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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149986, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was linked to depression incidence, although the results were limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on depression risk prospectively in China. METHODS: The present study used data from Yinzhou Cohort on adults without depression at baseline, and followed up until April 2020. Two-year moving average concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured using land-use regression (LUR) models for each participant. Depression cases were ascertained using the Health Information System (HIS) of the local health administration by linking the unique identifiers. We conducted Cox regression models with time-varying exposures to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of depression with each pollutant, after adjusting for a sequence of individual covariates as demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and comorbidity. Besides, physical activity, baseline potential depressive symptoms, cancer status, COVID-19 pandemic, different outcome definitions and air pollution exposure windows were considered in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Among the 30,712 adults with a mean age of 62.22 ± 11.25, 1024 incident depression cases were identified over totaling 98,619 person-years of observation. Interquartile range increments of the air pollutants were associated with increased risks of depression, and the corresponding HRs were 1.59 (95%CI: 1.46, 1.72) for PM2.5, 1.49 (95%CI: 1.35, 1.64) for PM10 and 1.58 (95%CI: 1.42, 1.77) for NO2. Subgroup analyses suggested that participants without taking any protective measures towards air pollution were more susceptible. The results remained robust in all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was identified as a risk factor for depression onset. Strategies to reduce air pollution are necessary to decrease the disease burden of depression.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132117, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney dysfunction is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of air pollution on kidney function. We evaluated associations between long-term air pollution exposure and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using data from a cohort of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) study in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 1839 subjects (aged 52-71 years in 2002) from the EGAT1 cohort study during 2002-2012. eGFR, based on creatinine, was measured in 2002, 2007, and 2012. Annual mean concentrations of air pollutants (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)) prior to a measurement of creatinine were assessed with the ordinary kriging method. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to assess associations between air pollutants and eGFR, while controlling for potential covariates. eGFR values are expressed as percent change per interquartile range (IQR) increments of each pollutant. RESULTS: Lower eGFR was associated with higher concentrations of PM10 (-1.99%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.33, -0.63), SO2 (-4.89%, 95%CI: -6.69, -3.07), and CO (-0.97%, 95%CI: -1.96, 0.03). However, after adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, PM10, and SO2, no significant association was observed between CO and eGFR. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that long-term exposure to high concentrations of PM10 and SO2 is associated with the progression of kidney dysfunction in subjects of the EGAT cohort study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Rim/química , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tailândia
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117003, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links ambient air pollution with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, an association that is methodologically challenging to investigate. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution with SARS-CoV-2 infection measured through antibody response, level of antibody response among those infected, and COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We contacted 9,605 adult participants from a population-based cohort study in Catalonia between June and November 2020; most participants were between 40 and 65 years of age. We drew blood samples from 4,103 participants and measured immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies against five viral target antigens to establish infection to the virus and levels of antibody response among those infected. We defined COVID-19 disease using self-reported hospital admission, prior positive diagnostic test, or more than three self-reported COVID-19 symptoms after contact with a COVID-19 case. We estimated prepandemic (2018-2019) exposure to fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) at the residential address using hybrid land-use regression models. We calculated log-binomial risk ratios (RRs), adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Among those tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 743 (18.1%) were seropositive. Air pollution levels were not statistically significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: Adjusted RRs per interquartile range were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.18) for NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.14) for PM2.5, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.09) for BC, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) for O3. Among infected participants, exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 were positively associated with IgG levels for all viral target antigens. Among all participants, 481 (5.0%) had COVID-19 disease. Air pollution levels were associated with COVID-19 disease: adjusted RRs=1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.29) for NO2 and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) for PM2.5. Exposure to O3 was associated with a slightly decreased risk (RR=0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03). Associations of air pollution with COVID-19 disease were more pronounced for severe COVID-19, with RRs=1.26 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.79) for NO2 and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.16) for PM2.5. DISCUSSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 disease and level of antibody response among infected but not with SARS-CoV-2 infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9726.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Formação de Anticorpos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Rev Environ Health ; 36(4): 535-544, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some studies have shown that environmental risk factors, including air pollution, might be related to the incidence or recurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS). This systematic review was conducted to investigate the relation between air pollution and MS. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, and Web of Science; until January 2020 with no restrictions. The search strategy was conducted with air pollution key words such as CO, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2, for exposure and the key word "Multiple sclerosis" as the outcome. RESULTS: Eventually, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 articles were included. The methodologies and outcomes reported were heterogeneous and different metrics had been used in the results; therefore conducting a meta-analysis was not possible. Eight studies had analyzed the relation between particulate matter (PM) and the prevalence or relapse of MS and had observed a significant relation. NO2 and NOx were associated with recurrence or prevalence of MS in three studies. But, in three cohort studies, no association was observed between air pollution and recurrence or occurrence of MS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this systematic review show that outdoor air pollution, especially PM and nitrogen oxides might be related to the prevalence or relapse of MS.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Esclerose Múltipla , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/induzido quimicamente , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(6): 856-863, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In southern Chile cities, the emission of air pollutants, especially the use of firewood for heating is restricted during critical air pollution periods. AIM: To analyze how restrictions applied during the management of air pollution critical episodes have contributed to reduce emergency room admissions for respiratory diseases in two Chilean cities between 2013 and 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Poisson regression models were estimated with daily data including explanatory variables, such as the daily and lag concentration of respirable particulate material (PM10), temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, seasonal factors, and implementation of different types of critical episodes. RESULTS: The implementation of restrictions during the management of critical pollution episodes decreased emergency room admissions for upper respiratory infections and bronchial obstructive crises, especially when an environmental emergency was decreed during the critical episode. However, the effect on each group of respiratory diseases was heterogeneous between cities, which could be related to avoidance behavior, indoor air pollution, the composition of PM10, or the presence of other pollutants, and not just a reduction in the daily concentration of PM10. CONCLUSIONS: The management of critical pollution episodes with restrictions to pollutant emissions is a useful measure to improve population health in cities that have implemented environmental decontamination plans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Respiratórias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Chile , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle
8.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 981-986, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841765

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the health risks of the interactive effects between PM2.5 and ozone on cardiovascular mortality in Chengdu. Methods: Daily data on the mortality of cardiovascular diseases, including data for both men and women, during 2014-2016 were collected. The meteorological data, the daily average of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), and the daily ozone 8 h maximum concentration (O 3 8-h max) in Chengdu of the same period were also collected. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were adopted to explore the respective adverse health effects of PM2.5 and O 3 8-h max and the synergistic effects between PM2.5 and O 3 8-h max on the mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the city. Results: The highest health risks of PM2.5 and O 3 8-h max for mortality of cardiovascular diseases were found to be the strongest for the cumulative effect of the lag of one day (lag01). For every 10 µg/m 3 increment in the mass concentration of PM2.5 (lag01), the associated increase in risks for total, male, and female cardiovascular mortalities was 0.35%, 0.26% and 0.38%, respectively. For every 10 µg/m 3 increment in the mass concentration of O 3 8-h max (lag01), the associated increase in risks for total, male, and female cardiovascular mortalities was 0.66%, 0.43%, and 1.05%, respectively. The total, male, and female cardiovascular mortalities all reached their maximum values when high concentration of PM2.5 coexisted with high concentrations of O 3 8-h max. Conclusion: There was a synergistic amplification effect between high concentrations of PM2.5 and high concentrations of O 3 8-h max on cardiovascular mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
10.
Public Health ; 200: 22-32, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantitatively synthesize the association between maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM; including PM <2.5 µm and PM <10 µm) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP; including gestational hypertension [GH] and pre-eclampsia) and to explore the influence of certain factors on the outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis was used to quantitatively synthesize the results of similar independent studies. METHODS: Original documents were identified by searching six electronic bibliographic databases from their inceptions to August 17, 2021. Then we performed meta-analysis to combine the effect estimates if at least three estimates reported the same exposure and outcome and used stratified analysis to evaluate the impact of exposure assessment method, data source, and study area on heterogeneity. In addition, we used the 95% prediction interval to evaluate the potential effects of exposure in random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The overall meta-analysis showed that the risk of HDP was significantly associated with per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure during T1 and PM10 exposure during T, with odds ratios [ORs] 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.12) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02-1.07), respectively. The results also showed that PM2.5 exposure during T1 and T2 and PM10 exposure during T1 increased the incidence of GH; the summary ORs were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.01-1.23), 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05-1.29), and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02-1.07), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled effects were generally significant or more apparent in studies using models to assess exposure, studies whose data derived from birth registers, and studies in Europe. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that PM exposure was associated with increased HDP risks, and the association varied by study area, data source, and exposure assessment method. With the continuous improvement of research design and exposure assessment, future research may find higher risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Agricultura , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684415

RESUMO

YG-1 extract used in this study is a mixture of Lonicera japonica, Arctic Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of YG-1 extract on bronchodilatation (ex vivo) and acute bronchial and pulmonary inflammation relief (in vivo). Ex vivo: The bronchodilation reaction was confirmed by treatment with YG-1 concentration-accumulation (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/mL) in the bronchial tissue ring pre-contracted by acetylcholine (10 µM). As a result, YG-1 extract is considered to affect bronchodilation by increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP) levels through the ß2-adrenergic receptor. In vivo: experiments were performed in C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: control group; PM2.5 (fine particulate matter)-exposed group (PM2.5, 200 µg/kg/mL saline); and PM2.5-exposed + YG-1 extract (200 mg/kg/day) group. The PM2.5 (200 µg/kg/mL saline) was exposed for 1 h for 5 days using an ultrasonic nebulizer aerosol chamber to instill fine dust in the bronchi and lungs, thereby inducing acute lung and bronchial inflammation. From two days before PM2.5 exposure, YG-1 extract (200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 7 days. The PM2.5 exposure was involved in airway remodeling and inflammation, suggesting that YG-1 treatment improves acute bronchial and pulmonary inflammation by inhibiting the inflammatory cytokines (NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway). The application of YG-1 extract with broncho-dilating effect to acute bronchial and pulmonary inflammation animal models has great significance in developing therapeutic agents for respiratory diseases. Therefore, these results can provide essential data for the development of novel respiratory symptom relievers. Our study provides strong evidence that YG-1 extracts reduce the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the incidence of non-specific lung diseases and improve bronchial and lung function.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/etiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
BMJ ; 375: n2368, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between changes in long term residential exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and premature mortality in Canada. DESIGN: Population based quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 663 100 respondents to the 1996, 2001, and 2006 Canadian censuses aged 25-89 years who had consistently lived in areas with either high or low PM2.5 levels over five years preceding census day and moved during the ensuing five years. INTERVENTIONS: Changes in long term exposure to PM2.5 arising from residential mobility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was deaths from natural causes. Secondary outcomes were deaths from any cardiometabolic cause, any respiratory cause, and any cancer cause. All outcomes were obtained from the national vital statistics database. RESULTS: Using a propensity score matching technique with numerous personal, socioeconomic, health, and environment related covariates, each participant who moved to a different PM2.5 area was matched with up to three participants who moved within the same PM2.5 area. In the matched groups that moved from high to intermediate or low PM2.5 areas, residential mobility was associated with a decline in annual PM2.5 exposure from 10.6 µg/m3 to 7.4 and 5.0 µg/m3, respectively. Conversely, in the matched groups that moved from low to intermediate or high PM2.5 areas, annual PM2.5 increased from 4.6 µg/m3 to 6.7 and 9.2 µg/m3. Five years after moving, individuals who experienced a reduction in exposure to PM2.5 from high to intermediate levels showed a 6.8% (95% confidence interval 1.7% to 11.7%) reduction in mortality (2510 deaths in 56 025 v 4925 deaths in 101 960). A greater decline in mortality occurred among those exposed to a larger reduction in PM2.5. Increased mortality was found with exposure to PM2.5 from low to high levels, and to a lesser degree from low to intermediate levels. Furthermore, the decreases in PM2.5 exposure were most strongly associated with reductions in cardiometabolic deaths, whereas the increases in PM2.5 exposure were mostly related to respiratory deaths. No strong evidence was found for the changes in PM2.5 exposure with cancer related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In Canada, decreases in PM2.5 were associated with lower mortality, whereas increases in PM2.5 were associated with higher mortality. These results were observed at PM2.5 levels considerably lower than many other countries, providing support for continuously improving air quality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Censos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637464

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) is considered the most severe environmental pollution problem due to its serious effects on human health associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this work, a physicochemical characterization of PM10 from the city of Medellin was developed. The results evince that lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant elements since it is present in all analyzed samples. Therefore, Pb was chosen to perform an in-silico study to assess its effects on atrial arrhythmias generation. For this purpose, we developed a model representing the Pb2+ blocking effect on the L-type calcium channel. This formulation was incorporated in a human atrial cell mathematical model and in 2D and 3D models of human atria. The simulations showed a proarrhythmic effect at high Pb2+ concentrations, through shortening of action potential duration inducing the generation of reentrant activity and atrial flutter. The results contribute to the knowledge about the cardiac physiopathological processes, triggered by lead as one of the main PM10 metal components of air pollution, that yields the generation of arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Simulação por Computador , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Espectrometria por Raios X
14.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(4): 521-530, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494521

RESUMO

Objective To quantitatively evaluate the associations of PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2 concentrations with the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis in Lanzhou. Methods The data of outpatient visits,together with meteorological data and air pollutant data,from January 2013 to December 2017 were collected.The generalized additive model based on Poisson distribution was employed to study the lag effects of PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2 concentrations on the visits of outpatients,with the seasonal and long-term trends and day-of-the-week effect controlled. Results The results of the single pollutant model showed that PM2.5 and PM10 had the most obvious while still insignificant impact on the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis on the current day(lag0).NO2 also had the most obvious impact in the case of lag0 and showed a lag effect.For each 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration,the excess risk(ER)of outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis was 1.95%(95% CI=1.09%-2.82%,P=0.01).SO2 had the most significant effect on lag6,and the outpatient visits increased by 1.55%(95% CI=0.48%-2.54%)for every 10 µg/m3 rise in SO2 concentration(P=0.02).Females were more sensitive to PM10 and SO2 than males.For every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 and SO2,the female outpatient visits increased by 0.02% and 2.47%,respectively.Males were sensitive to PM2.5 and NO2,and the every 10 µg/m3 rise in PM2.5 and NO2 increased male outpatient visits by 0.47% and 1.78%,respectively.Gaseous pollutants(NO2 and SO2)had more significant effect on people ≤2 years old than on those of other ages.Every 10 µg/m3 rise in NO2 and SO2 would increase the ≤2-year-old outpatient visits by 2.35% and 1.57%,respectively(P=0.02).People of 13-59 years old were sensitive to NO2 concentration,and every 10 µg/m3 rise in NO2 concentration increased their visits by 1.39%.NO2 affected the outpatient visits during the cold and warm seasons,with the ER values of 2.35% and 1.89%,respectively(P=0.01).Particulate matter(PM2.5 and PM10)had the most obvious yet insignificant association with the outpatient visits in winter.The interactions between PM2.5 and NO2,between PM10 and NO2,and between SO2 and NO2 affected the total outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis.The results of double pollutant model showed that in the presence of PM2.5,PM10,or SO2,the effect of NO2 on the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis enhanced compared with that predicted by single pollutant model(P=0.01). Conclusion The air pollutants(PM2.5,PM10,NO2,and SO2)in Lanzhou were closely related to the outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis,and the increased concentrations of NO2 and SO2 was more likely to increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Dermatite Atópica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , China , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 55869-55887, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491504

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies are the main causes of infant death and disability. Previous studies have suggested that maternal exposure to particulate matter is related to congenital malformation. However, the conclusions of this study remain controversial. Hence, meta-analyses were performed to assess the relationship between maternal exposure to particulate matter and the risk of congenital anomalies. The Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systemically searched from inception until August 2020 to find articles related to birth defects and particulate matter. The pooled risk estimated for the combination of pollution outcomes was calculated for each study by performing fixed effects or random effects models. The existence of heterogeneity and publication bias in relevant studies was also examined. Thirty studies were included in the analysis. A statistically increased summary risk valuation was found. PM10 exposure was associated with an increased risk of congenital heart disease, neural tube defects, and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.05, 95% CI, 1.03-1.07; OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.04, 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.03, 95% CI, 1.01-1.06). Maternal exposure to particulate matter might be associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies. Our results indicate the dangers of particulate matter exposure on fetal development and the importance of protection against exposure to such particles during pregnancy. The schematic representation of the association between maternal exposure to PM2.5/PM10 and congenital anomalies in offspring, and geographic distribution of the included reports in the meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Material Particulado , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
17.
Environ Int ; 157: 106865, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP) increases the risk for arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), evidence on the association of solid fuel use with ASCVD and its association modified by ambient air pollution remains limited. METHODS: A total of 16,779 adults were derived from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Concentrations of ambient air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2) were estimated by a spatiotemporal model based on satellites data. Solid fuel use was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. The associations of solid fuel use with high 10-year ASCVD risk and the modified association by exposure to air pollutants were explored using logistic regression models. RESULTS: There were positive associations of AAP exposure with high 10-year ASCVD risk among individuals with self-cooking. The joint associations between high AAP exposures and solid fuel use with high 10-year ASCVD risk were found. Compared to clean fuel user with low PM2.5 exposure, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of high 10-year ASCVD risk was 1.25 (1.09, 1.42) for solid fuel user with low PM2.5 exposure, 1.93 (1.75, 2.12) for clean fuel user with high PM2.5 exposure, and 3.08 (2.67, 3.54) for solid fuel user with high PM2.5 exposure, respectively. Their additive effect on high 10-year ASCVD risk was observed (relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 0.90 (95 %CI: 0.50, 1.30), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP): 0.29 (95 %CI: 0.19, 0.40), and synergy index (SI): 1.77 (95 %CI: 1.38, 2.26)). CONCLUSION: This study showed a synergistic effect of AAP and household air pollution reflected by solid fuel use on high 10-year ASCVD risk, suggesting that reducing solid cooking fuels and controlling air pollution may have a joint effect on public health improvement.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci ; 4: 417-447, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465183

RESUMO

Data from satellite instruments provide estimates of gas and particle levels relevant to human health, even pollutants invisible to the human eye. However, the successful interpretation of satellite data requires an understanding of how satellites relate to other data sources, as well as factors affecting their application to health challenges. Drawing from the expertise and experience of the 2016-2020 NASA HAQAST (Health and Air Quality Applied Sciences Team), we present a review of satellite data for air quality and health applications. We include a discussion of satellite data for epidemiological studies and health impact assessments, as well as the use of satellite data to evaluate air quality trends, support air quality regulation, characterize smoke from wildfires, and quantify emission sources. The primary advantage of satellite data compared to in situ measurements, e.g., from air quality monitoring stations, is their spatial coverage. Satellite data can reveal where pollution levels are highest around the world, how levels have changed over daily to decadal periods, and where pollutants are transported from urban to global scales. To date, air quality and health applications have primarily utilized satellite observations and satellite-derived products relevant to near-surface particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Health and air quality communities have grown increasingly engaged in the use of satellite data, and this trend is expected to continue. From health researchers to air quality managers, and from global applications to community impacts, satellite data are transforming the way air pollution exposure is evaluated.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 430, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional trait-based ecological research has been instrumental in advancing our understanding of environmental changes. It is still, however, unclear how the functional traits of urban plants respond to atmospheric particulate matter, and which trade-off strategies are shown. In order to explore the variation of plant functional traits with the gradient of urban atmospheric particulate matter, we divided atmospheric particulate matter into three levels according to road distance, and measured the variation of six essential leaf functional traits and their trade-off strategies. RESULTS: Here, we show that the functional traits of plants can be used as predictors of plant response to urban atmospheric particulate matter. Within the study, leaf thickness, leaf dry matter content, leaf tissue density, stomatal density were positively correlated with atmospheric particulate matter. On the contrary, chlorophyll content index and specific leaf area were negatively correlated with atmospheric particulate matter. Plants can improve the efficiency of gas exchange by optimizing the spatial distribution of leaf stomata. Under the atmospheric particulate matter environment, urban plants show a trade-off relationship of economics spectrum traits at the intraspecific level. CONCLUSION: Under the influence of urban atmospheric particulate matter, urban plant shows a "slow investment-return" type in the leaf economics spectrum at the intraspecific level, with lower specific leaf area, lower chlorophyll content index, ticker leaves, higher leaf dry matter content, higher leaf tissue density and higher stomatal density. This finding provides a new perspective for understanding the resource trades-off strategy of plants adapting to atmospheric particulate matter.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Euonymus/anatomia & histologia , Euonymus/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , China , Cidades
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
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