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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807936

RESUMO

The working conditions in a slaughterhouse are difficult because of the low temperatures, high humidity, and little natural light. Therefore, in these facilities, there is a high demand in the maintenance of strict hygiene rules. Lately, the new SARS-CoV-2 pandemic situation has brought new challenges in the meat industry, as this sector has to maintain its operability to supply the meat and meat products demanded by the consumers. In this challenging period, the safety of the workers is as important as keeping the high demands for the safety of the meat and meat products along with consumer confidence. This paper aims to give an overview of the risks associated with the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission between the workers in slaughterhouses and to evaluate the stability and infectivity in the working environment of these facilities. Considering the persistence of this virus on different surfaces and the environmental conditions affecting its stability (temperature, relative humidity, and natural light), in the study we proposed several short-, medium-, and long-term preventive measures for minimizing the potential threats of the actual pandemic.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Matadouros , Humanos , Carne
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1407-1417, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767046

RESUMO

Slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) contains high concentrations of phosphorus (P) and is considered as a principal industrial contaminant that causes eutrophication. This study developed two kinds of economical P removal adsorbents using flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) as the main raw material and bentonite, clay, steel slag and fly ash as the additives. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent composed of 60% FGDG, 20% steel slag, and 20% fly ash (DSGA2) was found to be 15.85 mg P/g, which was 19 times that of the adsorbent synthesized using 60% FGDG, 30% bentonite, and 10% clay (DSGA1) (0.82 mg P/g). Surface adsorption, internal diffusion, and ionic dissolution co-existed in the P removal process. The adsorption capacity of DSGA2 (2.50 mg P/g) was also evaluated in column experiments. The removal efficiency was determined to be higher than 92% in the first 5 days, while the corresponding effluent concentration was lower than the Chinese upcoming SWW discharge limit of 2 mg P/L. Compared with DSGA1, DSGA2 (synthesized from various industrial wastes) showed obvious advantages in improving adsorption capacity of P. The results showed that DSGA2 is a promising adsorbent for the advanced removal of P from SWW in practical applications.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Águas Residuárias , Matadouros , Adsorção , Fósforo
3.
Animal ; 15(2): 100134, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573945

RESUMO

The stunning process is an important component of slaughter with implications for animal welfare due to the potential distress and pain in the case of a sub-effective or lengthy stun. This study examined the factors correlated with variation in responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning of pigs in five Australian commercial abattoirs. A total of 1 769 pigs (199-492 focal pigs per abattoir) were individually followed from lairage to post-stunning. A standardised observation protocol was used based on a literature review of the pre-slaughter factors that may influence the reaction to CO2 stunning, such as animal background, lairage conditions, handling, stunning system and conditions. Pigs lost posture 22.5 ±â€¯0.2 s after commencement of descent of the gondola into the CO2 chamber. Latency to loss of posture was associated with farm of origin and time of day, which could be linked to various factors. Pigs that crawled or attempted to escape while in the gondola within the CO2 chamber took longer to lose posture. Crawl and escape attempts differed between abattoirs (0.6-46.2% of the pigs observed) as well as mounting other pigs (1.0-24.3%). Greater amounts of forceful contacts during handling in the race were related to more mounting in the gondola, but to less pigs crawling or attempting to escape. Mounting in the gondola was more frequent for pigs from lairage pens of mixed sexes, followed by pens of entire males and finally pens of females. Males were also twice as likely to show crawl and escape attempts than females. Gasping in the gondola was relatively frequent (63.1-81.8%) and was associated with higher activity in the lairage pen and higher skin injuries. Convulsions (60.1-69.6%) were generally observed after loss of posture. The type of CO2 system (group-wise vs single-file loading) had no significant effect on behaviour in the gondola. Nevertheless, pigs slaughtered in abattoirs with group-wise loading systems and automatic gates had lower cortisol concentrations post-stunning, which may be linked to minimal handling by stockpeople, other factors related to the systems, or differences in timing of when blood samples were taken. In conclusion, substantial variation in the reaction of pigs to CO2 stunning was observed between and within abattoirs using a uniform protocol for data collection. This variation in outcomes between abattoirs and stunning systems and the relationships between handling and behavioural outcomes indicates that improvements can be made to reduce aversive responses to CO2 stunning. In particular, avoiding mixing pigs of different sexes in lairage and aversive handling in the race may reduce aversive response to CO2 stunning.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Dióxido de Carbono , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Suínos
4.
Animal ; 15(2): 100090, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573968

RESUMO

Genetic parameters were estimated for cold carcase weight (CCW), carcase conformation (CON), carcase fat class (FAT), age at slaughter (AGE) and average daily carcase gain (ADCG) in 14 common UK breeds of cattle. These included crossbred animals but purebred datasets were also analysed for the most populous sire-breeds. Heritability estimates for beef breeds that were significant ranged from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.12 to 0.35, 0.12 to 0.36, 0.15 to 0.38 and 0.26 to 0.43 for CCW, CON, FAT, AGE and ADCG, respectively. For Holstein-Friesian, a dairy breed, heritability estimates were consistently lower than most beef breeds with estimates of 0.12, 0.13, 0.13, 0.06 and 0.15 for CCW, CON, FAT, AGE and ADCG, respectively. In all breed groups, genetic correlations were positive between CCW, CON and ADCG. In general, genetic correlations were moderate between CCW and CON (0.13 to 0.77), moderate to strong between CCW and ADCG (0.57 to 0.98) and weak or moderate between CON and ADCG (0.12 to 0.82). Genetic correlations for FAT with CCW (- 0.20 to - 0.42) and CON (- 0.16 to - 0.52) tended to be negative in the beef breed but were positive in the dairy breed, although not significant between CCW and FAT. For most beef breeds genetic correlations between AGE and carcase traits were not significant with the exceptions of AGE and CCW for Simmental (- 0.15) and Salers (- 0.24), AGE and CON for Limousin (0.15) and Simmental (0.14) and AGE and FAT from three sire-breeds (- 0.17 to - 0.35). However, the correlation between AGE and ADCG was negative and moderate to strong in magnitude (- 0.23 to - 0.67) in all beef breeds as expected since faster-growing animals reach slaughter age earlier. For Holstein-Friesian, all genetic correlations with AGE were negative and moderate to strong. Genetic correlations indicate that selection for increased carcase weight should simultaneously increase growth rate and improve conformation in all breeds and reduce carcase fatness in the majority of beef breeds. The results indicate that there is genetic variation in all five traits suitable for undertaking genetic improvement of carcase traits and age at slaughter; however, there are apparent breed differences. The use of abattoir-derived phenotypes for undertaking genetic improvement is an example where the supply chain can work together to share information to enable the cattle industry to move forward.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Composição Corporal , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Fenótipo
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e022720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533798

RESUMO

Slaughter condemnations are important sources of information on cattle health. The incidence of bovine parasitic diseases is still very high in Brazil. These diseases, in addition to causing harm to the animals health, are neglected zoonotic diseases in several parts of world. The study analysed not only the Carcass losses, but also the economic damage resulting from slaughter condemnations due to parasitic causes. Cattle slaughter data from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA), over the period of 2012 to 2015 and data from the Secretary of Livestock and Irrigation of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (SEAPI-RS) were analyzed between 2014 and 2018.The number of organs and carcasses condemned was multiplied by the respective values (in Brazilian Real) obtained from slaughterhouses and subsequently converted into dollars. Brazilian analysis in SIF (Federal Inspection System) establishments showed that more than 1.2 million organs (3,884,505 kg) and 20,000 carcasses (4,547,718 kg) were condemned only due to parasitic causes during post-mortem inspection. In Rio Grande do Sul, in state inspection establishments, more than 1.7 million organs (8,210,559 kg) and 5,000 carcasses (1,243,200 kg) were condemned. These data are alarming and support the need for public policies to control these parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/complicações , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/economia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111982, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529921

RESUMO

Abattoirs are positioned close to freshwaters in most developing countries where untreated wastewaters are discharged into with potential risk to aquatic life such as fish and ultimately human health. We assessed physicochemical parameters, antibiotics (oxytetracycline and diclofenac) and algal load of effluent collected from a major abattoir in Nigeria. Furthermore, liver function enzymes, genotoxic and haemotoxic effects of subacute concentration (10% of 96 hLC50 value) of the wastewater were evaluated over a period of 28 d in Clarias gariepinus (The African Sharptooth Catfish). The 96 hLC50 value of the abattoir wastewater against C. gariepinus was 154.14 mL/L (15.4%). Nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, chloride, ammonia, TDS, TSS, BOD5 and heavy metals (Fe and Pb) in the wastewater were above permissible limits while diclofenac and oxytetracycline were below detection limit (BDL). Microalgae in the wastewater were mostly Bacilliariophyta (Navicula spp.) (45.64%) and euglenoids (Euglena and Phacus spp.) (49.48%). Liver function enzymes (LDH, AST, ALT) level were higher in exposed fishes except for ALP which was lower at day 28 compared to control levels. Erythrocytic genotoxic indices (nuclear abnormalities) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the exposed fishes particularly at day 28 compared to control. Haematologic indices level such as WBC, MCV MCH, MCHC increased significantly (p < 0.05) while lymphocytes, HGB, RBC, HCT levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the exposed C. gariepinus by day 28 compared to control. These results demonstrate potential adverse effects posed to aquatic fish species in the Ogun River by the discharge of the abattoir effluent. The microalgae species identified in the effluent may be explored for pre-treatment of the effluent before discharge in order to prevent eutrophication and increased pollutant load in the River. The study results will contribute to evidence-based environmental risk management of the River which is relevant to the UN SDGs 6 (clean water and sanitation), 11 (sustainable cities and communities) and 14 (sustaining life below water).


Assuntos
Matadouros , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diclofenaco , Água Doce , Humanos , Fígado/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Nigéria , Rios , Águas Residuárias
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 779-788, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433693

RESUMO

Ungulate protoparvovirus 1, also known as porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1), is considered to be one of the major causes of reproductive failure in pig breeding herds. Other parvoviruses have also been identified in pigs, including ungulate tetraparvovirus 3, or PPV2, ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, or PPV3, and ungulate copiparvovirus 2, or PPV4, but their significance for pigs is unknown. In the present study, the prevalence of PPV1-4 was investigated using a total of 231 lung and serum samples collected from slaughterhouses in 13 provinces throughout Vietnam. The overall prevalence was 54.5% (126/231) for PPV1, 28.0% (65/231) for PPV2, 17.7% (41/231) for PPV3, and 7.8% (18/231) for PPV4. While PPV1 and PPV2 were found in 11 provinces, PPV4 was detected in only three provinces. Co-circulation of PPV1, PPV2 and PPV3 was frequently observed, with PPV1/PPV2 coinfection predominating, with 20.8% (48/231). All four PPVs were detected together in only one sample from Thua Thien Hue. Three nearly complete PPV4 genome sequences of 5,453 nt were determined and deposited in the GenBank database. Alignment and comparison of the three genome sequences showed 99.5-99.6% nucleotide sequence identity, and the deduced amino acid sequences of open reading frames 1-3 were 99.6-99.9% identical to each other, 98.9-99.3% identical to those of other Vietnamese strains and 99.4-99.7% identical to those of Chinese strains). Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a close relationship between Vietnamese and Chinese PPV4 strains. These results are the first to report the prevalence of PPV1, PPV2, PPV3, and PPV4 and nearly complete genomic sequences of PPV4 in pigs from slaughterhouses in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Parvovirinae/classificação , Parvovirinae/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
8.
Animal ; 15(3): 100164, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461892

RESUMO

Using carbon dioxide (CO2) for stunning pigs at slaughter is common in Europe. The use of group stunning is a major advantage with CO2, which is done without restraining the pigs and with minimized human contact. However, high concentrations of CO2 have been known for decades to cause pain, fear and distress in pigs before loss of consciousness, and the stunning method is clearly associated with animal welfare concerns. This study reviewed the scientific literature to find recent developments or evaluations of alternative methods that could lead to the replacement of CO2 for stunning pigs at slaughter. Potential alternative methods found in the literature were described and then assessed to identify specific research and development needs for their further development. Only 15 empirical studies were found in the search of peer-reviewed literature since 2004, which is less than one per year. Furthermore, half of the studies focused on evaluating methods to improve high-concentration CO2 stunning rather than an alternative to CO2. Since no clear alternative has emerged, nor a method to improve CO2 stunning, there is obviously a strong need to focus research and development to find solutions for improving animal welfare when stunning pigs at slaughter.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Dióxido de Carbono , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Estado de Consciência , Europa (Continente) , Suínos
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 336: 108912, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091754

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes contamination in raw pork and ready to eat foods is an important food safety concern, also for the increasing detection of antimicrobial-resistant isolates. Data on L. monocytogenes occurrence, persistence, distribution and genetic characterization in two different plants, namely in continuum from slaughtered pigs, environment and unfinished products (fresh hams) were observed by one-year monitoring and were integrated with their antimicrobial resistance patterns. A total of 98 samples out of the overall 1131 (8.7%) were positive for L. monocytogenes, respectively 2.6% and 13.2% in plants A and B: only three serotypes were identified, 1/2c (50%), 1/2b (36.7%) and 1/2a (13.27%), and strains were classified in 35 pulsotypes and 16 clusters by PFGE; a unique P-type was highlighted according to the detection of virulence genes. The contamination flow of L. monocytogenes has a low occurrence in slaughterhouse (Plant A = 1.1%, Plant B: 3.1%; p > 0.05) and increased throughout the processing chain with trimming area as the most contaminated (Plant A: 25%, Plant B: 57%; (p < 0.05)), both in the environment and in unfinished products (80% in hams before trimming in plant B). The dominant role of environmental contamination in post-slaughter processing is confirmed to be a significant cause of meat contamination by L. monocytogenes. Very high levels of resistance were observed for clindamycin (57%) and high resistance levels (>20-50%) to ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, levofloxacin and daptomycin, confirming the L. monocytogenes resistance trend to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. A total of 11 L. monocytogenes isolates were multidrug resistant and 7 out of them were isolated from slaughtered pigs. An interesting significant (p < 0.05) statistical correlation has been found between resistance to some antimicrobial agents and lineage/serotypes. Microbiological sampling of food and environments after sanitization are commonly used as verification procedure for the absence of L. monocytogenes in food plants and to give assurance of food safety, but strains characterization is necessary for industries to target specific control measures, like the enforcement of the hygiene program and of the control of operator activities, at least for permanent strains. The only presence of L. monocytogenes could not be considered as the conclusive assessment of a potential risk for public health, also in terms of emerging and emerged antimicrobial resistances.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Genótipo , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Virulência/genética
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 336: 108902, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091757

RESUMO

Routine evaluation of the slaughter process is performed by the enumeration of the aerobic colony count, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. on the carcass through destructive or non-destructive methods. With non-destructive methods, bacteria are counted from a minimum area of 100 cm2 in different sampling sites on the pork carcasses, and the results of these investigated areas are pooled to one value for the complete carcass evaluation (a total of 400 cm2). However, the composition of the bacterial community present on the different sampling areas remains unknown. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial population present on four areas (ham, back, jowl and belly) of eight pork carcasses belonging to two different slaughterhouses through culture-dependent (Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS, combined with 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and complementary culture-independent (16S rRNA amplicon sequencing) methods. The presence of Salmonella spp. and Y. enterocolitica was additionally assessed. Using MALDI-TOF MS, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli were found to dominate the bacterial cultures isolated from the 8 carcasses. Based on the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analyses however, no specific genus clearly dominated the bacterial community composition. By using this culture-independent method, the most abundant genera in microbial populations of the ham, back, jowl and belly were found to be similar, but important differences between the two slaughterhouses were observed. Thus, present data suggests that the indigenous bacterial population of individual animals is overruled by the microbial population of the slaughterhouse in which the carcass is handled. Also, our data suggests that sampling of only one carcass area by official authorities may be appropriate for the evaluation of the hygienic status of the carcasses and therefore of the slaughter process.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Bactérias/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Salmonella/genética , Staphylococcus/genética , Suínos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352725

RESUMO

Brazil is the leader in poultry meat exports, in which most products are in the form of cuts. This study analyzed the exertion perception of poultry slaughterhouses workers when performing cutting tasks, as well as the influence of knife sharpness on the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders by Occupational Repetitive Action (OCRA) method. Participants (n = 101) from three slaughterhouses were asked to rate their perceived exertion on the Borg scale during the cutting task when the knife was well and poorly sharpened. The OCRA results showed that the score for cutting with a dull knife was greater (43.57 ± 13.51) than with a sharp knife (23.79 ± 3.10) (p < 0.001). Consequently, there was a significant increase in the risk level of acquiring upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSD) by using a "poorly sharpened" knife (29%; p < 0.001; Borg scale 2-8). Thus, maintaining well-sharpened knives for optimal performance of the cutting task (fewer technical actions) is suggested, as well as including knife sharpening in the standard operating procedure to reduce musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Esforço Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ergonomia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Percepção , Aves Domésticas , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332397

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are foodborne pathogens that are mostly associated with beef products and have been implicated in human illness. E.coli-associated illness range from asymptomatic conditions of mild diarrhoea to haemorrhagic colitis which can progress into life threatening haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beef from cattle are regarded as the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) pathogen. The aim of this study was to assess the level and sources of contamination of raw beef with STEC, and determine the incidences of STEC strains in raw beef from informal and commercial abattoirs in Windhoek, Namibia. A total of 204 raw beef samples, 37 equipment and 29 hand swabs were collected and tested for STEC. The meat samples were first enriched with pre-warmed buffered peptone water, cultured on Tryptone Bile X-Glucuronide and CHROMagar STEC, and then sub-cultured on nutrient agar. The presence of E.coli in the samples was confirmed by using VITEK 2 E.coli identification cards and PCR. The overall prevalence of STEC in the meat samples from both the abattoirs was 41.66% raw beef samples; 5.40% equipment swabs; and none of the hand swabs was STEC positive. From the STEC positive meat samples 29.41% contained one of the major STEC strains. Moreover, 52% of the 25 samples that contained the major STECs were characterised by eae and stx1, 8% characterised by eae and stx2 while 40% were characterised by eae, stx1 and stx2 virulence genes. This study has revealed the necessity for proper training on meat safety (for meat handlers) as well as the development, implementation and maintenance of effective sanitary dressing procedures at abattoirs to eliminate beef contamination by STECs thereby ensuring the production of wholesome meat, and to prevent the occurrences of STEC infections.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Genes Bacterianos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência/genética
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 579-584, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of poultry meat products and contamination with microorganisms is based on appropriate reduction of the presence of pathogens during poultry rearing and is closely related to the level of rearing hygiene, including the type of housing, stocking density, microclimate, sanitation and ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples in Iceland during 2016-2018, and to compare the potential influence of individual parameters of welfare on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Positivity of excrement and caecum samples for Campylobacter spp. was determined according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 and 2017. Data of welfare indicators were collected during the rearing period and in the slaughterhouse. RESULTS: Considerable seasonality was observed in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of campylobacteriosis on the investigated broiler farms was significantly higher (p ˂0.05) during the summer. Comparison of welfare parameters on Campylobacter-positive and Campylobacter-negative farms failed to indicate a significantly higher level of observed welfare indicators in birds from Campylobacter-positive farms (p˃0.05). In comparing small, medium and big farms, a significantly higher occurrence was observed (p<0.05) of the FPD score over 40, stocking density, and the average slaughter weight, and percentage of mortality over 2% in small farms. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive management and the environment affect the welfare of poultry and its resistance to infections (Campylobacteriosis) and thus increase the health risk. Checking the welfare parameters in a slaughter house provides delayed improvement of the environment on farms, but it can also lead to changes in the following production cycles (decreasing of stocking density).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Islândia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
14.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120981

RESUMO

MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has emerged in humans in 2012 and caused severe respiratory illness with a mortality rate of 34.4%. Since its appearance, MERS-CoV has been reported in 27 countries and most of these cases were in Saudi Arabia. So far, dromedaries are considered to be the intermediate host and the only known source of human infection. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and the infection rate of MERS-CoV in slaughtered food-camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 171 nasal swabs along with 161 serum samples were collected during the winter; from January to April 2019. Nasal swabs were examined by Rapid test and RT-PCR to detect MERS-CoV RNA, while serum samples were tested primarily using S1-based ELISA Kit to detect MERS-CoV (IgG) antibodies and subsequently by MERS pseudotyped viral particles (MERSpp) neutralization assay for confirmation. Genetic diversity of the positive isolates was determined based on the amplification and sequencing of the spike gene. Our results showed high prevalence (38.6%) of MERS-CoV infection in slaughtered camels and high seropositivity (70.8%) during the time of the study. These data indicate previous and ongoing MERS-CoV infection in camels. Phylogenic analysis revealed relatively low genetic variability among our isolated samples. When these isolates were aligned against published spike sequences of MERS-CoV, deposited in global databases, there was sequence similarity of 94%. High seroprevalence and high genetic stability of MERS-CoV in camels indicating that camels pose a public health threat. The widespread MERS-CoV infections in camels might lead to a risk of future zoonotic transmission into people with direct contact with these infected camels. This study confirms re-infections in camels, highlighting a challenge for vaccine development when it comes to protective immunity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Matadouros , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Variação Genética/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
15.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 47, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867819

RESUMO

Conventional automated slaughter lines for pigs are organised as disassembly lines with many specialised machines. High costs and capacities make them relevant only for large scale meat production. The ambition with the novel Meat Factory Cell (MFC) concept is to provide the meat industry with a robust and flexible automation platform that is also relevant for smaller scale production. The MFC process deviates radically from conventional processing of pig carcasses after singeing. In MFC, the limbs are removed first. Then the dorsal muscles along the spinal axis from tail to head are removed with the column and rind in one meat cut, followed by removal of the viscera. Finally, the cut ribs and belly are removed. Such approaches to automation in pig abattoirs and cutting plants are highly needed in smaller scale production, and they should produce meat and offal as hygienically as conventional factories. This case study reports the evisceration of 37 pigs in 9 trials performed in 2019. Several approaches were tested with a prototype carcass holding unit. Evisceration could be undertaken without the need to cut through the gastrointestinal tract from tongue to rectum, reducing the probability of accidental faecal contamination of pork carcasses from the gut content. The Meat Factory Cell procedure is an advance towards automated evisceration of pig carcasses which is both simple and hygienic. The traditional separation of internal organs into a pluck set and a set of stomach and bowels was more prone to leakages.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sus scrofa , Animais , Carne
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978124

RESUMO

Microbial complexity and contamination levels in food processing plants heavily impact the final product fate and are mainly controlled by proper environmental cleaning and sanitizing. Among the emerging disinfection technologies, ozonation is considered an effective strategy to improve the ordinary cleaning and sanitizing of slaughterhouses. However, its effects on contamination levels and environmental microbiota still need to be understood. For this purpose, we monitored the changes in microbiota composition in different slaughterhouse environments during the phases of cleaning/sanitizing and ozonation at 40, 20, or 4 ppm. Overall, the meat processing plant microbiota differed significantly between secondary processing rooms and deboning rooms, with a greater presence of psychrotrophic taxa in secondary processing rooms because of their lower temperatures. Cleaning/sanitizing procedures significantly reduced the contamination levels and in parallel increased the number of detectable operational taxonomic units (OTUs), by removing the masking effect of the most abundant human/animal-derived OTUs, which belonged to the phylum Firmicutes Subsequently, ozonation at 40 or 20 ppm effectively decreased the remaining viable bacterial populations. However, we could observe selective ozone-mediated inactivation of psychrotrophic bacteria only in the secondary processing rooms. There, the Brochothrix and Pseudomonas abundances and their viable counts were significantly affected by 40 or 20 ppm of ozone, while more ubiquitous genera like Staphylococcus showed a remarkable resistance to the same treatments. This study showed the effectiveness of highly concentrated gaseous ozone as an adjunct sanitizing method that can minimize cross-contamination and so extend the meat shelf life.IMPORTANCE Our in situ survey demonstrates that RNA-based sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons is a reliable approach to qualitatively probe, at high taxonomic resolution, the changes triggered by new and existing cleaning/sanitizing strategies in the environmental microbiota in human-built environments. This approach could soon represent a fast tool to clearly define which routine sanitizing interventions are more suitable for a specific food processing environment, thus limiting the costs of special cleaning interventions and potential product loss.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Microbiota , Ozônio/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
17.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 48, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Meat inspection data from 2017 to 2018 from southern Poland, especially from the Malopolska region, indicate that purulent or caseous lymphadenitis involving the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (MTLNs) is a common finding. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the aetiology of these lesions. Furthermore, it was investigated how presence of lesions was correlated with age and grazing strategy of affected sheep. RESULTS: Post-mortem examination revealed purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of 49 out of 284 animals (17.3%). Subsequent microbiological examination revealed the presence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (34.7%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (34.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (2.0%), Trueperella pyogenes (2.0%), and ß-haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli (2.0%). Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi were not detected. In older sheep, the probability of the presence of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis was higher than in younger, and the risk was increasing by 1.5% with each month of life. Sheep grazing locally had 4.5-times greater risk of having purulent or caseous lymphadenitis than individuals summer grazing in the mountains. CONCLUSION: The most common aetiological agents of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of sheep in the Malopolska region were C. pseudotuberculosis and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Particular attention during post-mortem examination should be paid to the carcasses of older sheep and sheep grazing on permanent pastures, as they seem more prone to develop purulent or caseous lymphadenitis.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenite/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Linfadenite/epidemiologia , Linfadenite/microbiologia , Linfadenite/patologia , Polônia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Carneiro Doméstico
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 140894, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763594

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause difficult-to-treat infections and pose a risk for modern medicine. Sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria include hospital, municipal and slaughterhouse wastewaters. In this study, bacteria with resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were isolated from all three wastewater biotopes, including a maximum care hospital, municipal wastewaters collected separately from a city and small rural towns and the wastewaters of two pig and two poultry slaughterhouses. The resistance profiles of all isolates against clinically relevant antibiotics (including ß-lactams like carbapenems, the quinolone ciprofloxacin, colistin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) were determined at the same laboratory. The bacteria were classified according to their risk to human health using clinical criteria, with an emphasis on producers of carbapenemases, since carbapenems are prescribed for hospitalized patients with infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria. The results showed that bacteria that pose the highest risk, i. e., bacteria resistant to all ß-lactams including carbapenems and ciprofloxacin, were mainly disseminated by hospitals and were present only in low amounts in municipal wastewater. The isolates from hospital wastewater also showed the highest rates of resistance against antibiotics used for treatment of carbapenemase producers and some isolates were susceptible to only one antibiotic substance. In accordance with these results, qPCR of resistance genes showed that 90% of the daily load of carbapenemase genes entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant was supplied by the clinically influenced wastewater, which constituted approximately 6% of the wastewater at this sampling point. Likewise, the signature of the clinical wastewater was still visible in the resistance profiles of the bacteria isolated at the entry into the wastewater treatment plant. Carbapenemase producers were not detected in slaughterhouse wastewater, but strains harboring the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 could be isolated. Resistances against orally available antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were widespread in strains from all three wastewaters.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Hospitais Municipais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , beta-Lactamases/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760141

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a major foodborne disease and an important public health concern. Contamination of meat with L. monocytogenes occurs frequently at the slaughterhouse. Our aims were; 1) to investigate the distribution of L. monocytogenes in the processing areas of four swine slaughterhouses; 2) to describe the diversity of L. monocytogenes strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; 3) to identify persistent L. monocytogenes strains and describe their distribution; 4) to investigate the associations between persistence of strains and their following characteristics: detection in food isolates, detection in human clinical isolates, and the presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance genes. Various operation areas within the four swine slaughterhouses were sampled on four occasions. A total of 2496 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes was successfully isolated from 243 samples. The proportion of positive samples ranged from 32 to 58% in each slaughterhouse and from 24 to 68% in each operation area. Fifty-eight different pulsotypes were identified and eight pulsotypes, present in samples collected during 4 visits, were considered persistent. The persistent pulsotypes were significantly more likely to be detected in food (P < 0.01, exact χ²) and human clinical cases (P < 0.01, exact χ²), respectively. Among pulsotypes harboring the BAC bcrABC resistance cassette or the emrE multidrug transporter gene, 42.8% were persistent compared to 4.5% for pulsotypes without these resistance genes (P < 0.01, exact χ²). Our study highlights the importance of persistent L. monocytogenes strains in the environmental contamination of slaughterhouses, which may lead to repeated contamination of meat products. It also shows that the presence of disinfectants resistance genes is an important contributing factor.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Carne/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorogrupo , Suínos
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e001720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667499

RESUMO

In this study, we described the morphological features and unusual presentations of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and eosinophilic myositis caused by Sarcocystis species diagnosed at the slaughterhouse lines. Twenty-seven samples of atypical parasitic lesions from distinct cattle were evaluated, of which 12 corresponded to hydatidosis, 11 to fasciolosis, and 4 to eosinophilic sarcocystosis. Hydatid cysts were observed mainly in the heart, with all cases involving the left ventricle. Fasciolosis lesions involved mainly the lungs, and were characterized by a focal nodular elevated area involving the edges of the lobes. Intralesional trematodes were observed in three cases. Sarcocystosis lesions were observed in four cases, and lesions were primarily located in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Grossly, they presented as focal or focally extensive streaks, patches, or numerous nodules that were greenish to mildly yellowish. Histologically, all the cases had intralesional ruptured cysts of Sarcocystis that were associated with severe eosinophilic myositis and myocarditis. Parasitic lesions in atypical locations and/or with aberrant responses should be promptly identified because it may mistakenly diagnosed as other potentially zoonotic diseases, such as cysticercosis and tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Helmintíase Animal , Matadouros , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/patologia
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