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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158862, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has become a significant public health concern. During exercise, many physiological factors are thought to increase the effects of air pollution. Air pollution most affects lung function and respiratory symptoms. We investigated the association between lung function, respiratory symptoms, and air pollutant concentration with meteorological factors in elite sports athletes. METHODS: A total of 59 elite sports athletes from the Korea National Sports University participated in this prospective, observational study from September 2019 to June 2020. At ten visits, lung function and respiratory symptoms were obtained after a training session. We measured six air pollutants, including SO2, CO, O3, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5, and two meteorological factors, including humidity and temperature. Air pollutants and meteorological factors were measured by two nearest depositories of the national air pollution information system in Korea. RESULTS: In a single-pollutant model, PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO were inversely associated with both FEV1 and FEV6, 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with a 32.31 mL decrease in FEV1 and a 36.93 mL decrease in FEV6. Meanwhile, O3 and temperature had positive associations with both FEV1 (13.00 and 3.15 mL) and FEV6 (16.91 and 4.76 mL) and humidity with FEV6 (11.98 mL). In the multi-pollutant model at lag 0, FEV1 was associated negatively with O3 and NO2 (-50.68 and -6.87 mL) and positively with SO2 and temperature (65.76 and 8.08 mL). In the multi-pollutant model at lag 6, temperature was associated with FEV1 and FEV6 (6.01 and 8.89 mL). PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and temperature were significantly associated with FEV1 and FEV6 through lag 0-6. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollutants and meteorological factors are associated with lung function and respiratory symptoms and have cumulative effects among elite athletes. In the multi-pollutant model, temperature has the most significant effect on lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Atletas , Pulmão
2.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 390-396, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that low individual vitamin D levels enhance adverse effects associated with air pollution on mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify associations between ambient air pollution exposure, mental health, and serum vitamin D status in the general population of South Korea. METHODS: We included national representative data for 29,373 adults in the final analysis. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations to assess vitamin D status for each participant. We assessed mental health factors (i.e., perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation), and analyzed associations between these factors and individuals' annual average exposures to air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide (CO). RESULTS: Using an adjusted model, we found PM10 affected mental health outcomes, such as perceived stress (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.09), depression symptoms (OR = 1.12; 95 % CI = 1.06-1.18), and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.11; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.17). Effects of the pollutants NO2 and CO were significant only in the group with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. PM10 and NO2 exposures were significantly associated with increased odds of adverse mental health in participants with vitamin D deficiency. LIMITATIONS: Since the cross-sectional design of KNHANES data, it is not possible to evaluate the causal relationship between air pollution exposure, vitamin D status and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: This study results suggest that associations between ambient air pollution and mental health outcomes were stronger in participants with vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Adulto , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Vitamina D , Vitaminas , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159792, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306842

RESUMO

Interest in assessing the effects of exposure to greenspace on human health has been increasing due to rapid urbanization, and rising trends of physical inactivity and air pollution. However, findings on the link between greenspace and child respiratory health, especially asthma, are inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenspace surrounding residential addresses and asthma in children. A city-wide cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 16,605 children aged 3-12 years, in Shanghai, China. Data on asthma symptoms and covariates were collected from validated self-reported questionnaires. Residential greenspace was measured using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Information on ambient temperature and particulate matter with dynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was also collected from satellite data. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of greenspace exposure with childhood asthma as well as the effect modification by covariates. The prevalence of current asthma in children was 4.8 % in this study. An interquartile range increase in mean NDVI from 2016 to 2018 was associated with decreased odds of asthma in 2019 at 500 m, and 250 m resolutions (0.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.93; and 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.72 to 0.94, respectively) after adjustment for covariates. The greenspace-asthma association was modified by ambient temperature and residential area. Sensitivity analyses using various models and EVI exposure showed the robustness of the results. In conclusion, higher individual-level exposure to greenspace was associated with decreased odds of asthma in children, and the association appeared to be modified by different environmental and socio-demographic factors. These findings provide additional evidence for promoting urban greenness to protect children's health and well-being.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Parques Recreativos , China/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159410, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has been a worrisome public health problem in the world. However, evidence for associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among HIV/AIDS patients is scarce. METHODS: We collected daily death records in people with HIV/AIDS from all counties (N = 103) of Hubei province, China from 2018 to 2019. The county-level daily concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the same period were extracted from ChinaHighAirPollutants dataset. A time-stratified case-crossover design with conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between PM and mortality. RESULTS: Each 1 µg/m3 increased in PM1 corresponded with 0.89 % elevated in all-cause deaths (ACD) at lag 0-4 days. The largest effects of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 on AIDS-related deaths (ARD) were detected at lag 0-4 days, and PM1 [percent changes in odds ratio: 2.51 % (95 % CIs: 0.82, 4.22)] appeared greater health hazards than PM2.5 [1.24 % (95 % CIs: 0.33, 2.15)] as well as PM10 [0.65 % (95 % CIs: 0.01, 1.30)]. In subgroup analyses, the significant associations of PM1/PM2.5 and ACD were only found in male and the cold season. We also observed the effects of PM1 and PM10 on ARD were significantly stronger (P for interaction <0.05) in males than females. In addition, we caught sight of HIV/AIDS patients aged over 60 years old were more susceptible to ARD caused by PM than younger population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested PM1 was positively linked with the risk of ACD and ARD. Male patients with HIV/AIDS were more significantly susceptible to PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. PM1/PM2.5 appeared stronger associations with ARD in HIV/AIDS patients aged over 60 years old and in the cold season.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Cross-Over
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159014, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162568

RESUMO

The cardiometabolic effects of air pollution in the context of mixtures and the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the joint effect of air pollutant mixtures on a broad range of cardiometabolic parameters, examine the susceptibility of obese individuals, and determine the role of circulating fatty acids. In this panel study, metabolically healthy normal-weight (MH-NW, n = 49) and obese (MHO, n = 39) adults completed three longitudinal visits (257 person-visits in total). Personal exposure levels of PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, CO and BC were estimated based on fixed-site monitoring data, time-activity logs and infiltration factor method. Blood pressure, glycemic homeostasis, lipid profiles, systematic inflammation and coagulation biomarkers were measured. Targeted metabolomics was used to quantify twenty-eight plasma free fatty acids (FFAs). Bayesian kernel machine regression models were applied to establish the exposure-response relationships and identify key pollutants. Significant joint effects of measured air pollutants on systematic inflammation and coagulation biomarkers were observed in the MHO group, instead of the MH-NW group. Lipid profiles showed the most significant changes in both groups and O3 contributed the most to the total effect. Specific FFA patterns were identified, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)-related pattern was most closely related to blood lipid profiles. In particular, interaction analysis suggested that DNL-related FFA pattern augmented the effects of O3 on triglyceride (TG, Pinteraction = 0.040), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Pinteraction = 0.106) and TG/HDL-C (Pinteraction = 0.020) in the MHO group but not MH-NW group. This modification was further confirmed by interaction analysis with estimated activity of SCD1, a key enzyme in the DNL pathway. Therefore, despite being metabolically healthy, obese subjects have a higher cardiometabolic susceptibility to air pollution, especially O3, and the DNL pathway may represent an intrinsic driver of lipid susceptibility. This study provides new insights into the cardiometabolic susceptibility of obese individuals to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Inflamação
6.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120604, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347414

RESUMO

The association between oxidative protein damage in early pregnant women and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is unknown. We estimated the effect of PM2.5 exposures within seven days before blood collection on serum 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in 100 women with normal early pregnancy (NEP) and 100 women with clinically recognized early pregnancy loss (CREPL). Temporally-adjusted land use regression model was applied for estimation of maternal daily PM2.5 exposure. Daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure of each participant was estimated using city-level concentrations of NO2. Single-day lag effect of PM2.5 was analyzed using multivariable linear regression model. Net cumulative effect and distributed lag effect of PM2.5 and NO2 within seven days were analyzed using distributed lag non-linear model. In all 200 subjects, the serum 3-NT were significantly increased with the single-day lag effects (4.72%-8.04% increased at lag 0-2), distributed lag effects (2.32%-3.49% increased at lag 0-2), and cumulative effect within seven days (16.91% increased). The single-day lag effects (7.41%-10.48% increased at lag 0-1), distributed lag effects (3.42%-5.52% increased at lag 0-2), and cumulative effect within seven days (24.51% increased) of PM2.5 significantly increased serum 3-NT in CREPL group but not in NEP group. The distributed lag effects (2.62%-4.54% increased at lag 0-2) and cumulative effect within seven days (20.25% increased) of PM2.5 significantly increased serum AOPP in early pregnant women before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic but not after that, similarly to the effects of NO2 exposures. In conclusion, PM2.5 exposures were associated with oxidative stress to protein in pregnant women in the first trimester, especially in CREPL women. Analysis of NO2 exposures suggested that combustion PM2.5 was the crucial PM2.5 component. Wearing masks may be potentially preventive in PM2.5 exposure and its related oxidative protein damage.


Assuntos
Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gestantes
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1026648, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466446

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been widely reported to have a significant relationship with hypertension, but the past description of this relationship has not been uniform. In addition, there has been a lack of research to discuss the impact of environmental exposure on the relationship between smoking and hypertension. Therefore, this study estimates the association between smoking and hypertension in middle aged and elderly people in China under different PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) concentrations and the green space exposure conditions. Methods: Individual sample data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2018 and the long-term average exposure concentration of fine particles and green space exposure for all participants were used with a multilevel binary logistic mixed effects model. Adjustments were made for sociodemographic characteristics and other health behaviors including drinking, physical activity, and social activity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and PM2.5 concentration stratification were assigned with the median of the population exposure concentration as the dividing line, and the dual environmental factor stratification was assigned in combination with the two types of environmental exposure. The analysis was also stratified using age groups. Results: A total of 10,600 participants over the age of 45 were included in the study. The effects of smoking on hypertension were diverse under different environmental exposure conditions. There was a significant relationship between smoking behavior and hypertension in the Low-NDVI group, and the effect value of this relationship was significantly different from that in the High-NDVI group. Furthermore, for respondents exposed to low green spaces and high PM2.5 environments at the same time (Low-NDVI/High-PM2.5 group), their smoking behavior may lead to an increase in the risk of hypertension. In addition, the risk of hypertension caused by smoking in the middle-aged (45-64) was significant under low green space exposure, but the effect difference between the different age groups was not significant. Conclusions: The relationship between smoking and hypertension was different under different environmental exposure conditions. Exposure to low green spaces may strengthen the association between smoking and hypertension risk. When participants were exposed to both low green spaces and high PM2.5 concentrations, the risk of hypertension caused by smoking was significantly higher than that of those who were exposed to high green spaces and low PM2.5 concentrations.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Fumar , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Longitudinais , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
8.
S Afr Med J ; 112(8b): 705-717, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458351

RESUMO

Background: Globally, a growing body of research has shown that ambient air pollution is one of the most critical environmental issues, especially in relation to human health. Exposure to ambient air pollution leads to serious health conditions such as lower respiratory infections, cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objectives: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution in South Africa (SA) for the years 2000, 2006 and 2012. Methods: Comparative risk assessment method was used to determine the burden of disease due to two pollutants (particulate matter (PM2.5) and ambient ozone). Regionally optimised fully coupled climate chemistry models and surface air pollution observations were used to generate concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone for each SA Census Small Area Level, for the year 2012. For 2000 and 2006, population-weighted PM2.5and ozone were estimated, based on the 2012 results. Following the identification of disease outcomes associated with particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone exposure, the attributable burden of disease was estimated for 2000, 2006 and 2012. Furthermore, for the year 2012, the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution exposure was computed at provincial levels. Results: In 2012, approximately 97.6% of people in SA were exposed to PM2.5 at levels above the 2005 World Health Organization guideline: 10 µg/m3 annual mean. From 2000 to 2012, population-weighted annual average PM2.5 increased from 26.6 µg/m3 to 29.7 µg/m3, and ozone 6-month high 8-hour daily maximum increased from 64.4 parts per billion (ppb) to 72.1 ppb. At a national scale, in the year 2000, 15 619 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 8 958 - 21 849) deaths were attributed to PM2.5 exposure, while 1 326 (95% UI 534 - 1 885) deaths were attributed to ozone. In 2006, an estimated 19 672 deaths (95% UI 11 526 - 27 086) were attributed to PM2.5, and a further 1 591 deaths (95% UI 651 - 2 236) to ozone exposure. In 2012, deaths attributed to PM2.5 were 19 507 (95% UI 11 318 - 27 111), and to ozone 1 734 (95% UI 727 - 2 399). Additionally, population-weighted provincial scale analysis showed that Gauteng Province had the highest number of attributable deaths due to both PM2.5 and ozone in 2012. Conclusion: The study showed that ambient air pollution exposure is an important health risk in SA, requiring both short- and long-term intervention. In the short term, the SA Ambient Air Quality Standards and industrial minimum emissions standards need to be enforced. In the longer term, to reduce air pollution and the associated disease burden, the combustion of fossil fuels as a source of energy for power generation and transportation, as well as industrial and domestic uses, needs to be replaced with clean renewable energy sources. In addition to local measures, when the southern African prevalent anticyclonic air dynamics that transport regionally emitted pollutants into SA (especially from biomass burning) are considered, it is also advisable to establish long-term regional co-operation in reducing air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Humanos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 966461, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339143

RESUMO

Objective: Several studies have demonstrated that environmental factors, such as meteorological factors and air pollutants, are closely associated with epistaxis. However, age-specific associations between environmental factors and epistaxis have not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between individual meteorological factors and air pollutants and epistaxis, by age. Study design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: Records of patients covered by the Korean National Health Insurance Service who visited our hospital for epistaxis between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Methods: The 46,628 enrolled patients were divided into four age groups: age group 0 (<18 years, N = 19,580); age group 1 (18-40 years, N = 10,978); age group 2 (41-70 years, N = 13,395); and age group 3 (>70 years, N = 2,675). Cases of epistaxis and data on environmental factors were analyzed according to the day, month, and year. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify the environmental risk factors for epistaxis in each age group. Results: Age group 0 had the highest number of patients with epistaxis, whereas age group 3 had the lowest. Relative humidity, temperature, concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide, sunshine duration, and wind speed were significantly associated with the occurrence of epistaxis in the study population. However, analysis according to age group showed that the meteorological factors and air pollutants associated with epistaxis were different in each age group. Conclusion: We suggest that the environmental risk factors for epistaxis should be differentially analyzed according to age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Epistaxe , Humanos , Adolescente , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epistaxe/epidemiologia , Epistaxe/etiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores Etários
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1002824, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353284

RESUMO

Background: Studies in singletons have suggested that prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and some of its chemical components is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB). However, no study has been conducted in twins. Purpose: To examine the associations of maternal exposure to total PM2.5 mass and its carbonaceous components with PTB in twin pregnancies. Methods: A total of 1,515 pairs of twins and their mothers were enrolled from a previous twin birth cohort that had been conducted at the Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital School of Medicine of Tongji University in China. Participants who had iatrogenic PTBs were excluded. Maternal exposure to total PM2.5 mass and two carbonaceous components, namely, organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), was estimated by a satellite-based model. The associations between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of spontaneous PTB were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Results: This study found that exposure to total PM2.5 mass and OC during the second trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of spontaneous PTB. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in total PM2.5 mass and OC exposure during the second trimester was associated with 48% (OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.06, 2.05) and 50% (OR = 1.50, 95% CI, 1.00, 2.25) increases in the odds of PTB, respectively. However, no significant association was found between BC exposure during any exposure window and the risk of PTB. Conclusion: The findings suggest that exposure to ambient air pollution with fine particles may be a risk factor for spontaneous PTB in twin pregnancies. The middle stage of pregnancy seems to be a critical window for the impacts of PM2.5 exposure on PTB in twin pregnancies.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , China/epidemiologia , Carbono/análise
11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(11): 1752-1763, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution aggravates the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Currently, the exact inflammatory mechanisms underlying these links from clinical research remain largely unclear. METHODS: This study included 1,131 cognitively intact individuals from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE database with data provided on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers (amyloid beta-peptide 42 [Aß42], total tau [t-tau], and phosphorylated tau [p-tau]), neuroinflammatory (CSF sTREM2), and systemic inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein and peripheral immune cells). The 2-year averaged levels of ambient fine particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), and ozone (O3 ) were estimated at each participant's residence. Multiple-adjusted models were approached to detect associations of air pollution with inflammatory markers and AD-related proteins. RESULTS: Ambient 2-year averaged exposure of PM2.5 was associated with changes of neuroinflammatory markers, that is, CSF sTREM2 (ß = -0.116, p = 0.0002). Similar results were found for O3 exposure among the elderly (ß = -0.111, p = 0.0280) or urban population (ß = -0.090, p = 0.0144). No significant evidence supported NO2 related to CSF sTREM2. For potentially causal associations with accumulated AD pathologies, the total effects of PM2.5 on CSF amyloid-related protein (CSF Aß42 and p-tau/Aß42) were partly mediated by CSF sTREM2, with proportions of 14.22% and 47.15%, respectively. Additional analyses found inverse associations between peripheral inflammatory markers with PM2.5 and NO2 , but a positive correlation with O3 . INTERPRETATION: These findings demonstrated a strong link between PM2.5 exposure and microglial dysfunction. Furthermore, CSF sTREM2 as a key mediator modulated the influences of PM2.5 exposure on AD amyloid pathologies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença de Alzheimer , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Receptores Imunológicos , Idoso , Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(11): e932-e941, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported positive associations between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and air pollutant concentrations, but there are inconsistencies across studies. We aimed to investigate the association between pollutant concentrations and the risk of OHCA in Singapore. METHODS: We did a time series analysis of all cases of OHCA in Singapore reported between July 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2018, to the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), a prospective, population-based registry. Using multivariable fractional polynomial modelling, we investigated the immediate (day 0) and lagged (up to 5 days after exposure) association between 10 µg/m3 increases in concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter of 2·5 µm or smaller (PM2·5), particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or smaller (PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and 1 mg/m3 increase in carbon monoxide (CO) and relative risk (RR) of OHCA. FINDINGS: We extracted data for 18 131 cases of OHCA. The median age of this cohort of cases was 65 years (IQR 56-80), 6484 (35·8%) were female, 11 647 (64·2%) were male, 12 270 (67·7%) were Chinese, 2873 (15·8%) were Malay, and 2010 (11·1%) were Indian. Every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2·5 was associated with increased risk of OHCA (RR 1·022 [95% 1·002-1·043]) over the next 2 days, which decreased over the subsequent 3 days (3-5 days after exposure; 0·976 [0·955-0·998]). For PM10, O3, NO2, and SO2, we did not observe any associations between increased concentration and risk of OHCA on day 0 or cumulative risk over time (ie, at 0-1 days, 0-2 days, 0-3 days, 0-4 days, 0-5 days, and 3-5 days after exposure). For CO, we observed a cumulative decreased risk of OHCA across 0-5 days after exposure (0·876 [0·770-0·997]) and at days 3-5 after exposure (0·810 [0·690-0·949]). We observed effect modification of the association between increasing PM2·5 concentration and OHCA 0-2 days after exposure by cardiac arrest rhythm (non-shockable 1·027 [1·004-1·050] vs shockable 1·002 [0·956-1·051]) and location of OHCA (at home: 1·033 [1·008-1·057] vs not at home 0·955 [0·957-1·035]). In hypothetical modelling, the number of OHCA events associated with PM2·5 could be reduced by 8% with a 1 µg/m3 decrease in PM2·5 concentrations and by 30% with a 3 µg/m3 decrease in PM2·5 concentrations. INTERPRETATION: Increases in PM2·5 concentration were associated with an initial increased risk of OHCA and a subsequent reduced risk from 3-5 days after exposure, suggesting a short-term harvesting effect. A decrease in PM2·5 concentrations could reduce population demand for emergency health services. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Singapore, under the Clinician Scientist Award, Singapore and the Singapore Translational Research Investigator Award (MOH-000982-01).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
13.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 106, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interplay between physical activity (PA) and air pollution in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains largely unknown. Based on a large population-based cohort study, this study aimed to examine whether the benefits of PA with respect to the risk of T2D are moderated by exposure to air pollution. METHODS: UK Biobank participants (n = 359,153) without diabetes at baseline were included. Information on PA was obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. Exposure to air pollution, including PM2.5, PMcoarse (PM2.5-10), PM10, and NO2, was estimated from land use regression models. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During a median of 8.9 years of follow-up, 13,706 T2D events were recorded. Compared with a low PA level, the HRs for the risk of T2D among individuals with moderate and high PA were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.70-0.77), respectively. Compared with low levels of air pollution, the HRs for risk of T2D for high levels of air pollution (PM2.5, PMcoarse, PM10, and NO2) were 1.19 (1.14-1.24), 1.06 (1.02-1.11), 1.13 (1.08-1.18), and 1.19 (1.14-1.24), respectively. There was no effect modification of the associations between PA and T2D by air pollution (all P-interactions > 0.05). The inverse associations between PA and T2D in each air pollution stratum were generally consistent (all P for trend < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A higher PA and lower air pollution level were independently associated with a lower risk of T2D. The beneficial effects of PA on T2D generally remained stable among participants exposed to different levels of air pollution. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings in moderately and severely polluted areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exercício Físico
14.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 310, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway macrophages (AM), crucial for the immune response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are exposed to environmental particulate matter (PM), which they retain in their cytoplasm as black carbon (BC). However, whether AM BC accurately reflects environmental PM2.5 exposure, and can serve as a biomarker of COPD outcomes, is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed induced sputum from participants at 7 of 12 sites SPIROMICS sites for AM BC content, which we related to exposures and to lung function and respiratory outcomes. Models were adjusted for batch (first vs. second), age, race (white vs. non-white), income (<$35,000, $35,000~$74,999, ≥$75,000, decline to answer), BMI, and use of long-acting beta-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonists, with sensitivity analysis performed with inclusion of urinary cotinine and lung function as covariates. RESULTS: Of 324 participants, 143 were current smokers and 201 had spirometric-confirmed COPD. Modeled indoor fine (< 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) particulate matter (PM2.5) and urinary cotinine were associated with higher AM BC. Other assessed indoor and ambient pollutant exposures were not associated with higher AM BC. Higher AM BC was associated with worse lung function and odds of severe exacerbation, as well as worse functional status, respiratory symptoms and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Indoor PM2.5 and cigarette smoke exposure may lead to increased AM BC deposition. Black carbon content in AMs is associated with worse COPD morbidity in current and former smokers, which remained after sensitivity analysis adjusting for cigarette smoke burden. Airway macrophage BC, which may alter macrophage function, could serve as a predictor of experiencing worse respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Cotinina , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Macrófagos , Morbidade , Carbono , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(22): e026660, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346052

RESUMO

Background Long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the leading environmental risk factor for premature mortality worldwide. Characterizing important pathways through which PM2.5 increases individuals' mortality risk can clarify the PM2.5-mortality relationship and identify possible points of interventions. Recent evidence has linked PM2.5 to the onset of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but to what extent these associations contribute to the effect of PM2.5 on mortality remains poorly understood. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate how the effect of PM2.5 on nonaccidental mortality is mediated by its impacts on incident diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke. Our study population comprised ≈200 000 individuals aged 20 to 90 years who participated in population-based health surveys in Ontario, Canada, from 1996 to 2014. Follow-up extended until December 2017. Using causal mediation analyses with Aalen additive hazards models, we decomposed the total effect of PM2.5 on mortality into a direct effect and several path-specific indirect effects mediated by diabetes, each cardiovascular event, or both combined. A series of sensitivity analyses were also conducted. After adjusting for various individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, we estimated that for every 1000 adults, each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with ≈2 incident cases of diabetes, ≈1 major cardiovascular event (acute myocardial infarction and stroke combined), and ≈2 deaths annually. Among PM2.5-related deaths, 31.7% (95% CI, 17.2%-53.2%) were attributable to diabetes and major cardiovascular events in relation to PM2.5. Specifically, 4.5% were explained by PM2.5-induced diabetes, 22.8% by PM2.5-induced major cardiovascular events, and 4.5% through their interaction. Conclusions This study suggests that a significant portion of the estimated effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on deaths can be attributed to its effect on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, highlighting the significance of PM2.5 on deteriorating cardiovascular health. Our findings should raise awareness among professionals that improving metabolic and cardiovascular health may reduce mortality burden in areas with higher exposure to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Adulto , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Mediação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19064, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351973

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution was known to cause central nervous system diseases and depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined the associations between air pollution exposure and the prevalence of insomnia in Taipei City of Taiwan. We applied the health information system of electrical medical records of Taipei City Hospital to collect a total of 5108 study subjects (insomniacs N = 912 and non-insomniacs N = 4196) over 18 years old from the family medicine and internal medicine outpatients of six branches of Taipei City Hospital. These patients were grouped into insomniacs and non-insomniacs following the primary insomnia diagnosis (ICD9:780.52, 780.54, 307.41, 307.42, ICD10: G47.00, G47.01, G47.09, F51.01, F51.09) and the prescription times of anxiolytics and hypnotics. We estimated one-year average concentrations of PM2.5, ozone, and NOx before the first date of insomnia diagnosis and the last date of outpatient visit for insomniacs and non-insomniacs, respectively, by using the data of nearest air quality monitoring stations relative to study subjects' residential addresses. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the independent effects of air pollution concentrations on the risk of insomnia. One-year average PM2.5, ozone, and NOx levels for insomniacs was significantly higher than those of non-insomniacs. After adjusting for confounding factors, increase each 1(µg/m3) in one-year average PM2.5 showed a statistically significant association with insomnia (the odds ratio 1.610, 95% CI [1.562,1.660]). As to multi pollutants, one-year average PM2.5 (1.624, [1.570, 1.681] and ozone (1.198, [1.094, 1.311]) exposure showed a significant association with insomnia. Subgroup analysis revealed that the influence of PM2.5 and ozone on insomnia have significant risks in people with major chronic disease. This study demonstrated a positive association between PM2.5 and ozone exposure and the prevalence of hypnotic-treated insomnia. Especially, the people with major chronic diseases were with obvious effect of PM2.5 and ozone on risk of insomnia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ozônio/análise
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19147, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351977

RESUMO

Significant associations between air pollution (AP) and insulin resistance (IR) have been reported in limited populations or certain patient groups, but few studies have addressed this association in the general population, especially in Asians. Although abdominal fat is a major contributor to IR, previous studies have not fully controlled for its effect in the association between AP and IR. We investigated the association between exposure to AP and IR in Korean adults in the general population and whether this association is maintained even after controlling for the effects of abdominal fat, particularly visceral fat. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained for Korean adults who participated in screening health checkups at Seoul National University Health Examination Center from 2006 to 2014. A total of 4251 men and women aged 22-84 years were included. IR was represented by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adiposity traits such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were measured by computed tomography. We assessed the annual mean concentrations of air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with increased annual mean exposure to PM10 in both men (ß = 0.15; 95% CI 0.09, 0.22) and women (ß = 0.16; 95% CI 0.09, 0.23), and these associations were maintained even after controlling for VAT area (both p < 0.05). The adjusted mean HOMA-IR increased gradually with the level of long-term PM10 exposure (low, intermediate, and high exposure) (all p for trend < 0.001) in the subgroup analysis. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, including VAT area, the annual mean exposure to PM10 was significantly associated with the presence of IR in both men (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.03, 1.35) and women (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.18, 1.76). Other air pollutants, such as NO2, SO2 and CO, did not show any significant associations with HOMA-IR or the presence of IR. Persistent exposure to PM10 is the main independent risk factor for IR and exhibits a dose-dependent association regardless of visceral fatness in both men and women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Adiposidade , Estudos Transversais , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Obesidade Abdominal , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise
18.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 115, 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well documented that persons of color experience disproportionate exposure to environmental contaminants, including air pollution, and have poorer pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the critical windows of exposure to ambient air pollution on in utero fetal growth among structurally marginalized populations in urban Los Angeles. METHODS: Participants (N = 281) from the larger ongoing MADRES pregnancy cohort study were included in this analysis. Fetal growth outcomes were measured on average at 32 [Formula: see text] 2 weeks of gestation by a certified sonographer and included estimated fetal weight, abdominal circumference, head circumference, biparietal diameter and femur length. Daily ambient air pollutant concentrations were estimated for four pollutants (particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 8-h maximum ozone (O3)) at participant residences using inverse-distance squared spatial interpolation from ambient monitoring data. Weekly gestational averages were calculated from 12 weeks prior to conception to 32 weeks of gestation (44 total weeks), and their associations with growth outcomes were modeled using adjusted distributed lag models (DLMs). RESULTS: Participants were on average 29 years [Formula: see text] 6 old and predominately Hispanic (82%). We identified a significant sensitive window of PM2.5 exposure (per IQR increase of 6 [Formula: see text]3) between gestational weeks 4-16 for lower estimated fetal weight [Formula: see text] averaged4-16 = -8.7 g; 95% CI -16.7, -0.8). Exposure to PM2.5 during gestational weeks 1-23 was also significantly associated with smaller fetal abdominal circumference ([Formula: see text] averaged1-23 = -0.6 mm; 95% CI -1.1, -0.2). Additionally, prenatal exposure to PM10 (per IQR increase of 13 [Formula: see text]3) between weeks 6-15 of pregnancy was significantly associated with smaller fetal abdominal circumference ([Formula: see text] averaged6-15 = -0.4 mm; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1). DISCUSSION: These results suggest that exposure to particulate matter in early to mid-pregnancy, but not preconception or late pregnancy, may have critical implications on fetal growth.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Peso Fetal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Hispânico ou Latino
19.
Age Ageing ; 51(11)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: sarcopenia is a disease that involves the degeneration of muscle strength, muscle mass and physical performance. It remains unknown whether air pollution exposure increases the risk of sarcopenia. METHODS: the baseline survey of the UK Biobank was used in this study. Sarcopenia was identified according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) and classified into non-sarcopenia and probable sarcopenia. Land use regressions were used to estimate concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), coarse particles (PMcoarse), PM10, PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the associations between air pollution and sarcopenia and its components. RESULTS: out of 352,265 participants, 28,710 (8.2%) were identified with probable sarcopenia. In adjusted models, there were increased odds of probable sarcopenia for each interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07), PM10 (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.17), PMcoarse (OR: 1.02; 95% CI:1.01, 1.03), PM2.5 absorbance (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.10), NO2 (OR: 1.12; 95% CI:1.10, 1.14) and NOx (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.08). CONCLUSIONS: this study suggests that exposure to ambient air pollution might be one risk factor of sarcopenia. Prospective studies are needed to further confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062280, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of air pollution, from oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer, on the results of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in terms of clinical pregnancy rates, at two fertility centres, from 2013 to 2019. DESIGN: Exploratory retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This retrospective cohort study was performed in the Reproductive Biology Department of Bordeaux University Hospital localised in Bordeaux, France and the Jean Villar Fertility Center localised in Bruges, France. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 10 763 IVF attempts occurring between January 2013 and December 2019, 2194 of which resulted in a clinical pregnancy. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome of the IVF attempt was recorded as the presence or absence of a clinical pregnancy; exposure to air pollution was assessed by calculating the cumulative exposure of suspended particulate matter, fine particulate matter, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide and ozone (O3), over the period from oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer, together with secondary exposure due to the presence of the biomass boiler room, which was installed in 2016, close to the Bordeaux University Hospital laboratory. The association between air pollution and IVF outcome was evaluated by a random-effects logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We found negative associations between cumulative O3 exposure and clinical pregnancy rate (OR=0.92, 95% CI = (0.86 to 0.98)), and between biomass boiler room exposure and clinical pregnancy rate (OR=0.75, 95% CI = (0.61 to 0.91)), after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Air pollution could have a negative effect on assisted reproductive technology results and therefore precautions should be taken to minimise the impact of outdoor air on embryo culture.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Fertilização In Vitro , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
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