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1.
Can Vet J ; 63(5): 528-534, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502250

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting the swine industry. The main objective of this study was to assess whether sow farm distance to slaughterhouses and meteorological variables were associated with PRRS outbreaks. This case-control study paired 104 sow farms with or without a reported PRRS outbreak (N = 208) during the same period. Data on the distance to the closest slaughterhouse, swine density, presence of an air filtration system, or a neighboring farm, and weather conditions were collected, and a multivariable conditional logistic regression model was created to investigate the association between variables of interest and the occurrence of a PRRS outbreak. Swine density, presence of an air filtration system, presence of a neighboring farm, and PRRS herd-level status before the outbreak were associated with the occurrence of PRRS outbreaks. Farms in areas with higher swine density and nearby swine farms had increased odds of reporting an outbreak compared to farms in low swine density areas and farms having no neighbors. Under the conditions of this study, none of the meteorological variables or the distance to the closest slaughterhouse were associated with occurrence of PRRS outbreaks.


Enquête sur la distance aux abattoirs et les paramètres météorologiques dans l'apparition d'épidémies de syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin dans les troupeaux reproducteurs de porcs aux États-Unis. Le syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin (SRRP) est l'une des maladies les plus importantes sur le plan économique affectant l'industrie porcine. L'objectif principal de cette étude était d'évaluer si la distance entre les élevages de truies et les abattoirs et les variables météorologiques étaient associées aux épidémies de SRRP. Cette étude cas-témoin a apparié 104 élevages de truies avec ou sans éclosion de SRRP déclarée (N = 208) au cours de la même période. Des données sur la distance à l'abattoir le plus proche, la densité porcine, la présence d'un système de filtration d'air ou d'une ferme voisine et les conditions météorologiques ont été recueillies, et un modèle de régression logistique conditionnelle multivariable a été créé pour étudier l'association entre les variables d'intérêt et l'occurrence d'une épidémie de SRRP.La densité porcine, la présence d'un système de filtration de l'air, la présence d'une ferme voisine et le statut du troupeau relativement au SRRP avant l'épidémie ont été associés à l'apparition d'épidémies de SRRP. Les fermes situées dans des zones à forte densité porcine et d'autres fermes porcines à proximité avaient plus de chances de signaler une épidémie que les fermes situées dans des zones à faible densité porcine et les fermes sans voisins. Dans les conditions de cette étude, aucune des variables météorologiques ni la distance à l'abattoir le plus proche n'étaient associées à la survenue d'épidémies de SRRP.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257473, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544789

RESUMO

Feathers make up 7% of the total weight of adult chickens and keratin protein makes up 85% of the feathers. Today, the keratinase enzymes of some Bacillus strains are used to degrade and process raw keratin waste for animal and poultry feed. According to various studies, the probiotic properties of some spore-shaped Bacillus have also been proven. The study aimed to isolation of the keratinolytic Bacillus bacteria that they have probiotic properties for using in the livestock and poultry feed industry. We were able to isolate 8 strains of Bacillus licheniformis with kreatin degrading properties from the soil of Baharan chicken slaughterhouse (Qom city, Iran) applying heat shock, alcohol- and keratin-rich culture medium, and after microscopic and biochemical analysis, 16S rDNA gene was isolated. The measurement results of keratinase activity showed that the three strains of Bacillus licheniformis pvkr6, pvkr 15, and pvkr41 had the highest activity with 124.08, 101.1, and 100.18 U/ml. The results of probiotic properties evaluation also revealed that among all the isolates, only Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 and Bacillus licheniformis PTCC 1595 (positive control) were γ-hemolytic strains. The percentage of surface hydrophobicity of the strains was obtained from 3.27 to 30.57. It was also shown that, on average, all the strains had acceptable susceptibility to the tested antibiotics except penicillin G. Bacillus licheniformis pvkr15 with highest keratinase activity (101.1U/ml) was considered an optional probiotics due to its abilities such as (biofilm formation, being safe cause of γ-hemolytic activity, high susceptibility to antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, cefixime, amoxicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin and having a moderate hydrophilic (hydrophobicity: 19.09%), high survivability in pH 2, 2.5 and 3, strong resistance to bile salts and moderate antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacterium like Proteus mirabilis and the ability to grow under anaerobic conditions). By using this strain, after hydrolysis of keratin protein in the feather structure, to replace part of the protein of livestock and poultry feed, not only is no need to separate bacteria from the feed, but also the strain play role of an useful and effective additive in animal growth.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Probióticos , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Galinhas , Plumas/química , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Probióticos/análise , Probióticos/farmacologia , Solo
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0041822, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412362

RESUMO

The wide spread of plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes from animals to humans broadly challenges the clinical use of polymyxins. Here, we evaluated the incidence of a recently reported mcr variant, mcr-10, in animals and humans in the same area. Our results revealed the presence of novel mcr-10-carrying plasmids in two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from chickens, one Escherichia coli isolate from slaughterhouse workers, and a chromosome-borne mcr-10 gene in Enterobacter kobei from a healthy resident in the same region. It is worth mentioning that the multidrug-resistant ST11 K. pneumoniae isolates coharboring mcr-10 and mcr-8 genes in two separate plasmids not only were resistant to polymyxins (MIC = 8 mg/L) but also showed reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (MIC ≥ 2 mg/L) due to the tet(A) mutation or the tmexCD1-toprJ1 gene cluster. The structure xerC-mcr10-insCinsD-like was found in genetic environments of both the plasmid and chromosome carrying mcr-10. We compared genomic epidemiological characteristics of mcr-10-harboring bacteria available in 941,449 genomes in the NCBI database (including strains of K. pneumoniae, E. coli, and E. kobei) with isolates in this study. The results indicated a sporadic distribution of mcr-10 all around the world and in a variety of sources, including humans, environments, and animals, which confirms that mcr-10 has spread among various hosts and warrants close monitoring and further future studies. IMPORTANCE We discovered mcr-10-harboring isolates in the "one health" approach and reported for the first time multidrug-resistant clinically threatening ST11 K. pneumoniae isolates coharboring mcr-10 and mcr-8 genes that are resistant to polymyxins and show reduced susceptibility to tigecycline. The exhaustive screening of 941,449 bacterial genomes in the GenBank database discovered a sporadic distribution of mcr-10-harboring isolates all around the world in a variety of sources, especially humans, which warrants close monitoring and a particular concern in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Colistina , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Integrases/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética , Tigeciclina
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 64(1): 9, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379275

RESUMO

On farm mortality is an increasing problem in cattle production systems in the Nordic countries. It represents an economic loss to the farmer and raises questions of sustainability, food waste and animal welfare. On-farm emergency slaughter (OFES) represents, in some situations, an opportunity for a farmer to salvage some of the economic value from an animal that cannot be transported to a slaughterhouse. The basis of the regulation of OFES in the Nordic countries originates largely from legislation from the European Union. However, this review has found that the availability and practice of OFES in the Nordic countries differs considerably. For example, in Norway 4.2% of all cattle slaughter is OFES, whilst in Iceland OFES has never been recorded. National food safety authorities have issued differing regulations and guidelines regarding the suitability of sick and injured animals for OFES. This review shows there is a paucity of data regarding the incidence and reasons for the use of OFES of cattle in the Nordic countries and points out the need for more investigation into this area to improve veterinary education, consumer protection and animal welfare.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
5.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(4): 329-338, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383030

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development of gastric ulcers in pigs has various reasons. In Switzerland, the last survey on the prevalence of gastric ulcers and possible risk factors was performed in 2005. We aimed to reassess gastric ulcers prevalence today, in 2021. A total of 1005 stomachs from fattening pigs from 136 batches and around 87 herds were evaluated at a Swiss abattoir. The Pars oesophagea of the stomach was scored from 0=healthy to 10=severe ulceration and strictures. Scores were compared between pigs produced under the labels «Integrierte Produktion Schweiz¼ (IPS, n=242 stomachs, 18 farms) and «Qualitätsmanagement-Schweizerfleisch¼ (QM, n=649, 58 farms) and others (n=114). The results showed a prevalence of 27,2 % mild mucosal changes (Scores 1-3), 14,9 % moderate mucosal changes (Scores 4-6) and 19,1 % severe mucosal changes (Scores 7-10). Only 38,8 % of the stomachs were rated 0 and thus considered healthy. Compared to the results from 2005, there is no difference concerning the lowest scores (0-2) and the highest scores (9-10). However, there was a shift from the medium scores (3-4) to higher scores (5-8). Stomach scores turned out to be herd specific. There were differences (p < 0,01) between labels, indicating that IPS pigs had less affected stomachs. Stomachs that were empty at slaughter showed higher scores (p < 0,001). The mean carcass weight of the pigs in the slaughter groups was negatively correlated (p < 0,05) to their median stomach score. Confiscations were not related to stomach scores. The results suggest that pig stomach health has not improved since 2005. The differences between labels seem to have resulted from different regulations prescribing a minimum particle size of enrichment material in IPS. The reasons for gastric ulcer development, including those on the individual herd within label, still have to be further clarified in order to allow targeted countermeasures. Given apparent farm-specificity, scoring of a limited number of stomachs per herd during the slaughter process could facilitate the establishment of a feedback scheme.


INTRODUCTION: Le développement d'ulcères gastriques chez les porcs a des causes diverses. En Suisse, la dernière enquête sur la prévalence des ulcères gastriques et les facteurs de risque possibles a été réalisée en 2005. Nous avons voulu réévaluer la prévalence des ulcères gastriques en 2021. Un total de 1005 estomacs de porcs d'engraissement provenant de 136 lots et d'environ 87 troupeaux ont été évalués dans un abattoir suisse. La Pars œsophagea de l'estomac a été notée de 0=sain à 10=ulcérations et sténoses sévères. Les scores ont été comparés entre les porcs produits sous les labels «Production Intégrée Suisse¼ (IPS, n=242 estomacs, 18 exploitations) et «Assurance Qualité Viande Suisse¼ (QM, n=649, 58 exploitations) et les autres (n=114). Les résultats ont montré une prévalence de 27,2 % de modifications muqueuses légères (scores 1­3), 14,9 % de modifications muqueuses modérées (scores 4­6) et 19,1 % de modifications muqueuses sévères (scores 7­10). Seuls 38,8 % des estomacs ont été classés 0 et donc considérés comme sains. Par rapport aux résultats de 2005, il n'y a pas de différence entre les scores les plus bas (0­2) et les scores les plus élevés (9­10). Cependant, on constate un glissement des scores moyens (3­4) vers les scores plus élevés (5­8). Les scores d'estomac se sont avérés être spécifiques au troupeau. Il y avait des différences (p < 0,01) entre les étiquettes, indiquant que les porcs IPS avaient des estomacs moins affectés. Les estomacs qui étaient vides à l'abattage présentaient des scores plus élevés (p < 0,001). Le poids moyen de la carcasse des porcs dans les groupes d'abattage était négativement corrélé (p < 0,05) à leur score gastrique médian. Les confiscations n'étaient pas liées aux scores gastriques. Les résultats suggèrent que la santé de l'estomac des porcs ne s'est pas améliorée depuis 2005. Les différences entre les labels semblent résulter de réglementations différentes prescrivant une taille minimale des particules de matériau d'enrichissement dans les IPS. Les raisons de l'apparition d'ulcères gastriques, y compris celles concernant un lot individuel au sein d'un label, doivent encore être clarifiées afin de permettre des contre-mesures ciblées. Étant donné l'apparente spécificité des exploitations, la notation d'un nombre limité d'estomacs par troupeau au cours du processus d'abattage pourrait faciliter l'établissement d'un système de retour d'information.


Assuntos
Úlcera Gástrica , Doenças dos Suínos , Matadouros , Animais , Prevalência , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia
6.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(4): 339-349, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tail biting and lesions are common problems in modern pig production. In 2008 tail docking to prevent tail biting was banned in Switzerland. Since then pigs have been raised with intact tails. This study aimed to assess the current prevalence of tail lesions at Swiss abattoirs and comparing abattoir data with farm-specific data regarding potential risk factors for tail lesions. Data collection was performed in repetitive cycles of two weeks at four abattoirs during all consecutive seasons of one year. Gender, tail length and the tail tip condition were evaluated among other parameters. During 32 weeks in total, 195 704 pigs from 6112 batches from 2510 herds were evaluated. Overall, 63,2 % of the animals included in the analysis were slaughtered with a complete tail (lowest tail length score [TLS]), whereas 36,8 % showed a partial or total loss of the tail. The condition of the tail tip (tail tip condition score [TTCS]) was judged as being intact in 63,0 %, as a healed lesion in 23,7 %, an acute lesion in 1,3 % and a chronic lesion in 12,0 % of all cases. Male animals had significantly higher values for TLS and TTCS than female animals (P ≤ 0,05). TLS values were significantly higher in winter than in spring and summer (P < 0,001). TTCS values were significantly higher in fall than in spring and summer. TLS and TTCS values differed significantly (P < 0,001) between the four abattoirs. Only few significant correlations were found between values of TLS and TTCS and farm-specific data. Recording tail lesions at abattoirs is an accurate method to investigate the prevalence of tail lesions in fattening pigs. However, to monitor animal welfare on herd level, this method is very labor intensive. Moreover, data on tail lesions collected at the abattoir cannot replace veterinary on-farm examination for risk factor identification.


INTRODUCTION: Les morsures et les lésions de la queue sont des problèmes courants dans la production porcine moderne. En 2008, la Suisse a interdit la caudectomie pour prévenir les morsures de la queue. Depuis lors, les porcs sont engraissés avec des queues intactes. Cette étude visait à évaluer la prévalence actuelle des lésions de la queue dans les abattoirs suisses et à comparer les données de l'abattoir avec les données spécifiques à l'exploitation concernant les facteurs de risque potentiels pour des lésions de la queue. La collecte des données a été effectuée par cycles répétitifs de deux semaines dans quatre abattoirs pendant toutes les saisons d'une année. Le sexe, la longueur de la queue et l'état de l'extrémité de la queue ont été évalués parmi d'autres paramètres. Pendant 32 semaines au total, 195 704 porcs provenant de 6 112 lots de 2 510 troupeaux ont été évalués. Dans l'ensemble, 63,2 % des animaux inclus dans l'analyse ont été abattus avec une queue complète (Tail Length Score [TLS] la plus basse), tandis que 36,8 %présentaient une perte partielle ou totale de la queue. L'état de l'extrémité de la queue (Tail Tip Condition Score [TTCS]) a été jugé intact dans 63,0 %des cas, avec une lésion cicatrisée dans 23,7 %des cas, avec une lésion aiguë dans 1,3 %des cas et avec une lésion chronique dans 12,0 %des cas. Les animaux mâles présentaient des valeurs de TLS et de TTCS significativement plus élevées que les animaux femelles (P ≤ 0,05). Les valeurs de TLS étaient significativement plus élevées en hiver qu'au printemps et en été (P < 0,001). Les valeurs de TTCS étaient significativement plus élevées en automne qu'au printemps et en été. Les valeurs TLS et TTCS différaient significativement (P < 0,001) entre les quatre abattoirs. Seules quelques corrélations significatives ont été trouvées entre les valeurs de TLS et TTCS et les données spécifiques à l'exploitation. L'enregistrement des lésions de la queue dans les abattoirs est une méthode précise pour étudier la prévalence de ces lésions chez les porcs d'engraissement. Cependant, pour contrôler le bien-être animal au niveau du troupeau, cette méthode demande beaucoup de travail. En outre, les données sur les lésions de la queue collectées à l'abattoir ne peuvent pas remplacer les examens vétérinaires sur l'exploitation pour l'identification des facteurs de risque.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Cauda , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Suínos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Cauda/lesões
7.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13728, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470517

RESUMO

In this study, the occurrence of repeat stunning, deviations in placement and direction of stun shots, and the occurrence of reflexes/reactions following stunning with a pneumatically powered captive-bolt stunner in comparison with a cartridge-fired captive-bolt stunner in cattle were assessed. Repeat stunning and deviations in placement and direction of the stun shots were less frequent (p < 0.01) with the use of a pneumatic stunner in all cattle. The rate of repeat stunning and deviation from the ideal place and direction of stun shots were lower (5.81%, 24.75%, and 9.60% of all animals, respectively) when a pneumatic stunner was used in comparison with cartridge-fired captive bolt (18.32%, 34.03%, and 47.38% of all animals, respectively). The stunning quality was assessed on the basis of evaluation of signs observed following the stun shot. A pneumatic stunning resulted in a significant reduction of occurrence of signs particularly in bulls in comparison to cows, for which a cartridge-fired stunner already provides an adequate stunning. Our study provides evidence that pneumatic stunning has the potential to be a more effective method than cartridge-fired stunning from the viewpoint of the welfare of slaughtered animals. Pneumatic stunning ensures a high quality of stunning in both bulls and cows.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças dos Bovinos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Masculino , Reflexo , Inconsciência/veterinária
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9977371, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402608

RESUMO

The release of untreated wastes from abattoirs into the environment and nearby water bodies poses a significant threat to public health. Such litters may contain pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study investigated 80 samples collected from butchering tables, slaughter slabs, meat rinsing points, and abattoir wastes receiving water from two abattoirs (A and B). Total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) for each sample was determined, and Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were isolated and identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on all bacterial isolates against nine locally used antibiotics. Overall, 118 bacterial isolates, comprising E. coli (42.5%), Salmonella spp. (27.5%), Shigella spp. (37.5%), and S. aureus (40.0%), were recovered. Of the 118 bacterial isolates, 104 (88.1%) were multidrug-resistant, including 58 (55.8%) from abattoir A and 46 (44.2%) from abattoir B; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.6837). Of the 32 S. aureus isolates, 29 (90.6%) were multidrug-resistant. All S. aureus were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin. Similarly, 31 (91.2%) of the 34 E. coli isolates recovered in this study were multidrug-resistant. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. also showed high levels of multidrug resistance corresponding to 81.8% and 86.7%, respectively. All isolates of E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella were 100% resistant to ampicillin and 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Minimum and maximum mean values for TEC were 3.62-5.83 log CFU/mL for abattoir A and 4.08-5.56 log CFU/mL for abattoir B. The highest and lowest TEC counts were from slaughter slab and upstream water, respectively, in each abattoir. Our results indicate a predominance of multidrug-resistant bacteria in abattoir wastes and their receiving waters in the study sites. Hence, we recommend the treatment of abattoir wastes before disposal and improved hygiene and sanitation practices to enhance public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Matadouros , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Camarões , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Salmonella , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Água
9.
Vet Rec ; 190(8): 308, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420197
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(3): 507-515, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404857

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In several developing countries the slaughter of meat producing animals is still practiced in traditional slaughterhouses. In the Mansoura slaughterhouse, animals are subjected to various stressors and treated with cruelty, in addition to unhygienic treatment and handling of animal carcasses. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the meat quality from cattle, buffalo, and sheep carcasses processed in an old-fashioned slaughterhouse from Mansoura city, Egypt, in the context of pre-slaughter stress. METHODOLOGY: The bleeding efficiency and the ultimate pH (pHu) of carcasses were tested, along with the effect of post-slaughter handling practice on the microbiological properties of meat. RESULTS: From the 351 examined animals, the ultimate pH (pHu) was less than 5.8 in 81 cases (23.1%) and higher than 6.0 in 165 cases (47%). Furthermore, 45 (12.8%), 270 (76.9%), and 36 (10.3%) of the tested carcasses were well-, moderate- and imperfectly-bled, respectively. Cultivation using the wet-dry triple swab technique sampled from the outer surfaces of cattle, buffalo, and sheep carcasses revealed that about 47.9% of the tested carcasses were contaminated, with total viable count levels exceeding 7 log10 cfu/cm2, and 42.7% were contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae, with levels > 3 log10 cfu/cm2. The molds and yeasts from the tested carcasses had lower counts (< 2 log10 cfu/cm2). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated neglect in terms of sanitary measures during slaughtering and dressing of carcasses, with subsequent higher microbial contamination and impaired meat quality. Therefore, the traditional slaughtering facilities should be modernized to increase their meat producing efficiency, subsequently leading to exportation possibilities.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Egito , Enterobacteriaceae , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Ovinos
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 869314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463650

RESUMO

Introduction: Beef cattle, one of the food-producing animals, are linked to humans through a shared environment and the food chain as a major source of animal protein. Antimicrobial drugs are readily accessible for use in food animal production in Nigeria. Beef cattle and abattoir environments harbor pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) which have developed resistance to antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis or treatment. This study investigated the zoonotic transmission of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) among humans, beef cattle, and abattoir environments in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among abattoir workers, beef cattle, and abattoir environments in Abuja and Lagos. Stool, cecal, and environmental samples were collected from apparently healthy workers, slaughtered cattle, and abattoir environments from May to December 2020. Data were collected electronically using open data kit app installed on a mobile phone. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against a panel of 16 antimicrobial agents. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the isolates were conducted. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: From 21.7% (n = 97) of 448 samples, ESBL-EC were isolated and further characterized. Prevalence of ESBL-EC was highest in cattle (45.4%; n = 44), abattoir workers (41.2%; n = 40), and abattoir environment (13.4%; n = 13). Whole-genome sequencing of ESBL-EC showed dissemination of blaCTX-M-15 (90.7%; n = 88); blaCTX-M-14 (5.2%; n = 5); and blaCTX-M-55 (2.1%; n = 2) genes. The blaCTX-M-15 coexisted with blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 genes in 2.1% (n = 2) and 39.2% (n = 38) of the isolates, respectively. The presence of blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 genes was significantly associated with isolates originating from abattoir workers when compared with beef cattle isolates (p = 0.05; p < 0.01). The most prevalent sequence types (ST) were ST10 (n = 11), ST215 (n = 7), ST4684 (n = 7), and ST2178 (n = 6). ESBL-EC strain (ST205/B1) harbored mcr-1.1 and blaCTX-M15 and was isolated from a worker at Lagos abattoir. In 91 ESBL-EC isolates, 219 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) harbored resistance genes out of which ß-lactam genes were carried on 64 different MGEs. Isolates showed equal distribution of insertion sequences and miniature inverted repeats although only a few composite transposons were detected (humans n = 12; cattle n = 9; environment n = 4). Two isolates of human and cattle origin (ST46/A) harboring ESBL genes and carried by MGEs were clonally related. Conclusions: This is the first report of blaCTX-M-55 gene in humans and cattle in Nigeria. This study demonstrates the horizontal transfer of ESBL genes possibly by MGEs and buttresses the importance of genomic surveillance. Healthcare workers should be sensitized that people working closely with cattle or in abattoir environments are a high-risk group for fecal carriage of ESBL-EC when compared with the general population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Zoonoses Bacterianas/genética , Zoonoses Bacterianas/metabolismo , Zoonoses Bacterianas/transmissão , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 139, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316406

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate the effects of duration of lairage period and breed on behaviors of beef cattle and on stockperson handling actions toward cattle in the slaughter corridor. A total of 85 beef cattle (61 Simmental, 24 Brown Swiss) were allocated to 4 trial groups according to the duration of lairage period (24 h, 15 h, 1 h and no lairage). Animal behaviors and stockperson's handling actions were video recorded during the passage of animal through the slaughter corridor. Time spent in the slaughter corridor ranged between 4.64 and 16.82 min, and cattle lairaged 15 h spent more time in the slaughter corridor than the other groups (P < 0.05). Breed and lairage group had no effect on AWBEH (animal behavior) and AWACT (stockperson actions) scores and frequencies of animal behaviors, except butting. Beef cattle slaughtered without transport and lairage expressed less butting behavior compared to other lairage groups (P < 0.05). The most observed stockperson handling actions were goading, beating, tapping, and tail twisting, respectively. Cattle from L-15 group were exposed to more beating and prodding actions while cattle from L-24 h group were exposed to more pulling action. In conclusion, increasing the lairage period did not contribute to the reduction of stockperson interventions and cattle behaviors indicative of poor welfare in the slaughter corridor. Both stockperson training and facility improvements would greatly improve cattle welfare.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos
13.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 103998, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287817

RESUMO

This study aims to discuss the microbial ecology of the broiler gut environment, Campylobacter prevalence across the broiler production chain with a follow-up focus on a possible mitigation strategy, based on the use of bacteriophages. Scientific literature published from the last two decades was reviewed and data were collected to establish the ranges of Campylobacter loads from different samples. Results showed that the pathogen load in the sample is likely to increase from the different stages of the production chain. Contamination of water and feed represents the most notable source of contamination during the primary production, while cross-contamination of broiler carcasses, skin, and meat occurs during the slaughter, dressing, and processing via machinery, work surfaces, water, and air partially due to the leaking of contaminated feces from visceral rupture. Knowledge gaps were identified and included: a lack of studies detecting Campylobacter in broilers in most of the European countries over the last decade and a low number of studies determining the bacterial load in crates used to transport broilers to the slaughterhouse. Determining the prevalence of Campylobacter in the broiler industry will enable us to set critical control points to produce broiler flocks and meat products with a low risk of Campylobacter contamination.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Galinhas , Matadouros , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Prevalência
14.
Vet Rec ; 190(5): 177, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244269
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(5): 1688-1700, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290240

RESUMO

The effluent streams from individual slaughtering operations were segregated based on the degree of similarity and were treated separately. The wastewater from lairage and paunch sections was dominant in suspended solids (SS: 6,000-25,000 mg/L) and was separated using a hydrasieve (500 µm) and externally fed rotary drum filter (EFRDF, 200 µm), respectively. The SS removal efficiency of the hydrasieve and EFRDF was 75% and 55%, respectively, and remaining solids were removed through a primary clarifier. The fats, oils and grease (FOG: 12,000-35,000 mg/L) containing streams from the hide fleshing, rendering, intestine, and tripe washing were routed through a skimming tank. The SS and FOG removal efficiencies through the skimming tank were 75% and 90%, respectively. Any FOG remaining after the skimming tank was removed using dissolved air flotation which achieved 95% FOG removal. In addition, the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand removal through the primary treatment system was more than 80%. The effluent obtained after primary treatment was SS and FOG ≤ 200 and 100 mg/L. The segregation of streams and their separate treatment offered benefits such as resource recovery, reduced waste load on downstream secondary treatment and overall ease in slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(4): 101646, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172230

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from ducks at slaughterhouses, analyzed antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence-associated genes of the isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to characterize their molecular characteristics. A total of 227 E. faecalis isolates (67.8%) were obtained from cecum (n = 114), cloaca (n = 50), skin (n = 59), and rinsed water (n = 4). These E. faecalis exhibited high level of resistance against tetracycline (95.6%), doxycycline (94.3%), linezolid (75.8%), erythromycin (72.2%), followed by norfloxacin (56.8%), vancomycin (38.3%), penicillin (36.1%), teicoplanin (30.8%). Lower level of resistance was found to high-level streptomycin (19.8%), imipenem (15.9%) and high-level gentamicin (5.7%). The vast majority of isolates (90.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). Moreover, the commonly observed resistance genes were optrA (90.7%) and ermB (90.3%), followed by aph(3')-Ⅲ (86.8%), tetM (84.6%), acc(6')-aph(2) (77.5%), blaZ (76.7%) and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia (75.8%). The less frequently observed genes were vanC (19.8%), blaTEM (4.8%), vanM (2.6%), and vanA (0.4%). None of the strains carried aph(2")-Ic and vanB genes. Furthermore, a high prevalence of ten virulence determinants was identified, and efaA (99.1%) was predominant, followed by eep (97.4%), srtA (96.9%), asa1 (95.6%), fsrB (92.1%), sprE (89.9%), aggA (63.9%), gelE (56.4%), esp (33.9%), and cylL (15.4%). Eleven isolates (4.9%) co-carried all of the tested virulence-associated genes. MLST analysis demonstrated that, E. faecalis isolates consisted of 12 known STs and 5 new STs, among which 6 of the identified STs were associated with nosocomial infection. Our data indicated that retail ducks serve as an important source of MDR E. faecalis with high pathogenicity potential, and suggested that transmission to humans could not be excluded.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Patos/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Fatores de Virulência/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2392, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165330

RESUMO

Food safety and foodborne diseases are significant global public health concerns. Meat and poultry carcasses can be contaminated by pathogens like E. coli and salmonella, by contact with animal fecal matter and ingesta during slaughter and processing. Since fecal matter and ingesta can host these pathogens, detection, and excision of contaminated regions on meat surfaces is crucial. Fluorescence imaging has proven its potential for the detection of fecal residue but requires expertise to interpret. In order to be used by meat cutters without special training, automated detection is needed. This study used fluorescence imaging and deep learning algorithms to automatically detect and segment areas of fecal matter in carcass images using EfficientNet-B0 to determine which meat surface images showed fecal contamination and then U-Net to precisely segment the areas of contamination. The EfficientNet-B0 model achieved a 97.32% accuracy (precision 97.66%, recall 97.06%, specificity 97.59%, F-score 97.35%) for discriminating clean and contaminated areas on carcasses. U-Net segmented areas with fecal residue with an intersection over union (IoU) score of 89.34% (precision 92.95%, recall 95.84%, specificity 99.79%, F-score 94.37%, and AUC 99.54%). These results demonstrate that the combination of deep learning and fluorescence imaging techniques can improve food safety assurance by allowing the industry to use CSI-D fluorescence imaging to train employees in trimming carcasses as part of their Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point zero-tolerance plan.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Fezes/microbiologia , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Matadouros , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/química , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
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