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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10587, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719851

RESUMO

Cassava root-rot incited by soil-borne pathogens is one of the major diseases that reduces root yield. Although the use of resistant cultivars is the most effective method of management, the genetic basis for root-rot resistance remains poorly understood. Therefore, our work analyzed the transcriptome of two contrasting genotypes (BRS Kiriris/resistant and BGM-1345/susceptible) using RNA-Seq to understand the molecular response and identify candidate genes for resistance. Cassava seedlings (resistant and susceptible to root-rot) were both planted in infested and sterilized soil and samples from Initial-time and Final-time periods, pooled. Two controls were used: (i) seedlings collected before planting in infested soil (absolute control) and, (ii) plants grown in sterilized soil (mock treatments). For the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis 23.912 were expressed in the resistant genotype, where 10.307 were differentially expressed in the control treatment, 15 DEGs in the Initial Time-period and 366 DEGs in the Final Time-period. Eighteen candidate genes from the resistant genotype were related to plant defense, such as the MLP-like protein 31 and the peroxidase A2-like gene. This is the first model of resistance at the transcriptional level proposed for the cassava × root-rot pathosystem. Gene validation will contribute to screening for resistance of germplasm, segregating populations and/or use in gene editing in the pursuit to develop most promising cassava clones with resistance to root-rot.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manihot , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Manihot/genética , Manihot/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731930

RESUMO

Soluble starch synthases (SSs) play important roles in the synthesis of cassava starch. However, the expression characteristics of the cassava SSs genes have not been elucidated. In this study, the MeSSIII-1 gene and its promoter, from SC8 cassava cultivars, were respectively isolated by PCR amplification. MeSSIII-1 protein was localized to the chloroplasts. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the MeSSIII-1 gene was expressed in almost all tissues tested, and the expression in mature leaves was 18.9 times more than that in tuber roots. MeSSIII-1 expression was induced by methyljasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA), and ethylene (ET) hormones in cassava. MeSSIII-1 expression patterns were further confirmed in proMeSSIII-1 transgenic cassava. The promoter deletion analysis showed that the -264 bp to -1 bp MeSSIII-1 promoter has basal activity. The range from -1228 bp to -987 bp and -488 bp to -264 bp significantly enhance promoter activity. The regions from -987 bp to -747 bp and -747 bp to -488 bp have repressive activity. These findings will provide an important reference for research on the potential function and transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the MeSSIII-1 gene and for further in-depth exploration of the regulatory network of its internal functional elements.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manihot , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Manihot/genética , Manihot/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sintase do Amido/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 372, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) are crucial in facilitating potassium uptake by plants. Many types of HKTs confer salt tolerance to plants through regulating K+ and Na+ homeostasis under salinity stress. However, their specific functions in cassava (Manihot esculenta) remain unclear. RESULTS: Herein, an HKT gene (MeHKT1) was cloned from cassava, and its expression is triggered by exposure to salt stress. The expression of a plasma membrane-bound protein functions as transporter to rescue a low potassium (K+) sensitivity of yeast mutant strain, but the complementation of MeHKT1 is inhibited by NaCl treatment. Under low K+ stress, transgenic Arabidopsis with MeHKT1 exhibits improved growth due to increasing shoot K+ content. In contrast, transgenic Arabidopsis accumulates more Na+ under salt stress than wild-type (WT) plants. Nevertheless, the differences in K+ content between transgenic and WT plants are not significant. Additionally, Arabidopsis expressing MeHKT1 displayed a stronger salt-sensitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that under low K+ condition, MeHKT1 functions as a potassium transporter. In contrast, MeHKT1 mainly transports Na+ into cells under salt stress condition and negatively regulates the response of transgenic Arabidopsis to salt stress. Our results provide a reference for further research on the function of MeHKT1, and provide a basis for further application of MeHKT1 in cassava by molecular biological means.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Manihot , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio , Estresse Salino , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Manihot/genética , Manihot/metabolismo , Manihot/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Potássio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sódio/metabolismo
4.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743837

RESUMO

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), an important tropical crop, is affected by extreme climatic events, including rising CO2 levels. We evaluated the short-term effect of elevated CO2 concentration (ECO2 ) (600, 800 and 1000ppm) on the photosynthetic efficiency of 14 cassava genotypes. ECO2 significantly altered gaseous exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rate (P n ), stomatal conductance (g s ), intercellular CO2 (C i ) and transpiration (E )) in cassava leaves. There were significant but varying interactive effects between ECO2 and varieties on these physiological characteristics. ECO2 at 600 and 800ppm increased the P n rate in the range of 13-24% in comparison to 400ppm (ambient CO2 ), followed by acclimation at the highest concentration of 1000ppm. A similar trend was observed in g s and E . Conversely, C i increased significantly and linearly across increasing CO2 concentration. Along with C i , a steady increase in water use efficiency [WUEintrinsic (P n /g s ) and WUEinstantaneous (P n /E )] across various CO2 concentrations corresponded with the central role of restricted stomatal activity, a common response under ECO2 . Furthermore, P n had a significant quadratic relationship with the ECO2 (R 2 =0.489) and a significant and linear relationship with C i (R 2 =0.227). Relative humidity and vapour pressure deficit during the time of measurements remained at 70-85% and ~0.9-1.31kPa, respectively, at 26±2°C leaf temperature. Notably, not a single variety exhibited constant performance for any of the parameters across CO2 concentrations. Our results indicate that the potential photosynthesis can be increased up to 800ppm cassava varieties with high sink capacity can be cultivated under protected cultivation to attain higher productivity.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Manihot , Fotossíntese , Manihot/efeitos dos fármacos , Manihot/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Água
5.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 436, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cassava mosaic disease (CMD), caused by Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) infection, has been identified as a major pernicious disease in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) plantations. It is widespread in Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand, which is one of the main cassava supplier countries. With the aim of restricting the spread of SLCMV, we explored the gene expression of a tolerant cassava cultivar vs. a susceptible cassava cultivar from the perspective of transcriptional regulation and the mechanisms underlying plant immunity and adaptation. RESULTS: Transcriptomic analysis of SLCMV-infected tolerant (Kasetsart 50 [KU 50]) and susceptible (Rayong 11 [R 11]) cultivars at three infection stages-that is, at 21 days post-inoculation (dpi) (early/asymptomatic), 32 dpi (middle/recovery), and 67 dpi (late infection/late recovery)-identified 55,699 expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SLCMV-infected KU 50 and R 11 cultivars at (i) 21 dpi to 32 dpi (the early to middle stage), and (ii) 32 dpi to 67 dpi (the middle stage to late stage) were then identified and validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). DEGs among different infection stages represent genes that respond to and regulate the viral infection during specific stages. The transcriptomic comparison between the tolerant and susceptible cultivars highlighted the role of gene expression regulation in tolerant and susceptible phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified genes involved in epigenetic modification, transcription and transcription factor activities, plant defense and oxidative stress response, gene expression, hormone- and metabolite-related pathways, and translation and translational initiation activities, particularly in KU 50 which represented the tolerant cultivar in this study.


Assuntos
Begomovirus , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Manihot , Doenças das Plantas , Manihot/genética , Manihot/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Resistência à Doença/genética
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 1): 131439, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593902

RESUMO

In this study, an edible film was fabricated by incorporating anthocyanin extract from black rice (AEBR) into acetylated cassava starch (ACS)/carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) to enhance the shelf life of pumpkin seeds. The effects of AEBR on the rheological properties of film-forming solutions, as well as the structural characterization and physicochemical properties of the film, were evaluated. Rheological properties of solutions revealed that AEBR was evenly dispersed into polymer matrix and bound by hydrogen bonds, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The appropriate AEBR addition could be compatible with polymer matrix and formed a compact film structure, improving the mechanical properties, barrier properties, and opacity. However, with further addition of AEBR, the tensile strength and water vapor permeability decreased and the tight structure was destroyed. After being stored separately under thermal and UV light accelerated conditions for 20 days, the peroxide value and acid value of roasted pumpkin seeds coated with the AEBR film showed a significant reduction. Moreover, the storage stability of AEBR was improved through the embedding of ACS/CMC biopolymers. These results indicated that AEBR film could effectively delay pumpkin seeds oxidation and prolong their shelf life as an antioxidant material.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Cucurbita , Filmes Comestíveis , Manihot , Oxirredução , Sementes , Amido , Manihot/química , Antocianinas/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Amido/química , Sementes/química , Cucurbita/química , Acetilação , Permeabilidade , Resistência à Tração , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 120, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607525

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the effects of supplementing cassava root silage (CRS) to dairy cows grazing on Megathyrsus maximus cv Mombasa on nutrient intake and digestibility, as well as on milk production and composition. Ten primiparous Girolando cows with average body weight ± (SEM) of 373.45 ± (63.55) kg were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square. Animals were subjected to five treatments: (I) grazing cows without supplementation (WCS); (II) grazing cows provided with 5 kg DM of supplement without CRS (0 g/kg DM of CRS) or including (III) 260, (IV) 520, and (V) 780 g/kg DM of CRS. Statistical analyses were performed using the PROC MIXED of SAS with significance at P < 0.05. Intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract decreased (P < 0.01), while intake of non-fiber carbohydrates increased (P < 0.01), with increased CRS in the diets. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM, and digestibility of nutritional components were lower (P < 0.03) in WCS animals compared to supplemented animals, except for intake and digestibility of NDF, which was the opposite. Milk yield (MY) and fat corrected milk (FCM), as well as all milk components were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CRS inclusion. In contrast, MY, FCM, protein, lactose, casein, and non-fat milk solids (NFMS) were greater for animals that received supplementation (P < 0.05), compared to animals WCS. Milk fat and total dry extract (TMS) did not differ (P > 0.11) between two groups. In conclusion, CRS may be a potential corn meal replacer in the supplement of dairy cows under tropical conditions.


Assuntos
Manihot , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Leite , Silagem , Quênia , Nutrientes , Extratos Vegetais
8.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(4): 2488-2498, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577953

RESUMO

Green synthesis approaches for making nanosized ceria using starch from cassava as template molecules to control the particle size are reported. The results of the green synthesis of ceria with an optimum calcination temperature of 800 °C shows a size distribution of each particle of less than 30 nm with an average size of 9.68 nm, while the ratio of Ce3+ to Ce4+ was 25.6%. The green-synthesized nanoceria are applied to increase the sensitivity and attach biomolecules to the electrode surface of the electrochemical aptasensor system for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The response of the aptasensor to the receptor binding domain of the virus was determined with the potassium ferricyanide redox system. The screen-printed carbon electrode that has been modified with green-synthesized nanoceria shows 1.43 times higher conductivity than the bare electrode, while those modified with commercial ceria increase only 1.18 times. Using an optimized parameter for preparing the aptasensors, the detection and quantification limits were 1.94 and 5.87 ng·mL-1, and the accuracy and precision values were 98.5 and 89.1%. These results show that green-synthesized ceria could be a promising approach for fabricating an electrochemical aptasensor.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Cério , Manihot , Nanopartículas , Carbono/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Nanopartículas/química , Eletrodos
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 335: 122107, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616081

RESUMO

In this study, the polyvinylpyrrolidone-alizarin nanoparticles (PVP-AZ NPs) with favorable water dispersion and the carbon quantum dots (RQDs) with aggregate induced emission effect were synthesized to construct an eco-friendly film for food freshness monitoring. The introduction of PVP-AZ NPs and RQDs enhanced the network structure and thermal stability of the cassava starch/polyvinyl alcohol film, and reduced its crystallinity and light transmittance via non-covalent binding with the film-forming matrix. The developed film exhibited visually recognizable colorimetric and fluorescent responses to ammonia at 0.025-25 mg/mL, and it can be reused at least 6 times. Practical application experiment proved that the film, as an indicator label, can achieve accurate, real-time, and visual dynamic monitoring of the freshness of shrimp stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and - 20 °C under daylight (orange yellow to purple) and UV light (red to blue). The integration of multivariate detection technology can eliminate the interference of external factors by self-correction to improve sensitivity and reliability, which provides a reference for the development of other food quality and safety monitoring platforms.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas , Manihot , Animais , Álcool de Polivinil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos , Crustáceos , Povidona , Amido
10.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 71(1): 79, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the electrophoretic profiles of the extracts of Manihot esculenta, Actinidia Deliciosa and Persea Americana and their possible relationship with Latex-Fruit Syndrome. METHODS: Protein extracts of M. esculenta, P. Americana and A. Deliciosa were prepared through the processes of maceration and solvent extraction from plant samples. In the case of the avocado, a prior extraction by soxhlet was carried out to eliminate the fat. The extracts were vacuum filtered, dialyzed and finally lyophilized. Separation of proteins based on molecular weight was performed by SDS PAGE electrophoresis. The electrophoretic profiles obtained were compared with the allergenic proteins previously identified in the latex extract, in order to determine a possible relationship with Latex-Fruit Syndrome, depending on the molecular weight. RESULTS: The extracts of M. esculenta and P. Americana showed a wide range of protein fractions with molecular weights varying from 10 to 250 KD, finding that the region with the highest concentration of bands was between 20 and 89 KD, (60 and 65%), respectively. A 20-band profile was obtained for the M. esculenta extract (Figure 1), with seven bands sharing similar weights with the latex allergens (Hev b 1, Hev b 2, Hev b3, Hev b 4, Hev b 5, Hev b 6.03, Hev b 8 and Hev b 10) (3-5). For the P. Americana extract, 20 bands were also observed (Figure 2), seven of which presented approximate weights to the Latex allergens (Hev b 1, Hev b 2 Hev b 4 Hev b 6.01 Hev b 6.03 Hev b 8 , Hev b 10 Hev b 11 Hev b 14). The Kiwi extract showed two bands of 19.1 and 22.9 KD, with weights close to latex proteins (figure 3), (Hev b 3 and Hev b 6.01), and allergens (Act d 2 and Act d 6), reported in the literature for this fruit. CONCLUSIONS: When analyzing the relationship between the separated protein fractions and the latex allergens described in the literature, a possible association of 35% was found for the extracts of M. esculenta and P. Americana, and 10% for A. Delicious, with great relevance being the association found with the allergens Hev b 4, Hev b 2, Hev 8 and Hev b 11, which are involved in Latex-Fruit Syndrome. The electrophoretic profiles of the prepared extracts were determined and compared with the Latex allergens. This information generates a contribution for the development of new research and advances in the standardization of these extracts on a large scale and for their future use in diagnostic tests.


OBJETIVO: Determinar los perfiles electroforéticos de los extractos de Manihot esculenta, Actinidia deliciosa y Persea americana y su posible relación con el Síndrome de Látex ­ Fruta. MÉTODOS: Se prepararon extractos proteicos de M. esculenta, P. Americana y A. Deliciosa, a través de los procesos de macerado y extracción con solventes a partir muestras vegetales. En el caso del aguacate, se realizó una extracción previa por soxhlet, para eliminar la grasa. Los extractos se filtraron al vacío, se sometieron a diálisis y por último se liofilizaron. La separación de las proteínas en función del peso molecular se realizó mediante electroforesis SDS PAGE. Se compararon los perfiles electroforéticos obtenidos con las proteínas alergénicas previamente identificadas en el extracto de látex, con el fin de determinar una posible relación con el Síndrome de Látex-Fruta, en función del peso molecular. RESULTADOS: Los extractos de M. esculenta y P. americana mostraron una amplia gama de fracciones proteicas con pesos moleculares que varían desde 10 a 250 KD, encontrando que la región con mayor concentración de bandas se situó entre 20 y 89 KD, (60 y 65 %), respectivamente. Se obtuvo un perfil de 20 bandas para el extracto de M. esculenta (figura 1), con siete bandas que comparten pesos similares con los alérgenos del látex (Hev b 1, Hev b 2, Hev b3, Hev b 4, Hev b 5, Hev b 6.03, Hev b 8 y Hev b 10) (3-5). Para el extracto de P. americana, también se observaron 20 bandas (figura 2), siete de las cuales presentaron pesos aproximados a los alérgenos de Látex (Hev b 1, Hev b 2 Hev b 4 Hev b 6.01 Hev b 6.03 Hev b 8, Hev b 10 Hev b 11 Hev b 14). El extracto de Kiwi mostró dos bandas de 19,1 y 22,9 KD, con pesos cercanos a proteínas de látex (figura 3), (Hev b 3 y Hev b 6.01), y los alérgenos (Act d 2 y Act d 6), reportados en la literatura para esta fruta. CONCLUSIONES: Al analizar la relación existente entre las fracciones proteicas separadas y los alérgenos de los látex descritos en la literatura, se encontró una posible asociación del 35% para los extractos de M. esculenta y P. Americana, y del 10% para A. Deliciosa, siendo de gran relevancia la asociación encontrada con los alérgenos Hev b 4, Hev b 2, Hev 8 y Hev b 11, los cuales se encuentran implicados en el Síndrome de Látex-Fruto. Se lograron determinar los perfiles electroforéticos de los extractos elaborados y se compararon con los alérgenos del Látex. Está información genera un aporte para el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones y avances en la estandarización de estos extractos a gran escala y para su uso futuro en pruebas diagnósticas.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade ao Látex , Manihot , Persea , Proteínas de Plantas , Manihot/química , Alérgenos/análise , Actinidia/química , Persea/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Frutas/química , Látex/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Síndrome , Peso Molecular
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 136, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647730

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of using mushroom mycelium to ferment tigernut and cassava pulp on the growth performance, haematology and immunology of rabbits. Seventy-five New Zealand Bulk grower rabbits were randomly distributed to four treatment groups and a control group in a completely randomized approach. The treatment groups were fed with formulated experimental diets containing one of fermented tigernut drink by-product (FT), fermented cassava sievate (FC), unfermented tigernut drink by-product (UT), or unfermented cassava sievate (UC). The control group was fed a basal diet with no additives. The proximate composition of the fermented feed was analyzed. The weight gain of the animals was, 834.5, 633, 790, 510, and 706 g for control, FT, FC, UT, and UC respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV) for animals in the control group, FT, and FC are 34.33, 37.26, and 32.29% respectively. The red blood cell (RBC) of the FT was favourably improved (5.53 × 1012/L) compared to those of UT (2.28 × 1012/L), while there was a reduction in the red blood cell count of FC group (1.02 × 1012/L). Conclusively, the inclusion of fermented tiger nut drink by-product in rabbit feed improved the PCV and RBC of the rabbits' understudy but did not affect their growth performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Fermentação , Manihot , Animais , Coelhos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coelhos/sangue , Manihot/química , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Arecaceae/química , Hematócrito/veterinária , Aumento de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8102, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582921

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a major public health issue and heavy burden in China and worldwide due to its high incidence and mortality without effective treatment. It's imperative to develop new treatments to overcome drug resistance. Natural products from food source, given their wide-ranging and long-term benefits, have been increasingly used in tumor prevention and treatment. This study revealed that Hibiscus manihot L. flower extract (HML) suppressed the proliferation and migration of A549 cells in a dose and time dependent manner and disrupting cell cycle progression. HML markedly enhanced the accumulation of ROS, stimulated the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and that facilitated mitophagy through the loss of mitochondrial function. In addition, HML induced apoptosis by activation of the PTEN-P53 pathway and inhibition of ATG5/7-dependent autophagy induced by PINK1-mediated mitophagy in A549 cells. Moreover, HML exert anticancer effects together with 5-FU through synergistic effect. Taken together, HML may serve as a potential tumor prevention and adjuvant treatment for its functional attributes.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Manihot , Humanos , Células A549 , Hibiscus/metabolismo , Manihot/metabolismo , Autofagia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Flores/metabolismo , Apoptose , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 78(1): 30-44, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436931

RESUMO

Cassava protein (CP), barley protein (BP) and yellow pea protein (YPP) are important nutrient and integral constituent of staple in pet foods. It is known that the digestion of proteins directly influences their absorption and utilisation. In the present work, we performed in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion of three plant proteins as a staple for dog and cat food. The digestion rate of CP, BP and YPP in dog food was 56.33 ± 0.90%, 48.53 ± 0.91%, and 66.96 ± 0.37%, respectively, whereas the digestion rate of CP, BP, and YPP in cat food was 66.25 ± 0.72%, 43.42 ± 0.83%, and 58.05 ± 0.85%, respectively. Using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the molecular weight (MW) of each protein and the products of their digestion, it was revealed that MW of digestion samples decreased, and MW during the small intestine phase was lower than that during the gastric phase. Peptide sequences of digested products were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and it was found that the total number of peptides in the small intestine digestion samples was higher than that in the gastric phase samples. The MW of peptides obtained from CP was within the range of 1000-1500 Da, while MW of peptides derived from BP and YPP was within the range of 400-2000 Da. In addition, free amino acids were mainly produced in the small intestine phase. Furthermore, the percentage of essential amino acids in the small intestine phase (63 ~ 82%) was higher than that in the gastric phase (37 ~ 63%). Taken together, these findings contribute to the current understanding of the utilisation of plant proteins in dog and cat foods and provide important insights into the selection and application of plant proteins as a staple in dog and cat foods.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Digestão , Peptídeos , Digestão/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Manihot/química , Manihot/metabolismo , Pisum sativum/química , Pisum sativum/metabolismo , Cães , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/metabolismo , Gatos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/química
14.
Carbohydr Res ; 538: 109098, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527408

RESUMO

This study describes the novel development of quaternized cassava starch (Q-CS) with antimicrobial and antiviral properties, particularly effective against the MHV-3 coronavirus. The preparation of Q-CS involved the reaction of cassava starch (CS) with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) in an alkaline solution. Q-CS physicochemical properties were determined by FTIR, NMR, elemental analysis, zeta potential, TGA, and moisture sorption. FTIR and NMR spectra confirmed the introduction of cationic groups in the CS structure. The elemental analysis revealed a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.552 of the cationic reagent on the hydroxyl groups of CS. Furthermore, Q-CS exhibited a positive zeta potential value (+28.6 ± 0.60 mV) attributed to the high positive charge density shown by the quaternary ammonium groups. Q-CS demonstrated lower thermal stability and higher moisture sorption compared to CS. The antimicrobial activity of Q-CS was confirmed against Escherichia coli (MIC = 0.156 mg mL-1) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 0.312 mg mL-1), along with a remarkable ability to inactivate 99% of MHV-3 coronavirus after only 1 min of direct contact. Additionally, Q-CS showed high cell viability (close to 100%) and minimal cytotoxicity effects, guaranteeing its safe use. Therefore, these findings indicate the potential use of Q-CS as a raw material for antiseptic biomaterials.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Coronavirus , Manihot , Manihot/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Amido/química
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540395

RESUMO

Cassava is susceptible to mites, especially Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Secondary metabolism products such as flavonoids play an important role as antimicrobial metabolites protecting plants against biotic stressors including fungal, pathogen, bacterial, and pest defense. The chalcone synthase (CHS) is the initial step of the phenylpropanoid pathway for producing flavonoids and is the gatekeeper of the pathway. Until recently, the CHS genes family has not been systematically studied in cassava. Thirty-nine CHS genes were identified from the cassava genome database. Based on phylogenetic and sequence composition analysis, these CHSs were divided into 3 subfamilies. Within the same subfamily, the gene structure and motif compositions of these CHS genes were found to be quite conserved. Duplication events, particularly segmental duplication of the cassava CHS genes, were identified as one of the main driving force of its expansion. Various cis-elements contained in the promoter might regulate the gene expression patterns of MeCHS. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis showed that MeCHS1 and MeCHS10 protein are more closely related to other family members. The expression of MeCHS genes in young leaves was higher than that in other tissues, and their expression varies even within the same tissue. Coincidentally, these CHS genes of most LAP subclasses were highly expressed in young leaves. The verified MeCHS genes showed consistent with the real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and proteomic expression in protected and affected leaves respectively, indicating that these MeCHS genes play crucial roles in the response to T. cinnabarinus. This study is the first to comprehensively expatiate the information on MeCHS family members. These data will further enhance our understanding both the molecular mechanisms and the effects of CHS genes. In addition, the results will help to further clarify the effects on T. cinnabarinus and provide a theoretical basis for the potential functions of the specific CHS gene in resistance to mites and other biotic stress.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases , Manihot , Manihot/genética , Filogenia , Proteômica , Genômica , Flavonoides/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474558

RESUMO

The Hibiscus manihot L. (HML) Medic, an edible hibiscus of the Malvaceae family, is abundant with flavonoids. The study investigated how Rhizopus-arrhizus-31-assisted pretreatment affects the extraction and bioactivity of flavonoids from HML. The fiber structure of the fermented flavonoid sample (RFF) appears looser, more porous, and more disordered than the unfermented flavonoid sample (RUF). RFF demonstrates milder conditions and yields higher extraction rates. According to the Box-Behnken response surface optimization experiment, the optimal conditions for RFF include a material-liquid ratio of 1:41 g/mL, a 2 h extraction time, a 57% ethanol concentration, and an extraction temperature of 800 °C, resulting in a 3.69% extraction yield, which is 39.25% higher than that of RUF. Additionally, RFF exhibits greater activity than RUF in the radical-scavenging system. The IC50 values for DPPH, OH, and ABTS radicals are 83.43 µg/mL and 82.62 µg/mL, 208.38 µg/mL and 175.99 µg/mL, and 108.59 µg/mL and 75.39 µg/mL for RUF and RFF, respectively. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of the active components in the HML flavonoid sample revealed significant differences in the chromatograms of RUF and RFF, indicating that biofermentation led to substantial changes in composition and content from HML.


Assuntos
Hibiscus , Manihot , Flavonoides/química , Antioxidantes/química , Hibiscus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rhizopus
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 266(Pt 2): 131182, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554898

RESUMO

Formic acid is utilized to induce esterification and chemical gelatinization in starch, particularly in the fabrication of electrospun fibers for nanomaterial production. This study investigated the impact of different concentrations (15, 20, 25, and 30 %) of cassava starch and formic acid as a solvent on the characteristics of the resultant polymeric solutions and electrospun fibers. Morphology, size distribution, thermogravimetric properties, diffraction patterns, and relative crystallinity were evaluated for the electrospun fibers. The amylose content of starch varied from 16.5 to 23.7 %, decreasing with esterification, achieving a degree of substitution of approximately 0.93. The solution-rheology exhibited elastic behavior, with viscosity increasing as starch concentration increased, hindering the fabrication of fibers at 25 and 30 % starch. Successful electrospun fibers were formed using 15 % and 20 % starch, displaying homogeneous morphologies with mean diameters of 165 nm and 301 nm, respectively. Esterification influenced thermogravimetric properties, leading to fibers with reduced degradation temperatures and mass loss compared to native starches. The electrospun fibers presented an amorphous structure, indicating a drastic reduction in relative crystallinity from 35.2 % in native starch to 8.5 % for esterified starches. This study highlights the intricate relationship between starch concentration, esterification, and solution viscosity, affecting the electrospinnability and properties of starch-polymeric solutions.


Assuntos
Formiatos , Manihot , Amido , Manihot/química , Esterificação , Formiatos/química , Amido/química , Viscosidade , Amilose/química , Reologia , Termogravimetria
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 266(Pt 1): 131271, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556239

RESUMO

Yerba mate industrial processing produces tons of powder as a by-product, this yerba mate powder (YMP) is an excellent source of biomass to develop biodegradable materials. Cassava starch modified with 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BA) in the presence of sodium propionate as a catalyst is an eco-friendly option to obtain bioadhesives. This work aimed to develop sustainable laminates from starch-based adhesives and yerba mate powder and to study their physico-chemical, structural, and mechanical properties. Blends of bioadhesive and YMP were prepared (1:1, adhesive:YMP). Monolayer materials were obtained by thermo-compression and later assembled with adhesive to obtain bilayer laminates. Bioadhesive was able to bind the yerba mate by-product fibers, as evidenced by SEM microstructure analysis, the interactions of adhesive:substrate were elucidated by ATR-FTIR and supported by chemometrics analysis. The incorporation of the catalyst decreased the rugosity of materials and their mechanical performance was improved by the action of both acid concentration and catalyst presence, requiring higher energy for puncture. Thus, it was feasible to obtain mono and bilayer laminates as an eco-compatible alternative for the design of sustainable tray-like materials based on the industrial by-product of yerba mate.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Manihot , Amido , Amido/química , Adesivos/química , Manihot/química
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 2): 130308, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401578

RESUMO

Starch-converting α-glucanotransferases are efficient enzymatic toolkits for the biosynthesis of diverse α-glucans, which hold vast application potential in the food industry. In this work, we identified a novel GtfB protein from Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis TMW11304 (FsTMW11304 GtfB) in NCBI. Although this enzyme was highly conserved in motifs I-IV with those isomalto-maltopolysaccharides (IMMPs)-producing GtfB α-glucanotransferases, it possessed distinct deletions and mutations in two crucial loops shaping the active site. Hence, unlike those GtfB enzymes, FsTMW11304 GtfB not only exhibited excellent 4,6-α-glucanotransferase activity on amylose to generate atypically low-molecular-weight IMMPs with consecutive linear (α1 â†’ 6) linkages up to 48 %, but also held good capability towards branched substrates. Besides, compared with the control, the treatment by FsTMW11304 GtfB reduced the storage/loss modulus of granular and gelatinized tapioca starches (TS) by 12.0 %/17.9 % and 91.4 %/82.9 %, respectively, indicating that the rigidity of the gel structure was attenuated to different degrees in the two reaction systems. Furthermore, the setback viscosity observed in the gelatinized TS modified by FsTMW11304 GtfB was only 5 % of that observed in the control group, suggesting the short-term anti-retrogradation property has been substantially improved. Thus, FsTMW11304 GtfB represents a meaningful addition to the α-glucanotransferases in GH70 family, which expands the repertoire of diverse α-glucans synthesized from starch and facilitates the understanding of the structure-function relationship of the GtfB α-glucanotransferases.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus , Manihot , Amido , Amido/metabolismo , Manihot/metabolismo , Viscosidade , Glucanos/química , Amilose
20.
Nat Methods ; 21(3): 488-500, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361019

RESUMO

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) drive cellular processes and responses to environmental cues, reflecting the cellular state. Here we develop Tapioca, an ensemble machine learning framework for studying global PPIs in dynamic contexts. Tapioca predicts de novo interactions by integrating mass spectrometry interactome data from thermal/ion denaturation or cofractionation workflows with protein properties and tissue-specific functional networks. Focusing on the thermal proximity coaggregation method, we improved the experimental workflow. Finely tuned thermal denaturation afforded increased throughput, while cell lysis optimization enhanced protein detection from different subcellular compartments. The Tapioca workflow was next leveraged to investigate viral infection dynamics. Temporal PPIs were characterized during the reactivation from latency of the oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Together with functional assays, NUCKS was identified as a proviral hub protein, and a broader role was uncovered by integrating PPI networks from alpha- and betaherpesvirus infections. Altogether, Tapioca provides a web-accessible platform for predicting PPIs in dynamic contexts.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Manihot , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Sarcoma de Kaposi/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Manihot/metabolismo , Latência Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 8/metabolismo
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