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1.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 51(6): e13861, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724488

RESUMO

Relevant studies have indicated the association of HCG18 with tumour occurrence and progression. In this study, we observed that PM2.5 can enhance the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by modulating the expression of HCG18. Further investigations, including overexpression and knockout experiments, elucidated that HCG18 suppresses miR-195, which in turn upregulates the expression of ATG14, resulting in the upregulation of autophagy. Consequently, exposure to PM2.5 leads to elevated HCG18 expression in lung tissues, which in turn increases Atg14 expression and activates autophagy pathways through inhibition of miR-195, thereby contributing to oncogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Autofagia , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Material Particulado , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Humanos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Autofagia/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células A549 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(4): 367-376, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727159

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to clarify the intervention effect of salidroside (SAL) on lung injury caused by PM 2.5 in mice and illuminate the function of SIRT1-PGC-1ɑ axis. Methods: Specific pathogen-free (SPF) grade male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: control group, SAL group, PM 2.5 group, SAL+PM 2.5 group. On the first day, SAL was given by gavage, and on the second day, PM 2.5 suspension was given by intratracheal instillation. The whole experiment consist of a total of 10 cycles, lasting 20 days. At the end of treatment, blood samples and lung tissues were collected and analyzed. Observation of pathological changes in lung tissue using inverted microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of inflammatory, antioxidants, apoptosis, and SIRT1-PGC-1ɑ proteins were detected by Western blotting. Results: Exposure to PM 2.5 leads to obvious morphological and pathologica changes in the lung of mice. PM 2.5 caused a decline in levels of antioxidant-related enzymes and protein expressions of HO-1, Nrf2, SOD2, SIRT1 and PGC-1ɑ, and an increase in the protein expressions of IL-6, IL-1ß, Bax, caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3. However, SAL reversed the aforementioned changes caused by PM 2.5 by activating the SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway. Conclusion: SAL can activate SIRT1-PGC-1ɑ to ameliorate PM 2.5-induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Lesão Pulmonar , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Fenóis , Sirtuína 1 , Animais , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Masculino , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Camundongos , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10320, 2024 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710739

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting approximately 20% of children globally. While studies have been conducted elsewhere, air pollution and weather variability is not well studied in the tropics. This time-series study examines the association between air pollution and meteorological factors with the incidence of outpatient visits for AD obtained from the National Skin Centre (NSC) in Singapore. The total number of 1,440,844 consultation visits from the NSC from 2009 to 2019 was analysed. Using the distributed lag non-linear model and assuming a negative binomial distribution, the short-term temporal association between outpatient visits for AD and air quality and meteorological variability on a weekly time-scale were examined, while adjusting for long-term trends, seasonality and autocorrelation. The analysis was also stratified by gender and age to assess potential effect modification. The risk of AD consultation visits was 14% lower (RR10th percentile: 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.96) at the 10th percentile (11.9 µg/m3) of PM2.5 and 10% higher (RR90th percentile: 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19) at the 90th percentile (24.4 µg/m3) compared to the median value (16.1 µg/m3). Similar results were observed for PM10 with lower risk at the 10th percentile and higher risk at the 90th percentile (RR10th percentile: 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.95, RR90th percentile: 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19). For rainfall for values above the median, the risk of consultation visits was higher up to 7.4 mm in the PM2.5 model (RR74th percentile: 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14) and up to 9 mm in the PM10 model (RR80th percentile: 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25). This study found a close association between outpatient visits for AD with ambient particulate matter concentrations and rainfall. Seasonal variations in particulate matter and rainfall may be used to alert healthcare providers on the anticipated rise in AD cases and to time preventive measures to reduce the associated health burden.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Dermatite Atópica , Material Particulado , Humanos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Feminino , Criança , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Lactente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(3)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Model-estimated air pollution exposure products have been widely used in epidemiological studies to assess the health risks of particulate matter with diameters of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5). However, few studies have assessed the disparities in health effects between model-estimated and station-observed PM2.5 exposures. METHODS: We collected daily all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality data in 347 cities across 15 countries and regions worldwide based on the Multi-City Multi-Country collaborative research network. The station-observed PM2.5 data were obtained from official monitoring stations. The model-estimated global PM2.5 product was developed using a machine-learning approach. The associations between daily exposure to PM2.5 and mortality were evaluated using a two-stage analytical approach. RESULTS: We included 15.8 million all-cause, 1.5 million respiratory and 4.5 million cardiovascular deaths from 2000 to 2018. Short-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a relative risk increase (RRI) of mortality from both station-observed and model-estimated exposures. Every 10-µg/m3 increase in the 2-day moving average PM2.5 was associated with overall RRIs of 0.67% (95% CI: 0.49 to 0.85), 0.68% (95% CI: -0.03 to 1.39) and 0.45% (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.82) for all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality based on station-observed PM2.5 and RRIs of 0.87% (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.06), 0.81% (95% CI: 0.08 to 1.55) and 0.71% (95% CI: 0.32 to 1.09) based on model-estimated exposure, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality risks associated with daily PM2.5 exposure were consistent for both station-observed and model-estimated exposures, suggesting the reliability and potential applicability of the global PM2.5 product in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Adulto , Aprendizado de Máquina
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1266, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to increased mortality risk. However, limited studies have examined the potential modifying effect of community-level characteristics on this association, particularly in Asian contexts. This study aimed to estimate the effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on mortality in South Korea and to examine whether community-level deprivation, medical infrastructure, and greenness modify these associations. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 394,701 participants aged 30 years or older in 2006 were followed until 2019. Based on modelled PM2.5 concentrations, 1 to 3-year and 5-year moving averages of PM2.5 concentrations were assigned to each participant at the district level. Time-varying Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association between PM2.5 and non-accidental, circulatory, and respiratory mortality. We further conducted stratified analysis by community-level deprivation index, medical index, and normalized difference vegetation index to represent greenness. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure, based on 5-year moving averages, was positively associated with non-accidental (Hazard ratio, HR: 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.01, 1.20, per 10 µg/m3 increase) and circulatory mortality (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.47). The 1-year moving average of PM2.5 was associated with respiratory mortality (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.67). We observed higher associations between PM2.5 and mortality in communities with higher deprivation and limited medical infrastructure. Communities with higher greenness showed lower risk for circulatory mortality but higher risk for respiratory mortality in association with PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found mortality effects of long-term PM2.5 exposure and underlined the role of community-level factors in modifying these association. These findings highlight the importance of considering socio-environmental contexts in the design of air quality policies to reduce health disparities and enhance overall public health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade/tendências , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11464, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769093

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution raises the risk of deaths and morbidity worldwide. From 1990 to 2019, we observed the epidemiological trends and age-period-cohort effects on the cardiovascular diseases (CVD) burden attributable to ambient air pollution across Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). The number of CVD deaths related to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution increased nearly fivefold in China [5.0% (95% CI 4.7, 5.2)] and India [5.7% (95% CI 5.1, 6.3)] during the study period. The age-standardized CVD deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to ambient PM pollution significantly increased in India and China but decreased in Brazil and Russia. Due to air pollution, the relative risk (RR) of premature CVD mortality (< 70 years) was higher in Russia [RR 12.6 (95% CI 8.7, 17.30)] and India [RR 9.2 (95% CI 7.6, 11.20)]. A higher period risk (2015-2019) for CVD deaths was found in India [RR 1.4 (95% CI 1.4, 1.4)] followed by South Africa [RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.3, 1.3)]. Across the BRICS countries, the RR of CVD mortality markedly decreased from the old birth cohort to young birth cohorts. In conclusion, China and India showed an increasing trend of CVD mortality and morbidity due to ambient PM pollution and higher risk of premature CVD deaths were observed in Russia and India.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Material Particulado , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Feminino , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Deficiência , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1350, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of long-term exposure to air pollution on the risk of subsequent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is ambiguous. The modifying role of Life's Essential 8 (LE8) remains unknown. METHODS: This study included 23,129 participants with T2D at baseline from the UK Biobank. Annual means of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10) were estimated using the land-use regression model for each participant. The associations between exposure to air pollution and the risk of severe NAFLD were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models. The effect modification of LE8 was assessed through stratified analyses. RESULTS: During a median 13.6 years of follow-up, a total of 1,123 severe NAFLD cases occurred. After fully adjusting for potential covariates, higher levels of PM2.5 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.12, 95%CI:1.02, 1.23 per interquartile range [IQR] increment), NO2 (HR = 1.15, 95%CI:1.04, 1.27), and NOX (HR = 1.08, 95%CI:1.01, 1.17) were associated with an elevated risk of severe NAFLD. In addition, LE8 score was negatively associated with the risk of NAFLD (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.98 per point increment). Compared with those who had low air pollution and high LE8, participants with a high air pollution exposure and low LE8 had a significantly higher risk of severe NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with an elevated risk of severe NAFLD among participants with T2D. A lower LE8 may increase the adverse impacts of air pollution on NAFLD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Material Particulado , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos
8.
Int J Med Sci ; 21(6): 1117-1128, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774761

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a microfluidic device that is able to monitor cell biology under continuous PM2.5 treatment. The effects of PM2.5 on human alveolar basal epithelial cells, A549 cells, and uncovered several significant findings were investigated. The results showed that PM2.5 exposure did not lead to a notable decrease in cell viability, indicating that PM2.5 did not cause cellular injury or death. However, the study found that PM2.5 exposure increased the invasion and migration abilities of A549 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 might promote cell invasiveness. Results of RNA sequencing revealed 423 genes that displayed significant differential expression in response to PM2.5 exposure, with a particular focus on pathways associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Real-time detection demonstrated an increase in ROS production in A549 cells after exposure to PM2.5. JC1 assay, which indicated a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5. The disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential further supports the detrimental effects of PM2.5 on A549 cells. These findings highlight several adverse effects of PM2.5 on A549 cells, including enhanced invasion and migration capabilities, altered gene expression related to ROS pathways, increased ROS production and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings contribute to our understanding of the potential mechanisms through which PM2.5 can impact cellular function and health.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Material Particulado , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células A549 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Microfluídica/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303640, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781233

RESUMO

A growing number of studies have produced results that suggest the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) relationship between PM2.5 exposure and mortality is "supralinear" such that incremental risk is higher at the lowest exposure levels than at the highest exposure levels. If the C-R function is in fact supralinear, then there may be significant health benefits associated with reductions in PM2.5 below the current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), as each incremental tightening of the PM2.5 NAAQS would be expected to produce ever-greater reductions in mortality risk. In this paper we undertake a series of tests with simulated cohort data to examine whether there are alternative explanations for apparent supralinearity in PM2.5 C-R functions. Our results show that a linear C-R function for PM2.5 can falsely appear to be supralinear in a statistical estimation process for a variety of reasons, such as spatial variation in the composition of total PM2.5 mass, the presence of confounders that are correlated with PM2.5 exposure, and some types of measurement error in estimates of PM2.5 exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first simulation-based study to examine alternative explanations for apparent supralinearity in C-R functions.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Simulação por Computador
10.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 12(3): e1201, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775298

RESUMO

The toxicity of inhaled particulate air pollution perseveres even at lower concentrations than those of the existing air quality limit. Therefore, the identification of safe and effective measures against pollutant particles-induced vascular toxicity is warranted. Carnosol is a bioactive phenolic diterpene found in rosemary herb, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. However, its possible protective effect on the thrombotic and vascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before. We assessed here the potential alleviating effect of carnosol (20 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally 1 h before intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of DEP (20 µg/mouse). Twenty-four hours after the administration of DEP, various parameters were assessed. Carnosol administration prevented the increase in the plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and tissue factor induced by DEP exposure. Carnosol inhibited DEP-induced prothrombotic effects in pial microvessels in vivo and platelet aggregation in vitro. The shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time induced by DEP was abated by carnosol administration. Carnosol inhibited the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α) and adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin) in aortic tissue. Moreover, it averted the effects of DEP-induced increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, depletion of antioxidants and DNA damage in the aortic tissue. Likewise, carnosol prevented the decrease in the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) caused by DEP. We conclude that carnosol alleviates DEP-induced thrombogenicity and vascular inflammation, oxidative damage, and DNA injury through Nrf2 and HO-1 activation.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Trombose , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Abietanos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Masculino , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(5): 608-614, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715499

RESUMO

Atmospheric particulate matter has an association with respiratory system inflammation, and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) is a key biomarker of inflammatory cascade reaction. This review summarized the possible pathways and biomarkers of atmospheric particulate matter causing respiratory system inflammation through high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA)/LMW-HA imbalance, including the synthesis and decomposition of HA, the reduction of particulate matter and HMW-HA, the increase of LMW-HA, and the relationship between LMW-HA and respiratory system inflammation. Furthermore, inhibitors and therapeutic drugs targeting certain biomarkers were further listed. This review could shed light on the mechanism of respiratory system inflammation caused by atmospheric particulate matter and the weak points that need attention in subsequent research.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico , Inflamação , Material Particulado , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Biomarcadores , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(18): e38050, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701275

RESUMO

There has been a consistent and notable increase in the global prevalence of skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM). Although genetic factors are closely associated with the occurrence and development of melanoma, the potential influence of environmental factors cannot be overlooked. The existing literature lacks a definitive consensus on the correlation between air pollution and the incidence rate of SKCM. This study seeks to investigate the causal relationship between air pollution, specifically focusing on particulate matter (PM) 2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, and nitrogen oxides, and the risk of SKCM. A 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) method was applied, utilizing extensive publicly accessible genome-wide association studies summary datasets within European populations. The primary analytical method employed was the inverse variance weighted method. Supplementary methods, including the weighted median model, MR-Egger, simple model, and weighted model, were chosen to ensure robust analysis. Heterogeneity assessment was conducted using Cochran's Q test. To identify potential pleiotropy, both MR-Egger regression and the MR-PRESSO global test were employed. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the leave-one-out method. The analysis revealed no statistically significant association between air pollution and SKCM risk, with specific findings as follows: PM2.5 (P = .485), PM2.5-10 (P = .535), PM10 (P = .136), and nitrogen oxides (P = .745). While some results exhibited heterogeneity, all findings demonstrated an absence of pleiotropy. This study did not find substantive evidence supporting a causal relationship between air pollution and the risk of SKCM within European populations. The comprehensive MR analysis, encompassing various pollutants, suggests that environmental factors such as air pollution may not be significant contributors to the development of SKCM.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Melanoma Maligno Cutâneo , Melanoma , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Material Particulado , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1233, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been recognised as a potential risk factor for dementia. Yet recent epidemiological research shows mixed evidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the longitudinal associations between ambient air pollution exposure and dementia in older people across five urban and rural areas in the UK. METHODS: This study was based on two population-based cohort studies of 11329 people aged ≥ 65 in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (2008-2011) and Wales (2011-2013). An algorithmic diagnosis method was used to identify dementia cases. Annual concentrations of four air pollutants (NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5) were modelled for the year 2012 and linked via the participants' postcodes. Multistate modelling was used to examine the effects of exposure to air pollutants on incident dementia incorporating death and adjusting for sociodemographic factors and area deprivation. A random-effect meta-analysis was carried out to summarise results from the current and nine existing cohort studies. RESULTS: Higher exposure levels of NO2 (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.14), O3 (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.15), PM10 (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.58), PM2.5 (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 0.71, 2.79) were not strongly associated with dementia in the two UK-based cohorts. Inconsistent directions and strengths of the associations were observed across the two cohorts, five areas, and nine existing studies. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the literature, this study did not find clear associations between air pollution and dementia. Future research needs to investigate how methodological and contextual factors can affect evidence in this field and clarity the influence of air pollution exposure on cognitive health over the lifecourse.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Demência , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Demência/etiologia , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Masculino , Feminino , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11190, 2024 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755236

RESUMO

In recent years, the combined pollution of PM2.5 and O3 in China, particularly in economically developed regions such as the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), has garnered significant attention due to its potential implications. This study systematically investigated the changes of PM2.5 and O3 and their associated human health effects in the GBA, utilizing observational data spanning from 2015 to 2019. The findings revealed a spatial trend indicating a gradual decrease in PM2.5 levels from the northwest to the southeast, while the spatial distribution of MDA8 O3 demonstrated an opposing pattern to that of PM2.5. The monthly fluctuations of PM2.5 and MDA8 O3 exhibited V-shaped and M-shaped patterns, respectively. Higher MDA8 O3 concentrations were observed in autumn, followed by summer and spring. Over the five-year period, PM2.5 concentrations exhibited a general decline, with an annual reduction rate of 1.7 µg m-3/year, while MDA8 O3 concentrations displayed an annual increase of 3.2 µg m-3. Among the GBA regions, Macao, Foshan, Guangzhou, and Jiangmen demonstrated notable decreases in PM2.5, whereas Jiangmen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou experienced substantial increases in MDA8 O3 levels. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 in 2019 was associated with 21,113 (95% CI 4968-31,048) all-cause deaths (AD), 1333 (95% CI 762-1714) cardiovascular deaths (CD), and 1424 (95% CI 0-2848) respiratory deaths (RD), respectively, reflecting declines of 27.6%, 28.0%, and 28.4%, respectively, compared to 2015. Conversely, in 2019, estimated AD, CD, and RD attributable to O3 were 16,286 (95% CI 8143-32,572), 7321 (95% CI 2440-14,155), and 6314 (95% CI 0-13,576), respectively, representing increases of 45.9%, 46.2%, and 44.2% over 2015, respectively. Taken together, these findings underscored a shifting focus in air pollution control in the GBA, emphasizing the imperative for coordinated control strategies targeting both PM2.5 and O3.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Material Particulado , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Macau/epidemiologia , Baías , Estações do Ano , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Health ; 23(1): 47, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether long-term air pollution exposure is associated with central hemodynamic and brachial artery stiffness parameters. METHODS: We assessed central hemodynamic parameters including central blood pressure, cardiac parameters, systemic vascular compliance and resistance, and brachial artery stiffness measures [including brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR)] using waveform analysis of the arterial pressure signals obtained from a standard cuff sphygmomanometer (DynaPulse2000A, San Diego, CA). The long-term exposures to particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for the 3-year periods prior to enrollment were estimated at residential addresses using fine-scale intra-urban spatiotemporal models. Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were used to examine associations between air pollution exposures and health outcomes. RESULTS: The cross-sectional study included 2,387 Chicago residents (76% African Americans) enrolled in the ChicagO Multiethnic Prevention And Surveillance Study (COMPASS) during 2013-2018 with validated address information, PM2.5 or NO2, key covariates, and hemodynamics measurements. We observed long-term concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 to be positively associated with central systolic, pulse pressure and BAR, and negatively associated with BAD, and BAC after adjusting for relevant covariates. A 1-µg/m3 increment in preceding 3-year exposures to PM2.5 was associated with 1.8 mmHg higher central systolic (95% CI: 0.98, 4.16), 1.0 mmHg higher central pulse pressure (95% CI: 0.42, 2.87), a 0.56%mmHg lower BAD (95% CI: -0.81, -0.30), and a 0.009 mL/mmHg lower BAC (95% CI: -0.01, -0.01). CONCLUSION: This population-based study provides evidence that long-term exposures to PM2.5 and NO2 is related to central BP and arterial stiffness parameters, especially among African Americans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Rigidez Vascular , Humanos , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Feminino , Chicago/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Idoso , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Hemodinâmica , Adulto , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Negro ou Afro-Americano
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301374, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has several negative health effects. Particulate matter (PM) is a pollutant that is often linked to health adversities. PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm) exposure has been associated with negative cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. However, the impact of PM10 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10µm) exposure is often overlooked due to its limited ability to pass the alveolar barrier. This study aims to assess the association between PM10 exposure and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) amongst adults (≥18 years of age) as this has been poorly studied. METHODS: The study protocol was published on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42023409796) on March 31, 2023. Literature searches were conducted on 4 databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Web of Science) on January 17, 2023, for studies looking at associations between PM and MI. English studies from all time periods were assessed. Studies selected for review were time-series, case-crossover, and cohort studies which investigated the risk of MI as an outcome upon PM10 exposure. The quality of evidence was assessed using Cochrane's Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Data for different risk outcomes (risk ratio (RR), odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR)) and 3 lags was meta-analyzed using an inverse variance statistical analysis using a random effects model. The pooled effect sizes and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported in forest plots. RESULTS: Among the 1,099 studies identified, 41 were included for review and 23 were deemed eligible for meta-analysis. Our analysis revealed that there is an increased risk (OR = 1.01; 95% CI:1.00-1.02) of MI with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 after a lag 0 and lag 1 delay. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that PM10 exposure is associated with an increased risk of MI. This can aid in informing environmental policy-making, personal-level preventative measures, and global public health action.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Infarto do Miocárdio , Material Particulado , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1377, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme weather events like heatwaves and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have a synergistic effect on mortality, but research on the synergistic effect of cold waves and PM2.5 on outpatient visits for respiratory disease, especially at high altitudes in climate change-sensitive areas, is lacking. METHODS: we collected time-series data on meteorological, air pollution, and outpatient visits for respiratory disease in Xining. We examined the associations between cold waves, PM2.5, and outpatient visits for respiratory disease using a time-stratified case-crossover approach and distributional lag nonlinear modeling. Our analysis also calculated the relative excess odds due to interaction (REOI), proportion attributable to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S). We additionally analyzed cold waves over time to verify climate change. RESULTS: Under different definitions of cold waves, the odds ratio for the correlation between cold waves and outpatient visits for respiratory disease ranged from 0.95 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.05) to 1.58 (1.47, 1.70). Exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with an increase in outpatient visits for respiratory disease. We found that cold waves can synergize with PM2.5 to increase outpatient visits for respiratory disease (REOI > 0, AP > 0, S > 1), decreasing with stricter definitions of cold waves and longer durations. Cold waves' independent effect decreased over time, but their interaction effect persisted. From 8.1 to 21.8% of outpatient visits were due to cold waves and high-level PM2.5. People aged 0-14 and ≥ 65 were more susceptible to cold waves and PM2.5, with a significant interaction for those aged 15-64 and ≥ 65. CONCLUSION: Our study fills the gap on how extreme weather and PM2.5 synergistically affect respiratory disease outpatient visits in high-altitude regions. The synergy of cold waves and PM2.5 increases outpatient visits for respiratory disease, especially in the elderly. Cold wave warnings and PM2.5 reduction have major public health benefits.


Assuntos
Altitude , Material Particulado , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Lactente , Masculino , Cidades , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1368483, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746002

RESUMO

Background: The association between air pollution, lung function, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains inconclusive. Previous studies were not convincing due to confounding factors and reverse causality. We aim to investigate the causal relationship between air pollution, lung function, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and NAFLD using Mendelian randomization analysis. Methods: In this study, univariate Mendelian randomization analysis was conducted first. Subsequently, Steiger testing was performed to exclude the possibility of reverse association. Finally, significant risk factors identified from the univariate Mendelian analysis, as well as important factors affecting NAFLD from previous observational studies (type 2 diabetes and body mass index), were included in the multivariable Mendelian randomization analysis. Results: The results of the univariable Mendelian randomization analysis showed a positive correlation between particulate matter 2.5, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and NAFLD. There was a negative correlation between forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and NAFLD. The multivariable Mendelian randomization analysis indicated a direct causal relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (OR = 1.537, p = 0.011), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.261, p < 0.001), and NAFLD. Conclusion: This Mendelian randomization study confirmed the causal relationships between air pollution, lung function, gastroesophageal reflux, and NAFLD. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux and type 2 diabetes were identified as independent risk factors for NAFLD, having a direct causal connection with the occurrence of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Testes de Função Respiratória , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino , Causalidade
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10074, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698010

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the impact of COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on the relationship between air pollutants and hospital admissions for respiratory and non-respiratory diseases in six metropolitan cities in South Korea. This study compared the associations between particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and hospital admission for respiratory and non-respiratory diseases before (2016-2019) and during (2020) the implementation of COVID-19 NPIs by using distributed lag non-linear models. In the Pre-COVID-19 period, the association between PM10 and admission risk for asthma and COPD showed an inverted U-shaped pattern. For PM2.5, S-shaped and inverted U-shaped changes were observed in asthma and COPD, respectively. Extremely high and low levels of PM10 and extremely low levels of PM2.5 significantly decreased the risk of admission for asthma and COPD. In the Post-COVID-19 outbreak period, the overall cumulative relationship between PM10 and PM2.5 and respiratory diseases and the effects of extreme levels of PM10 and PM2.5 on respiratory diseases were completely changed. For non-respiratory diseases, PM10 and PM2.5 were statistically insignificant for admission risk during both periods. Our study may provide evidence that implementing NPIs and reducing PM10 and PM2.5 exposure during the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to reducing hospital admissions for environment-based respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Asma , COVID-19 , Material Particulado , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Masculino , Feminino
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753663

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and near-surface ozone (O3) are the main atmospheric pollutants in China. Long-term exposure to high ozone concentrations adversely affects human health. It is of great significance to systematically analyze the spatiotemporal evolution mechanism and health effects of ozone pollution. Based on the ozone data of 91 monitoring stations in the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration from 2017 to 2020, the research used Kriging method and spatial autocorrelation analysis to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of ozone concentration. Additionally, the study assessed the health effects of ozone on the population using the population exposure risk model and exposure-response relationship model. The results indicated that: (1) The number of premature deaths caused by ozone pollution in the warm season were 37,053 at 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 28,190-45,930) in 2017, 37,685 (95% CI: 28,669-46,713) in 2018, and 37,655 (95% CI: 28,647-46,676) in 2019. (2) The ozone concentration of the Central Plains urban agglomeration showed a decreasing trend throughout the year and during the warm season from 2017 to 2020, there are two peaks monthly, one is June, and the other is September. (3) In the warm season, the high-risk areas of population exposure to ozone in the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration were mainly concentrated in urban areas. In general, the population exposure risk of the south is lower than that of the north. The number of premature deaths attributed to ozone concentration during the warm season has decreased, but some southern cities such as Xinyang and Zhumadian have also seen an increase in premature deaths. China has achieved significant results in air pollution control, but in areas with high ozone concentrations and high population density, the health burden caused by air pollution remains heavy, and stricter air pollution control policies need to be implemented.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Ozônio , Saúde da População , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cidades , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências
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