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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMO

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 85, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604425

RESUMO

Pathogens rely on expression of host susceptibility (S) genes to promote infection and disease. As DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that affects gene expression, blocking access to S genes through targeted methylation could increase disease resistance. Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis, the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight (CBB), uses transcription activator-like20 (TAL20) to induce expression of the S gene MeSWEET10a. In this work, we direct methylation to the TAL20 effector binding element within the MeSWEET10a promoter using a synthetic zinc-finger DNA binding domain fused to a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. We demonstrate that this methylation prevents TAL20 binding, blocks transcriptional activation of MeSWEET10a in vivo and that these plants display decreased CBB symptoms while maintaining normal growth and development. This work therefore presents an epigenome editing approach useful for crop improvement.


Assuntos
Manihot , Xanthomonas , Manihot/genética , Epigenoma , Xanthomonas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112304, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596204

RESUMO

Native cassava starch (NCS) was chemically modified by cross-linking (CL), octenylsuccinylation (OS), CL followed by OS, and OS followed by CL. The modified cassava starches (MCS) were determined for physicochemical, in-vitro digestibility, and emulsifying properties. For the dual modifications, the functional groups introduced in the first modification were partially replaced by the ones that introduced in the second modification. The X-ray diffraction pattern and relative crystallinity of cassava starch did not change by both modifications, indicating that both reactions occurred predominantly in amorphous regions as well as on the surface of starch granules and did not alter the crystalline pattern in the granules. The physicochemical and emulsifying properties of the dual MCS were predominantly affected by the functional groups introduced in the second modification. For the in-vitro digestibility, the dual MCS exhibited the highest resistant starch content of 19.48-22.00% in comparison with the NCS (6.05%) and the single MCS (10.76-14.49%), possibly due to a synergistic effect of the functional groups introduced in the first and second modifications.


Assuntos
Manihot , Amido , Amido/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Manihot/química , Difração de Raios X
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 89(1): 45-60, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635606

RESUMO

Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could activate plant defense response against the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, in different plants. However, whether MeJA can also serve as an elicitor in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) remains unknown. In this study, induced defense responses were investigated in TSSM-resistant cassava variety C1115 and TSSM-susceptible cassava variety KU50 when applied with MeJA. The performance of TSSM feeding on cassava plants that were pre-treated with various concentrations of MeJA was first evaluated. Subsequently, the activities of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase), detoxification enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, cytochrome P450 and carboxylesterase) and digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and invertase) in TSSM were analyzed at days 1, 2, 4 and 8 post-feeding. The results showed that MeJA treatment can induce cassava defense responses to TSSM in terms of reducing egg production and adult longevity as well as slowing development and prolonging the egg stage. Noticeably, C1115 exhibited stronger inhibition of TSSM development and reproduction than KU50. In addition, the activities of all the tested enzymes were induced in both C1115 and KU50, the most in C1115. We conclude that exogenous methyl jasmonate can induce cassava defense responses and enhance resistance to TSSM.


Assuntos
Manihot , Tetranychidae , Animais , Manihot/fisiologia , Tetranychidae/fisiologia , Antioxidantes , Acetatos/farmacologia , Verduras
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(3): 82, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658370

RESUMO

Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules that can be applied in a wide range of areas. The cost of production limits the industrial application of biosurfactants. Nevertheless, the biosurfactant productivity can be easily enhanced by inducers. This work aimed to investigate the effect of hydrophobic inducers on surfactin production by B. subtilis ATCC 6633 using cassava wastewater as low-cost culture medium. The submerged cultivation was carried out at 30 °C, 150 rpm for 72 h. The fermentation parameters used were bacterial growth, consumption of sugars, and surfactin production, including surfactin homologues. The surface tension decreased by 40% after 12 h, when compared to control. Depletion of sugars was observed in all experiments. Palmitic acid led to the highest yield in terms of surfactin production (≈ 1.3 g·L- 1 of pure surfactin). The inducers triggered the production of new surfactin homologues, that represent, potentially, new biological activities.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Manihot , Manihot/química , Lipopeptídeos , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Açúcares , Tensoativos/química
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 302: 120368, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604048

RESUMO

The rapidly growing electronic and plastic waste has become a global environmental concern. Developing advanced and environmentally safe agro-based materials is an emerging field with an enormous potential for applications in sensors and devices. Here, an agro-based material as membrane has been developed by incorporating tapioca starch and banana peel powder in polylactic acid, with uniform dispersibility and amorphous nature. The material was used for the development of electrochemical sensor for S-gene of SARS-CoV-2. Further, the membrane was used for the development of a non-invasive, colorimetric skin patch for the detection of glucose and a sensor for the assessment of fruit juice quality. Using OECD-recommended model systems, the developed membrane was found to be non-toxic towards aquatic and terrestrial non-target organisms. The developed conductive material opens new avenues in various electrochemical, analytical, and biological applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Manihot , Musa , Musa/química , Colorimetria , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Amido/química
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 389-399, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The isosteric heat of desorption is vital in evaluating the energy performance of food dryers. The isosteric heat of desorption was investigated for different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) products prepared as flour or starch, with and without fermentation. An automated moisture sorption gravimetric analyser was used to measure the desorption isotherms over 10-90% relative humidity of the drying air at temperatures ranging from 25 to 65 °C. RESULTS: Analysis of variance showed an imperceptible contribution of the preparation method in the measured desorption data. This finding also agreed with microscopical images, which revealed the lack of compelling structural differences among different products. A set of empirical sorption equations suggested by the ASAE standard was examined over the measured desorption isotherms. The standard error of estimation was found to be in the acceptable range of 2.36-3.71%. Furthermore, the fulfilment of the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was considered as an additional criterion in the thermodynamic results of different sorption equations, besides their fitting adequacy. The modified Chung-Pfost equation has proved to be the most suitable equation for cassava products, as it is capable of reflecting the temperature dependency of the isosteric heat of desorption. The net isosteric heat of desorption obtained was in the range of 540-1110 kJ kg-1 for 0.10 kg kg-1 dry-basis moisture content and 52-108 kJ kg-1 for 0.25 kg kg-1 dry-basis moisture content. CONCLUSION: These findings are technologically relevant for optimising common drying technologies such as flash and flatbed dryers. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Manihot , Manihot/química , Temperatura Alta , Água/análise , Farinha/análise , Temperatura , Verduras
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 394-405, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481708

RESUMO

The sugar transporter SWEET plays a role in plant growth, carbon allocation, and abiotic stress resistance. We examined the function of SWEET in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under water and salt stress. Bioinformatics, subcellular localization, yeast deficient complementation, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) were used to examine the function of SWEET in cassava. Twenty-eight MeSWEETs genes were found based on the conserved domain MtN3/saliva of SWEET transporters, two MeSWEET15a/b of them were identified by phylogenetic analysis, which were located on the cell membrane. They transfer sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannitol from culture media to yeast cells, predominately transferring sucrose via bleeding fluid saps in plant. Leaf sucrose content was increased in MeSWEET15a/b-silenced cassava plants, resulting in changes in carbon distribution, with an increase in starch accumulation in the leaves and a decrease in starch accumulation in the roots. The silencing of MeSWEET15a/b genes led to tolerance to water and salt stress, consistent with a high accumulation of osmolytes, and low lipid membrane peroxidation. Changes in sugar distribution increased the expression of MeTOR and MeE2Fa in pTRV2-MeSWEET15a and pTRV2-MeSWEET15b cassava leaves. MeSWEET15a/b acts as pivotal modulators of sugar distribution and tolerance to water and high salt stress in cassava.


Assuntos
Manihot , Água , Água/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Manihot/genética , Manihot/metabolismo , Filogenia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Sacarose/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20909, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463268

RESUMO

Genetic enhancement of cassava aimed at improving cooking and eating quality traits is a major goal for cassava breeders to address the demand for varieties that are desirable for the fresh consumption market segment. Adoption of such cassava genotypes by consumers will largely rely not only on their agronomic performance, but also on end-user culinary qualities such as root mealiness. The study aimed to examine genotype × environment interaction (GEI) effects for root mealiness and other culinary qualities in 150 cassava genotypes and detect genotypes combining stable performance with desirable mealiness values across environments using GGE biplot analysis. Experiments were conducted using an alpha-lattice design with three replications for two years in three locations in Nigeria. The analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of genotype, environment, and GEI on the performance of genotypes. Mealiness scores showed no significant relationship with firmness values of boiled roots assessed by a penetration test, implying that large-scale rapid and accurate phenotyping of mealiness of boiled cassava roots remains a major limitation for the effective development of varieties with adequate mealiness, a good quality trait for direct consumption (boil-and-eat) as well as for pounding into 'fufu'. The moderate broad-sense heritability estimate and relatively high genetic advance observed for root mealiness suggest that significant genetic gains can be achieved in a future hybridization program. The genotype main effects plus genotype × environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis showed that the different test environments discriminated among the genotypes. Genotypes G80 (NR100265) and G120 (NR110512) emerged as the best performers for root mealiness in Umudike, whereas G13 (B1-50) and the check, G128 (TMEB693) performed best in Igbariam and Otobi. Based on the results of this study, five genotypes, G13 (B1-50), G34 (COB6-4), G46 (NR010161), the check, G128 (TMEB693), and G112 (NR110376), which were found to combine stability with desirable mealiness values, were the most suitable candidates to recommend for use as parents to improve existing cassava germplasm for root mealiness.


Assuntos
Furunculose , Manihot , Animais , Manihot/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Refeições , Genótipo , Verduras , Sensação
11.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111961, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461286

RESUMO

Starch modification utilizes a substantial amount of water. This research aimed to investigate the effect of nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) argon and helium plasma on tapioca starch's physicochemical properties and techno-functionality. Dry starch samples were treated with plasma generated from argon and helium gases at different voltage levels (10 and 15 kV) for 5, 10, and 15 min. The treatment did not destroy the starch's crystalline structure, as evidenced by the birefringence under polarized light. Scanning electron micrographs showed dented starch granules. A marginal decrease in pH value of all treated samples was noted. A reduction in amylose and amylopectin molecular weight and increased reducing sugars were observed in the treated samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a slight change in the 1047/1022 cm-1 absorbance ratio, indicating a change in short-range ordered degree of starch, while X-ray diffractometry showed a decrease in crystallinity. A significant reduction in peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback was observed. The gelatinized plasma-treated starch dispersion showed less shear-thinning and less thixotropic with increasing voltage and treatment times. This research proved that modification of starch in the solid-state using nonthermal plasma is feasible.


Assuntos
Manihot , Gases em Plasma , Argônio , Hélio , Amido
12.
West Afr J Med ; 39(11): 1127-1133, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Onychomycosis has been documented as an occupational dermatosis and dermatophyte infection of the nail is the most common infection amongst farmers. This study aims to determine the prevalence of fungal nail infections amongst cassava farmers and processors and identify causative organisms. METHODS: Consenting individuals engaged in the processing of raw cassava into 'garri' meal in Odogbolu local government area of Ogun State were included. Questionnaires contained demographic details, clinical descriptions, classification, and the presence of fungal infections in other parts of the body. Nail clippings were collected for direct microscopy using 40% Potassium hydroxide solution to break down nail keratin. Specimens were inoculated onto Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin incorporated, and incubated at 26°C and 35°C. RESULTS: Clinical features of onychomycosis were found in 119 (68.4%) participants. Distal subungual onychomycosis (68-57.1%) was the most common clinical type, followed by total dystrophic onychomycosis (49-41.2%), candida onychomycosis (34-28.6%), proximal subungual onychomycosis (14-11.8%) and superficial white onychomycosis (9-7.6%). One hundred and one (84.9%) respondents with clinically described onychomycosis had positive results in mycology studies. The non-dermatophyte molds (Aspergillus and Penicillium spp.) were found in 130 samples (78.8%); dermatophytes in 31 (18.8%) and yeast in 7 (4.2%). CONCLUSION: Non-dermatophyte molds, traditionally thought to be contaminants of nail cultures, were the main causative agents of primary fungal nail infections. Garri processors will benefit from public health intervention geared towards automation of some of these processes to minimize contact with soil and water, and health education on the use of protective materials.


INTRODUCTION: L'onychomycose a été documentée comme une dermatose professionnelle, et l'infection dermatophyte de l'ongle était l'infection la plus courante chez les agriculteurs. Cette étude vise à déterminer la prévalence des infections fongiques des ongles chez les cultivateurs et les transformateurs de manioc et à identifier les organismes responsables. MÉTHODES: Des individus consentants engagés dans la transformation du manioc brut en farine de 'garri' dans la zone de gouvernement local d'Odogbolu de l'Etat d'Ogun ont été inclus. Les questionnaires contenaient des détails démographiques, des descriptions cliniques, une classification et la présence d'infections fongiques dans d'autres parties du corps. Des coupures d'ongles ont été prélevées pour une microscopie directe en utilisant une solution d'hydroxyde de potassium à 40% pour décomposer la kératine de l'ongle. Les spécimens ont été inoculés sur de la gélose dextrose de Sabouraud avec du chloramphénicol et de la gentamicine incorporés, et incubés à 26°C et 35°C. RÉSULTATS: Des caractéristiques cliniques d'onychomycose ont été trouvées chez 119 (68,4%) participants. L'onychomycose sousunguéale distale (68­57,1 %) était le type clinique le plus fréquent, suivie par l'onychomycose dystrophique totale (49 à 41,2 %), l'onychomycose à candida (34 à 28,6 %), l'onychomycose sousunguéale proximale (14 à 11,8 %) et l'onychomycose blanche superficielle (9 à 7,6 %). Cent un (84,9 %) répondants présentant une onychomycose décrite cliniquement ont eu des résultats positifs dans les études mycologiques. Les moisissures non dermatophytes (Aspergillus et Penicillium spp.) ont été trouvées dans 130 échantillons (78,8%) ; les dermatophytes dans 31 (18,8%) et les levures dans 7 (4,2%). CONCLUSION: Les moisissures non dermatophytes, traditionnellement considérées comme des contaminants des cultures d'ongles, étaient les principaux agents causaux des infections fongiques primaires des ongles. Les transformateurs de garri bénéficieront d'une intervention de santé publique axée sur l'automatisation de certains de ces processus afin de minimiser le contact avec le sol et l'eau, et d'une éducation sanitaire sur l'utilisation de matériaux de protection. Mots clés: Onychomycose, 'garri', transformateurs de manioc, moisissures non dermatophytes, dermatophytes, levures.


Assuntos
Manihot , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Cloranfenicol
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278717, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454974

RESUMO

A high yield of isolated protoplast and reliable regeneration system are prerequisite for successful somatic hybridization and genome editing research. However, reproducible plant regeneration from protoplasts remains a bottleneck for many crops, including cassava. We evaluated several factors that influence isolation of viable protoplasts form leaf mesophyll, induction of embryogenic calli, and regeneration of plants in three cassava cultivars; Muchericheri, TMS60444 and Karibuni. A relatively higher protoplast yield was obtained with enzyme mixture containing 5 g/L Macerozyme and 10 g/L cellulase. Muchericheri recorded relatively higher protoplast yield of 20.50±0.50×106 whereas TMS60444 (10.25±0.25×106) had the least protoplast yield in 10 g/L cellulase and 4 g/L cellulase. Freshly isolated protoplast cells were plated on callus induction medium (CIM) solid medium containing MS basal salt, 60 g/L D-glucose, 30 g/L sucrose, B5 vitamins, 100 mg/L myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/L copper sulphate, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate, 4.55 g/L mannitol, 0.1 g/L MES, 10 mg/L picloram and 3 g/L gelrite to induce protoplast growth and development. The three cultivars reached colony formation but no further development was observed in this culture method. Protoplast growth and development was further evaluated in suspension culture using varying cell densities (1, 2 and 3× 105 p/mL). Development with highest number of minicalli was observed in cell density of 3× 105 p/mL. Minicalli obtained were cultured on CIM supplemented with 10mg/L picloram. Callus induction was observed in all cell densities with the cultivars. Highest somatic embryogenesis was observed in 2× 105 p/ml while no somatic embryogenesis was observed in cell density of 1×105 p/mL. Somatic embryos were matured in EMM medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BAP, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L GA3 then germinated in hormone free medium for plant regeneration. This protocol which used simple mixture of commercial enzymes is highly reproducible and can be applied in biotechnology research on cassava.


Assuntos
Calosidades , Celulase , Manihot , Protoplastos , Picloram , Verduras , Folhas de Planta , Regeneração
14.
Curr Protoc ; 2(12): e620, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36507868

RESUMO

The storage root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is predicted to remain central to future food and economic security for smallholder farming households and agricultural output in the tropics. Genetic improvement of cassava is required to meet changing farmer and consumer needs, evolving pests and diseases, and challenges presented by climate change. Transgenic and genome editing technologies offer significant potential for introducing desired traits into farmer-preferred varieties and breeding lines, and for studying the biology of this under-investigated crop species. A bottleneck in implementing genetic modification in this species has been access to robust methods for transformation of cassava cultivars and landraces. In this article, we provide a detailed protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cassava and regeneration of genetically modified plants. Basic Protocol 1 describes how to establish and micropropagate in vitro cassava plantlets, and Alternate Protocol 1 details how to establish in vitro cultures from field or greenhouse cuttings. Basic Protocol 2 describes all steps necessary for genetic transformation in the model variety 60444, and Alternate Protocol 2 provides details for modifying this method for use with other cultivars. Finally, Basic Protocol 3 describes how to establish plants produced via Basic Protocol 2 and Alternate Protocol 2 in soil in a greenhouse. These methods have proven applications across more than a dozen genotypes and are capable of producing transgenic and gene-edited plants for experimental purposes, for testing under greenhouse and field conditions, and for development of plants suitable for subsequent regulatory approval and product deployment. © 2022 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Establishment and propagation of in vitro cassava plantlets Alternate Protocol 1: Establishment of in vitro plants from field or greenhouse plants Basic Protocol 2: Genetic transformation of cassava variety 60444 Alternate Protocol 2: Genetic transformation of additional cultivars Basic Protocol 3: Establishment and growth of plants in the greenhouse.


Assuntos
Manihot , Manihot/genética , Agrobacterium/genética , Transformação Genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 573, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36494781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) is a plant virus causing significant economic losses throughout Southeast Asia. While proteomics has the potential to identify molecular markers that could assist the breeding of virus resistant cultivars, the effects of SLCMV infection in cassava have not been previously explored in detail. RESULTS: Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in SLCMV infected leaves, and qPCR was used to confirm changes at mRNA levels. LC/MS-MS identified 1,813 proteins, including 479 and 408 proteins that were upregulated in SLCMV-infected and healthy cassava plants respectively, while 109 proteins were detected in both samples. Most of the identified proteins were involved in biosynthetic processes (29.8%), cellular processes (20.9%), and metabolism (18.4%). Transport proteins, stress response molecules, and proteins involved in signal transduction, plant defense responses, photosynthesis, and cellular respiration, although present, only represented a relatively small subset of the detected differences. RT-qPCR confirmed the upregulation of WRKY 77 (A0A140H8T1), WRKY 83 (A0A140H8T7), NAC 6 (A0A0M4G3M4), NAC 35 (A0A0M5JAB4), NAC 22 (A0A0M5J8Q6), NAC 54 (A0A0M4FSG8), NAC 70 (A0A0M4FEU9), MYB (A0A2C9VER9 and A0A2C9VME6), bHLH (A0A2C9UNL9 and A0A2C9WBZ1) transcription factors. Additional upregulated transcripts included receptors, such as receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (RSTK) (A0A2C9UPE4), Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) (A0A2C9V5Q3), leucine rich repeat N-terminal domain (LRRNT_2) (A0A2C9VHG8), and cupin (A0A199UBY6). These molecules participate in innate immunity, plant defense mechanisms, and responses to biotic stress and to phytohormones. CONCLUSIONS: We detected 1,813 differentially expressed proteins infected cassava plants, of which 479 were selectively upregulated. These could be classified into three main biological functional groups, with roles in gene regulation, plant defense mechanisms, and stress responses. These results will help identify key proteins affected by SLCMV infection in cassava plants.


Assuntos
Manihot , Manihot/genética , Proteômica , Doenças das Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 574, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important multiuse crop grown for economic and energy purposes. Its vegetative organs are storage roots, in which the main storage material is starch. The accumulation characteristics of starch in cassava roots can directly affect the yield, starch content and maturation of cassava storage roots. In this study, we used a cassava sexual tetraploid (ST), which showed early maturation heterosis in previous work, as the main test material. We analyzed the sucrose metabolism and starch accumulation characteristics of the ST and its parents from the leaf "source" to the storage root "sink" during different developmental stages and explored the regulatory mechanisms of ST storage root early maturation by combining the transcriptome data of the storage roots during the expansion period. RESULTS: The results showed that the trends in sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in the ST leaves were similar to those of the two parents during different stages of development, but the trends in the ST storage roots were significantly different from those of their parents, which showed high sucrose utilization rates during the early stage of development and decreased utilization capacity in the late developmental stage. Transcriptome data showed that the genes that were expressed differentially between ST and its parents were mainly involved in the degradation and utilization of sucrose in the storage roots, and four key enzyme genes were significantly upregulated (Invertase MeNINV8/MeVINV3, Sucrose synthase MeSuSy2, Hexokinase MeHXK2), while the expressions of key enzyme genes involved in starch synthesis were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that the pattern of sucrose degradation and utilization in the cassava ST was different from that of its parents and promoted early maturation in its tuberous roots. Starch accumulation in the ST from sucrose mainly occurred during the early expansion stage of the storage roots, and the starch content during this period was higher than that of both parents, mainly due to the regulation of invertase and hexokinase activities during sucrose metabolism. This study provides a basis for further genetic improvements to cassava traits and for breeding varieties that mature early and are adapted well to provide starch supply requirements.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Manihot , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Amido/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo , Tetraploidia , Sacarose/metabolismo
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(2): 65, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36583818

RESUMO

The global production of cassava was estimated at ca. 303 million tons. Due to this high production, the cassava processing industry (cassava flour and starch) generates approximately ca. 0.65 kg of solid residue and ca. 25.3 l of wastewater per kg of fresh processed cassava root. The composition of the liquid effluent varies according to its origin; for example, the effluent from cassava flour production, when compared to the wastewater from the starch processing, presents a higher organic load (ca. 12 times) and total cyanide (ca. 29 times). It is worthy to highlight the toxicity of cassava residues regarding cyanide presence, which could generate disorders with acute or chronic symptoms in humans and animals. In this sense, the development of simple and low-cost eco-friendly methods for the proper treatment or reuse of cassava wastewater is a challenging, but promising path. Cassava wastewater is rich in macro-nutrients (proteins, starch, sugars) and micro-nutrients (iron, magnesium), enabling its use as a low-cost culture medium for biotechnological processes, such as the production of biosurfactants. These compounds are amphipathic molecules synthesized by living cells and can be widely used in industries as pharmaceutical agents, for microbial-enhanced oil recovery, among others. Amongst these biosurfactants, surfactin, rhamnolipids, and mannosileritritol lipids show remarkable properties such as antimicrobial, biodegradability, demulsifying and emulsifying capacity. However, the high production cost restricts the massive biosurfactant applications. Therefore, this study aims to present the state of the art and challenges in the production of biosurfactants using cassava wastewater as an alternative culture medium.


Assuntos
Manihot , Humanos , Manihot/química , Glicolipídeos , Verduras , Cianetos , Tensoativos/química
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(2): 62, 2022 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577912

RESUMO

The biochemical parameters of solid-state fermented peeled and unpeeled cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and their application in broiler feed formulations were investigated. Fermentation occurred at room temperature for 72 h (pH 3-9). The samples utilized for five (5) broiler starter feeds were labeled: control, unfermented unpeeled cassava (UUC), unfermented peeled cassava (UPC), fermented unpeeled cassava (FUC), and fermented peeled cassava (FPC). Formulations were made by substituting fermented/non-fermented cassava roots at pH 7 for maize (w/w%). Fermentation-induced changes included increased soluble and total protein concentrations (69.3 and 334.5 mg/g) and (9.6 and 10.8%), respectively, in cultures prepared with peeled and unpeeled cassava at pH 7 compared to the control (p < 0.05), and a reduction (p < 0.01) in cyanide concentration from 44.4 to 78.7 mg/kg in the control to 8.5 and 13.7 mg/kg in fermented cassava at pH 7. Birds fed FUC and FPC meal (0.6 and 0.5 kg) gained significantly more weight (p < 0.05) than those fed the control (0.3 kg). The biochemical parameters aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea levels in broiler serum did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) for birds fed with fermented peeled and unpeeled cassava. Conversely, serum albumin and calcium levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) for birds fed with the control feed compared to birds fed with fermented feeds. The results imply that fermented peeled and unpeeled cassava roots could be a safe and nutritionally beneficial replacement for maize in broiler diet.


Assuntos
Manihot , Animais , Manihot/química , Manihot/metabolismo , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Cianetos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Verduras , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277124, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378665

RESUMO

A desirable substitute for chemical pesticides is mycopesticides. In the current investigation, rDNA-ITS (Internal transcribed spacer) and TEF (Transcriptional Elongation Factor) sequencing were used for molecular identification of six Beauveria bassiana strains. Both, leaf discs and potted plant bioassaye were carried out to study their pathogenicity against the cassava mite, Tetranychus truncatus. LC50 and LC90 values of potential B. bassiana strains were estimated. We also discovered a correlation between intraspecific B. bassiana strains pathogenicity and comprehensive metabolome profiles. Bb5, Bb6, Bb8, Bb12, Bb15, and Bb21 strains were identified as B. bassiana by sequencing of rDNA-ITS and TEF segments and sequence comparison to NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) GenBank. Out of the six strains tested for pathogenicity, Bb6, Bb12, and Bb15 strains outperformed against T. truncatus with LC50 values 1.4×106, 1.7×106, and 1.4×106 and with a LC90 values 7.3×107, 1.4×108, and 4.2×108 conidia/ml, respectively, at 3 days after inoculation and were considered as potential strains for effective mite control. Later, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the above six B. bassiana strains was done on secondary metabolites extracted with ethyl acetate revealed that the potential B. bassiana strains (Bb6, Bb12, and Bb15) have higher levels of acaricidal such as Bis(dimethylethyl)-phenol: Bb6 (5.79%), Bb12 (6.15%), and Bb15 (4.69%). Besides, insecticidal (n-Hexadecanoic acid), and insect innate immunity overcoming compound (Nonadecene) were also identified; therefore, the synergistic effect of these compounds might lead toa higher pathogenicity of B. bassiana against T. truncatus. Further, these compounds also exhibited two clusters, which separate the potential and non-potential strains in the dendrogram of Thin Layer Chromatography. These results clearly demonstrated the potentiality of the B. bassiana strains against T. truncatus due to the occurrence of their bioactive volatile metabolome.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Manihot , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Beauveria/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Verduras , DNA Ribossômico
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8399831, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440363

RESUMO

The lack of regulations relating to street food remains a real problem in most developing countries. To remedy this, it is essential to have reliable data on the actors and the conditions of streed food activity. The present study is aimed at (i) establishing the sociodemographic profile of producers and vendors of Gbeli in the municipality of Abomey-Calavi, (ii) developing the technical production diagram and assessing the adoption level of good hygienic practices during the production and sale of Gbeli, and finally, (iv) evaluating the microbiological contamination risks associated with Gbeli consumption. Direct observations followed by a semistructured survey on 92 Gbeli vendors were carried out in Abomey-Calavi municipality. A Gbeli sample was collected from each vendor for microbiological analyses according to standard microbiology analytical techniques. Forty vendors were assisted during Gbeli production. The results showed that the production and sale of Gbeli are activities carried out solely by women (100%), mostly adults (97.82%) and unschooled (58.69%). This trade generates income allowing the vendors to contribute to their household expenses and to save. No major difference was noted in the production process of Gbeli contrary to the sale modes (stationary, itinerant, and mixed). Production process, packaging form, and sale condition of Gbeli present enormous hygienic practice deficiencies. Some corrective measures were thus suggested. About 56% of Gbeli samples analyzed were microbiologically not up to standard. The prevalence and abundance of mycotoxinogenic molds, thermotolerant coliforms, and coagulase-positive Staphylococci in these chips are very worrying. The consumption of Gbeli therefore exposes its consumers to a permanent risk of food poisoning. Training of Gbeli vendors on good hygiene and production practices is indispensable.


Assuntos
Manihot , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Benin/epidemiologia , Higiene , Verduras
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