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1.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(1): 4-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653778

RESUMO

Child maltreatment in sport is an undeniable problem. High-profile cases of sexual abuse of child athletes are obvious examples of child maltreatment in this context. Young athletes also face physical and psychological maltreatment, as well as neglect, although these types of child maltreatment are understudied in sport and receive less public attention. Little is known as to how to define physical and psychological maltreatment and neglect in sport and their diverse manifestations. The aim of this paper is to propose concrete manifestations of each type of child maltreatment in sport. We aim to help practitioners better understand and researchers better measure this problem.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1047782

RESUMO

Objetivo: desvelar a produção acerca da assistência de enfermagem prestada às crianças/adolescentes vítimas de violência. Método: trata-se de uma revisão sistematizada realizada com consulta nas bases de dados: LILACS, Scielo e BDENF. Foram selecionados 19 artigos para compor este trabalho. A análise de dados deu-se por meio da proposta de Mendes, Silveira e Galvão. Resultados: os dados foram discutidos através dos tópicos: despreparo dos profissionais frente aos casos de violência infantil; sentimentos dos profissionais envolvidos no cuidado à criança/adolescente vítima de violência; notificação, protocolos e rotinas na assistência à criança/ adolescente vítima de violência; estratégias de assistência à criança/adolescente vítima de violência. Conclusão: os profissionais de enfermagem não se sentem preparados para atuarem frente aos casos de violência infantil. Identificou-se a necessidade de protocolos assistenciais que respaldem a assistência profissional. Ademais, é importante o fortalecimento da rede de atenção intersetorial que garanta a assistência adequada às vítimas e suas famílias


Objective: to explore the literature regarding the nursing care provided to children/adolescents victims of violence. Method: it consists of a systematic review performed on databases such as, LILACS, Scielo and BDENF. 19 articles have been selected to compose this study. The data analysis was developed throughout Mendes, Silveira and Galvão's proposal. Results: the data discussion occurred throughout the following topics: professional unpreparedness to deal with cases of child violence; the feelings of professionals involved on the care provided to a child/adolescent victim of violence; notification, protocols and routines regarding the assistance of children/adolescents victims of violence. Conclusion: nursing professionals do not feel prepared to deal with situations of children violence. It was identified the need of protocols that support the nursing assistance. Furthermore, it is important to enhance the intersectoral attention network in order to ensure the appropriate care to the victims and their families


Objetivo: desvelar la producción acerca de la asistencia de enfermería a los niños/adolescentes víctimas de violencia. Método: se trata de una revisión sistematizada realizada con consulta en las bases de datos: LILACS, Scielo y BDENF. Se seleccionaron 19 artículos para componer este trabajo. El análisis de datos se dio através de la propuesta de Mendes, Silveira y Galvão. Resultados: los datos fueron discutidos através de los tópicos: despreparo de los profesionales frente a los casos de violencia infantil; sentimientos de los profesionales envolvidos en el cuidado al niño/ adolescente víctima de violencia; notificación, protocolos y rutinas en la asistencia al niño/adolescente víctima de violencia; estrategias de asistencia al niño/adolescente víctima de violencia. Conclusión: los profesionales de enfermería no se sienten preparados para actuar frente a los casos de violencia infantil. Se identificó la necesidad de protocolos asistenciales que soporten la asistencia profesional. Además, es importante el fortalecimiento de la red de atención intersectorial que promueva la asistencia adecuada a las víctimas y sus familia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Violência Doméstica , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Saúde da Criança , Saúde do Adolescente , Exposição à Violência
4.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e78, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839014

RESUMO

AIMS: Associations between childhood abuse and various psychotic illnesses in adulthood are commonly reported. We aim to examine associations between several reported childhood adverse events (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and interpersonal loss) among adults with diagnosed psychotic disorders and clinical and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Within a large epidemiological study, the 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis (Survey of High Impact Psychosis, SHIP), we used logistic regression to model childhood adverse events (any and specific types) on 18 clinical and psychosocial outcomes. RESULTS: Eighty percent of SHIP participants (1466/1825) reported experiencing adverse events in childhood (sexual abuse, other types of abuse and interpersonal loss). Participants reporting any form of childhood adversity had higher odds for 12/18 outcomes we examined. Significant associations were observed with all psychosocial outcomes (social dysfunction, victimisation, offending and homelessness within the previous 12 months, and definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset), with the strongest association for homelessness (odds ratio (OR) = 2.82). Common across all adverse event types was an association with lifetime depression, anxiety and a definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset. When adverse event types were non-hierarchically coded, sexual abuse was associated with 11/18 outcomes, other types of abuse 13/18 and, interpersonal loss occurring in the absence of other forms of abuse was associated with fewer of the clinical and psychosocial outcomes, 4/18. When adverse events types were coded hierarchically (to isolate the effect of interpersonal loss in the absence of abuse), interpersonal loss was associated with lower odds of self-reproach (OR = 0.70), negative syndrome (OR = 0.75) and victimisation (OR = 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Adverse childhood experiences among people with psychosis are common, as are subsequent psychosocial stressors. Mental health professionals should routinely enquire about all types of adversities in this group and provide effective service responses. Childhood abuse, including sexual abuse, may contribute to subsequent adversity, poor psychosocial functioning and complex needs among people with psychosis. Longitudinal research to better understand these relationships is needed, as are studies which evaluate the effectiveness of preventative interventions in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Classe Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 572-578, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, the third cyclical study on the scale of domestic violence against schoolchildren and youth in one of the rural communes of the Western Pomerania (Poland) was carried out. The study took into account five forms of violence: mental, physical, neglect, economic and sexual. Previous two editions of the study covered urban-rural (2016) and urban gminas (2015). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research concept was implemented by means of the representative research method, with the use of auditing questionnaire interview technique, based on a research tool developed on the basis of a number of previous qualitative research and quantitative tests to measure the social scale of domestic violence. RESULTS: Domestic violence against minors reaches 48.2% in the rural area under study, 51.8% in the urban-rural area and 65.5% in the urban area. In all types of areas the most frequent form of violence is psychological violence, it affects 42.4% of children in rural gminas, 51.3% in urban-rural and 60.5% in urban gminas. In reference to other, less frequent forms of violence, there is also a difference in scale due to the area type. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of individual forms of domestic violence varies depending on the type of area: Psychological violence: rural areas - 42.4%, urban-rural - 51.3%, urban areas - 60.5%; Neglect: rural areas - 21.1%, urban-rural - 13.5%, urban areas - 22.3%; Physical violence: rural areas - 17.1%, urban-rural - 20.7%, urban areas - 29.4%; Economic violence: rural areas - 12.6%, urban-rural - 19.2%, urban areas - 29.3%; Sexual violence: rural areas - 3.2%, urban-rural - 3.6%, urban areas - 8.1%.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 51-59, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183599

RESUMO

In order to examine the literature on the relationship between child-to-parent violence and parent-to-child violence, a meta-analytic review was designed with 26 effect sizes assessing the relationship between child-to-parent and parent-to-child violence in 19 primary studies. Correlational effect sizes were computed and corrected for sampling error, and predictor and criterion unreliability. The results showed a significantly positive, medium magnitude (ρ = .36) mean true effect size for the relationship between child-to-parent violence and parent-to-child violence. Similar results were found for direct and vicarious victimization. The probability of developing child-to-parent violence for children victimized by parents increased 71% as compared to non-victimized children. The child-to parent violence type (physical or psychological), and the population (judicial or community) were analysed as moderators. The results revealed similar effects in both types of child-to-parent violence and in both populations: a significantly positive, medium in magnitude mean true effect size. The theoretical and practical implications for measuring child-to parent violence are discussed


Con el propósito de examinar la literatura sobre la relación entre la violencia de hijos a padres y la violencia de padres a hijos, se diseñó una revisión metaanalítica con 26 tamaños del efecto que evalúan la relación de la violencia entre hijos y padres y padres e hijos en 19 estudios principales. Se calcularon y corrigieron los tamaños del efecto correlacional para el error de muestreo y la predicción y la fiabilidad del criterio. Los resultados mostraron una magnitud media significativamente positiva (ρ = .36), que significa el tamaño verdadero del efecto para la relación entre la violencia de hijos a padres y la violencia de padres a hijos. Se encontraron resultados similares para la victimización directa e indirecta. La probabilidad de desarrollar violencia de hijos a padres para los niños victimizados por los padres aumentó 71% en comparación con los niños no victimizados. El tipo de violencia del niño hacia el padre (física o psicológica) y la población (judicial o comunitaria) se analizaron como moderadores. Los resultados revelaron efectos similares en ambos tipos de violencia entre padres e hijos en ambas poblaciones: un nivel de efecto medio significativamente positivo, de magnitud media. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas para medir la violencia de los hijos hacia sus padres


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
7.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 419-425, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767802

RESUMO

In the complex pathomechanism of eating disorders (especially that of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder) the traumatic experiences (sexual, physical, emotional abuse, neglect) often play an important role. The consequence of traumas can be the borderline personality disorder, or different disorders of the emotional regulation. These occur mainly in the multiimpulsive subtype of eating disorders with impulse control disorders. In relation to the trauma dissociative phenomena are frequent. In the diagnostics of eating disorders the history of traumatization is essential. Among the therapeutical possibilities the psychodynamic approach is important. Moreover, the newer methods based on cognitive behavioral therapy are effective, e.g., dialectic behavior therapy, integrative cognitive-analytic therapy, and other complex programs of trauma processing, such as the trauma-informed care.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/complicações , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Humanos
8.
Res Nurs Health ; 42(6): 436-445, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674676

RESUMO

Both physical abuse and poor sleep quality are public health concerns among adolescents, particularly in mainland China, but examining any causal effect of physical abuse on adolescents' sleep quality using a randomized controlled trial is not possible for obvious ethical reasons. Researchers have proposed the use of propensity score matching with doses to minimize overt bias and estimate the effect of multidose treatments or varying degrees of risk exposure in observational studies. In this paper, we demonstrate the propensity score methods with a focus on matching with doses in an examination of the relationship between physical abuse levels (frequency and number of perpetrators) and self-reported sleep quality among adolescents. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort. The sample comprised 707 adolescents (13.16 ± 0.90 years old) who had complete data on physical abuse, sleep, and covariates. Propensity scores were computed from eight covariates and used to carry out pair matching, matching with the frequency of abusive experience, and matching with the number of perpetrators. The standardized differences of covariates suggested an acceptable balance between groups after matching. The results derived from matching sets consistently indicated that adolescents being physically abused by parent(s) have worse sleep quality. Despite its inherent limitations, propensity score matching with doses provides a useful tool for nurse researchers analyzing observational data.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 623-638, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711398

RESUMO

Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury - the Impact of Emotion Regulation Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common phenomenon in adolescence. Furthermore, it is often associated with maltreatment during childhood. One factor determining the relation between childhood maltreatment and NSSI is maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The current study examines this relation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients (n = 97). Adolescents engaging in NSSI present maladaptive strategies in emotion regulation more frequently. In addition, they experienced maltreatment in childhood more often than inpatients not engaging in NSSI. Further, partial mediation was established among childhood emotional abuse and neglect, NSSI and maladaptive emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1345, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slapping/spanking is related to a number of poor health outcomes. Understanding what factors are related to the increased or decreased use of spanking/slapping is necessary to inform prevention. This study used a population-based sample to determine the prevalence of slapping/spanking reported by youth; the relationship between sociodemographic factors and slapping/spanking; and the extent to which parental exposures to victimization and maltreatment in childhood and current parental mental health, substance use and family circumstances, are associated with youth reports of slapping/spanking. METHODS: Data were from the 2014 Ontario Child Health Study, a provincially representative sample of households with children and youth aged 4-17 years. Self-reported lifetime slapping/spanking prevalence was determined using a sub-sample of youth aged 14-17 years (n = 1883). Parents/primary caregivers (i.e., person most knowledgeable (PMK) of the youth) self-reported their own childhood experiences including bullying victimization, slapping/spanking and child maltreatment, and current mental health, substance use and family circumstances including mental health functioning and emotional well-being, alcohol use, smoking, marital conflict and family functioning. Analyses were conducted in 2018. RESULTS: Living in urban compared to rural residence and family poverty were associated with decreased odds of slapping/spanking. PMK childhood experiences of physical and verbal bullying victimization, spanking, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and exposure to physical intimate partner violence were associated with increased odds of youth reported slapping/spanking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 1.33-1.77). PMK experiences of physical abuse and exposure to emotional/verbal intimate partner violence in childhood was associated with decreased odds of youth reported slapping/spanking (AOR = 0.72 and 0.88, respectively). PMK's higher levels of marital conflict, languishing to moderate mental health functioning and emotional well-being, and moderate or greater alcohol use were associated with increased odds of youth reported slapping/spanking (AOR ranged from 1.36-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: It may be important to consider parent/primary caregiver's childhood experiences with victimization and maltreatment along with their current parental mental health, substance use and family circumstances when developing and testing strategies to prevent slapping/spanking.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Punição , Adolescente , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
11.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(11): 926-934, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is a global public health, human rights, and moral issue that is associated with a substantial mental health burden. We aimed to assess the association between childhood maltreatment and the development of mental ill health and the initiation of new prescriptions for mental ill health. METHODS: In this population-based, retrospective, open cohort study, we used a dataset from individuals in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. THIN database comprises UK electronic medical records taken from 787 general practices throughout the UK. We used read codes in these records to identify exposed patients (those with a read code identifying officially confirmed childhood maltreatment or a maltreatment-related concern) and up to two unexposed patients (those without such read codes) from the same general practice, who were matched by age and sex. We evaluated the risk of developing depression, anxiety, or serious mental illness (a composite mental ill health outcome) or initiation of a prescription drug used to treat mental ill health, and the odds ratio of these events at baseline, in the exposed versus unexposed patients. FINDINGS: The first possible date for cohort entry (the study start date) was Jan 1, 1995, and patients could enter the cohort until the study end date, Dec 31, 2018. During the study period, 11 831 850 patients were eligible to participate. Of these patients, we identified 217 758 (1·8%) patients with any recorded childhood maltreatment. These patients were matched to 423 410 unexposed control patients with no recorded exposure to childhood maltreatment. The exposed group were followed up for a median of 1·8 years (IQR 0·6-4·3) versus 3·2 years (1·3-6·1) in the unexposed group. During the study period, 11 665 (5·9%) new diagnoses of mental ill health were made in the exposed group, giving an incidence rate of 16·8 events per 1000 person-years versus 15 301 (3·7%) new recorded diagnoses at an incidence rate of 8·3 events per 1000 person-years in the unexposed cohort, giving an adjusted IRR of 2·14 (95% CI 2·08-2·19). 30 911 (14·8%) patients in the exposed group received a new prescription for any type of mental ill health (incidence rate 46·5 events per 1000 person-years) versus 36 390 (8·9%) patients in the unexposed group (20·5 per 1000 person-years) resulting in an adjusted IRR of 2·44 (95% CI 2·40-2·48). INTERPRETATION: Childhood maltreatment is thought to affect one in three children globally; therefore, a doubled risk of developing mental ill health among these individuals represents a substantial contribution to the mental ill health burden in the UK. It is imperative that public health approaches, including those aimed at preventing and detecting childhood maltreatment and its associated negative consequences, are implemented to prevent mental ill health. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 900-911, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478703

RESUMO

The aims of the current study were to examine the long-term effects of childhood maltreatment on current relationships with parents and whether the quality of current relationships with parents mediates the associations between childhood maltreatment and psychological health in late adulthood. Using 2 decades of longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to examine the associations between reports of childhood maltreatment, aspects of current relationships with parents (i.e., perceived closeness, contact frequency, and exchange of social support), and psychological well-being/distress of adult children. Key results indicated that reports of maternal childhood abuse and neglect predicted lower levels of perceived closeness with aging mothers, which were subsequently associated with reduced psychological well-being of adult children. We did not find evidence of mediation between reports of paternal childhood abuse/neglect, current relationships with fathers, and psychological outcomes. Our findings suggest a significant linkage between childhood and later-life intergenerational relationships. Adults who were maltreated by their mother as children may continue to experience challenges in this relationship. Further research is needed to examine how these past and current relational dynamics affect caregiving experiences and outcomes. In addition, when intervening with adults with a history of childhood maltreatment, practitioners should evaluate contemporary relationship quality with the abusive mother and help address any unresolved emotional issues with the parent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 509-511, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present retrospective case-control study is aimed at evaluating the presence of childhood traumatic factors and the difficulty in regulating emotions, within a sample of patients with eating disorders compared to the group of healthy controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 65 people assessed for eating disorders, 40 patients and 25 healthy controls, who were given two tests: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) to investigate the presence of traumatic events and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) to assess the emotional regulation. RESULTS: People with eating disorders showed higher average scores, and therefore greater severity than the control group, in all the domains explored, both considering traumatic experiences and emotional dysregulation. The domain emotional neglect showed the closest correlation with eating disorders (average scoring 15.9 vs 9.9 of healthy controls), followed by emotional abuse (12.2 vs 7.8), physical neglect (8.2 vs 6.6), physical abuse (8.3 vs 6.6) and sexual abuse (7.2 vs 5.6). In the same way, the emotional dysregulation was greater among people with eating disorder than healty controls, concerning every items explored by DERS, as clarity (average scoring 14.8 vs 11.4), awareness (17.1 vs 11.7), goals (16.3 vs 12.9), strategy (22.0 vs 14.7), non acceptance (17.4 vs 12.1) and impulse (16.5 vs 11.4). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood traumatic experiences and emotional dysregulation result significantly higher in people with eating disorders than healthy controls.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 527-531, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502911

RESUMO

Background: It has been suggested that obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) show higher levels of dissociation and childhood trauma. Aim: This study assesses childhood trauma history and dissociative symptoms in obese patients with BED compared to obese patients without BED. Methods: The 241 patients participating in the study had to meet obesity criteria. These patients were applicants for bariatric surgery and were consulted by a psychiatry service. Patients were separated into two groups that were accompanied by BED diagnoses according to structured clinical interviews administered according to the DSM-IV (SCID-I). Patients were assessed using the Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The two groups of patients were compared. Results: A total of 75 (31.1%) of the 241 obese patients were diagnosed with BED. The study showed that obese patients with BED had higher dissociative scores than those without BED (p < .05). The results showed higher total scores and two different types of childhood trauma (physical abuse and emotional abuse) in BED patients compared to non-BED patients (p < .05). Conclusions: Clinicians should be fully aware of BED, dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences. These results show that, for at least a sub-group of obese patients, BED is associated with obesity and may be connected with dissociative symptoms and childhood physical abuse and emotional abuse.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Dissociativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dissociativos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 944-946, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474079

RESUMO

To explore the mediating role of psychological resilience to childhood abuse and binge eating. This study assessed the childhood abuse, binge eating and psychological resilience of 3 453 middle school students in Harbin city, Heilongjiang Province. SPSS PROCESS macro program, combined with Bootstrap method, was employed to explore the mediating effect of psychological resilience. The incidence of middle school students experiencing at least one type of abuse in their childhood was 81.3% (2 807/3 453). Childhood abuse, psychological resilience and binge eating were all significantly different in terms of gender, household registration and whether they were only child (all P values<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between childhood abuse and binge eating. Psychological resilience was negatively associated with childhood abuse and binge eating. Childhood abuse could not only directly predict the binge eating behavior of adolescents, but also could indirectly affect it via psychological resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Bulimia/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 47(5): 453-465, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414925

RESUMO

Authoritarianism becomes respectable in Germany: A risk factor for condoning physical violence toward children? Abstract. Objective: Authoritarianism denotes aggressive behavior toward subordinates, submission to authorities, and conventionalism. Authoritarianism is assumed to be a central factor in the emergence of right-wing extremist ideology. Horkheimer described a close relationship between authoritarianism and the use of physical violence as a disciplinary method. Against the background of the current increase in right-wing extremist ideologies in Germany, which manifests itself in both social and political realms, this study examines the association between authoritarian and right-wing extremist ideology and the affirmation of corporal punishment as a disciplinary method. Method: We performed a cross-sectional study on a representative sample of the German population (N = 2,524). Results: 44.5 % of the participants supported corporal punishment. When respondents reported authoritarian and right-wing extremist attitudes, we discovered an increased affirmation of physical violence as a disciplinary method. Regarding party preference, participants who stated that they preferred the right-wing Alternative for Germany Party (AfD) showed the highest rate of supporting corporal punishment. Conclusions: The results presented indicate that the condoning of corporal punishment is still very widespread in Germany, and that the children of parents with authoritarian and right-wing extremist attitudes comprise a risk group for physical violence. Increased social awareness of these risks is necessary in light of the current increase of right-wing ideologies.


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Política , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 501-508, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443617

RESUMO

Purpose: Schizophrenia is associated with an increased homicide risk. Personality pathology, particularly antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits, has been associated with increased violence risk in schizophrenia. Childhood trauma, more specifically physical abuse, has been associated with violence risk in healthy populations and in individuals with mental illness. It is, however, unclear how childhood trauma relates to homicide in schizophrenia. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to concurrently examine personality pathology and childhood trauma in a group consisting solely of homicide offenders with schizophrenia (HOS). HOS is compared to nonviolent participants with the same diagnosis (non-HOS). Additionally, currently assessed demographical and clinical characteristics of a Norwegian sample of HOS are reported. Materials and methods: Two groups of participants with schizophrenia were recruited in collaboration with in and outpatient clinics across Norway, HOS (n= 26) and non-HOS (n= 28). Assessments of personality pathology and childhood trauma were conducted, and information about clinical and demographical characteristics was registered. Results: HOS participants had significantly higher psychopathy scores, and more frequently reported moderate to severe childhood physical abuse than non-HOS participants. When simultaneously added to a logistic regression model, only psychopathy uniquely contributed to explaining group membership. Conclusions: Psychopathy and physical abuse was more prevalent among HOS participants compared to non-HOS, but only psychopathy independently predicted homicidal status. These results confirm the importance of including an evaluation of psychopathic traits in violence risk assessments of individuals with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Feminino , Homicídio/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/tendências , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 490-496, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464549

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between childhood trauma and aggression-suicidal behavior in patients with bipolar disorder. Material and Methods: A total of 112 outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in remission in the province of Siirt on the east coast of Turkey were included in this study carried out between January and June 2018. Personal Information Form, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Buss-Perry Aggression Scale (BPAS) and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were used for data acquisition. Results: It was determined that patients with bipolar disorder have 89.3% of physical neglect, 74.1% of emotional neglect, 75.9% of physical abuse, 79.5% of emotional abuse and 40.2% of sexual abuse. The mean score of CTQ was 66.8 ± 19.2, the total score of BPAS was 94.6 ± 28.8 and the total score of SPS was 85.3 ± 17.9. A statistically significant and positive correlation was determined between CTQ, BPAS and SPS (p < 0.05). There was a weak and positive relationship between BPAS, CTQ (r = 0.325**; p < 0.05) and subscales of CTQ which are emotional abuse (r = 0.350**; p < 0.05), physical abuse (r = 0.354**; p < 0.01), physical neglect (r = 0.313**; p < 0.01) and emotional neglect (r = 0.316**; p < 0.01). A statistically significant difference was observed between the regular use of drugs, violence against others and total score of CTQ, BPAS and SPS (p < 0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder should be evaluated with regards to childhood trauma history by taking into consideration sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric support in order to prevent their aggression and suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 101-108, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183640

RESUMO

Se ha constatado que la violencia contra los niños, niñas y adolescentes es un fenómeno frecuente en todas las culturas y sociedades, que afecta a entre el 83 y el 91% de los menores españoles. Desde la victimología del desarrollo se ha demostrado que la violencia interpersonal rara vez es un suceso aislado, sino que niños, niñas y adolescentes tienden a experimentar más de un tipo de victimiza-ción a lo largo de su vida, lo que ha recibido el nombre de polivictimización. El objetivo de esta revisión es acercar a los profesiona-les aquellos trabajos que demuestran la frecuencia de este fenómeno, su relación con la presencia de efectos adversos en el desarrollo, y la forma más plausible y adecuada de medirlo con el fin de identificar a aquellos menores que requieren de una cuida-da atención y protección, dada su extrema vulnerabilidad


It has been confirmed that violence against children and adolescents is a frequent phenomenon in all cultures and societies, affecting between 83 and 91% of Spanish minors. Developmental victimology has shown that interpersonal violence is rarely an isolated event, but rather children and adolescents tend to experience more than one type of victimization throughout their lives, which has been termed poly-victimization. The objective of this review is to bring professionals closer to the works that demonstrate the frequency of this phenomenon, its relationship with the presence of adverse effects on development, and the most plausible and appropriate way to measure it in order to identify those minors who require careful intervention and protection, given their extreme vulnerability


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/prevenção & controle
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159325

RESUMO

A history of childhood abuse has been linked to serious and long-lasting problems in adulthood. We developed two theoretical models concerning how early adverse experiences affect health in adulthood, and we tested the empirical fit of the two models in a population-based representative sample of Canadian adults (N = 25,113) using a structural equation modelling (SEM) technique, path analysis. The first model included direct pathways by which a history of three types of childhood abuse-exposure to intimate partner violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse-affected adult physical and mental health, as well as indirect pathways by which perceived social support and everyday life stress acted as mediators of these associations. The second model included only indirect pathways and tested mediating effects. Global statistics indicated that both models were a good fit to the data, and local statistics supported the hypothesized associations between independent, dependent, and mediator variables.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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