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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141521, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829258

RESUMO

In order to control the spread of COVID-19, social distancing measures were implemented in many countries. This study investigated changes in air pollution during the social distancing after the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea. Ambient PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO that are particularly related to industrial activities and traffic were reduced during the social distancing in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. In March 2020, immediately after social distancing, mean levels of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO decreased nationwide from last year's mean levels by 16.98 µg/m3, 21.61 µg/m3, 4.16 ppb, and 0.09 ppm, respectively (p-value for the year-to-year difference <0.001, =0.001, =0.008, <0.001), a decrease by 45.45%, 35.56%, 20.41%, and 17.33%, respectively. Changes in ambient O3 or SO2 were not observed to be attributable to social distancing. Our findings, that such effort for a short period of time resulted in a significant reduction in air pollution, may point toward reducing air pollution as a public health problem in a more sustainable post-COVID-19 world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141726, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889464

RESUMO

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are of concern because of their high pulmonary deposition efficiency. However, present control measures are generally targeted at fine particles (PM2.5), with little effect on UFPs. The health effects of UFPs at different PM2.5 concentrations may provide a basic for controlling UFPs but remain unclear in polluted areas. School children spend the majority of their time in the classrooms. This study investigated the different short-term effects of indoor UFPs on school children in Beijing, China when indoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded or satisfied the recently published Chinese standard for indoor PM2.5. Cardiopulmonary functions of 48 school children, of whom 46 completed, were measured three times. Indoor PM2.5 and UFPs were monitored in classrooms on weekdays. Measurements were separated into two groups according to the abovementioned standard. Mixed-effect models were used to explore the health effects of the air pollutants. Generally, UFP-associated effects on children's cardiopulmonary function persisted even at relatively low PM2.5 concentrations, especially on heart rate variability indices. The risks associated with high PM2.5 concentrations are well-known, but the effects of UFPs on children's cardiopulmonary function deserve more attention even when PM2.5 has been controlled. UFP control and standard setting should therefore be considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142008, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecological epidemiology suggests that hospital admissions for schizophrenia are associated with an increased environmental PM2.5, but no prospective study has verified this result, and the physiological mechanism is not clear. METHODS: We used a repeated-measures design to prospectively assess the association of environmental PM2.5 and the risk of relapse in schizophrenia, and used two linear mixed-effects models to explore possible mediating effects of immune cytokines on the premise of controlling confounders. RESULTS: We import the data using EpiData software, and collate and analyze of the data using R software. The increase of PM2.5 at lag0 had the greatest impact on the relapse of schizophrenia (for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the relapse risk score increased by 1.504, that is to say, odds ratio (OR) = 4.500 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.849-7.106,P < 0.001)), and cumulative effects lasted for four days with the maximum at the second day (for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the relapse risk score increased by 1.301, OR = 3.673 (95%CI: 1.962-6.876,P < 0.001)). PM2.5 exposure was statistically related to four symptom dimensions of early signs scale (ESS), and the symptoms most affected by the increased PM2.5 were depression/withdrawal (ESSN) (OR = 1.990, 95%CI: 1.701-2.328), anxiety/agitation (ESS-A) (OR = 1.537, 95%CI: 1.340-1.763), initial psychosis (ESS-IP) (OR = 1.398, 95%CI: 1.151-1.697), and disinhibition (ESS-D) (OR = 1.235, 95%CI: 1.133-1.347). Furthermore, there are three statistically significant pathways in intermediary analysis: of PM2.5 and relapse risk: "PM2.5 â†’ IL-17 â†’ ESS", "PM2.5 â†’ IL-17 â†’ ESS-A", and "PM2.5 â†’ IL-17 â†’ ESS-N", and the intermediary ratio of IL-17 was 11.66%, 16.37% and 22.55%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increased environmental PM2.5 is a risk factor for the relapse of schizophrenia. Early relapse identification and intervention based on clinical characteristics are of great significance for timely termination of relapse and slowing down of relapse.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Esquizofrenia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Citocinas , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Recidiva , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1585, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease, which has caused numerous deaths and health problems worldwide. This study aims to examine the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution and population mobility on COVID-19 across China. METHODS: We obtained daily confirmed cases of COVID-19, air particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), weather parameters such as ambient temperature (AT) and absolute humidity (AH), and population mobility scale index (MSI) in 63 cities of China on a daily basis (excluding Wuhan) from January 01 to March 02, 2020. Then, the Generalized additive models (GAM) with a quasi-Poisson distribution were fitted to estimate the effects of PM10, PM2.5 and MSI on daily confirmed COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: We found each 1 unit increase in daily MSI was significantly positively associated with daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in all lag days and the strongest estimated RR (1.21, 95% CIs:1.14 ~ 1.28) was observed at lag 014. In PM analysis, we found each 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 was positively associated with the confirmed cases of COVID-19, and the estimated strongest RRs (both at lag 7) were 1.05 (95% CIs: 1.04, 1.07) and 1.06 (95% CIs: 1.04, 1.07), respectively. A similar trend was also found in all cumulative lag periods (from lag 01 to lag 014). The strongest effects for both PM10 and PM2.5 were at lag 014, and the RRs of each 10 µg/m3 increase were 1.18 (95% CIs:1.14, 1.22) and 1.23 (95% CIs:1.18, 1.29), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Population mobility and airborne particulate matter may be associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(9): 647-659, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106210

RESUMO

Objective: This panel study aimed to determine the acute effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) on schoolchildren's pulmonary function. Methods: We selected 51 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years attending a full-time boarding school in Beijing, China, measured the indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations for five consecutive days, calculated the PM 2.5 time-weighted individual exposure levels based on the school micro-environmental concentrations and the time activity pattern recorded by schoolchildren, measured schoolchildren's pulmonary function on the fifth day. The survey was performed three times from December 2018 to April 2019. We used a linear mixed-effects model to evaluate the associations between PM 2.5 and pulmonary function. Results: During the three surveys, the median PM 2.5 time-weighted individual exposure concentrations were 15.30 µg/m 3, 48.92 µg/m 3, and 42.89 µg/m 3, respectively. There was a significant difference between the three surveys in vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) and forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1/FVC) ( P < 0.05). The relevance analysis found that PM 2.5 had lag effect on schoolchildren's pulmonary function, each 10 µg/m 3increase in PM 2.5could cause largest decreases in FEF 25%-75%, FEV 1/FVC, FEF 75%, and FEV 1 on lag 0-1 d (80.44 mL/s, 35.85%, 78.58 mL/s, and 61.34 mL, respectively), and largest decreases in FEF 25% on lag 1 d (83.68 mL/s), in VC on lag 4 d (32.34 mL), and in FVC on lag 0-4 d (37.76 mL). Gender subgroup analysis revealed that the increase in PM 2.5 caused a decrease in FEV 1/FVC and VC on the day of physical examination only in boys, and on lag days it caused changes in different pulmonary function indicators, both for boys and girls, but most of the pulmonary function indicators decreased more in boys than in girls. Conclusion: Our findings show that acute PM 2.5 exposure has significant effects on pulmonary function within 0-4 d, on both small airway indicators and large airway indicators. Boys' pulmonary function is more sensitive to PM 2.5 than girls.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital , Criança , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
6.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(5): 496-499, sept.-oct. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191742

RESUMO

In late 2019, a new infectious disease (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China, which has now turned into a global pandemic. Countries around the world have implemented some type of blockade to lessen their infection and mitigate it. The blockade due to COVID-19 has drastic effects on the social and economic fronts. However, recent data released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Copernicus Sentinel-5P Tropomi Instrument and Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) indicate that the pollution in some of the epicenters of COVID-19, such as Wuhan, Italy, Spain, USA, and Brazil, reduced by up to 30%. This study compiled the environmental data released by these centers and discussed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental pollution


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1471-1476, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076601

RESUMO

Objective: To accurately estimate the health burden and corresponding economic loss attributed to PM(2.5) pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) area in China in 2015. Method: By using satellite-retrieved PM(2.5) concentration data and population data provided by NASA (the spatial resolution was 1 km×1 km), this study estimated excess mortality attributed to long-term PM(2).5 exposure in BTH area in 2015 based on Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). Besides, Value of Statistic Life (VSL) method was used to evaluate the corresponding health economic loss. Result: In BTH area, the population-weighted average PM(2.5) concentration during 2012-2014 was 46.25 µg/m(3), and 56.6% of total population lived in the area where annual average PM(2.5) concentration exceeded Grade Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standard in China (35 µg/m(3)); The PM(2.5)-related premature deaths amounted to 193.8 thousand (95%CI: 140.9 thousand-233.3 thousand), Beijing, Tianjin, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, and Handan were the top five cities with high incidences of PM(2.5)-related premature deaths; The corresponding health economic loss was about 35.934 billion (95%CI: 26.099 billion - 43.255 billion) RMB, accounting for 0.70% (95%CI: 0.51%-0.85%) of the area's GDP in 2015, Beijing, Tianjin, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, and Cangzhou were the top five cities with high health economic loss. Conclusions: PM(2.5) pollution has caused severe disease and economic burden in BTH area. Its spatial distribution suggested that it is particularly necessary to develop the air pollution prevention and control policies for key cities.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Material Particulado , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872245

RESUMO

Air and water pollution have detrimental effects on health, while physical activity opportunities have a positive relationship. The purpose of this study was to explore whether physical activity opportunities moderate the relationships among air and water pollution, and measures of health. Aggregate data were collected at the county level in the United States (n = 3104). Variables included the mean daily density of fine particle matter (air pollution), reported cases of health-related drinking water violations (water pollution), subjective ratings of poor or fair health (overall health), the number of physically and mentally unhealthy (physical and mental health, respectively), and the percentage of people living in close proximity to a park or recreation facility (access to physical activity). Air and water pollution have a significant positive effect on all measures of residents' poor health, while physical activity opportunities only have a negative effect on overall health and physical health. Access to physical activity only moderates the relationship between air pollution and all health outcomes. Since physical activity behavior can be more rapidly changed than some causes of pollution, providing the resident population with better access to physical activity can represent an effective tool in environmental health policy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição da Água , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Água Potável , Poluição Ambiental , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796752

RESUMO

Air pollution is currently one of the greatest threats to global health. Polish cities are among the most heavily polluted in Europe. Due to air pollution 43,100 people die prematurely in Poland every year. However, these data do not take into account the health consequences of air pollution for unborn children. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fine particulate matter air pollution (less than 2.5 µm in diameter) on pregnancy outcomes. An analysis of pregnant women and their children was made using a questionnaire survey from a nationwide study conducted in 2017. Questionnaires from 1095 pregnant women and data from their medical records were collected. An analysis of air pollution in Poland was conducted using the air quality database maintained by the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Poland. A higher concentration of PM2.5 was associated with a decrease in birth weight and a higher risk of low birthweight (i.e., <2500 g). We also observed lower APGAR scores. Thus, all possible efforts to reduce air pollution are critically needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784755

RESUMO

Growing concern about particulate matter (PM2.5) pressures Korea to reduce the health risks associated with its high dependency on fossil fuels. The Korean economy relies heavily on large thermal power plants-a major source of PM2.5 emissions. Although air quality regulations can negatively impact local economies, the Korean government announced two strict air quality mitigation policies in 2019. We develop a regional static computable general equilibrium model to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of these polices under alternative hypothetical scenarios. We separate two regions, Chungcheongnam-do, the most polluted region, and the rest of the country, in our model. As policy options, we introduce a regional development tax and a tradable market for PM emission permits, similar to an air pollution tax and a carbon permits market, respectively. The results show that allowing higher tax rates and a tradable permits market gives the optimal combination, with the PM2.5 emissions reduced by 2.35% without sacrificing economic growth. Since alternative options present, for example, a 0.04% loss of gross domestic product to reduce PM emissions by the same amount, our results here may present a new policy paradigm for managing air pollutants such as PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Combustíveis Fósseis/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado , Centrais Elétricas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Legislação como Assunto , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20653-20661, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778582

RESUMO

While the impact of air pollution on human health is well studied, mechanistic impacts of air pollution on wild systems, including those providing essential ecosystem services, are largely unknown, but directly impact our health and well-being. India is the world's largest fruit producer, second most populous country, and contains 9 of the world's 10 most polluted cities. Here, we sampled Giant Asian honey bees, Apis dorsata, at locations with varying air pollution levels in Bangalore, India. We observed significant correlations between increased respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) deposition and changes in bee survival, flower visitation, heart rate, hemocyte levels, and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, stress, and immunity. Lab-reared Drosophila melanogaster exposed to these same sites also exhibited similar molecular and physiological differences. Our study offers a quantitative analysis on the current impacts of air pollution on insects, and indicates the urgency for more nonhuman studies to accurately assess the effects of pollution on our natural world.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Abelhas/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cidades , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Índia , Insetos/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140982, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736106

RESUMO

Poor indoor air quality in scholar environments have been frequently reported, but its impact on respiratory health in schoolchildren has not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between children's exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) in nursery and primary schools and childhood asthma. Multivariate models (independent and multipollutant) quantified the associations of children's exposure with asthma-related health outcomes: reported active wheezing, reported and diagnosed asthma, and lung function (reduced FEV1/FVC and reduced FEV1). A microenvironmental modelling approach estimated individual inhaled exposure to major indoor air pollutants (CO2, CO, formaldehyde, NO2, O3, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) in nursery and primary schools from both urban and rural sites in northern Portugal. Questionnaires and medical tests (spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator) were used to obtain information on health outcomes and to diagnose asthma following the newest international clinical guidelines. After testing children for aeroallergen sensitisation, multinomial models estimated the effect of exposure to particulate matter on asthma in sensitised individuals. The study population were 1530 children attending nursery and primary schools, respectively 648 pre-schoolers (3-5 years old) and 882 primary school children (6-10 years old). This study found no evidence of a significant association between IAP in nursery and primary schools and the prevalence of childhood asthma. However, reported active wheezing was associated with higher NO2, and reduced FEV1 was associated with higher O3 and PM2.5, despite NO2 and O3 in schools were always below the 200 µg m-3 threshold from WHO and National legislation, respectively. Moreover, sensitised children to common aeroallergens were more likely to have asthma during childhood when exposed to particulate matter in schools. These findings support the urgent need for mitigation measures to reduce IAP in schools, reducing its burden to children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Portugal/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 141170, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758733

RESUMO

The study examines the association between exposure to sub-micrometric Particulate Matter (PM1) and allergic response in a group of sensitive young children (age: 2-10 years) from Ploiesti city, Romania. The city is the only urban agglomeration in Europe surrounded by four oil refineries. A panel study was conducted by collecting medical information from children with respiratory illnesses and atopy (n = 135). Hot Spot Analysis revealed the areas of the city that are susceptible to high levels of PM1. We found a close interaction between exposure to PM1 outdoor concentrations and various physiological changes and clinical symptoms in children including triggering of allergic reactions, rhinitis, alteration of lung function, upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, and bronchial asthma. During the 2-year study period, the incidence of hospitalizations was 40.7%. Strong correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between the PM1 exposure and hospitalizations, and exposure and Immunoglobulin E (IgE). PM1 exposure was also correlated with eosinophils (p < 0.05). Another positive correlation was observed between hospitalizations and IgE levels (p < 0.05). The mean results of tested indicators were as follows: wheezing (5.3, 95% CI (1.4-1.8); Coeff. of var. (CV) = 30%), IgE (382, 95% CI (349-445); CV = 102%), and EO% (5.3, 95% CI (3.3-4.2); CV = 69.5%). We can conclude that exposure to PM1 influenced the frequency of wheezing episodes, increased hospitalizations, and the levels of allergic blood indicators in children, especially in infants and pre-schoolers. CAPSULE: Exposure to sub-micrometric particles (PM1) influences the frequency of wheezing episodes, hospitalizations, and the levels of allergic blood indicators in children, especially in infants and pre-schoolers.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactente , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Romênia/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 90, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in early life, including pneumonia, bronchitis and bronchiolitis, can lead to decreased lung function, persistent lung damage and increased susceptibility to various respiratory diseases such as asthma. In-utero exposure to particulate matter (PM) during pregnancy may disrupt biological mechanisms that regulate fetal growth, maturation and development. We aimed to estimate the association between intrauterine exposure to PM of size < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and incidence of LRTIs during the first year of life. METHODS: A retrospective population-based cohort study in a population of mothers and infants born in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC) in the years 2004-2012. All infants < 1 year old that were hospitalized due to LRTIs were included. The main exposure assessment was based on a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite-based predictions at 1 km2 spatial resolution. Data from monitoring stations was used for imputation of main exposure and other pollutants. Levels of environmental exposures were assigned to subjects based on their residential addresses and averaged for each trimester. Analysis was conducted by a multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) Poisson regression. Data was analyzed separately for the two main ethnic groups in the region, Jewish and Arab-Bedouin. RESULTS: The study cohort included 57,331 deliveries that met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 1871 hospitalizations of infants < 1 year old due to pneumonia or bronchiolitis were documented. In a multivariable analysis, intrauterine exposure to high levels of PM2.5 (> 24 µg/m3) in the first and second trimesters was found to be adversely associated with LRTIs in the Arab-Bedouin population (1st trimester, RR = 1.31, CI 95% 1.08-1.60; 2nd trimester: RR = 1.34, CI 95% 1.09-1.66). CONCLUSION: Intrauterine exposure to high levels of PM2.5 is associated with a higher risk of hospitalizations due to lower respiratory tract infections in Arab-Bedouin infants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Infecções Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748812

RESUMO

The COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 pandemic struck health, social and economic systems worldwide, and represents an open challenge for scientists -coping with the high inter-individual variability of COVID-19, and for policy makers -coping with the responsibility to understand environmental factors affecting its severity across different geographical areas. Air pollution has been warned of as a modifiable factor contributing to differential SARS-CoV-2 spread but the biological mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are still unknown. Air quality and COVID-19 epidemiological data from 110 Italian provinces were studied by correlation analysis, to evaluate the association between particulate matter (PM)2.5 concentrations and incidence, mortality rate and case fatality risk of COVID-19 in the period 20 February-31 March 2020. Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence encoding the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) was performed to identify consensus motifs for transcription factors mediating cellular response to pollutant insult. Positive correlations between PM2.5 levels and the incidence (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001), the mortality rate (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) and the case fatality rate (r = 0.7, p < 0.0001) of COVID-19 were found. The bioinformatic analysis of the ACE-2 gene identified nine putative consensus motifs for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our results confirm the supposed link between air pollution and the rate and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and support the hypothesis that pollution-induced over-expression of ACE-2 on human airways may favor SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores Virais/genética , Regulação para Cima
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003188, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of air pollution on circulatory and respiratory systems have been extensively studied. However, the associations between air pollution exposure and the risk of noncommunicable diseases of other organ systems, including diseases of the digestive, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems, remain unclear or inconclusive. We aimed to systematically assess the associations between short-term exposure to main air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and ozone) and cause-specific risk of hospital admission in China over a wide spectrum of human diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Daily data on hospital admissions for primary diagnosis of 14 major and 188 minor disease categories in 252 Chinese cities (107 cities in North China and 145 cities in South China) from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017, were obtained from the Hospital Quality Monitoring System of China (covering 387 hospitals in North China and 614 hospitals in South China). We applied a 2-stage analytic approach to assess the associations between air pollution and daily hospital admissions. City-specific associations were estimated with quasi-Poisson regression models and then pooled by random-effects meta-analyses. Each disease category was analyzed separately, and the P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. A total of 117,338,867 hospital admissions were recorded in the study period. Overall, 51.7% of the hospitalized cases were male, and 71.3% were aged <65 years. Robust positive associations were found between short-term PM2.5 exposure and hospital admissions for 7 major disease categories: (1) endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases; (2) nervous diseases; (3) circulatory diseases; (4) respiratory diseases; (5) digestive diseases; (6) musculoskeletal and connective tissue diseases; and (7) genitourinary diseases. For example, a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.21% (95% CI 0.15% to 0.27%; adjusted P < 0.001) increase in hospital admissions for diseases of the digestive system on the same day in 2-pollutant models (adjusting for ozone). There were 35 minor disease categories significantly positively associated with same-day PM2.5 in both single- and 2-pollutant models, including diabetes mellitus, anemia, intestinal infection, liver diseases, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, renal failure, urinary tract calculus, chronic ulcer of skin, and back problems. The association between short-term ozone exposure and respiratory diseases was robust. No safety threshold in the exposure-response relationships between PM2.5 and hospital admissions was observed. The main limitations of the present study included the unavailability of data on personal air pollution exposures. CONCLUSIONS: In the Chinese population during 2013-2017, short-term exposure to air pollution, especially PM2.5, was associated with increased risk of hospitalization for diseases of multiple organ systems, including certain diseases of the digestive, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems; many of these associations are important but still not fully recognized. The effect estimates and exposure-response relationships can inform policy making aimed at protecting public health from air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(8): 608-614, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847336

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the short-term effects of ambient PM2.5 on the outpatient visits of allergic conjunctivitis among children in Shenzhen. Methods: It was a ecological study. Data on daily visits including date of visit, sex and age from children with allergic conjunctivitis were collected from Shenzhen Eye Hospital and Shenzhen Children's Hospital in 2018. Related data on air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) and meteorology (atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity) were also collected. Pearson correlation analysis was used for normal distribution data and Spearman rank correlation analysis was used for non-normal distribution data. Generalized additive model was used to estimate the impact of PM2.5 pollution on allergic conjunctivitis outpatients and the lagging effects. Results: In 2018, there were 16 133 allergic conjunctivitis outpatients in the two hospitals. The maximum age was 18 years and the minimum age was 2 months. Males accounted for 49.3%. The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 22 (15, 31) µg/m3. Changes of the concentration of PM2.5 had a positive correlation with the amount of allergic conjunctivitis visits, and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.150 (P=0.004). The single pollutant model showed that the strongest effect appeared at 3 days (RR=1.111, 95%CI:1.071-1.152). A 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5 would result in an excessive number of allergic conjunctivitis outpatients as much as 11.112% (95%CI:7.011%-15.212%). In the multiple air pollutants models, after the introduction of NO2, O3 and CO, the concentration of PM2.5 showed an enhanced effect on the number of hospital visits due to allergic conjunctivitis on the same day, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of the concentration of PM2.5 had a positive correlation with daily outpatient visits of allergic conjunctivitis among children in Shenzhen. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 608-614).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conjuntivite Alérgica , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
20.
BMJ ; 370: m2791, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors (air pollution and family related) for the onset of asthma and persistent wheezing in children. DESIGN: Nationwide case-control study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All Danish children born from 1997 to 2014 and followed for asthma onset and persistent wheezing from age 1 year to 15 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Onset of asthma and persistent wheezing. RESULTS: A higher incidence of asthma was found in children of parents with asthma (adjusted hazard ratio 2.29 (95% confidence interval 2.22 to 2.35) and mothers who smoked during pregnancy (1.20, 1.18 to 1.22), whereas a lower incidence was found in children of parents with high educational attainment (0.72, 0.69 to 0.75) and high incomes (0.85, 0.81 to 0.89). Exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrate was associated with an increased risk of asthma and persistent wheezing, with hazard ratios per 5 µg/m3 increase in pollutant concentrations 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for PM2.5, 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06) for PM10, and 1.04 (1.03 to 1.04) for nitrogen dioxide. Only the positive association of PM2.5 with asthma and persistent wheezing remained robust across the different models and in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that children exposed to higher levels of PM2.5 are more likely to develop asthma and persistent wheezing than children who are not exposed. Other risk factors associated with these outcomes were parental asthma, parental education, and maternal smoking during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Sons Respiratórios , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
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