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1.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109783, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072952

RESUMO

Large volume of wastewater consisting complex forms of organics, lipids and nutrients, is discharged from the abattoir (red meat) processing industry. In this study, nutrient rich pre-Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) treated abattoir effluent was fed to a struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) precipitator to evaluate the possibility of developing an innovative environmentally sustainable treatment technology to produce nutrient free high-quality treated effluent. A series of continuous and batch experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of pH and presence of Ca2+ on struvite precipitation. The study found that Mg2+:Ca2+ molar ratio of 0.8 (or high Ca2+) impacts on the production and quality of struvite significantly. Pre-AnMBR treated abattoir wastewater with negligible Ca2+ (Mg2+:Ca2+ molar ratio > 20) showed over 80% removal of phosphorus via struvite precipitation. The highest removal rates of both nitrogen and phosphorus were achieved at pH 9.5 with Mg2+:PO43- molar ratio of 2:1.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Precipitação Química , Nutrientes , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Estruvita , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(1): 11-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050875

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of Campylobacter species, to detect the antibiotic resistance profiles and the virulence genes and to determine the clonal proximity of the isolates in the samples of cutting board, slaughterhouse waste water, wall, knife and carcass from three different slaughterhouses in Kayseri region. For this purpose, a total of 150 samples, 10 of each from knife, wall, cutting board, carcass smear sample and slaughterhouse wastewater were collected from each of the three types of slaughterhouses in 2018 in Kayseri. For the isolation of the Campylobacter species, following preenrichment, the suspensions were inoculated onto modified charcoal cefoperazone desoxycholate (CCD) agar and were incubated at 37°C under microaerophilic condition for 48-72 hours. Suspicious colonies with gray-white color were recovered and subjected to phenotypical (Gram staining, oxidase, catalase test, and motion test) tests. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used for the molecular identification of the Campylobacter species. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates identified at the species level were detected by using the disk diffusion test and antibiotic gradient test. Virulence genes (iam, cadF, cdtA, flaA, ceuE, cdtC, cdtB and virB11) among the isolates were evaluated by PCR. The molecular typing of the isolates determined at species level was performed by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). In the study, 17 (11.3%) of the 150 samples taken from the slaughterhouse were found to be suspicious in terms of Campylobacter spp. and as a result of phenotypic identification tests, all of the isolates were verified as Campylobacter spp.. As a result of mPCR; eight of the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, eight as Campylobacter fetus and one as Campylobacter coli. The isolation of the Campylobacter species from different sources was found to be higher in slaughterhouse wastewater than those of others (p<0.001) and the difference in the proportional distribution of the Campylobacter species obtained from various sources was statistically significant (p<0.05). As a result of the disk diffusion test, while, all C.jejuni isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 87.5%, 25%, 25% and 12.5% of C.jejuni isolates were resistant to enrofloxacin, neomycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and erythromycin, respectively. In addition, 25%, 25% and 12.5% of C.fetus isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, neomycin and gentamicin, respectively. C.coli isolate was not resistant to any of the antibiotics tested. Antibiotic gradient test results were found to be compatible with the disc diffusion test results. One of the virulence genes examined, virB11, was not detected in any of the isolates. Moreover, iam gene was not present in C.fetus and C.coli isolates, but only in one C.jejuni isolate. The flaA gene was detected in six C.jejuni isolates. C.coli isolate and seven C.jejuni and seven C.fetus isolates were positive in terms of the cdtC gene. The cdtA, cdtB, ceuE and cadF genes were found to be positive in all C.jejuni isolates. All isolates analyzed in the study demonstrated different ERIC-PCR profiles. In conclusion, it was shown that Campylobacter strains isolated from slaughterhouses were resistant to the most of the current antibiotics. Moreover, the presence of highly virulent Campylobacters in the slaughterhouse environment threatens public health due to the risk of contamination of the humans via carcasses and foods. Therefore, it is recommended that strict hygiene rules should be followed to reduce Campylobacter species contamination in slaughterhouses.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Virulência , Matadouros , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência/genética
3.
Environ Technol ; 41(4): 466-477, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016201

RESUMO

Commercial turfgrass cultivation is one of the main ornamental industries world-wide; however, successive turfgrass sod cutting from the same site removes surface soil, leading to a decline in soil organic matter, impairment of soil fertility and degradation of environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the applicability of poultry abattoir sludge compost (PASC) and biochar (BC) on the establishment of turfgrass by evaluating plant growth performance and mitigation of soil loss by organic waste amendments. The experimental study was designed on the soil which had originally low-organic matter content and previously used as a turfgrass sod harvested site in a sandy loam soil. Incorporation of PASC to soil improved the physicochemical properties in terms of bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH, total nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC), and organic matter (OM) by 37 (±2)%, 45 (±3)%, 55 (±3)%, 21 (±2)%, 48 (±2)%, 90 (±10)%, and 96 (±4)%, respectively. PASC-amended treatments enhanced the turfgrass growth rate more than the BC due to its increased nutrient availability. Incorporation of 100 Mg ha-1 (mega gram per hectare) PASC in surface soil with or without BC decreased the mineral soil removal rate by half of the respective soil (control) treatments. The results of the present study confirmed the utilization of PASC and BC as promising agro-industrial-based fertilizers in turfgrass sod production for sustainable soil and nutrient management.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Matadouros , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilizantes , Aves Domésticas , Esgotos , Solo
4.
Food Chem ; 304: 125448, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491713

RESUMO

Blood, from slaughterhouses, is an inevitable part of meat production, causing environmental problems due to the large volumes recovered and its low valorization. However, the α137-141 peptide, a natural antimicrobial peptide, can be obtained after hydrolysis of hemoglobin, the main constituent of blood red part. To recover it at a sufficient concentration for antimicrobial applications, a new sustainable technology, called electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF), was investigated. The α137-141 concentration was increased about 4-fold at a feed peptide concentration of 8% with an enrichment factor above 24-fold. This feed peptide concentration also needed the lowest relative energy consumption. Moreover, this peptide fraction protected meat against microbial growth, as well as rancidity, during 14 days under refrigeration. This peptide fraction was validated as a natural preservative and substitute for synthetic additives against food spoilage. Finally, producing antimicrobial/antioxidant peptide from wastes by EDUF fits perfectly with the concept of circular economy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Sangue , Produtos da Carne/análise , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Matadouros , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos , Refrigeração , Ultrafiltração
5.
Meat Sci ; 159: 107934, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493738

RESUMO

The aim of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an automated system for the assessment of ear and tail lesions as welfare indicators in pigs at the abattoir. A camera-based system was constructed to enable automatic assessment. This was evaluated in comparison to a standard observer, defined as skilled human veterinary observer, based on 5952 carcasses. We detected significant values for ear lesions (sensitivity, 77.0; specificity, 96.5; accuracy, 95.4%) and good values for tail lesions (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 99.7%; accuracy, 99.5%). The reliabilities of assessments by four individual human observers directly at the abattoir and the camera system were calculated using Krippendorff's alpha. These varied between 0.42 and 0.67 for ear lesions and 0.42 and 0.55 for tail lesions, while better values were reached for the agreement between the system and picture-based evaluation (0.64 for ear lesions and 0.75 for tail lesions). More scientific evaluations at different abattoirs are now needed to further test and improve the camera-based system and its various scopes of application.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Automação , Orelha/patologia , Suínos , Cauda/patologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Projetos Piloto , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104806, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704561

RESUMO

A retrospective study was conducted on 1,178,329 cattle slaughtered at an eastern Australian abattoir between 2010 and 2018. The data were searched for records in which a diagnosis of hydatid disease was made by routine meat inspection and apparent prevalence was calculated. True prevalence of hydatid disease in any organ was then estimated using previously reported sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of hepatic hydatid disease by routine meat inspection. Mixed effects logistic regression was conducted to assess putative associations between dentition (age), sex, and feed-type (grass- or grain-fed), and hydatid disease reported at slaughter, with origin (Property Identification Code [PIC] region) included as a random effect. Regression was also conducted on subsets stratified by dentition and feed-type to account for measurement bias resulting from differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups of cattle. Discrete-Poisson models (SaTScan, v.9.5) were used to detect spatio-temporal clustering of hydatid-positive cattle within PIC regions. The apparent prevalence of hydatid disease reported in any organ was 8.8% (n = 104,038; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.8-8.9%). The liver, lungs, heart, spleen, and kidneys were reported infected with hydatid cysts. Of cattle reported infected with hydatid cysts, 75.6% had both the liver and lungs reported infected. True prevalence was estimated to be 33.0% (95% CI 24.4-44.4%). Significant interaction between dentition and feed-type was identified. Risk of reported hydatid disease was highest in both eight-tooth grass- and eight-tooth grain-fed cattle (OR 17.5, 95% CI 17.0-18.1, reference level [ref] zero-tooth; OR 4.8, 95% CI 4.4-5.2, ref zero-tooth, respectively). Sex was also significantly associated with reported cases of hydatid disease at slaughter, with the highest odds in females (two-tooth group, OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2, ref male). Three spatio-temporal clusters of hydatid-positive regions were identified. The most likely cluster was located in north eastern New South Wales from June 2012 to September 2015 (log likelihood ratio 4774, P < 0.001). This study indicates a higher prevalence of hydatid disease than previously recognised and demonstrates that an effect of sex cannot be ruled out. The identification of clusters could indicate periods when hosts of Echinococcus were more abundant, or localised climatic events that facilitated transmission to cattle. Given the high prevalence, the financial impact of hydatid disease on the Australian beef industry and risk factors associated with variation in spatial distribution should be determined to target interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 582-591, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721927

RESUMO

This research aimed to determine the presence of paramphistomids in cattle slaughtered in a slaughterhouse of the Ñuble Region of Chile, to identify flukes and to analyze the frequency of these parasites in the Maule, Ñuble, and Biobío administrative regions of Chile. Between October of 2016 and April of 2017, rumens of 494 cattle were examined for flukes in the forestomachs. Worms were identified morphologically and, in addition, molecular analysis of the internal transcriber spacer region 2 of the fluke's DNA was done and phylogenetic analyses were performed with Bayesian inference in 14 worms. The frequency was analyzed by locality (low- or highlands) and age. The overall frequency was 11.24%. The district with the highest frequency of presentation was Chillán Viejo (30.8%). Districts in the lowlands had similar frequencies to those in the mountain lands (p=0.1). The frequency of flukes was significantly higher in adult animals than in young ones (p<0.01). We obtained a 460 bp-length fragment of DNA that was identical to the sequences previously identified as Paramphistomum cervi and Calicophoron microbothrioides, and performed morphological analyses confirmed that our samples belonged to C. microbothrioides. This is the first published study of C. microbothrioides in Chile.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Paramphistomatidae/genética , Matadouros , Animais , Chile , Paramphistomatidae/anatomia & histologia , Paramphistomatidae/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 775, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773280

RESUMO

This study investigated the concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Oji River due to point sources of pollution from abattoir and power plant and determined the ecological and human health risks associated with the PAHs in the sediments. Oji River in Nigeria receives contaminants from anthropogenic activities relating to waste tires used in singeing cow meats in abattoir and preparing hides and skin for local consumption. It also receives contaminants from power distribution station where the defunct coal power plant used to be situated. These activities have the potential to release polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that could accumulate in the river sediments. The PAHs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This study found that the abattoir is responsible for the occurrence of benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in the sediments around the abattoir. The occurrence and distribution of PAHs around the area affected by the power station was profound as among all the 16 priority PAHs; only naphthalene benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were not detected. The five-member ring PAHs were predominant in this section of the river affected by power station. Ecological risks of the PAHs due to the effects of the power station are significant. The total toxicity equivalence (TEQ) of the PAHs upstream the abattoir is insignificant but significant around the abattoir and within the area impacted by the power station. The values of the hazard index (HI) and risk index (RI) indicate insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risks in all the locations except the area within the influence of the power station where there are insignificant non-carcinogenic risks but significant carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Centrais Elétricas , Rios/química , Matadouros/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Mineral , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Nigéria , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Centrais Elétricas/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104805, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715496

RESUMO

In Spain, the eradication of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has had some setbacks and therefore we need to re-evaluate the current surveillance strategies. The Spanish cattle TB surveillance system consists of three components: a) routine skin testing, b) slaughterhouse surveillance, and c) pre-movement controls. Our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of the whole surveillance system and evaluate the relative contribution of each of those components, both at national and at the province level. The effectiveness was estimated based on both the sensitivity of detection per year and the time until detection. Moreover, we evaluated the impact of different factors on that effectiveness. We used a stochastic model that simulated the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex (MTC) infection within cattle herds that was modified to incorporate the three components of TB surveillance. Input data, at the province level, on cattle movements off-farm or the frequency of the routine screening were provided by the Spanish Ministry for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Under the current conditions, 96.1% of Spanish herds were detected within one year after their infection (i.e. mean sensitivity of TB surveillance), although that detection took on average 178 days. The surveillance system effectiveness was highly dependent on the routine skin testing, responsible for the detection of almost 90% of the infected herds, while slaughterhouse surveillance and pre-movement controls contributed only to the identification of a small proportion of infected herds. We observed substantial differences in the effectiveness of the surveillance components among Spanish provinces, although in general, the sensitivities were high. The most influential factor on the efficiency of TB detection in Spain was, by far, the frequency of routine controls, followed by the sensitivity of the test used. In a context of reduced funding for cattle TB eradication, the frequency of testing should be adapted based on risk-based surveillance strategies, i.e. efforts should focus on herds more likely to be infected, but also in herds more likely to infect other herds. While slaughterhouse surveillance seems a cost-effective strategy, the use of pre-movement testing at least in areas of low incidence should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Hialurônico , Vigilância da População , Espanha/epidemiologia , Processos Estocásticos , Transportes , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108457, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767083

RESUMO

Pork is one of the most common vehicles of non-typhoid foodborne Salmonella, with the slaughterhouse representing a key point for the infection of pigs and carcass contamination. By comparing matching samples taken from animals at the dirty (skin) and clean (inner and outer carcass surface) areas of the slaughterline, this study aimed to assess potential Salmonella contamination routes of pig carcasses within a Portuguese abattoir. Forty-four Salmonella isolates were retrieved from 120 pigs, and further characterized through pheno and genotypical methods. Most frequent serotypes found were Salmonella 4, [5],12:i:- (47.7%), Salmonella Rissen (40.9%) and Salmonella Derby (11.4%). Isolates were most commonly collected from the skin of pigs sampled at the dirty area (59.1%), followed by the inner (38.1%) and outer (9.1%) carcass surface sampled at the clean area. Most isolates (79.5%) were considered to be multidrug resistant and all harbored the virulence associated genes invA, invH, sopB, stn, slyA, phoP, phoQ and agfA. PFGE analysis revealed that most bacterial isolates belonging to the same serotype, recovered from animals from different farms, and slaughtered at separate days were genetically undistinguishable. Furthermore, our findings suggest that Salmonella Rissen might have an increased ability to endure on the slaughterhouse environment when compared with the other serotypes. Concluding, this study shows that the slaughterhouse may be a key point for the dissemination of resistant and virulent Salmonella strains, which stresses the importance of the implementation of good hygiene practices at the slaughterhouse and of the application of corrective measures to avoid cross-contamination.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Genótipo , Carne/microbiologia , Fenótipo , Portugal , Sorotipagem , Suínos , Tempo , Fatores de Virulência/genética
11.
J Helminthol ; 94: e92, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581956

RESUMO

A cross-sectional socio-economic study of fascioliasis in livestock was carried out at the Livestock Development Cooperation (SODEPA) slaughterhouse in Etoudi, Yaoundé during the periods covering the beginning and late dry season in the northern and eastern regions of Cameroon. A total of 768 cattle and 267 sheep were inspected for the presence of Fasciola species. The overall infection rate in cattle and sheep was 18% (n = 767) and 27% (n = 267), respectively. For the animals that were Fasciola positive, a total of 267.86 kg of liver in cattle was condemned, resulting in a loss of US$1124, while a total of 57 kg of liver was condemned from the sheep population, amounting to a loss of US$114. A total of US$76,097 was determined as losses incurred from condemnation of liver for both cattle and sheep per annum based on the total number slaughtered each year. The findings indicate that fascioliasis is present in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Cameroon and that it causes great economic losses due to condemnation of liver. The local climatic conditions, husbandry systems and the presence of snails (intermediate hosts) are probably the main factors influencing the incidence of the disease and may account for the epidemiological significance found in this study.


Assuntos
Matadouros/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Alimentos/economia , Doenças dos Ovinos/economia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fasciolíase/economia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104791, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627165

RESUMO

The characteristics and risk factors associated with hepatic Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto infection (hydatid disease) were investigated in beef cattle slaughtered at an abattoir in eastern Australia. Sampled cattle were sourced from all eastern states, predominantly from regions associated with the Great Dividing Range. Livers and corresponding demographic data were collected from 601 carcasses. Livers were examined for the number, size, viability, and fertility of hydatid cysts. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of sex, feed-type (grass- or grain-fed), and dentition (age) on hydatid disease. Hydatid cysts were detected in all dentition groups. The most commonly sampled dentition group was zero-tooth cattle (less than 18 months). Twenty-nine percent of infected livers had only one cyst, and 48% of infected livers contained viable cysts. Thirty-seven percent of infected livers had cysts that were 3-10 mm in diameter. The size and number of cysts were positively correlated with age of the animal. Regression analysis showed that the odds of hydatid disease were highest in eight-tooth cattle (>42 months; OR 26.9; 95% CI 11.8-61.6; reference level [ref] zero-tooth). Being grass-fed was also significantly associated with the presence of hydatid disease (total effect; OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.7-5.5; ref grain-fed). Although there was no evidence of a total effect of sex across the study population, males of a given dentition group and feed-type (grass- or grain-fed) were more likely to be infected than respective females. Despite changes in Australian agriculture in the last 30 years, the burden (number, size, and viability of cysts) of hydatid disease in individual infected animals remains similar to previous Australian studies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Equinococose Hepática/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/fisiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/epidemiologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Anim Sci J ; 90(11): 1475-1483, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515907

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of pathological lesions in pigs from small-scale farms and to determine associations between pathological lesions and hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality in slaughtered pigs. The study was conducted on 625 pigs (~115 kg) originating from 20 small-scale farms. Any signs of pneumonia, pleurisy, pericarditis, and liver milk spots were recorded as present or absent. Complete blood count was investigated. The following carcass quality parameters were measured: live, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and meatiness. Meat pH and temperature were measured 45 min postmortem. Of the 625 examined pigs, 41.8% had pneumonia, 23.5% pleurisy, 2.7% pericarditis, and 29.9% liver milk spots. The presence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs adversely affected hematological parameters, reduced live, hot and cold carcass weights, and meatiness and had deleterious effects on meat quality (higher pH45min and higher prevalence of dark, firm and dry meat). In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs, indicating serious health problems in smallholder pig production systems. The presence of single and, especially, multiple pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs negatively affected hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality.


Assuntos
Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Pericardite/epidemiologia , Pericardite/veterinária , Pleurisia/epidemiologia , Pleurisia/veterinária , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatias/patologia , Pericardite/patologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 628, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted four cross-sectional studies over 1 year among humans and pigs in three slaughterhouses in Central and Western Kenya (> 350 km apart) to determine infection and exposure to influenza A viruses. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from participants who reported acute respiratory illness (ARI) defined as fever, cough or running nose. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from pigs. Human NP/OP and pig nasal swabs were tested for influenza A virus by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pig serum was tested for anti-influenza A antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: A total of 288 participants were sampled, 91.3% of them being male. Fifteen (5.2%) participants had ARI but the nine swabs collected from them were negative for influenza A virus by PCR. Of the 1128 pigs sampled, five (0.4%) nasal swabs tested positive for influenza A/H1N1/pdm09 by PCR whereas 214 of 1082 (19.8%) serum samples tested for Influenza A virus antibodies. There was higher seroprevalence in colder months and among pigs reared as free-range. These findings indicate circulation of influenza A/H1N1/pdm09 among pigs perhaps associated with good adaptation of the virus to the pig population after initial transmission from humans to pigs.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Pandemias , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(3): 123-129, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502802

RESUMO

Objective: Echinococcus granulosus contains a complex of different strains that represent diversity in the pattern of the life cycle and also their host types. So far 10 genotypes of this parasite have been identified, using molecular methods. The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the genotypic diversity of E. granulosus metacestodes from livestock of Turkey and Iran. Methods: A total of 90 livestock liver and lung organs infected with hydatid cyst from industrial slaughterhouses of Bonab Province in the East Azerbaijan Province in Iran (60 samples, including 30 sheep and 30 cattle) and Van Province in Turkey (30 samples, including 15 sheep and 15 cattle) were collected. DNA was extracted from the protoscolices or germinal layers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were utilized, targeting the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) genes. PCR products were isolated from the electrophoresis gels and sequenced. The sequences were compared with each other, as well as with those related available sequences in the GenBank, using the BioEdit software and the BLAST algorithm. Finally, the phylogenetic trees were constructed by comparing sequences of cox1 and nad1 fragments, using the MEGA7 software and the maximum likelihood method. Results: All samples sequenced from Iran corresponded to the genotype G1 (100%). Among the samples from Turkey, 15 samples (78.9%) were identified as G1 while only one sample (5.3%) corresponded to the genotype G3 and 3 isolates (15.8%) were defined as genotypes G1/G3. Five distinct haplotypes were determined within the examined isolates from sheep and cattle in both countries and all isolates clustered in one group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the intra-species genetic variations were 0.0-0.6% and 0.0-1.4% for cox1 and nad1, respectively. Conclusion: The dominant genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto of livestock in both countries was the G1 (sheep strain) genotype. Our findings indicate that the sheep-dog cycle is the leading cycle of E. granulosus in these two areas. Hence, adopting regional common policies and bilateral cooperation helps to control the disease in livestock as well as in human in these two regions. Further study is required to compare the genetic diversity of human isolates of E. granulosus in these two countries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Variação Genética , Gado , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Matadouros , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Turquia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 336, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recognition of illegal administration of synthetic corticosteroids in animal husbandry has been recently challenged by the case of prednisolone, whose occasional presence in the urine of bovines under strong stressful conditions was attributed to endogenous biosynthesis, not to exogenous administration. The study of the natural stress sources possibly inducing endogenous prednisolone production represents a stimulating investigation subject. The biochemical effects of transportation and slaughtering were verified in untreated cows by studying the possible occurrence of prednisolone and its metabolites in urine, liver and adrenal glands, and the cortisol/cortisone quantification. RESULTS: Cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone and its metabolites were measured in urine, collected at farm under natural micturition and then at the slaughterhouse. The study was performed on 15 untreated cows reared in different farms at the end of their productive cycle. 2-3 days after the first urine collection, the animals were transported by trucks to the abattoir, slaughtered, and subjected to a second urine sampling from the bladder. Specimens of liver and adrenal gland were also collected and analysed by means of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) validated method. The stressful conditions of transportation and slaughtering proved to increase considerably the urinary levels of cortisol and cortisone as compared to those collected at farm. Prednisolone was detected in the urine collected at the slaughterhouse of two cows only, at a concentration level (≈0.6 µg L- 1) largely below the official cut off (5.0 µg L- 1) established to avoid false non-compliances. These two animals exhibited the highest urinary cortisol levels of the series. Prednisolone and prednisone were also detected in the adrenal glands of a different cow. Prednisolone metabolites were not detected in any urine, liver, and adrenal gland sample. CONCLUSION: Within the constraints of the condition adopted, this study confirms the sporadic presence of prednisolone traces (2 samples out of 15) and the consistently increased concentration of cortisone and cortisol in the urines collected from cows subjected to truck transportation and subsequent slaughtering. No prednisolone metabolites were detected in any liver and adrenal gland samples, nor in urine specimens, unlike what was previously reported for cows artificially stressed by pharmacological treatment.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Prednisolona/urina , Transportes , Glândulas Suprarrenais/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cortisona/urina , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/urina , Fígado/química , Prednisolona/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 310: 108310, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476581

RESUMO

Pigs infected with Salmonella are an important source of contamination at slaughterhouses. We characterized the distribution, virulence genotypes and antimicrobial-resistance phenotypes for Salmonella isolates that were collected from different stages of a pork production chain. Each of ten pig lots were sampled for feed (n = 10), water (n = 10), barn floor (n = 10), lairage floor (n = 10), mesenteric lymph nodes (n = 100), tonsils (n = 100), processing environment (n = 120), pork cuts (n = 40) and carcasses after bleeding (n = 100), after singeing (n = 100), after evisceration (n = 100), and after final rinsing (n = 100). Salmonella was isolated according to ISO 6579, and after confirmation the isolates were subjected to serogrouping, macro-restriction digests and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), detection of virulence-related genes and antimicrobial-resistance phenotyping. Salmonella was recovered from barn floors from 3 pig farms (3/10), lairage floors (7/10), carcasses after bleeding (2/100) and final washing (1/100), palatine tonsils (45/100), mesenteric lymph nodes (43/100), utensils (3/120) and cuts (4/40). The most prevalent serogroup was O: 4 (82%) followed by O:3 (7.7%); O:9 (5.1%); O:8 (2.6%) and O:7 (2.6%). Recovered strains (n = 109) were classified into 24 different pulsotypes (XbaI restriction digest), which were arranged into five different clusters. Fourteen different virulence genotypes were observed based on 15 loci, and all isolates were positive for invA, sitC, pagC and tolC. There was a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance against streptomycin (90.5%), tetracycline (88.1%), ampicillin (81.0%), chloramphenicol (71.4%), and ciprofloxacin (50.0%). No strain was resistant to ertapenem, meropenem or kanamycin. A majority (80.9%) of isolates were considered multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes). This study provides valuable insight about the epidemiology of Salmonella in swine production, and despite the low presence of this pathogen in carcasses and meat cuts, the majority of isolates was multidrug resistant.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Variação Genética , Salmonella , Virulência/genética , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Carne/microbiologia , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 1063-1073, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478167

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most important foodborne pathogens and is a causal agent of listeriosis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, serogroups, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence factor genes, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 500 poultry samples in Turkey. The isolation sources of 103 L. monocytogenes strains were retail markets (n = 100) and slaughterhouses (n = 3). L. monocytogenes strains were identified as serogroups 1/2a-3a (75.7%, lineage I), 1/2c-3c (14.56%, lineage I), 1/2b-3b-7 (5.82%, lineage II), 4a-4c (2.91%, lineage III), and 4b-4d-4e (0.97%, lineage III). Most of the L. monocytogenes strains (93.2%) were susceptible to the antibiotics tested. PCR analysis indicated that the majority of the strains (95% to 100%) contained most of the virulence genes (hylA, plcA, plcB, prfA, mpl, actA, dltA, fri, flaA inlA, inlC, and inlJ). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated that there were 18 pulsotypes grouped at a similarity of > 90% among the strains. These results indicate that it is necessary to prevent the presence of L. monocytogenes in the poultry-processing environments to help prevent outbreaks of listeriosis and protect public health.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros/economia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
19.
J Helminthol ; 94: e83, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495340

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite that affects mammals, including humans. In Brazil, fascioliasis, a disease caused by the parasite, is of great importance. The disorder affects the welfare of the Brazilian population through impairing the agricultural production of cattle, where the disease causes weight loss as a result of liver damage. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of F. hepatica throughout Southern Brazil to determine its geographic origin and estimate the colonization route of the parasite. To accomplish these aims, flukes were collected from slaughterhouses in three endemic areas of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states. DNA was isolated using the phenol-chloroform protocol from single flukes and two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (Nad1), were amplified and sequenced. Ten haplotypes of COI were found from 75 isolated parasites and the total haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed were 0.475 and 0.002, respectively. Using the Nad1 gene, we found 24 haplotypes from 79 samples, resulting in haplotype and nucleotide diversity values of 0.756 and 0.004, respectively. An analysis of molecular variance showed that 57.4% and 77.5% of variation was within populations (FST), while 9.0 and 36.8% of variation was among groups (FCT) when considering COI and Nad1 genes, respectively. For COI, the fixation index values of 0.425 and 0.368 were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively, while analysis of Nad1 0.225 and 0.089 index values were obtained for FST and FCT, respectively. We have determined that F. hepatica found in the two distinct areas originated from several geographical regions, since we found haplotypes that were shared with at least three different continents. These data are in accordance with the recent colonization of Brazil, and the recent import of cattle from South American, European and, possibly, some African countries. The observed FST and FCT values for COI and Nad1 genes of F. hepatica may be a result of limited movement of animals within states and support the lack of geographical structure of the parasite in Brazil, which are in agreement with the observed cattle production systems in this region.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/genética , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Matadouros , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Genes Mitocondriais , Geografia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia
20.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109558, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545176

RESUMO

The treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated by both acid precipitations and by oxidation processes. Precipitation tests were developed using three acids (H2SO4, HCl and HNO3) at different operating pH (1-6). A decrease of the precipitation pH led to an increase of the conductivity values of the supernatant. Precipitation processes allowed the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (41-97%), turbidity (56-99%) and total phosphorus (27-56%). Total phenols were removed (15-96%) from pH ≥ 2, depending on the precipitation process. Generally, precipitation processes decreased the hydroxide and bicarbonates species. Additionally, three different oxidation processes were tested at different concentrations (1-15 g L-1): Ca(ClO)2, H2O2 and CaO2. When Ca(ClO)2 and CaO2 were applied, an increase of the supernatant conductivity was achieved. COD removal ≥71% and turbidity elimination in the range of 85-100% were achieved by using oxidation processes. CaO2 was very effective to remove total phosphorus (81-96%). The increase of the oxidant concentration in H2O2 and Ca(ClO)2 oxidation processes led to a decrease in the removal of total phenols and bicarbonates species. Optical density of the microorganism cultures was efficiently eliminated (up to 100%) by oxidation processes. In addition, acid precipitation and oxidation allowed to remove total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia nitrogen, nitrates and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). Acid precipitation and oxidation produced sludge rich in organic matter and nutrients (Ca, Mg, P, Cl, Na and K). Despite the high removal efficiencies, a post-treatment following the precipitation and oxidation processes can be required.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Águas Residuárias , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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