated with unmet needs within a diverse sample of cancer patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional sub-study of a large multicenter study, 944 adult cancer patients reported supportive care needs via the well-validated SCNS. Most frequent diagnoses included breast (n = 276), prostate (n = 237), hematological (n = 90) and gynecological cancer (n = 74), which were analyzed for entity-specific care needs. RESULTS: Across most cancer entities, health system and information, and psychological needs were most commonly reported, with fear of the cancer spreading and information regarding cancer control/diminishment ranking as the most prevalent individual concerns. Notable differences in entity-specific needs emerged for gynecological cancer patients, who exhibited more psychological (p = 0.007, OR = 2.01) and physical needs (p = 0.005, OR = 2.02), and prostate cancer patients, who showed higher sexuality needs (p < 0.001, OR = 2.95) but fewer psychological (p < 0.001, OR = 0.55), physical (p < 0.001, OR = 0.31) and patient care needs (p = 0.006, OR = 0.62). Non-distressed participants had fewer supportive care needs in each domain (all p < 0.001). Patients with functional impairments and female respondents reported increased unmet needs across most domains. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of patients feeling inadequately informed about their disease and care aspects, particularly among those with functional impairments, reflects a key challenge in the healthcare system. Specific interventions and improvements in patient-doctor communication are essential to address cancer entity-specific care needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Mama , Comunicação , Medo
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