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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202303026, jun. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554938

RESUMO

El maltrato infantil es definido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) como "el abuso y la desatención que sufren los niños menores de 18 años. Incluye todo tipo de maltrato físico y/o emocional […] que resulte en un daño real o potencial para la salud, la supervivencia, el desarrollo o la dignidad del niño". Al examinar los rastros corporales del maltrato físico, siguiendo los mecanismos de lesión más frecuentemente implicados, es posible detectar patrones radiológicos típicos. La evaluación imagenológica del hueso en reparación permite inferir cronologías para correlacionar con los datos obtenidos en la anamnesis. Los profesionales de la salud deben detectar oportunamente lesiones radiológicas sospechosas y activar de forma temprana el resguardo del menor. Nuestro propósito es realizar una revisión sobre las publicaciones recientes referidas al estudio imagenológico en niños de quienes se sospeche que puedan ser víctimas de violencia física.


The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as "the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18 years of age. It includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment [...], which results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity." By examining the bodily traces of physical abuse, following the most frequently involved mechanisms of injury, it is possible to identify typical radiological patterns. The imaging studies of the bone under repair allows inferring a timeline that may be correlated to the data obtained during history taking. Health care providers should detect suspicious radiological lesions in a timely manner and promptly activate the safeguarding of the child. Our objective was to review recent publications on the imaging studies of children suspected of being victims of physical violence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Violência , Radiologistas
2.
Scand J Pain ; 24(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of a self-reported history of childhood abuse with pain and physical functioning in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We also explored the potential moderating effects of positive childhood experiences (PCEs), an index of resilience, on these associations. METHODS: Prior to TKA, participants with KOA awaiting surgery (N = 239) completed self-report measures of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), PCEs, pain, and physical functioning. We evaluated associations of pain and physical functioning (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI] and Western Ontario and McMaster University of Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]) based on the experience of ACEs (childhood abuse), with PCEs (childhood happiness and supportive parental care) as potential moderators. RESULTS: Greater exposure to childhood abuse was positively correlated with BPI pain interference as well as WOMAC pain and functioning scores. Additionally, childhood happiness and supportive parental care moderated the positive associations of childhood abuse with pain and physical functioning; though, surprisingly, the adverse effects of childhood abuse on these outcomes were more pronounced among participants with high levels of childhood happiness and supportive parental care. CONCLUSION: Overall, results show an association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and pain and functioning in patients with KOA awaiting TKA. However, PCEs did not protect against the negative consequences of childhood abuse in our cohort. Further research is needed to validate these associations and gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay between childhood abuse and PCEs and their potential influences on pain experiences in adults with chronic pain conditions, including KOA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Resiliência Psicológica , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Autorrelato , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Artroplastia do Joelho/psicologia , Medição da Dor , Dor/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
3.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(3): 289-300, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of adolescents with depression has been increasing annually, with individuals often exhibiting non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the family (childhood abuse), school (peer victimization), and individual (psychological resilience) factors of adolescents with depression with or without NSSI (the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation [C-FASM] scale), and to analyze the correlation between the above psychological and social factors and the frequency of NSSI, to provide a basis for NSSI prevention and intervention in adolescents with depression. METHODS: We recruited 355 adolescents with depressive symptoms to participate in this study and divided them into Group NSSI (N = 227) and Group no-NSSI (n-NSSI) (N = 128) based on the C-FASM scale. The Short-Form Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), Multidimensional Peer Visualization Scale (MPVS), and Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RISC) scores were compared between two groups of adolescents. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between NSSI frequency and the above scores. RESULTS: Emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and total CTQ-SF score in Group NSSI were significantly higher than those in Group n-NSSI (all p < 0.001). Physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, attacks on property, and total MPVS score in Group NSSI were significantly higher than those in Group n-NSSI (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Goal concentration, emotion regulation, positive perception, family support, interpersonal assistance, and total RISC score in Group NSSI were significantly lower than those in Group n-NSSI (all p < 0.001). The frequency of NSSI was significantly positively correlated with emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and total CTQ-SF score (r = 0.366, p < 0.001; r = 0.411, p < 0.001; r = 0.554, p < 0.001; r = 0.220, p = 0.001; r = 0.255, p < 0.001; r = 0.673, p < 0.001). The frequency of NSSI was significantly positively correlated with physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, attacks on property, and total MPVS score (r = 0.418, p < 0.001; r = 0.455, p < 0.001; r = 0.447, p < 0.001; r = 0.555, p = 0.001; r = 0.704, p < 0.001). The frequency of NSSI was significantly negatively correlated with goal concentration, emotion regulation, positive perception, family support, interpersonal assistance, and total RISC score (r = -0.393, p < 0.001; r = -0.341, p < 0.001; r = -0.465, p < 0.001; r = -0.272, p = 0.001; r = -0.160, p = 0.016; r = -0.540, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of family (childhood abuse), school (peer victimization), and individual (psychological resilience) factors for NSSI in depressed adolescents, and these factors are closely related to NSSI frequency. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Maintaining a good family environment, solving the problem of peer victimization at school, and developing corresponding measures to improve psychological resilience are of great significance for improving the mental health of depressed adolescents and reducing the risk of NSSI.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Vítimas de Crime , Depressão , Resiliência Psicológica , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Criança , Bullying/psicologia , Correlação de Dados
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 319, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood victimization has been associated with long-term psychological effects and an increased risk of being victimized in later life. Previous research has primarily focused on sexual abuse during childhood, and a wide range of consequences have been identified. However, a significant gap remains in our understanding of the complex interaction between different forms of childhood abuse and violence in later life, particularly in the context of broader social stressors such as armed conflict and displacement. METHODS: This study examines the association between exposure to different types of childhood maltreatment in the context of family and intimate partner violence (IPV) among displaced women living in refugee camps in northern Iraq. Structured interviews were conducted by trained female psychologists with 332 women aged between 20 and 62 years. RESULTS: Results indicated that over one-third of the participating women reported experiencing at least one occurrence of IPV by their husbands within the past year. In addition, participants reported experiences of different types of maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual violence and physical and emotional neglect) perpetrated by family members in their childhood. While all forms of childhood maltreatment showed an association with IPV within the past year, only emotional childhood maltreatment was found to be a significant predictor of IPV in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the ongoing impact of child maltreatment and its contribution to increased vulnerability to IPV victimization in later life. In addition, this study describes the specific cultural and contextual elements that contribute to IPV in refugee camps.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Refugiados , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Iraque , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Conflitos Armados/psicologia
5.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(7): 381, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850430

RESUMO

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are forms of abuse, neglect, or household dysfunction before the age of 18. We found individuals exposed to ACEs are at increased odds of receiving a melanoma diagnosis. ACEs range from people whose parents divorced in childhood (OR 1.64) to people who were physically hurt by their parents (OR 2.41).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2348345, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739008

RESUMO

Background: While several studies documented a positive correlation between childhood maltreatment severity and dissociation severity, it is currently unknown whether specific dissociative symptoms cluster together among individuals with childhood trauma histories ranging from none to severe.Objective: We aimed to explore symptom constellations across the whole spectrum of dissociative processing from patients with severe dissociative disorders to healthy controls and relate these to maltreatment severity and sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: We employed latent profile analysis to explore symptom profiles based on five subscales, measuring absorption, depersonalization, derealization, somatoform and identity alteration, based on the 20 items of the German short version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (Fragebogen zu Dissoziativen Symptomen-20) in a large aggregate sample (n = 3,128) overrepresenting patients with trauma-related disorders. We then related these profiles to maltreatment severity as measured by the five subscales of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire as well as sociodemographic characteristics.Results: Based on the five FDS subscales, six clusters differentiated by symptom severity, but not symptom constellations, were identified. Somatoform dissociation varied in accordance with the remaining symptom clusters. The cluster with the highest overall symptom severity entailed nearly all subjects diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder and was characterized by extreme levels of childhood maltreatment. Both abuse and neglect were predictive of cluster membership throughout.Conclusions: The higher the severity of dissociative processing in a cluster, the more subjects reported high severity and multiplicity of childhood maltreatment. However, some subjects remain resilient to the development of dissociative processing although they experience extreme childhood maltreatment.


Dissociative symptoms, including identity alterations, are closely related to the severity of experienced childhood abuse.Somatoform dissociation occurs on all levels of overall dissociation severity.Some subjects with a history extreme childhood maltreatment do not develop dissociative symptoms, while some subjects with extreme dissociative symptoms do not report any childhood maltreatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dissociativos , Humanos , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Criança
7.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760318

RESUMO

Cortical parvalbumin interneurons (PV+) are major regulators of excitatory/inhibitory information processing, and their maturation is associated with the opening of developmental critical periods (CP). Recent studies reveal that cortical PV+ axons are myelinated, and that myelination along with perineuronal net (PNN) maturation around PV+ cells is associated with the closures of CP. Although PV+ interneurons are susceptible to early-life stress, their relationship between their myelination and PNN coverage remains unexplored. This study compared the fine features of PV+ interneurons in well-characterized human post-mortem ventromedial prefrontal cortex samples (n = 31) from depressed suicides with or without a history of child abuse (CA) and matched controls. In healthy controls, 81% of all sampled PV+ interneurons displayed a myelinated axon, while a subset (66%) of these cells also displayed a PNN, proposing a relationship between both attributes. Intriguingly, a 3-fold increase in the proportion of unmyelinated PV+ interneurons with a PNN was observed in CA victims, along with greater PV-immunofluorescence intensity in myelinated PV+ cells with a PNN. This study, which is the first to provide normative data on myelination and PNNs around PV+ interneurons in human neocortex, sheds further light on the cellular and molecular consequences of early-life adversity on cortical PV+ interneurons.


Assuntos
Interneurônios , Parvalbuminas , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Interneurônios/patologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Suicídio , Idoso , Autopsia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302782, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713700

RESUMO

Parents with a history of childhood maltreatment may be more likely to respond inadequately to their child's emotional cues, such as crying or screaming, due to previous exposure to prolonged stress. While studies have investigated parents' physiological reactions to their children's vocal expressions of emotions, less attention has been given to their responses when perceiving children's facial expressions of emotions. The present study aimed to determine if viewing facial expressions of emotions in children induces cardiovascular changes in mothers (hypo- or hyper-arousal) and whether these differ as a function of childhood maltreatment. A total of 104 mothers took part in this study. Their experiences of childhood maltreatment were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Participants' electrocardiogram signals were recorded during a task in which they viewed a landscape video (baseline) and images of children's faces expressing different intensities of emotion. Heart rate variability (HRV) was extracted from the recordings as an indicator of parasympathetic reactivity. Participants presented two profiles: one group of mothers had a decreased HRV when presented with images of children's facial expressions of emotions, while the other group's HRV increased. However, HRV change was not significantly different between the two groups. The interaction between HRV groups and the severity of maltreatment experienced was marginal. Results suggested that experiences of childhood emotional abuse were more common in mothers whose HRV increased during the task. Therefore, more severe childhood experiences of emotional abuse could be associated with mothers' cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Maladaptive cardiovascular responses could have a ripple effect, influencing how mothers react to their children's facial expressions of emotions. That reaction could affect the quality of their interaction with their child. Providing interventions that help parents regulate their physiological and behavioral responses to stress might be helpful, especially if they have experienced childhood maltreatment.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Frequência Cardíaca , Mães , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Abuso Emocional/psicologia , Masculino , Eletrocardiografia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 257, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood maltreatment, shame, and self-esteem among juvenile female offenders and to explore the potential influencing factors on their criminal behavior. METHODS: Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1,227 juvenile female offenders from 11 provinces in China were surveyed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and a self-developed Shame Questionnaire for Juvenile Offenders. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square tests, t-tests, and structural equation modeling with mediation analysis. RESULTS: (1) Childhood maltreatment have a significant potential influencing factors on criminal behavior; (2) Childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with self-esteem(ß = 0.351, p < 0.001); (3) shame (ß = 0.042, p < 0.001) mediate the relationship between Childhood maltreatment and self-esteem (childhood maltreatment → shame → self-esteem (95% Cl: 0.033, 0.052)). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of criminal behavior among juvenile female offenders. childhood maltreatment can directly influence of self-esteem, which can also affect juvenile female offenders'self-esteem indirectly through shame. The findings suggest that shame are important variables that mediate the effect of the juvenile female offenders'childhood maltreatment on their self-esteem.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos , Autoimagem , Vergonha , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Inquéritos e Questionários , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança
10.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 256, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reliability and validity of the current scale for measuring childhood abuse in China are worrying. The development of the Short Version of the Childhood Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS-12) helps to change this situation, but the effectiveness of the tool has not yet been tested in Chinese participants. This study aims to test the reliability and validity of the CASRS­12 in Chinese college students. METHODS: A total of 932 college students were investigated, of whom 418 were investigated for the first time, and only the CASRS­12 was filled out. In the second survey, 514 participants filled out the CASRS­12, Depression Scale, Self-esteem Scale and Subjective Well-being Scale in turn. After 4 weeks, 109 participants were selected for retest. RESULTS: Each item of the CASRS­12 had good discrimination. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/df = 4. 18, RMSEA = 0. 079, CFI = 0. 95, TLI = 0. 94, IFI = 0. 95, NFI = 0. 94) all supported the four-factor structure of the scale, and the cumulative contribution rate of variance was 76.05%. Cronbach's α coefficient and retest reliability were 0.86 and 0.65, respectively. Childhood abuse was positively correlated with depression (r = 0. 42, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with self-esteem (r=-0. 33, p < 0.01) and subjective well-being (r=-0. 32, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of CASRS­12 meets the measurement standard and could be used to measure the level of childhood abuse of Chinese college students.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Autorrelato , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Adulto Jovem , Psicometria/instrumentação , Universidades , Adulto , Autoimagem , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Criança , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Análise Fatorial
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 279: 116511, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) is correlated with suicidality risk among adolescents. Additionally, exposure to bisphenol AF (BPAF) may increase this risk. However, the combined effect of CM and BPAF exposure remains unknown and should be further investigated. METHODS: In this study, 1,475 early adolescents (mean age = 12.48 years) from the Chinese Early Adolescents Cohort were enrolled. Data were collected at three time points with an interval of 12 months between 2019 and 2021. Participants' history of CM and suicidality (including suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts) were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from participants to measure serum BPAF concentrations at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was employed to identify different developmental trajectories of suicidality across the three waves. After adjusting for potential confounders, the association between CM and BPAF exposure on suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts was assessed using logistic regression and Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Participants with CM were associated with a risk of one- and two-year incident suicidality (all ps < 0.05), and BPAF levels were positively associated with two-year incident suicidal ideation (adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.13-2.50). Additionally, middle and high levels of BPAF exposure synergistically increase the risk for one- and two-year incident suicidal ideation among participants with CM (adjusted ORs = 2.00-3.83). Similarly, participants exposed to high-level BPAF as well as CM were at a greater risk of one- and two-year incident suicidal attempts than those with low-level BPAF exposure and no CM (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRRs] = 2.82-4.34). Moreover, compared with participants with a low developmental trajectory of suicidality across the three waves, high BPAF exposure exhibited a significant synergistic effect on participants with CM in the persistently high suicidal ideation trajectory and the increasing suicidal attempts trajectory (all ps < 0.05). Sex subgroup analysis revealed that females were more susceptible to the synergistic effect of BPAF and CM exposure on suicidality than males. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors and the psychological status of individuals may synergistically increase their susceptibility to suicidality. These results offer novel insights into enhancing our understanding of suicidality among adolescents.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Fenóis , Ideação Suicida , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorocarbonos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787894

RESUMO

Childhood abuse can have long-term adverse outcomes in adulthood. These outcomes may pose a particular threat to the health and well-being of perinatal women; however, to date, this body of knowledge has not been systematically collated and synthesized. This systematic review examined the child abuse literature and a broad range of perinatal outcomes using a comprehensive search strategy. The aim of this review was to provide a clearer understanding of the distinct effect of different abuse types and areas where there may be gaps in our knowledge. Following PRISMA guidelines, EBSCO, PsychInfo, Scopus, Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases and gray literature including preprints, dissertations and theses were searched for literature where childhood abuse was associated with any adverse perinatal outcome between 1969 and 2022. Exclusion criteria included adolescent samples, abuse examined as a composite variable, editorials, letters to the editor, qualitative studies, reviews, meta-analyses, or book chapters. Using an assessment tool, two reviewers extracted and assessed the methodological quality and risk of bias of each study. From an initial 12,384 articles, 95 studies were selected, and the outcomes were categorized as pregnancy, childbirth, postnatal for the mother, and perinatal for mother and child. The prevalence of childhood abuse ranged from 5-25% with wide variability (physical 2-78%, sexual 2-47%, and emotional/psychological 2-69%). Despite some consistent findings relating to psychological outcomes (i.e., depression and PTSD), most evidence was inconclusive, effect sizes were small, or the findings based on a limited number of studies. Inconsistencies in findings stem from small sample sizes and differing methodologies, and their diversity meant studies were not suitable for a meta-analysis. Research implication include the need for more rigorous methodology and research in countries where the prevalence of abuse may be high. Policy implications include the need for trauma-informed care with the Multi-level Determinants of Perinatal Wellbeing for Child Abuse Survivors model a useful framework. This review highlights the possible impacts of childhood abuse on perinatal women and their offspring and areas of further investigation. This review was registered with PROSPERO in 2021 and funded by an internal grant from Charles Sturt University.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Mães/psicologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto
13.
Pediatr Int ; 66(1): e15761, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioral problems of foster children are an important issue for the maintenance of the foster care system, but they have not been adequately studied in Japan. We used the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) to investigate behavioral problems among foster children and to examine associated factors. METHODS: Twenty-nine foster children and their foster parents and 479 non-foster children and parents were recruited for the foster and control groups, respectively. Both groups underwent statistical comparative analyses using data from their ECBI assessments. The ECBI has two scales: the Intensity Scale quantifies the severity of child behavioral problems, and the Problem Scale captures the caregiver's perceived difficulties handling each behavior. We conducted a retrospective investigation of the background of the foster parent-child pairs to explore potential causal relationships with behavioral problems. RESULTS: The mean intensity score for the foster group was significantly higher than that for the control group (p = 0.001). The mean problem scores for the foster group and the control group were not significantly different (p = 0.79). In the foster group, the retrospective investigation revealed two children with neurological or neurodevelopmental disorders, 17 with histories of abuse, and 10 with other issues. CONCLUSION: Intensity scores showed severe behavioral problems among foster children, perhaps caused by neurological disorders, abuse, parental mental health, or economic hardship. Problem scores showed no significant differences between groups. It can therefore be posited that foster parents might exhibit a more lenient parenting style when dealing with children who have a history of abuse by their biological parents.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Criança Acolhida/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Lactente , Estudos de Casos e Controles
14.
J Affect Disord ; 358: 260-269, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidality was very high among individuals who suffered from childhood trauma. The distribution of cumulative childhood trauma among youths remains unclear, as well as the specific effects of cumulative childhood trauma on suicidality. This study attempted to explore the distribution of cumulative childhood trauma and examine the specific effects of cumulative childhood trauma on suicidality. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed in this study, with 117,769 college students recruited from 63 universities in Jilin Province, China. All variables were measured by corresponding self-report questionnaires. The Venn diagram was used to represent the distribution of single and cumulative childhood trauma. ANOVA and chi-square tests were conducted to identify the high-risk suicide groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine risk factors for suicidality for overlapping subtypes. RESULTS: 27,671 (23.5%) participants reported suffering from childhood trauma, of which 49.5% were male (Mage = 19.59, SD = 1.76). The "physical neglect" group accounted for the largest proportion (31.5%). Suicidality was the highest in the "overlap of childhood neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse" group (2.0%). Depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder were common risk factors for suicidality. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by cross-sectional studies and self-report bias. CONCLUSIONS: The childhood trauma subtype group with the largest proportion was not necessarily the highest suicidality. Both the largest group and the highest-risk suicide group require special attention to their respective risk factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Autorrelato
15.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106829, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the extent to which fathers and mothers at high-risk and low-risk for child physical abuse (CPA) differed in their use of harsh discipline and punishment when presented ambiguous child situations (situations where differences in positive and negative valences are close to zero). PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: High-risk for CPA parents (N = 74: fathers, n = 41; mothers, n = 33) and low-risk parents (N = 178: fathers, n = 91; mothers, n = 87) were asked to indicate their likelihood of using harsh verbal discipline (HVD), harsh physical discipline (HPD), and punishment (i.e., retributive harm separate from HVD and HPD) after viewing each of eighteen ambiguous child situations. RESULTS: As expected, high-risk, compared to low-risk, for CPA parents were significantly (ps < 0.001) more likely to use HVD (d = 0.546), HPD (d = 0.595), and punishment (d = 0.564). Overall, fathers, relative to mothers, were significantly more likely to use HVD (d = 0.261) and HPD (d = 0.238). For punishment, however, there was no significant parental role (father, mother) difference (d = 0.136). CONCLUSIONS: Since in everyday living situations many child behaviors are ambiguous, the findings that parents, especially high-risk for CPA parents, use harsh discipline and punishment when encountering ambiguous child situations suggest that non-contingent harsh child-related parental behaviors may be frequent in the lives of some children. The findings that parents may use non-contingent discipline and punishment suggest the need to explore whether, when these parenting behaviors occur, they increase the likelihood of negative child outcomes.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Poder Familiar , Punição , Humanos , Feminino , Punição/psicologia , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Adulto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Mães/psicologia
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106839, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies examined child abuse and neglect and its consequences in the context of a complex socio-political reality such as East Jerusalem. Additionally, research typically addresses trauma resulting of child maltreatment from the perspective of the children. Yet, little is known about the perceptions of the parents whose children were removed from their home by court order. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the perceptions of families in East Jerusalem whose young children were removed from their home by an Israeli court order. Specifically, the parents' perceptions of the trauma experienced by their children and of the responses of their children to the removal from home. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 22 caregivers (13 mothers, 8 fathers, and one aunt) of children at risk from East Jerusalem. The qualitative analysis was based on the principles of grounded theory. RESULTS: The analysis of the data revealed five risk factors attributed by the parents to their children's situation: Their young age, the abuse and neglect, the secondary victimization, the removal from home, and living in a conflict zone such as East Jerusalem. CONCLUSIONS: These risk factors of the children who are at the center of this study result in a cumulative trauma which intensifies their vulnerability. The lack of early childhood educational services in East Jerusalem places these children under the radar of the social service. Therefore, it is essential for policymakers to provide the necessary resources to these families.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Humanos , Israel , Feminino , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pais/psicologia , Lactente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
17.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106840, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates that the nature of the relationship between a victim-survivor and perpetrator of child maltreatment can influence well-being experienced during young adulthood. However, further research is required to substantiate the possible mediating role of betrayal trauma following child maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between child maltreatment and psychological well-being experienced during young adulthood by examining the extent of maltreatment, the importance of the type of perpetrator, and the potential mediating role of betrayal trauma following child maltreatment. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The self-selected sample comprised 468 young adults (aged 18-25 years; M = 21.74 years, SD = 2.47) from Australia and internationally. METHOD: Information regarding participants' current well-being, the extent of enduring five types of maltreatment (witnessing family violence, neglect, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and sexual abuse) by their mother, father and other adults during childhood, multi-type maltreatment, and severity of betrayal trauma were obtained via an online survey. RESULTS: Using multiple regression analysis, it was found that higher levels of multi-type maltreatment were associated with poorer current well-being. Maltreatment by one's mother or father predicted poorer well-being, maltreatment by another adult did not. Hierarchical regressions revealed young adults' sense of betrayal trauma in close relationships partially mediated the relationship between current well-being and child maltreatment by one's mother, father, and another adult. CONCLUSION: Findings show that the extent of child maltreatment experienced, one's sense of betrayal, and the relationship of the child/adolescent to the perpetrator can influence well-being experienced during young adulthood. These findings highlight the therapeutic benefit of clinicians supporting young adults who have endured child maltreatment to process betrayal trauma, to improve their well-being.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Austrália , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106802, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood neglect, a prevalent form of child abuse, has significant short-term and long-term consequences on mental health. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of existing evidence on childhood neglect in relation to emotion regulation in adulthood. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants were not individually evaluated but we provided future directions for research based on the overview of studies. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was conducted, resulting in the analysis of 25 selected articles. We performed an inventory of existing evidence to identify knowledge gaps. RESULTS: The review identified the need for future research to differentiate neglect from other forms of child abuse. Longitudinal studies tracking individuals from childhood to adulthood are recommended to understand developmental trajectories and continuity. Diverse samples, with various ages, genders, and (socio-economic) backgrounds, should be included for enhanced generalizability. Geographical representation should be expanded to capture cultural variations in the association between neglect and adult emotion regulation. Furthermore, investigating other psychopathologies beyond depression in relation to neglect and emotion regulation is suggested. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this scoping review highlights the limited knowledge regarding the link between childhood neglect and adult emotion regulation and provides valuable recommendations for advancing research in this field.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Regulação Emocional , Humanos , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino
19.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106855, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have explored the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM), which also involves care-experienced parents; however, what is less explored is their direct experience, especially regarding resilience processes. OBJECTIVE: Developing the theoretical framework of ITCM through an exploration of the perspectives of those who appear to have interrupted it. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A sample of 27 Italian parents - with experience in foster and/or residential care - who have broken the ITCM, completed an in-depth interview between May 2021 and February 2023. METHODS: A Constructivist Grounded Theory (Charmaz, 2014) approach was adopted in carrying out the interviews, which focused on daily experiences of parenting (Morgan, 2011) and on factors perceived as supporting ITCM interruption. Data were analyzed using open, focused and theoretical coding; the analysis itself was discussed with a consultive board of care-experienced parents. RESULTS: The study highlighted important aspects that, from parents' perspectives, play a role in breaking ITCM: for instance, how their parenting experience is a challenging process of constructing what they term 'zero family'. Furthermore, starting a family from scratch requires coming to terms with the past, re-imagining oneself as a parent, and managing the complexity of everyday life despite such tensions. CONCLUSIONS: The results throw light on how the transition to parenthood itself is perceived as a significant developmental opportunity for the interruption of ITCM. However, many problems persist, foregrounding the relevance of discussing possible supports to strengthen parenting agency and skills. Such a discussion should therefore be increasingly informed by ecological approaches and parents' perspectives (also on everyday practices and life contexts), thus avoiding the risk of pathologizing responses.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Teoria Fundamentada , Relação entre Gerações , Poder Familiar , Pais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Itália , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adolescente , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia
20.
Child Abuse Negl ; 153: 106851, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have consistently highlighted that exposure to childhood maltreatment adversely affects the developmental domains of subsequent generations. Little, however, is known about the relationship between maternal childhood maltreatment history and adolescent development, as well as the mediator role of offspring childhood maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: The current study attempts to investigate the mediating role of offspring childhood maltreatment in the relationship between maternal childhood maltreatment history and offspring behavioral adjustment problems and competence. METHODS: Participants were 1102 adolescents aged 10-15 years (Mage = 12.14, SD = 1.22) and their mothers (Mage = 39.40, SD = 5.31). Participating adolescents filled out self-report instruments assessing their childhood maltreatment by their mothers, self-esteem, academic performance, loneliness, and prosocial and aggressive behaviors between October 2018 and May 2019. In addition, we collected data from mothers on their childhood maltreatment history. RESULTS: We analyzed the data through a structural equation model. The findings revealed insignificant direct effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on offspring behavioral adjustment problems and competence. Yet, indirect effects demonstrated that offspring maltreatment by mothers mediated the relationship between maternal childhood maltreatment history and offspring behavioral adjustment problems and competence. Maternal childhood maltreatment history was significantly associated with offspring maltreatment (ß = 0.30; p < .001), which in turn was linked to a higher level of behavioral adjustment problems (ß = 0.40; p < .001) and a lower level of competence (ß = -0.71; p < .001). CONCLUSION: The research findings extend our understanding of the relationship between maternal childhood maltreatment history and offspring behavioral adjustment problems and competence, identifying the mediating role of offspring maltreatment.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Autoimagem , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia
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