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2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 337-342, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Child neglect is one of the most prevalent forms of child abuse. Neglect can be defined as a lack of sufficient attention, responsibility and protection that matches the age and needs of the child. There is no theory that fully explains why neglect of children happens. Three different causal models of neglect are given: parental deficit model, ecological deficit model and ecological-transaction model. Exposure to neglect in childhood may have a negative impact on the development of the child and cause short-term and long-term health, emotional, cognitive, academic and social difficulties. The aim of this paper was to provide a comprehensive theoretical overview of neglect of children causes and consequences. METHODS: In this paper, we used review articles and meta-analyzes about child neglect causes and consequences published on Medline. RESULTS: Child neglect has a relatively high prevalence rate compared to other types of child abuse. Several studies suggest that the impact of neglect on the health and development of the child is just as negative as the impact of other types of abuse. Children who experience neglect in early childhood are more likely to have health, cognitive, emotional and social consequences in later life. A significant number of studies suggest the existence of a link between child neglect and risk factors related to parents, the child and the environment. CONCLUSIONS: Child neglect is determined by multiple risk areas and is considered as the result of a complex interaction of risk factors present in children and in their care environment. Neglect may have long-term consequences for all aspects of the health and functioning of the child.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 343-345, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early neglect and abuse are a major societal problem, with negative consequences for the victim. There is clear evidence that early neglect and abuse are related to an increased prevalence of mental health problems. On the other hand there are children that show resilience towards negative influences in early childhood. In this paper I will describe results of empirical studies that reveal the negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) as well as studies on resilience. METHODS: Studies relevant for the topic are reviewed. RESULTS: In many individuals adverse childhood experiences lead to impaired functioning of neural structures that increase the risk for later psychopathology and maldaptive functioning. However, according to one of the major principles of developmental psychopathology we see multifinality of outcome as some individuals show signs of resilience. CONCLUSION: Efforts to prevent adverse influences on children early in life are urgently needed to prevent long-lasting negative consequences that go along with subjective suffering and enormous societal costs. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms of vulnerability and resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Prevalência , Psicopatologia , Resiliência Psicológica
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 367-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030455

RESUMO

Although family should be the basis for the development and formation of a child's personality, violence is mostly done in the family, and remains undiscovered for a long time. The real number of abused children is much more than that displayed in the registered cases. The secrecy of the problem is an important feature of this phenomenon. Families in which abuse takes place are mostly isolated. Social isolation does not come about by chance; secrecy is usually encouraged by an abuser to control over famoly members. In most cases, social reaction to violence is late, inadequate and focused on the consequences, but not on the causes. "Abuse implies an act of execution that directly inflicts damage, while neglect implies an act of non-fulfillment of something that is necessary for the well-being of a child". The most common forms of domestic violence are physical, emotional abuse in the presence of violence against the mother, and in a lesser extent sexual abuse. In addition, there is physical, emotional, educational and medical neglect. The presence of violence against the mother and the feeling of impotence leave the same consequences as the endured violence. It is considered that children living in violent families are likely to live under cumulative stress. Traumatic responses include a wide range of conditions from acute stress reactions through post-traumatic stress disorder to complex long-lasting, repeated trauma syndrome. All children will not react to this kind of experience in the same way, with the protective and risk factors in developmental psychopathology having a significant role to play. Because of their developmental vulnerability and dependency, children are at greater risk of violence than adults. Researches point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and prevention of child abuse, with greater interaction between health institutions, relevant centers for social work, police, court, government and non-governmental sector, and the existence of adequate family and criminal laws.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment affects social functioning in the general adult population. However, how child abuse affects functional disability in adulthood remains unknown. Thus, we investigated the correlation between child abuse, depressive symptoms, cognitive complaints, and functional disability in adult community volunteers. METHODS: Participants (N = 556) completed the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment, and Sheehan Disability Scale. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling were performed to evaluate scale correlations. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling showed that the direct effect of childhood maltreatment on depressive symptoms, the indirect effect of childhood maltreatment on cognitive function via depressive symptoms, and the indirect effects of childhood maltreatment on functional disability via depressive symptoms and via cognitive function were all significant. The direct effects of childhood maltreatment on cognitive function and functional disability were not significant. There was no significant association between variables. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional designs cannot identify causal relationships between parameters. Participants were adult volunteers from the community; therefore, results may not be generalizable to individuals with psychiatric disorders. Sociodemographic variability was a limitation because we used self-reported childhood maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood maltreatment indirectly affects functional disability via depressive symptoms and via cognitive function through depressive symptoms. We suggest that depressive symptoms and cognitive function play crucial roles in the influence of childhood maltreatment on functional disability in adult community volunteers.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Cognição , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Involvement with Child Protective Services (CPS) provides an opportunity to recognize those children at risk for ongoing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). The relationship between ACEs and child health among CPS-involved children and the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in moderating this relationship is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a convergent mixed-methods study of caregivers of children age 2 to 12 years with a CPS finding of physical abuse, modeling the association between cumulative ACEs and child health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the PedsQL4.0, a validated 23-item survey of multidimensional health, with and without the moderator of a patient-centered medical home. Interviews elicited descriptions of a child's experience with ACEs, the impact of ACEs on child health, and the role of a PCP in this context. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-eight surveyed caregivers reported a mean of 5.5 (±3.3) ACE exposures per child. In a fully adjusted model, each ACE resulted in a 1.3-point (95% confidence interval: 0.7-2.0) reduction in HRQoL, a clinically important difference in HRQoL associated with ACE exposures. This association was explained by reduced psychosocial HRQoL and was not moderated by a patient-centered medical home. Twenty-seven interviewed caregivers described the influence of ACEs on a child's health. Many felt that a trusted PCP could support a child's well-being after such experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CPS involvement have ACE exposures that are associated with reduced HRQoL. Although PCPs are often unaware of CPS involvement or other ACEs, many caregivers welcome the support of a child's PCP in improving child well-being after adversity.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tamanho da Amostra
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMO

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estatura , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881859

RESUMO

Based on Attachment Theory, the Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model and General Aggression Model, the present study explored the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment and cyberbullying perpetration attitudes among undergraduates, as well as the mediating roles of empathy and immorality. Using a stratified cluster random sampling method, 626 college students were tested. Structural equation modeling was used for multiple mediation analysis. Results: (1) The positive rate of childhood psychological maltreatment, referring to sustained and repeated experiencing at least one kind of psychological maltreatment, was reported by accounted for 33.87% of participants; (2) a significant positive correlation existed between childhood psychological maltreatment, immorality, and cyberbullying perpetration attitudes. However, these variables were negatively correlated with empathy (cognitive and affective empathy); and (3) there were three mediating paths: childhood psychological maltreatment was linked to cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of male college students through the mediating roles of cognitive empathy and immorality and the chain-mediating role of cognitive empathy and immorality. Conclusions: Greater experience of childhood psychological maltreatment predicted more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying perpetration among male college students, mediated by cognitive empathy and immorality. These findings may assist parents and educators by providing effective intervention for cyberbullying perpetration attitudes.


Assuntos
Atitude , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Adolescente , Viés , Criança , Cognição , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança/tendências , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , População , Isolamento Social , Serviço Social/métodos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Health Psychol ; 39(11): 986-996, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations between child maltreatment and body mass, body weight perceptions, and weight control behaviors among men and women. METHOD: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate links between dimensions of childhood maltreatment and adult (a) classifications of body mass index (BMI), (b) discrepancies in perceived weight and actual BMI categories, and (c) normative and risky weight control behaviors. RESULTS: Childhood maltreatment was highly predictive of BMI classification, weight perception discrepancies, and weight control behaviors for women. Women who reported physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect had increased risks for being slightly or very overweight, and among those who reported physical abuse and/or a combination of physical abuse and neglect, there is an increased likelihood of holding overweight perceptions. Finally, female victims of physical abuse, physical abuse and neglect, and of neglect only were more likely to adopt risky (e.g., diet pills or purging) versus normative (e.g., diet and exercise) weight control behaviors. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that women who reported childhood maltreatment have increased risks for developing body and weight related issues, confirming research documenting female-specific effects of childhood maltreatment. For women, certain forms of maltreatment strongly predicted BMI groupings, discrepant weight perceptions, and risky weight behaviors. Taken together, findings suggest that child maltreatment is a predictor of health-related outcomes. Moreover, results highlight the importance of assessing gender-specific effects when examining outcomes related to body, weight, and dieting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To our knowledge, no case-control study has investigated the relationships between stealing, clinical implications, and psychiatric diagnosis among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with or without a history of stealing. Thus, the associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and a history of stealing remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between stealing, clinical implications, and psychiatric diagnosis among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with or without a history of stealing. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, the proportions of clinical implications among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with and without a history of stealing were compared. Data regarding age, sex, primary diagnosis, junior high school student or not, both father and mother are the caregivers or not, family history, abuse history, school refusal, depressive state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were retrieved from medical records. Participants consisted of Japanese junior high school students and younger patients (maximum age, 15 years) at the first consultation. All patients were examined and diagnosed by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, or the Fifth Edition. Stealing was reported by the patients or caregivers to the psychiatrist, or the psychiatrist had inquired about a history of stealing at the first consultation. RESULTS: Among 1972 patients who consulted the clinic, at the first consultation, 56 (2.84%) had a history of stealing (cases), and 1916 (97.16%) did not (controls). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the proportions of males, junior high school students, abuse history, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and conduct disorder were significantly higher, and the proportions of adjustment disorders and school refusal were significantly lower in cases than in controls. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio increased further when the two factors were considered together, such as ASD with abuse history and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with abuse history. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a history of stealing were more likely to be diagnosed with ASD or ADHD with abuse history. Child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a history of stealing were more likely to be older and male. Our study should be understood without prejudice because this study is reporting associations, not causality. Therefore, a prospective study to investigate causality among ADHD, ASD, abuse history, and stealing is needed. If ADHD and ASD with abuse history can be correlated to a history of stealing, interventions can be more effective by understanding the mechanisms underlying these connections.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
12.
J Psychol ; 154(7): 467-486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730724

RESUMO

Violence against children is a major public health concern and involves significant consequences. However, compared to research on the impact of violence on children, far less is known about the perpetrators of violence against children. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychosocial characteristics and motives of perpetrators of filicide in order to identify their psychosocial profile. Our study analyzed 50 perpetrators of filicides committed in the province of Quebec between 1997 and 2012. Data was obtained from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Quebec, and additional information were retrieved from newspapers. Descriptive analyzes identified the sociodemographic, criminological, psychological-psychiatric characteristics and the motivations of these men. The results indicate that male perpetrators of filicide are, on average, 34.8 years old (SD = 11.9), 46% between the ages of 18 and 35, 48% between the ages of 36 and 55, and 4% are 56 years of age and over. Most filicides were committed following a marital separation (34%), the victims were between 0 and 5 years old (78%) and they were killed with bare hands (78%). Half of the perpetrators of filicide had a criminal record (42%) or history of domestic violence (50%). Some of these men had traits or borderline personality disorder (32%) and depressive symptoms (24%). The addition of clinical cases expands our understanding of the different profiles of perpetrators of filicide. Our study provides avenues for intervention and to promote a better prevention of this type of homicide.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Motivação , Adolescente , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697774

RESUMO

Experiencing adversities has been associated with the use of violence but this has not been explored with filicide offenders in South Africa. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 parents/stepparents/caregivers convicted of child homicide in South Africa, resulting in 49 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed by means of grounded theory. Using an ecological framework, this study alludes to the widespread and cumulative nature of violence and trauma experiences within multiple domains of the participants' lives. The study highlighted the absence of support in the aftermath of experiencing trauma, possibly resulting in these parents lacking resources to mitigate the sequelae of adverse experiences. This study calls for trauma related, mental health components to be integrated into violence interventions and for these to address the impact of trauma at the individual, family, and societal levels, to prevent the transition from victim to offender.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criminosos , Homicídio , Pais , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 41-58, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192093

RESUMO

La evaluación psicológica forense del maltrato y del abuso sexual ha sido abordada prioritariamente desde una perspectiva técnico-metodológica. La consideración de los aspectos ético-deontológicos implicados ha resultado más incipiente y comienzan gradualmente a integrarse como una dimensión relevante de la práctica profesional. El presente artículo explora las principales tensiones y desafíos para los psicólogos que realizan evaluaciones forenses en esta materia. Se revisan cómo los principios rectores de la bioética se adaptan a la realidad de las evaluaciones forenses que permiten orientar el desarrollo de buenas prácticas en el área


The forensic psychological evaluation of mistreatment and sexual abuse has been addressed primarily from a technical-methodological perspective. Considerations of the ethical-deontological aspects involved has been more incipient, and gradually beginning to be integrated as a relevant dimension of professional practice. This article explores the main tensions and challenges for psychologists who perform forensic evaluations in this area. We review how the guiding principles of bioethics adapt to the reality of forensic evaluations that allow to guide the development of good practices in the área


L'avaluació psicològica forense del maltractament I abús sexual ha estat abordada prioritàriament des d'una perspectiva tècnico-metodològica. La consideració dels aspectes ètico-deontològics implicats ha resultat més incipient I comencen gradualment a integrar-se com una dimensió rellevant de la pràctica professional. El present article explora les principals tensions I desafiaments per als psicòlegs que realitzen avaluacions forenses en aquesta matèria. Es revisen com els principis que regeixen la bioètica s'adapten a la realitat de les avaluacions forenses que permeten orientar el desenvolupament de bones pràctiques al sector


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Psicologia Forense/ética , Maus-Tratos Infantis/ética , Teoria Ética , Abuso Sexual na Infância/ética , Psicologia Forense/instrumentação , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia
15.
Minerva Pediatr ; 72(3): 226-235, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613821

RESUMO

Although medical literature shows that children are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease (COVID-19), they are hit the hardest by psychosocial impact of this pandemic. Being quarantined in homes and institutions may impose greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children's usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Incidences of domestic violence, child abuse, adulterated online contents are on the rise. Children of single parent and frontline workers suffer unique problems. The children from marginalized communities are particularly susceptible to the infection and may suffer from extended ill-consequences of this pandemic, such as child labor, child trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation and death etc. Parents, pediatricians, psychologists, social workers, hospital authorities, government and non-governmental organizations have important roles to play to mitigate the psychosocial ill-effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents. To provide the basic amenities, social security, medical care, and to minimize the educational inequities among the children of the different strata of the society are foremost priorities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Socorristas/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Marginalização Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 332, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is caused by a variety of biological and environmental factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that childhood maltreatment is a risk environmental factor in the development of BPD, but research on the genetic pathology of BPD is still in its early stages, and very little is known about the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. The purpose of this study is to further explore the interactive effects between OXTR gene polymorphisms and childhood maltreatment on BPD risk. METHODS: Among the 1804 Chinese Han male inmates, 765 inmates who had BPD or antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or highly impulsive or violent crime were considered as high-risk inmates and included in this study. Childhood maltreatment, BPD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and impulsivity were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Peripheral venous blood was collected for the genotype test. RESULTS: Analyses revealed that the BP group (inmates with BPD features) had higher rs53576 AA genotype frequency and rs237987 AA genotype frequency than the non-BP group, while the statistical significances were lost after Bonferroni correction. Total childhood maltreatment score, emotional abuse and neglect could positively predict BPD risk. Among the high-risk samples, rs53576 GG genotype carriers had higher BPD scores at higher levels of physical abuse and sexual abuse and had lower BPD scores at lower levels of physical abuse and sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the interaction between OXTR gene variations and childhood maltreatment is an important mechanism for the development of BPD. The moderating role of the OXTR gene provides evidence for gene plasticity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/genética , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
17.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(5): 1472-1481, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368829

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine whether childhood adversity is associated with self-reported lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among older adult women. METHODS: A convenience sample of women (≥55 years old) who presented to an academic urology practice or who had participated in a previous bladder health prevention study completed questionnaires including the LUTS Tool (on frequency and bother of LUTS), the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Questionnaire, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. RESULTS: The average age (SD) of participants (N = 151) was 64.7 (6.9) years. The total number of ACEs predicted the total number of LUTS, ß = .39 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.64), P = .003, as well as LUTS frequency, ß = .09 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.13), P < .001. ACEs predicted bother for nocturia, ß = 0.12 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.22), P = .008. Negative affect symptoms did not mediate the relationship between the total number of ACEs and the total number of LUTS. Rather, ACEs predicted LUTS and negative affect symptoms through (at least partially) independent pathways. Analyses controlled for tobacco use, number of vaginal deliveries, hypertension, overactive bladder medication use, body mass index, income, and race because these variables were significantly associated with the total number of ACEs or total number of LUTS. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity has an enduring impact on risk for LUTS in adulthood even when controlling for potential confounds and this relationship cannot be explained by negative affect symptoms.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/epidemiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/psicologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Noctúria/complicações , Noctúria/psicologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Pediatr ; 221: 224-229, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of overall, within-household, and community adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among children in vulnerable neighborhoods and to identify which individual ACEs, over and above overall ACE level, predict need for behavioral health services. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of 257 children ages 3-16 years who were seeking primary care services with co-located mental healthcare services at 1 of 2 clinics in Chicago, Illinois. The outcome variable was need for behavioral health services (Pediatric Symptom Checklist score ≥28). The independent variables were ACEs, measured with an adapted, 28-item version of the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory. RESULTS: Six ACE items were individually predictive of a clinical-range Pediatric Symptom Checklist score after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates: emotional abuse or neglect (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.32-6.52, P < .01), natural disaster (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.18-12.76, P = .02), forced separation from a parent or caregiver (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.50-5.83, P < .01), incarceration of a family member (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.20-4.93, P = .01), physical attack (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.32-6.11, P < .01), and community violence (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.18-4.65, P = .01). After adjusting for overall ACE level, only 1 item remained statistically significant: forced separation from a parent or caregiver (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.19-5.01, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: ACEs that disrupt attachment relationships between children and their caregivers are a significant predictor of risk for child emotional or behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Chicago/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Separação da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desastres Naturais , Apego ao Objeto , Abuso Físico/psicologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 657, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as abuse, neglect or household adversity may have a range of serious negative impacts. There is a need to understand what interventions are effective to improve outcomes for people who have experienced ACEs. METHODS: Systematic review of systematic reviews. We searched 18 database sources from 2007 to 2018 for systematic reviews of effectiveness data on people who experienced ACEs aged 3-18, on any intervention and any outcome except incidence of ACEs. We included reviews with a summary quality score (AMSTAR) of 5.5 or above. RESULTS: Twenty-five reviews were included. Most reviews focus on psychological interventions and mental health outcomes. The strongest evidence is for cognitive-behavioural therapy for people exposed to abuse. For other interventions - including psychological therapies, parent training, and broader support interventions - the findings overall are inconclusive, although there are some positive results. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant gaps in the evidence on interventions for ACEs. Most approaches focus on mitigating individual psychological harms, and do not address the social pathways which may mediate the negative impacts of ACEs. Many negative impacts of ACEs (e.g. on health behaviours, social relationships and life circumstances) have also not been widely addressed by intervention studies.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Resiliência Psicológica , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(2): 63-76, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193695

RESUMO

Las habilidades de regulación emocional constituyen un factor transdiagnóstico de psicopatologías y pueden verse especialmente afectadas en individuos con historia de maltrato, y la adolescencia es una etapa crítica para su desarrollo y prevención. Sin embargo, la heterogeneidad conceptual y metodológica en la evaluación de las habilidades de regulación emocional y las formas de maltrato dificultan comprender su relación. La presente revisión analizó la relación entre el maltrato infantil y las habilidades de regulación emocional de los adolescentes entre 12 y 18 años a través de los estudios que la exploraron, incidiendo en la relación diferencial entre las distintas tipologías de maltrato (maltrato físico, abuso sexual, maltrato emocional y negligencia) y las habilidades de regulación emocional (regulación o disregulación emocional e inteligencia emocional), así como en el papel que estas últimas ejercen sobre las problemáticas asociadas al maltrato. Se realizaron búsquedas en PsycINFO, MedLine y PsicoDoc. De los 191 estudios encontrados, 28 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se hallaron relaciones significativas y consistentes entre las medidas globales de maltrato y de disregulación emocional. Sin embargo, cuando se analizan tipos de maltrato o estrategias específicas, los resultados son dispares. Asimismo, las habilidades de regulación emocional influyen en la aparición de problemáticas asociadas al maltrato, siendo la sintomatología internalizada y las autolesiones las más exploradas. La heterogeneidad conceptual y metodológica de los estudios revisados dificultó la extracción de conclusiones sólidas respecto a las tendencias identificadas, por lo que se debe continuar explorando en esta relación


Emotion regulation skills are a robust transdiagnostic factor of psychopathologies and can be especially affected in individuals with a history of maltreatment, and adolescence is a critical period for their development and prevention. However, conceptual and methodological heterogeneity in evaluating emotion regulation skills and different forms of maltreatment make it difficult to understand their relationship. This review delved into the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the emotional skills of adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age through the studies that examining it, focusing on unique relationships between the different types of maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect) and emotion regulation skills (emotion regulation or dysregulation and emotional intelligence), as well as the role of the latter on maltreatment-related outcomes. Searches were carried out in the PsycINFO, MedLine and PsicoDoc databases. Of the 191 studies found, 28 met the inclusion criteria. The studies reviewed re-vealed significant and consistent relationships between global measures of child maltreatment and emotion dysregulation in adolescents. However, when specific types of maltreatment or strategies were analyzed, results are disparate. Moreover, emotion regulation skills influence the appearance of problems associated with maltreatment, with internalized symptoms and self-harm being the most explored. The conceptual and methodological heterogeneity of the studies reviewed made it difficult to draw robust conclusions regarding the trends identified, hence the need to continue to explore this relationship


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
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