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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10503, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714844

RESUMO

Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are very small (typically < 0.2 µm) fragments that have become major air pollutants. DEPs are comprised of a carbonaceous core surrounded by organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs. Inhaled DEPs reach the deepest sites in the respiratory system where they could induce respiratory/cardiovascular dysfunction. Additionally, a previous study has revealed that a portion of inhaled DEPs often activate immune cells and subsequently induce somatic inflammation. Moreover, DEPs are known to localize in lymph nodes. Therefore, in this study we explored the effect of DEPs on the lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that are a constituent of the walls of lymph nodes. DEP exposure induced cell death in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. Following exposure to DEPs, next-generation sequence (NGS) analysis identified an upregulation of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway and cell death cascades. Both the soluble and insoluble components of DEPs generated intracellular ROS. Three-dimensional Raman imaging revealed that DEPs are taken up by LECs, which suggests internalized DEP cores produce ROS, as well as soluble DEP components. However, significant cell death pathways such as apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and parthanatos seem unlikely to be involved in DEP-induced cell death in LECs. This study clarifies how DEPs invading the body might affect the lymphatic system through the induction of cell death in LECs.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Emissões de Veículos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(4): 367-376, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727159

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to clarify the intervention effect of salidroside (SAL) on lung injury caused by PM 2.5 in mice and illuminate the function of SIRT1-PGC-1ɑ axis. Methods: Specific pathogen-free (SPF) grade male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: control group, SAL group, PM 2.5 group, SAL+PM 2.5 group. On the first day, SAL was given by gavage, and on the second day, PM 2.5 suspension was given by intratracheal instillation. The whole experiment consist of a total of 10 cycles, lasting 20 days. At the end of treatment, blood samples and lung tissues were collected and analyzed. Observation of pathological changes in lung tissue using inverted microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of inflammatory, antioxidants, apoptosis, and SIRT1-PGC-1ɑ proteins were detected by Western blotting. Results: Exposure to PM 2.5 leads to obvious morphological and pathologica changes in the lung of mice. PM 2.5 caused a decline in levels of antioxidant-related enzymes and protein expressions of HO-1, Nrf2, SOD2, SIRT1 and PGC-1ɑ, and an increase in the protein expressions of IL-6, IL-1ß, Bax, caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3. However, SAL reversed the aforementioned changes caused by PM 2.5 by activating the SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway. Conclusion: SAL can activate SIRT1-PGC-1ɑ to ameliorate PM 2.5-induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos , Lesão Pulmonar , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Fenóis , Sirtuína 1 , Animais , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Masculino , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Camundongos , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2319595121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739786

RESUMO

As a global problem, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) really needs local fixes. Considering the increasing epidemiological relevance to anxiety and depression but inconsistent toxicological results, the most important question is to clarify whether and how PM2.5 causally contributes to these mental disorders and which components are the most dangerous for crucial mitigation in a particular place. In the present study, we chronically subjected male mice to a real-world PM2.5 exposure system throughout the winter heating period in a coal combustion area and revealed that PM2.5 caused anxiety and depression-like behaviors in adults such as restricted activity, diminished exploratory interest, enhanced repetitive stereotypy, and elevated acquired immobility, through behavioral tests including open field, elevated plus maze, marble-burying, and forced swimming tests. Importantly, we found that dopamine signaling was perturbed using mRNA transcriptional profile and bioinformatics analysis, with Drd1 as a potential target. Subsequently, we developed the Drd1 expression-directed multifraction isolating and nontarget identifying framework and identified a total of 209 compounds in PM2.5 organic extracts capable of reducing Drd1 expression. Furthermore, by applying hierarchical characteristic fragment analysis and molecular docking and dynamics simulation, we clarified that phenyl-containing compounds competitively bound to DRD1 and interfered with dopamine signaling, thereby contributing to mental disorders. Taken together, this work provides experimental evidence for researchers and clinicians to identify hazardous factors in PM2.5 and prevent adverse health outcomes and for local governments and municipalities to control source emissions for diminishing specific disease burdens.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Material Particulado , Receptores de Dopamina D1 , Animais , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Camundongos , Masculino , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
4.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(5): e23718, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738849

RESUMO

According to the pathophysiological mechanisms linking particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and cardiovascular diseases, PM2.5 may directly translocate into the blood stream and remote target organs and thereby induce cardiovascular effects. The toxicity of PM2.5 is known to induce oxidative stress in pulmonary tissue, but its impact on the redox state in heart (distant organ) is unknown and how it modulates the cardiac response to ischemia reperfusion (IR) remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effect of PM2.5 on cardiac physiology in the presence and absence of IR after introducing PM2.5 into the blood. Female Wistar rats were injected with diesel particulate matter (DPM) via i.p & i.v routes at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The toxic impact of PM2.5 not only adversely affects the cardiac ultra-structure (leading to nuclear infiltration, edema, irregularities in heart muscle and nuclear infiltration), but also altered the cellular redox balance, elevated inflammation and promoted the upregulation of proapoptotic mediator genes at the basal level of myocardium. The results showed alterations in cardiac ultrastructure, elevated oxidative stress and significant redox imbalance, increased inflammation and proapoptotic mediators at the basal level of myocardium. Moreover, the cardioprotective pro survival signaling axis was declined along with an increased NF-kB activation at the basal level. IR inflicted further injury with deterioration of cardiac hemodynamic indices (Heart rate [HR], Left ventricular developed pressure [LVDP], Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP] and rate pressure product [RPP]) along with prominent inactivation of signaling pathways. Furthermore, the levels of GSH/GSSG, NADH/NAD, NADPH/NADP were significantly low along with increased lipid peroxidation in mitochondria of PM2.5 treated IR rat hearts. This observation was supported by downregulation of glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin genes in the myocardium. Similarly the presence of oxidative stress inducing metals was found at a higher concentration in cardiac mitochondria. Thus, the toxic impact of PM2.5 in heart augment the IR associated pathological changes by altering the physiological response, initiating cellular metabolic alterations in mitochondria and modifying the signaling molecules.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Oxirredução , Material Particulado , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Animais , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ratos , Feminino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134315, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678703

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) is the most common somatic alteration as men aging and may reflect genome instability. PM exposure is a major health concern worldwide, but its effects with genetic factors on mLOY has never been investigated. Here we explored the associations of PM2.5 and PM10 exposure with mLOY of 10,158 males measured via signal intensity of 2186 probes in male-specific chromosome-Y region from Illumina array data. The interactive and joint effects of PM2.5 and PM10 with genetic factors and smoking on mLOY were further evaluated. Compared with the lowest tertiles of PM2.5 levels in each exposure window, the highest tertiles in the same day, 7-, 14-, 21-, and 28-day showed a 0.005, 0.006, 0.007, 0.007, and 0.006 decrease in mLRR-Y, respectively (all P < 0.05), with adjustment for age, BMI, smoking pack-years, alcohol drinking status, physical activity, education levels, season of blood draw, and experimental batch. Such adverse effects were also observed in PM10-mLOY associations. Moreover, the unweighted and weighted PRS presented significant negative associations with mLRR-Y (both P < 0.001). Participants with high PRS and high PM2.5 or PM10 exposure in the 28-day separately showed a 0.018 or 0.019 lower mLRR-Y level [ß (95 %CI) = -0.018 (-0.023, -0.012) and - 0.019 (-0.025, -0.014), respectively, both P < 0.001], when compared to those with low PRS and low PM2.5 or PM10 exposure. We also observed joint effects of PM with smoking on exacerbated mLOY. This large study is the first to elucidate the impacts of PM2.5 exposure on mLOY, and provides key evidence regarding the interactive and joint effects of PM with genetic factors on mLOY, which may promote understanding of mLOY development, further modifying and increasing healthy aging in males.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Material Particulado , Masculino , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Mosaicismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fumar , Herança Multifatorial , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Estratificação de Risco Genético
6.
Int J Med Sci ; 21(5): 937-948, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617009

RESUMO

The skin is directly exposed to atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) in the air, which poses significant harm to skin health. However, limited research has been performed to identify molecules that can confer resistance to such substances. Herein, we analyzed the effect of fermented sea tangle (FST) extract on PM2.5-induced human HaCaT keratinocyte damage. Results showed that FST extract, at concentrations less than 800 µg/mL, exhibited non-significant toxicity to cells and concentration-dependent inhibition of PM2.5-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PM2.5 induced oxidative stress by stimulating ROS, resulting in DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation, which were inhibited by the FST extract. FST extract significantly suppressed the increase in calcium level and apoptosis caused by PM2.5 treatment and significantly restored the reduced cell viability. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization occurred due to PM2.5 treatment, however, FST extract recovered mitochondrial membrane polarization. PM2.5 inhibited the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and induced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bim, the apoptosis initiator caspase-9, as well as the executor caspase-3, however, FST extract effectively protected the changes in the levels of these proteins caused by PM2.5. Interestingly, pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment enhanced the anti-apoptotic effect of FST extract in PM2.5-treated cells. Our results indicate that FST extract prevents PM2.5-induced cell damage via inhibition of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human keratinocytes. Accordingly, FST extract could be included in skin care products to protect cells against the harmful effects of PM2.5.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos , Pele , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Apoptose , Material Particulado/toxicidade
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 276: 116309, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599156

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has suggested that exposure to PM2.5 is a significant contributing factor to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the underlying biological effects and mechanisms of PM2.5 in COPD pathology remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the implication and regulatory effect of biomass fuels related-PM2.5 (BRPM2.5) concerning the pathological process of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) in the context of COPD. In vivo experimentation revealed that exposure to biofuel smoke was associated with airway inflammation in rats. After 4 weeks of exposure, there was inflammation in the small airways, but no significant structural changes in the airway walls. However, after 24 weeks, airway remodeling occurred due to increased collagen deposition, myofibroblast proliferation, and tracheal wall thickness. In vitro, cellular immunofluorescence results showed that with stimulation of BRPM2.5 for 72 h, the cell morphology of fibroblasts changed significantly, most of the cells changed from spindle-shaped to star-shaped irregular, α-SMA stress fibers appeared in the cytoplasm and the synthesis of type I collagen increased. The collagen gel contraction experiment showed that the contractility of fibroblasts was enhanced. The expression level of TRPC1 in fibroblasts was increased. Specific siRNA-TRPC1 blocked BRPM2.5-induced FMT and reduced cell contractility. Additionally, specific siRNA-TRPC1 resulted in a decrease in the augment of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by BRPM2.5. Notably, it was found that the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, inhibited enhancement of AKT phosphorylation level, FMT occurrence, and elevation of TRPC1 protein expression induced by BRPM2.5. The findings indicated that BRPM2.5 is capable of inducing the FMT, with the possibility of mediation by PI3K/AKT/TRPC1. These results hold potential implications for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in BRPM2.5-induced COPD and may aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for pathological conditions characterized by fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos , Pulmão , Miofibroblastos , Material Particulado , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Canais de Cátion TRPC , Animais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Canais de Cátion TRPC/metabolismo , Masculino , Biomassa , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia
8.
Environ Int ; 186: 108597, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579453

RESUMO

The growing body of evidence links exposure to particulate matter pollutants with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether diesel exhaust particles can induce neurobehavioral alterations associated with neurodegenerative effects on glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Exposure to DEP at concentrations of 0.167 µg/cm2 and 1.67 µg/cm2 resulted in significant developmental delays and altered locomotion behaviour. These effects were accompanied by discernible alterations in the expressions of antioxidant genes sod-3 and gst-4 observed in transgenic strains. Behaviour analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in average speed (p < 0.001), altered paths, and decreased swimming activities (p < 0.01), particularly at mid and high doses. Subsequent assessment of neurodegeneration markers in glutamatergic (DA1240) and dopaminergic (BZ555) transgenic worms revealed notable glutamatergic neuron degeneration at 0.167 µg/cm2 (∼30 % moderate, ∼20 % advanced) and 1.67 µg/cm2 (∼28 % moderate, ∼24 % advanced, p < 0.0001), while dopaminergic neurons exhibited structural deformities (∼16 %) without significant degeneration in terms of blebs and breaks. Furthermore, in silico docking simulations suggest the presence of an antagonistic competitive inhibition induced by DEP in the evaluated neuro-targets, stronger for the glutamatergic transporter than for the dopaminergic receptor from the comparative binding affinity point of view. The results underscore DEP's distinctive neurodegenerative effects and suggest a link between locomotion defects and glutamatergic neurodegeneration in C. elegans, providing insights into environmental health risks assessment.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 277: 116314, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642409

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have revealed that PM2.5 plays a role in regulating iron metabolism and redox homeostasis in the brain, which is closely associated with ferroptosis. In this study, the role and underlying mechanism of ferroptosis in PM2.5-induced neurotoxicity were investigated in mice, primary hippocampal neurons, and HT22 cells. Our findings demonstrated that exposure to PM2.5 could induce abnormal behaviors, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss in the hippocampus of mice. These effects may be attributed to ferroptosis induced by PM2.5 exposure in hippocampal neurons. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the upregulation of iron metabolism-related protein Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and the activation of mitophagy might play key roles in PM2.5-induced ferroptosis in HT22 cells. Subsequent in vitro experiments showed that PM2.5 exposure significantly upregulated HO-1 in primary hippocampal neurons and HT22 cells. Moreover, PM2.5 exposure activated mitophagy in HT22 cells, leading to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, alterations in the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3, P62, and mTOR, as well as an increase in mitophagy-related protein PINK1 and PARKIN. As a heme-degradation enzyme, the upregulation of HO-1 promotes the release of excess iron, genetically inhibiting the upregulation of HO-1 in HT22 cells could prevent both PM2.5-induced mitophagy and ferroptosis. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of mitophagy in HT22 cells reduced levels of ferrous ions and lipid peroxides, thereby preventing ferroptosis. Collectively, this study demonstrates that HO-1 mediates PM2.5-induced mitophagy-dependent ferroptosis in hippocampal neurons, and inhibiting mitophagy or ferroptosis may be a key therapeutic target to ameliorate neurotoxicity following PM2.5 exposure.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Heme Oxigenase-1 , Hipocampo , Mitofagia , Neurônios , Material Particulado , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Camundongos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Membrana
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612663

RESUMO

Some studies have demonstrated the effects of particulate matter (PM) on chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) development, as well as the therapeutic role of retinoic acid (RA) in nasal polypogenesis. However, the immunologic effect of PM in innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and the exact mechanism of the therapeutic effect of RA remain unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of fine-dust-induced inflammation in CRSwNP and the mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of RA. PM2.5 exposure exacerbated pathological damage in the nasal mucosa of mice with nasal polyps (NP) via upregulation of type 2 inflammation. Additionally, PM2.5 exposure increased the expression of type 2 cytokines and epithelial-cell-derived cytokines (IL-33 and IL-25) significantly, as well as the ILC populations in human-NP-derived epithelial cells (HNECs). Moreover, RA supplementation significantly increased the expression of ILCreg in Lin-CD45+CD127+ cells, which in turn increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The findings suggest that PM2.5 exposures could aggravate the CRSwNP type 2 inflammation, and RA treatment may ameliorate fine-dust-induced inflammation by modulating the innate immune response.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Pólipos Nasais , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Linfócitos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas , Poeira , Mucosa Nasal , Material Particulado/toxicidade
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(8): e18299, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613355

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disorder affecting the lungs that involves the overexpressed extracellular matrix, scarring and stiffening of tissue. The repair of lung tissue after injury relies heavily on Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEII), and repeated damage to these cells is a crucial factor in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to PM2.5, a form of air pollution, leads to an increase in the incidence and severity of pulmonary fibrosis by stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung epithelial cells. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a bioactive compound found naturally that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The mechanism by which PQQ prevents pulmonary fibrosis caused by exposure to PM2.5 through EMT has not been thoroughly discussed until now. In the current study, we discovered that PQQ successfully prevented PM2.5-induced pulmonary fibrosis by targeting EMT. The results indicated that PQQ was able to inhibit the expression of type I collagen, a well-known fibrosis marker, in AEII cells subjected to long-term PM2.5 exposure. We also found the alterations of cellular structure and EMT marker expression in AEII cells with PM2.5 incubation, which were reduced by PQQ treatment. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to PM2.5 considerably reduced cell migratory ability, but PQQ treatment helped in reducing it. In vivo animal experiments indicated that PQQ could reduce EMT markers and enhance pulmonary function. Overall, these results imply that PQQ might be useful in clinical settings to prevent pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Cofator PQQ/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Células Epiteliais Alveolares , Material Particulado/toxicidade
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134226, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593665

RESUMO

Contaminants may induce immune response polarization, leading to immune diseases, such as allergic diseases. Evidence concerning the effects of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), an emerging persistent organic pollutant, on immune system is scarce, particularly for epidemiological evidence. This study explores the association between CPs exposure and allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and allergic conjunctivitis) in children and adolescents in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. Herein, 131,304 children and adolescents from primary and secondary schools in the PRD were included and completed the questionnaire survey. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in the PRD and the PM2.5-bound CP concentrations were analyzed. In the multivarious adjustment mixed effect model (MEM), an IQR increase in ∑CPs was significantly associated with allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema, and conjunctivitis) with the estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 1.11 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.13), 1.17 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.19), and 1.82 (95% CI: 1.76, 1.88), respectively. Interaction analysis indicated that overweight and obese individuals might have greater risk. Similar effect estimates were observed in several sensitivity analyses. This study provided epidemiological evidence on the immunotoxicity of CPs. More studies to confirm our findings and investigate mechanisms are needed.


Assuntos
Parafina , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , Parafina/toxicidade , Parafina/análise , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente
13.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 21(1): 18, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566142

RESUMO

Micro- and nanoplastic particles (MNP) are omnipresent as either pollution or intentionally used in consumer products, released from packaging or even food. There is an exponential increase in the production of plastics. With the realization of bioaccumulation in humans, toxicity research is quickly expanding. There is a rapid increase in the number of papers published on the potential implications of exposure to MNP which necessitates a call for quality criteria to be applied when doing the research. At present, most papers on MNP describe the effects of commercially available polymer (mostly polystyrene) beads that are typically not the MNP of greatest concern. This is not a fault of the research community, necessarily, as the MNPs to which humans are exposed are usually not available in the quantities needed for toxicological research and innovations are needed to supply environmentally-relevant MNP models. In addition, like we have learned from decades of research with particulate matter and engineered nanomaterials, sample physicochemical characteristics and preparation can have major impacts on the biological responses and interpretation of the research findings. Lastly, MNP dosimetry may pose challenges as (1) we are seeing early evidence that plastics are already in the human body at quite high levels that may be difficult to achieve in acute in vitro studies and (2) plastics are already in the diets fed to preclinical models. This commentary highlights the pitfalls and recommendations for particle and fibre toxicologists that should be considered when performing and disseminating the research.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Nanoestruturas , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos , Material Particulado/toxicidade
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673906

RESUMO

Air pollution poses a significant global health risk, with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) being of particular concern due to their potential to drive systemic toxicities through bloodstream infiltration. The association between PM2.5 exposure and an increased prevalence of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is evident against a backdrop of rising global obesity and poor metabolic health. This paper examines the role of adipose tissue in mediating the effects of PM2.5 on metabolic health. Adipose tissue, beyond its energy storage function, is responsive to inhaled noxious stimuli, thus disrupting metabolic homeostasis and responding to particulate exposure with pro-inflammatory cytokine release, contributing to systemic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the metabolic response of adipose tissue in mice exposed to either DEPs or room air (RA), exploring both the adipokine profile and mitochondrial bioenergetics. In addition to a slight change in fat mass and a robust shift in adipocyte hypertrophy in the DEP-exposed animals, we found significant changes in adipose mitochondrial bioenergetics. Furthermore, the DEP-exposed animals had a significantly higher expression of adipose inflammatory markers compared with the adipose from RA-exposed mice. Despite the nearly exclusive focus on dietary factors in an effort to better understand metabolic health, these results highlight the novel role of environmental factors that may contribute to the growing global burden of poor metabolic health.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Inflamação , Mitocôndrias , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 276: 116294, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574646

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM), released into the air by a variety of natural and human activities, is a key indicator of air pollution. Although PM is known as the extensive health hazard to affect a variety of illness, few studies have specifically investigated the effects of PM10 exposure on schizophrenic development. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the impact of PM10 on MK-801, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, induced schizophrenia-like behaviors in C57BL/6 mouse. Preadolescent mice were exposed PM10 to 3.2 mg/m3 concentration for 4 h/day for 2 weeks through a compartmentalized whole-body inhalation chamber. After PM10 exposure, we conducted behavioral tests during adolescence and adulthood to investigate longitudinal development of schizophrenia. We found that PM10 exacerbated schizophrenia-like behavior, such as psychomotor agitation, social interaction deficits and cognitive deficits at adulthood in MK-801-induced schizophrenia animal model. Furthermore, the reduced expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the phosphorylation of BDNF related signaling molecules, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), were exacerbated by PM10 exposure in the adult hippocampus of MK-801-treated mice. Thus, our present study demonstrates that exposure to PM10 in preadolescence exacerbates the cognitive impairment in animal model of schizophrenia, which are considered to be facilitated by the decreased level of BDNF through reduced ERK-CREB expression.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Maleato de Dizocilpina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Material Particulado , Esquizofrenia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Maleato de Dizocilpina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 276: 116311, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615639

RESUMO

Prenatal environmental exposure could be an essential health risk factor associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the impact of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on offspring cognition remain unclear. In our recent study using a PM2.5 exposed pregnant mouse model, we observed significant synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampi of the offspring. Concurrently, the epigenetic regulator of KDM5A and the Shh signaling pathway exhibited decreased activities. Significantly, changes in hippocampal KDM5A and Shh levels directly correlated with PM2.5 exposure intensity. Subsequent experiments revealed a marked reduction in the expression of Shh signaling and related synaptic proteins when KDM5A was silenced in cells. Notably, the effects of KDM5A deficiency were reversed significantly with the supplementation of a Shh activator. Furthermore, our findings indicate that Shh activation significantly attenuates PM2.5-induced synaptic impairments in hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrated that EGR1, a transcriptional inhibitor, plays a direct role in KDM5A's regulation of the Shh pathway under conditions of PM2.5 exposure. Our results suggest that the KDM5A's inhibitory regulation on the Shh pathway through the EGR1 gene is a crucial epigenetic mechanism underlying the synaptic dysfunction in hippocampal neurons caused by maternal PM2.5 exposure. This emphasizes the role of epigenetic regulations in neurodevelopmental disorders caused by environmental factors.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Proteínas Hedgehog , Hipocampo , Material Particulado , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Transdução de Sinais , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Camundongos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteína 2 de Ligação ao Retinoblastoma/genética , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 275: 116273, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is characterized by decreased muscle mass and strength, posing threat to quality of life. Air pollutants are increasingly recognized as risk factors for diseases, while the relationship between the two remains to be elucidated. This study investigated whether exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the development of sarcopenia. METHODS: We employed the data from the UK Biobank with 303,031 eligible participants. Concentrations of PM2·5, NO2, and NOx were estimated. Cox proportional hazard regression models were applied to investigate the associations between pollutants and sarcopenia. RESULTS: 30,766 probable sarcopenia cases was identified during the follow-up. We observed that exposure to PM2.5 (HR, 1.232; 95% CI, 1.053-1.440), NO2 (HR, 1.055; 95% CI, 1.032-1.078) and NOx (HR, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.007-1.026) were all significantly associated with increased risk for probable sarcopenia for each 10 µg/m3 increase in pollutant concentration. In comparison with individuals in the lowest quartiles of exposure, those in the upper quartiles had significantly increased risk of probable sarcopenia. Sarcopenia-related factors, e.g., reduced lean muscle mass, diminished walking pace, and elevated muscle fat infiltration ratio, also exhibited positive associations with exposure to ambient air pollution. On the contrary, high level physical activity significantly mitigated the influence of air pollutants on the development of probable sarcopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution exposure elevated the risk of developing sarcopenia and related manifestations in a dose-dependent manner, while physical activity maintained protective under this circumstance. Efforts should be made to control air pollution and emphasize the importance of physical activity for skeletal muscle health under this circumstance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sarcopenia/induzido quimicamente , Qualidade de Vida , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 277: 116386, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657455

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, in which microglia activation plays a critical role. Thus far, the underlying mechanisms for PM2.5-induced microglia activation have not been well elucidated. In this study, a human microglial cell line (HMC3) was used as the in vitro model to examine the inflammatory effect (hall marker of microglia activation) of PM2.5 and regulatory pathways. The expression of inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by ELISA and/or real-time PCR, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to measure the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Western blot was used to measure protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα) and COX-2. It was shown that PM2.5 stimulation increased IL-6 and COX-2 expression but decreased BDNF expression in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies showed that PM2.5 triggered the formation of ROS and pre-treatment with the ROS scavenger acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly suppressed PM2.5-induced IL-6 and COX-2 expression. Moreover, the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor BAY11-7085 or the TLR4 neutralizing antibody markedly blocked PM2.5-induced IL-6 and COX-2 expression. However, NAC or BAY11-7085 exhibited minimal effect on PM2.5-induced BDNF down-regulation. In addition, pre-treatment with BAY11-7085 or TLR4 neutralizing antibody reduced ROS production induced by PM2.5, and NAC pre-treatment inhibited TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation induced by PM2.5. Collectively, PM2.5 treatment induced IL-6 and COX-2 but suppressed BDNF expression. PM2.5-induced IL-6 and COX-2 expression was mediated by interactive oxidative stress and TLR4/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Interleucina-6 , Microglia , NF-kappa B , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 277: 116398, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38677066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PM2.5 and its chemical components increase health risks and are associated with depression and gut microbiota. However, there is still limited evidence on whether gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mediate the association between PM2.5, PM2.5 chemical components, and antenatal depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating role of maternal gut microbiota in correlations between short-term exposure to PM2.5, short-term exposure to PM2.5 chemical components, and antenatal depression. METHODS: Demographic information and stool samples were collected from 75 pregnant women in their third trimester. Their exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5 chemical components was measured. Participants were divided into the non-antenatal depression group or the antenatal depression group according to the cut-off of 10 points on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The gut microbiota were analyzed using the 16 S rRNA-V3/V4 gene sequence, and the concentration of PM2.5 and its chemical components was calculated using the Tracking Air Pollution in China (TAP) database. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze SCFAs in stool samples. In order to assess the mediating effects of gut microbiota and SCFAs, mediation models were utilized. RESULTS: There were significant differences between gut microbial composition and SCFAs concentrations between the non-antenatal depression group and the antenatal depression group. PM2.5 and its chemical components were positively associated with EPDS scores and negatively associated with genera Enterococcus and Enterobacter. Genera Candidatus_Soleaferrea (ß = -7.21, 95%CI -11.00 to -3.43, q = 0.01) and Enterococcus (ß = -2.37, 95%CI -3.87 to -0.87, q = 0.02) were negatively associated with EPDS scores, indicating their potential protective effects against antenatal depression. There was no significant association between SCFAs and EPDS scores. The mediating role of Enterococcus between different lagged periods of PM2.5, PM2.5 chemical component exposure, and antenatal depression was revealed. For instance, Enterococcus explained 29.23% (95%CI 2.16-87.13%, p = 0.04) of associations between PM2.5 exposure level at the day of sampling (lag 0) and EPDS scores. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that Enterococcus may mediate the associations between PM2.5, PM2.5 chemical components, and antenatal depression. The mediating mechanism through which the gut microbiota influences PM2.5-induced depression in pregnant women still needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Material Particulado , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos
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