Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.750
Filtrar
1.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(2): e1371, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteus mirabilis has been identified as an important zoonotic pathogen, causing several illnesses such as diarrhoea, keratitis and urinary tract infections. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the prevalence of P. mirabilis in broiler chickens, its antibiotic resistance (AR) patterns, ESBL-producing P. mirabilis and the presence of virulence genes. METHODS: A total of 26 isolates were confirmed as P. mirabilis from 480 pooled broiler chicken faecal samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial susceptibility test, while nine virulence genes and 26 AR genes were also screened by PCR. RESULTS: All 26 P. mirabilis isolates harboured the ireA (siderophore receptors), ptA, and zapA (proteases), ucaA, pmfA, atfA, and mrpA (fimbriae), hlyA and hpmA (haemolysins) virulence genes. The P. mirabilis isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (62%) and levofloxacin (54%), while 8 (30.7%) of the isolates were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR). PCR analysis identified the blaCTX-M gene (62%), blaTEM (58%) and blaCTX-M-2 (38%). Further screening for AMR genes identified mcr-1, cat1, cat2, qnrA, qnrD and mecA, 12%, 19%, 12%, 54%, 27% and 8%, respectively for P. mirabilis isolates. The prevalence of the integron integrase intI1 and intI2 genes was 43% and 4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rise of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance, as well as MDR strains, is a public health threat that points to a challenge in the treatment of infections caused by these zoonotic bacteria. Furthermore, because ESBL-producing P. mirabilis has the potential to spread to humans, the presence of blaCTX -M -producing P. mirabilis in broilers should be kept under control. This is the first study undertaken to isolate P. mirabilis from chicken faecal samples and investigate its antibiotic resistance status as well as virulence profiles in South Africa.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Proteus mirabilis , Animais , Humanos , Proteus mirabilis/genética , Virulência/genética , Levofloxacino , Matadouros , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Ciprofloxacina
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e29, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299329

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an emerging viral pathogen with pandemic potential that is often misdiagnosed. Case fatality in low-resource settings could be up to 40% due to close contact between animals and humans. A two-year cross-sectional study was conducted in Fagge abattoir, Kano State, Nigeria, to estimate the seropositivity of CCHFV in camels using a commercial multi-species competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to the abattoir workers to assess their awareness, mitigation, and behavioural practices associated with CCHF. Of the 184 camels tested, 179 (97%) were seropositive for CCHFV (95% confidence interval (CI): 93.77, 99.11). The median (interquartile range (IQR)) age of respondents was 41 (35-52), with 62% having no education. Respondents had little knowledge about CCHFV and the concept of zoonotic disease. In this study, the high estimated prevalence of antibodies to CCHFV in camels highlights the heightened risk of transmission of CCHFV in Nigeria. Similarly, a concerning lack of knowledge and inadequate preventive practices, alongside a prevalence of high-risk behaviours associated with CCHF among abattoir workers, were noted in this study. Thus, there is an urgent need for comprehensive public health education and collaborative One Health strategies to avert the threats of spillover events.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Animais , Humanos , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/veterinária , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Camelus , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Estudos Transversais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Water Environ Res ; 96(2): e10989, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303506

RESUMO

The treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater is a complex task demanding careful consideration due to its challenging nature. Therefore, exploring more sustainable treatment methods for this particular type of wastewater is of utmost significance. This research focused on the impact of electrode materials, specifically graphite and titanium, on the efficiency of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and electro-Fenton systems in treating slaughterhouse wastewater. Both graphite and titanium electrodes displayed increasing current density trends, with titanium outperforming graphite. Titanium showed superior electron transfer and current generation (2.2 to 21.2 mA/m2 ), while graphite ranged from 2.4 to 18.9 mA/m2 . Titanium consistently exhibited higher power density, indicating better efficiency in converting current to power (0.059 to 22.68 mW/m2 ), compared to graphite (0.059 to 12.25 mW/m2 ) over the 48-h period. In removal efficiency within the MFC system alone, titanium exhibited superior performance over graphite in key parameters, including zinc (45.5% vs. 37.19%), total hardness (39.32% vs. 29.4%), and nitrates (66.87% vs. 55.8%). For the electro-Fenton system with a graphite electrode, the removal efficiency ranged from 34.1% to 87.5%, with an average efficiency of approximately 56.2%. This variability underscores fluctuations in the efficacy of the graphite electrode across diverse wastewater treatment scenarios. On the other hand, the electro-Fenton system employing a titanium electrode showed removal efficiency values ranging from 26.53% to 89.99%, with an average efficiency of about 68.4%. The titanium electrode exhibits both a comparatively higher and more consistent removal efficiency across the evaluated scenarios. On the other hand, the integrated system achieved more than 90% removal efficiency from most of the parameters. The study underscores the intricate nature of slaughterhouse wastewater treatment, emphasizing the need for sustainable approaches. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton were investigated for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. The MFC microbial activity started to decrease after 24 h. The integrated system achieved up to 99.8% removal efficiency (RE) for total coliform bacteria. Up to 99.4% of RE was also achieved for total suspended solids (TSS). The integrated system highly improved RE of the pollutants.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Grafite , Águas Residuárias , Titânio , Matadouros , Eletrodos , Eletricidade
4.
J Water Health ; 22(2): 385-400, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421632

RESUMO

Discharge of untreated wastewater into water bodies pollutes the receiving waters. This study assessed the impact of abattoir and Kampala designers' effluent discharge on the water quality of the Yemoja River in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Twenty-seven water samples collected at three points, covering 180 m length, for 6 months were assessed for physicochemical parameters and metals and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) permissible standards. Most discharge point levels were found to be higher than their corresponding upstream and downstream values. Temperature, turbidity, magnesium, alkalinity, DO, TSS, phosphate, lead, BOD and potassium were found to be higher than normal levels for river water as prescribed by the WHO and SON while parameters like TDS, TS, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron and COD were lower than the standards. The total coliform values were higher than both national and international permissible limits, indicating contamination by human sewage or animal droppings. The water quality index indicated polluted water that is unfit for consumption. Findings from this research indicate that butchering and tie-and-dye activities have impacted river Yemoja water quality. Therefore, wastewater from the abattoir and textile industries be treated before discharge into water bodies.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Humanos , Nigéria , Uganda , Rios
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(3): 581-585, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407189

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is endemic in dromedaries in Africa, but camel-to-human transmission is limited. Sustained 12-month sampling of dromedaries in a Kenya abattoir hub showed biphasic MERS-CoV incidence; peak detections occurred in October 2022 and February 2023. Dromedary-exposed abattoir workers (7/48) had serologic signs of previous MERS-CoV exposure.


Assuntos
Camelus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Humanos , Animais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Matadouros
6.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113983, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309921

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of Campylobacter in South Korean broilers using a random-effects meta-analysis. Subsequently, to facilitate the design of preventive measures, the prevalence estimate from the meta-analysis was incorporated into a stochastic risk assessment model to quantify the Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The baseline model was developed based on the most common practices along the South Korean broiler processing line, with no interventions. Meta-analysis results revealed Campylobacter prevalence across the chicken supply chain in the following order: farms (60.6 % [57.3-63.4]), retail markets (43.90 % [24.81-64.99]), slaughterhouses (27.71 % [18.56-39.21]), and processing plants (14.50 % [3.96-41.09]). The model estimated a 52 % (36.1-70.8) Campylobacter prevalence at the end of chilling, with an average contamination level of 4.62 (2.50-6.74) log CFU/carcass. Sensitivity analysis indicated that Campylobacter fecal shedding (r = 0.95) and the amount of feces on bird exteriors (r = 0.17) at pre-harvest were the main factors for carcass contamination, while soft scalding (r = -0.22) and air chilling (r = -0.12) can serve as critical control points (CCPs) at harvest. Scenario analysis indicated that a combination of hard scalding, inside-outside bird washing, spray washing, and chlorinated water immersion chilling can offer a 30.9 % reduction in prevalence and a reduction of 2.23 log CFU/carcass in contamination levels compared to the baseline model. Apart from disinfection and sanitation interventions carried out during meat processing, the implementation of robust control measures is indispensable to mitigate Campylobacter prevalence and concentration at broiler farms, thereby enhancing meat safety and public health. Furthermore, given the high Campylobacter prevalence in the retail markets, future studies should explore the potential risk of cross-contamination at post-harvest stage.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Animais , Galinhas , Matadouros , Água , Medição de Risco
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 88, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409615

RESUMO

These cross-sectional studies reported the occurrence, genetic characteristics, and factors associated with the distribution of Listeria species on cattle farms and beef abattoirs in Gauteng Province, South Africa. A total of 328 samples (faeces, feeds, silage, and drinking water) were collected from 23 cattle farms (communal, cow-calf, and feedlot), and 262 samples (faeces, carcass swabs, and effluents) from 8 beef abattoirs (low throughput and high throughput) were processed using standard bacteriological and molecular methods to detect Listeria species. The factors associated with the prevalence of Listeria species were investigated, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to determine Listeria species, the pathogenic serogroups, and the carriage of eight virulence-associated genes by Listeria monocytogenes. The overall prevalence of Listeria species in cattle farms was 14.6%, comprising Listeria innocua (11.3%), Listeria monocytogenes (3.4%), Listeria welshimeri (0.0%) compared with 11.1%, comprising Listeria innocua (5.7%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.6%), Listeria welshimeri (0.8%) for beef abattoirs. Of the three variables (area, type of farm/abattoir, and sample type) investigated, only the sample types at abattoirs had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on the prevalence of L. innocua and L. welshimeri. The frequency of distribution of the serogroups based on 11 L. monocytogenes isolated from farms was 72.7% and 27.3% for the serogroup 1/2a-3a and 4b-4d-4e, respectively, while for the 12 L. monocytogenes isolates recovered from abattoirs, it was 25%, 8.3%, 50% and 16.7% for the serogroup 1/2a-3a, 1/2b-3b, 1/2c-3c, and 4b-4d-4e respectively (P < 0.05). All (100%) isolates of L. monocytogenes from the farms and abattoirs were positive for seven virulence genes (hlyA, inlB, plcA, iap, inlA, inlC, and inlJ). The clinical and food safety significance of the findings cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Matadouros , Fazendas , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296971, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is considered one of the most significant pathogens in public health since it is a bacterium that is frequently linked to food-borne illnesses in humans. Some Salmonella serovars are responsible for outbreaks that are connected to the consumption of animal products. Cattle are connected to humans through a shared environment and the food chain as a significant source of animal protein. In Nigeria, antimicrobial medications are easily accessible for use in food-producing animals. Abattoir environments are reservoirs of foodborne bacteria like non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS), that have become resistant to antibiotics used for prophylaxis or treatment in animals. This study investigated the prevalence and resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica serovars in abattoir employees, beef cattle and abattoir environments in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 448 samples were collected from healthy personnel, slaughtered cattle, and abattoir environments between May and December 2020. Using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, the resistance profile of NTS isolates were determined. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was considered when NTS was resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial drug classes. We performed phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of all Salmonella isolates including serotyping. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (6%) NTS isolates were obtained. Prevalence of NTS was highest in abattoir environments (15.5%; 9/58), followed by cattle (4.8%;13/272) and abattoir employees (4.2%; 5/118). A high prevalence of resistance was observed for gentamicin (85.2%; 23/27) and tetracycline (77.8%; 21/27). Whole-genome sequencing of 22 NTS showed dissemination of aac(6')-laa (22/22), qnrB19 (1/22), fosA7 (1/22), and tetA (1/22) genes. Serovar diversity of NTS varied with source. S. Anatum, a rare serovar predominated with a prevalence of 18.2% (4/22). Chromosomal point mutations showed ParC T57S substitution in 22 NTS analyzed. Among 22 NTS, 131 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected including insertion sequences (56.5%) and miniature inverted repeats (43.5%). Two integrating MGEs IS6 and IS21 were observed to carry the tetA gene + Incl-1 on the same contig in NTS originating from cattle. Rare serovars namely S. Abony and S. Stormont with MDR phenotypes recovered from cattle and abattoir environments were closely related with a pairwise distance of ≤5 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: First report of rare serovars in Nigeria with MDR phenotypes in humans, cattle, and abattoir environments. This study demonstrates the spread of resistance in the abattoir environment possibly by MGEs and emphasizes the importance of genomic surveillance. Beef cattle may be a risk to public health because they spread a variety of rare Salmonella serovars. Therefore, encouraging hand hygiene among abattoir employees while processing beef cattle will further reduce NTS colonization in this population. This requires a One Health collaborative effort among various stakeholders in human health, animal health, and environmental health.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Salmonella enterica , Febre Tifoide , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Sorogrupo , Salmonella enterica/genética , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(1): e1343, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both male and female food animals are slaughtered for meat. Some cows, ewes and does  slaughtered are found with viable foetuses resulting in foetal wastage and loss of future replacement stock. Foetal wastage accounts for about 20%-25% of the decline in livestock numbers in sub-Saharan Africa. Slaughter of pregnant cows, ewes and does results in economic losses and threatens food security with consequent decrease in available animal proteins to the fast growing human population. Protein requirement for healthy human development is inadequate in most developing countries including Uganda. The prevalence and economic losses associated with foetal wastage were assessed in an abattoir. OBJECTIVES: The study was cnducted to assess the prevalence of feotal wastage at the study abattoir and estimate the associated economic losses. METHODS: The researchers supported by abattoir resident meat inspectors examined all slaughtered female animals during the study period. Gravid uteri obtained from slaughtered animals after dressing of carcasses were eviscerated using a sharp knife across the long axis to recover foetuses. The crown rump lengths (CRLs) of the recovered foetuses were measured using a tape measure, weighed on a scale and categorised into first, second and third trimesters. Prevalence of pregnant animals slaughtered was determined by calculating the percentage of pregnant animals over the total number of female animals slaughtered. Economic losses were estimated based on the monetary losses at birth, weaning, maturity, and carcass loss at weaning and maturity. RESULTS: The aggregate slaughters were bovine 604 (73.6%), caprine 169 (20.6%) and ovine 48 (5.9%). The overall prevalence of foetal wastage was 21.9%. The aggregate prevalence of foetal wastage by species include 160 (88.9%) cows, 8 (4.4%) heifers, 4 (2.2%) does and 8 (4.4%) ewes. Foetal wastage of cows by trimester included 62 (38.8%), 26 (16.25%) and 72 (45.0%) in first, second and third trimesters, respectively, translating into loss of US$13,055. Foetal wastage was high and the associated economic losses were substantial which undermines sustainability of the national herd. Farmers should be sensitised about the economic losses and long-term impact associated with foetal wastage and dissuaded from this practice. A policy is needed to deter farmers from selling pregnant animals for slaughter. CONCLUSIONS: A total of 168 bovine, 8 caprine and 12 ovine foetuses were wasted within 60 days study period. These foetal wastages translated to US$ 13,224 monetary losses at birth, US$ 31,849 monetary loss at weaning and US$ 57,0896 monetary loss at maturity.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Cabras , Gravidez , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Ovinos , Bovinos , Masculino , Prevalência , Feto , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 29, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lameness has been associated with compromised animal welfare and reduced productivity in dairy cattle herds worldwide. However, little is known about the prevalence of claw lesions in the dairy buffalo population in Egypt. Furthermore, the optimum measurements for claw trimming in buffalo are unknown. A cross-sectional cadaver study was conducted where 135 pair buffalo hind feet were collected from 4 slaughterhouses and examined for the presence of claw lesions. The proportion and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of each type of lesion were calculated. A separate set of healthy claws (n = 26) underwent ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). The agreement between US and CT measurements was assessed using Passing-Bablok regression and intraclass correlation coefficient. The CT measurements were used to calculate trimming recommendations. RESULTS: At least one lesion was identified in 242 claws (89.6%, 95% CI = 85.4-93.0). In healthy claws, poor to moderate agreement was identified between US and CT measurements which could be due a sample size of the study. The average ± standard deviation (SD) minimum recommended external wall length of the lateral and medial claws in heifers was 7.1 ± 0.36 cm and 7.5 ± 0.35 cm, respectively. The average ± SD minimum recommended external wall length in buffaloes over five years of age was 8.2 ± 0.27 cm and 8.4 ± 0.39 cm for the lateral and medial claws, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study found a high prevalence of claw lesions in buffalo in Egypt, the clinical significance of which requires further elucidation. Recommended measurements will help guide claw trimming in buffalo to minimise lesions.


Assuntos
Bison , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Pé , Casco e Garras , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Búfalos , Matadouros , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Casco e Garras/diagnóstico por imagem , Casco e Garras/patologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia
11.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120161, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290261

RESUMO

The removal of turbidity from abattoir wastewater (AWW) by electrocoagulation (EC) was modeled and optimized using Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. Artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and genetic algorithms (GA) were the AI tools employed. Five input variables were considered: pH, current intensity, electrolysis time, settling time, and temperature. The ANN model was evaluated using the Levenberg-Marquardt (trainlm) algorithm, while the ANFIS modeling was accomplished using the Sugeno-type FIS. The ANN and ANFIS models demonstrated linear adequacy with the experimental data, with an R2 value of 0.9993 in both cases. The corresponding statistical error indices were RMSE (ANN = 5.65685E-05; ANFIS = 2.82843E-05), SSE (ANN = 1.60E-07; ANFIS = 3.4E-08), and MSE (ANN = 3.2E-09; ANFIS = 8E-10). The error indices revealed that the ANFIS model had the least performance error and is considered the most reliable of the two. The process optimization performed with GA and PSO considered turbidity removal efficiency, energy requirement, and electrode material loss. An optimal turbidity removal efficiency of 99.39 % was predicted at pH (3.1), current intensity (2 A), electrolysis time (20 min), settling time (50 min), and operating temperature (50 °C). This represents a potential for the delivery of cleaner water without the use of chemicals. The estimated power consumption and the theoretical mass of the aluminium electrode dissolved at the optimum condition were 293.33 kW h/m3 and 0.2237 g, respectively. The work successfully affirmed the effectiveness of the EC process in the removal of finely divided suspended particles from AWW and demonstrated the suitability of the AI algorithms in the modeling and optimization of the process.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Inteligência Artificial , Águas Residuárias , Lógica Fuzzy , Matadouros , Algoritmos , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 168: 105124, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199012

RESUMO

This factorial study was part of a project examining potential welfare challenges for cull sows in the pre-slaughter logistic chain, and examined effects of journey duration and presence of a longer pre-planned stop half-way during journeys on their post-transport clinical condition. The sows were transported 4, 6 or 8 h under conditions modelling typical Danish practice. In addition, across 49 journeys, effects of temperature inside the vehicle and time spent waiting before unloading at the slaughterhouse were examined. The results confirmed the findings of our earlier observational study, showing that the clinical conditions of cull sows deteriorated during transport, but also that none of the 578 sows arrived at the slaughterhouse in a condition that would have rendered them unfit for transport. A complex picture was found in relation to the clinical variables affected by journey duration, involvement of a longer pre-planned stop, and/or time spent waiting before unloading. This suggests that several factors contribute to the deterioration of the clinical condition of sows, but not consistently or as unequivocal causal factors, at least within the studied journey durations. Based on the deterioration in their clinical condition, especially for variables associated with heat stress and aggression, and knowing that the amount of time the sows are exposed to hazards such as aggressive pen mates, high temperatures and/or moving vehicles is dependent on the journey duration, keeping journeys as short as possible will most likely be advantageous. Future studies should also focus on how to optimise the social and microclimatic environment.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Meios de Transporte , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Agressão , Bem-Estar do Animal
13.
Meat Sci ; 208: 109365, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939509

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to provide an up-to date overall evaluation of visual contamination occurring on the slaughter line in order to provide a basis for implementing contamination control measures and to the hygienic quality of the processes. For this purpose, 627 contaminated pig carcasses in an industrial slaughterhouse in north western Germany were examined in 2021 for its distribution of type, areal extent and localization of slaughter contamination. Prior to official meat inspection, two persons visually scanned dorsal and ventral surfaces of the eviscerated but not yet split pig carcasses from cranial to caudal and recorded types, areal extent and localization of the contamination. The main contamination type were intestinal contents, bile, stomach contents, tubular rail fat and "others", which mostly consisted of a reddish foam from the respiratory tract. 103 out of 627 contaminated animals showed more than one contamination, which leads to a total number of 754 contaminations detected. Intestinal contents accounted for almost half of all contaminations and "others" for 30%. Forelimb, back and ham together counted for 70% of the contaminated regions. The affected area was smaller than that of a one euro coin (diameter about 23 mm) in 86% of the cases.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Carne , Suínos , Animais , Higiene , Alemanha , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
14.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(1): e1332, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major contributor to the poor meat safety status in Kenya is low level of slaughter hygiene knowledge and practices among slaughterhouse workers. INTRODUCTION: The study determined knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs) of workers from 7 small and medium slaughterhouses in Kajiado County on slaughter hygiene and meat safety. METHODOLOGY: Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 78 workers, managers and meat inspectors. RESULTS: Majority (92.3%) of workers lacked slaughter hygiene and meat safety training. Workers had high knowledge with an overall mean score of 19.2 ± 2 out of 24, high personal hygiene scores (9.9 ± 0.8 out of 11), moderate carcass contamination scores (4.2 ± 0.8 out of 6), meat-borne illness score (3.1 ± 1 out of 4) and temperature intervention scores (2.1 ± 0.6 out of 3). Moderate and high scores were recorded in attitude and practices and differed significantly across slaughterhouses (p < 0.05) with a mean of 33 ± 5 out of 40 and 59.3 ± 3.5 out of 65, respectively. There was no significant difference in KAP scores between trained and untrained workers. Carcass decontamination practices by workers differed from that of the meat inspector. Surface and handheld equipment sanitization practices were observed as poor. Medical testing practice was poor and significantly different across slaughterhouses (p < 0.001) with infection rates of zoonoses and occupational hazards as high as 33% in some slaughterhouses. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that although high knowledge and neutral attitude were scored by slightly more than half of the workers, poor practices were reported and observed in carcass decontamination, equipment and facility sanitization and worker medical examination. Slaughter facilities in Kajiado County have an opportunity to offer their workers role-specific training, the provision of personal protective equipment, hygiene and sanitation facilities and strict oversight of worker medical testing.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Animais , Quênia , Zoonoses , Carne
15.
Vet Rec ; 194(2): e3712, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38111037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veterinary students in the UK must visit a slaughterhouse as part of their studies. There is currently limited evidence exploring how students perceive these visits or which activities have been implemented to support learning during a visit that may be emotionally challenging. METHODS: Veterinary students at the Royal Veterinary College and the University of Glasgow were invited to complete an online survey and participate in follow-up focus groups. RESULTS: Participants appreciated the important role that veterinarians play in the slaughterhouse. Most (69%) agreed that in-person visits are important and would choose to visit, with around half (49%) thinking it should be optional. Previous slaughterhouse experience improved students' views towards compulsory in-person visits. Teaching events covering the slaughter process, videos and discussion sessions were perceived as useful preparatory activities. Anxiety was the most common emotion associated with visits. LIMITATIONS: The response rate was low, at 15.6%, and a small number of students participated in focus groups. Data on diets and gender were not collected. CONCLUSION: Slaughterhouse visits are valued by students, although they can cause negative emotions. Managing expectations and increasing awareness of visitation requirements during the application process and subsequent studies may improve the educational and emotional experience of visits.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Educação em Veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Grupos Focais
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 403, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114898

RESUMO

Contaminated meat has been implicated in many cases of foodborne illness and poses serious challenges in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the quality and safety of raw beef meat in Assosa Town. The finding showed that the mean of Aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) and S. aureus at retail outlets was 5.04 log10cfu/g and 3.84 log10cfu/g; 4.03 log10cfu/g and 3.5 log10cfu/g at slaughterhouse, respectively. The microbial load range of AMB at the butcher shop was 2.49-5.16 log10 cfu/g, while at the abattoir it was 2.75-7.52 log10 cfu/g out of 70 raw beef meat analyzed samples. Similar to this, the butcher shop and abattoir had S. aureus microbiological load ranges of 2.74 - 4.84 log10 cfu/g and 2.71-4.72 log10 cfu/g, respectively. In contrast, 25.7% and 34.3% of the samples in the abattoir and retail shop, respectively, were contaminated with Salmonella sp. For S. aureus, just 38.71% and 17.14%, respectively, of the samples at the retail and butcher shops were satisfactory. AMB found that 80% of the examined samples from butcher shops and 57.7% from abattoirs were satisfactory. Due to poor handling and environmental hygiene procedures by Assosa Town butchers, 77.1% of the meat contact surface and 82.9% of the carcass were exposed to flies. On the other hand, only 5.7%, 28.6%, and 22.9% of the butchers kept the carcass in the refrigerator, and wore gowns and hairnets, respectively. In slaughterhouses, the majority of respondents (87.5%) concur that there were certain challenges in achieving slaughtering in the working environment.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Bovinos , Etiópia , Staphylococcus aureus , Carne/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(50): 109315-109330, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37924165

RESUMO

The frequencies of 6 different facultative pathogenic bacteria of the ESKAPE group (priority list WHO) and a total of 14 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) with different priorities for human medicine were quantified in wastewaters of poultry and pig slaughterhouses using molecular biological approaches. Raw sewage from poultry and pig slaughterhouses was found to be contaminated not only with facultative pathogenic bacteria but also with various categories of clinically relevant ARGs, including ARGs against the reserve antibiotics group. The concentration of the different gene targets decreased after on-site conventional biological or advanced oxidative wastewater treatments, but was not eliminated. Hence, the antimicrobial BlueLight (aBL) in combination with a porphyrin photo-sensitizer was studied with ESKAPE bacteria and real slaughterhouse wastewaters. The applied broad LED-based blue light (420-480 nm) resulted in groups of sensitive, intermediate, and non-sensitive ESKAPE bacteria. The killing effect of aBL was increased in the non-sensitive bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecium due to the addition of porphyrins in concentrations of 10-6 M. Diluted slaughterhouse raw wastewater was treated with broad spectrum aBL and in combination with porphyrin. Here, the presence of the photo-sensitizer enhanced the aBL biocidal impact.


Assuntos
Porfirinas , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Matadouros , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Bactérias/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Genes Bacterianos , Tecnologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 20250, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985808

RESUMO

Electrical stunning is used to capture crocodiles to perform routine management procedures. It is essential from a welfare point that electrical stunning must cause unconsciousness in animals. However, there is no information of whether or not electrical stunning causes unconsciousness in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The purpose of the study was to assess brain activity before and after electrical stunning in crocodiles using a 5-channel referential electroencephalogram analysis to determine consciousness. Behavioural indicators and electroencephalogram recordings of 15 captive-bred crocodiles were captured and analysed using power spectral density analysis immediately before and after stunning and then at 60 s intervals until 5 min post-stunning. A standardised stun of 170 Volts was applied for 5-7 s on the wetted neck. Unconsciousness was defined as a decrease in alpha wave power and increase in delta wave power. Three of the electroencephalograms could not be assessed. Unconsciousness was identified in 6 out of 12 crocodiles and lasted for an average for 120 s. An increase in electroencephalogram waveform amplitude and tonic-clonic seizure-like waveform activity and behaviour indicators were not reliable indicators of unconsciousness. Further research should be focused on improving the efficiency and reliability of electrical stunning.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Matadouros , Inconsciência , Confusão , Eletroencefalografia , Encéfalo
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 408, 2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37987872

RESUMO

The resistance of pigs' bone structure was evaluated for the first time, reared with and without environmental enrichment (EE) in the finishing phase using techniques in bone biomechanics; 432 swine from the Hampshire breed, being males and females, with initial body weight between 22 and 27 kg and final body weight between 110 and 125 kg were evaluated for 112 days. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with 6 treatments, distributed in a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (sex × conditions in creation), with 12 repetitions/treatment, totaling 72 pens. The treatments were as follows: branched chain for males (T1), sisal branched string for males (T2), males without EE (T3), branched chain for females (T4), sisal branched string for females (T5), and females without EE (T6). At the end of the experimental period, all animals were slaughtered in an industrial slaughterhouse, having their femur bones collected for bone biomechanics analysis. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the interaction (enrichment × sex) and individual factors for bone weight. There was a tendency (P = 0.08) of the interaction for flexion force, being higher in males enriched with branched ropes and chains. For breaking stress, there was an interaction effect (P = 0.04), being the females without EE the ones showing the lowest breaking stress, favoring bone fragility. The use of branched ropes and chains strengthens the bone structure in swine in the termination phase (110-125 kg BW - 183-190 days in age), being an important strategy used to meet the animal welfare requirements.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suínos
20.
Vet Ital ; 59(1): 23-38, 2023 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37994635

RESUMO

Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex (PRDC) is an unequivocally leading cause of economic losses to the pig industry. To investigate the pathogens associated with PRDC, a total of 900 lungs with gross lesions and 125 lungs with no appreciable gross lesions were collected from the abattoirs and subjected to pathological investigation for distribution of lesions/and types of exudates, as well as to molecular confirmation of bacterial and viral pathogens by PCR. The pneumonic lungs showed the higher prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. (31.22%), with evidence of M. hyorhinis, P. multocida (21.33%), S. suis (18.66%), B. bronchiseptica (16.77%), and viral pathogens as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) (28.11%), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (2.7%) and swine influenza virus (SIV) (1.2%). On histopathological examination, high prevalence of bronchopneumonia (37.88%) followed by enzootic pneumonia­like lung lesions (11.44%), and interstitial pneumonia (7.44%) was recorded in the majority of affected pigs. The winter season was found to be more conducive for highest prevalence of pneumonia as compared to other seasons. The present study reports the high prevalence of PRDC in slaughtered pigs of India. M. hyorhinis showing the EP­like lesions, PCV2 and their combination were likely to be the prime contributors of PRDC in Indian pigs.


Assuntos
Circovirus , Pasteurella multocida , Pneumonia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças Respiratórias , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Matadouros , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Pneumonia/veterinária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...