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1.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 1130-1134, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the esthetic proportions of maxillary anterior teeth in term of the apparent widths proportion of the adjacent teeth and width/height ratio of the clinical crown in 120 Chinese adults. METHODS: Maxillary gypsum casts were obtained from the dental laboratories of stomatological hospitals in North China, Southeast China, and Southwest China, according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Standardized digital photographs of each cast were recorded. The apparent widths and actual widths and heights of the central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were determined by ImageJ software for the calculation of apparent widths proportion of the adjacent teeth and width/height ratio of the clinical crown. The ideal apparent widths proportion (Golden proportion and Preston proportion) and width/height ratio (0.80) were tested. The gender, arch side, and regional differences were investigated. RESULTS: The apparent widths proportion of the lateral/central incisor was 0.724±0.047, of the canine/lateral incisor was 0.814±0.092. The width/height ratio of the central incisor was 0.848±0.072, of the lateral incisor was 0.834±0.094, of the canine was 0.883±0.098. The esthetic proportions were different from the predicted ideal ratio (P < 0.001). The apparent widths proportion of lateral/central incisor was significantly larger in the right side than that in the left side (0.730± 0.044 vs. 0.718±0.050), and was significantly smaller in North China than that in Southwest China (0.711±0.051 vs. 0.731±0.044). The width/height ratio of the central incisor was significantly larger in the female than that in the male (0.855±0.074 vs. 0.835±0.068), and in the right side than that in the left side (0.855±0.073 vs. 0.842±0.072). The width/height ratio of the lateral incisor was significantly larger in the female than that in the male (0.843±0.097 vs. 0.817±0.084). CONCLUSION: The apparent widths proportion of adjacent teeth and the width/height ratio of the clinical crown in Chinese adults are different from the foreigner's. The esthetic proportion parameters have significant population specificity, and the measurements cannot be generalized as well as it should be applied with caution.


Assuntos
Dente Canino , Coroa do Dente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Estética , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Odontometria , Coroa do Dente/anatomia & histologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378326

RESUMO

Sixteen specimens of the Early Triassic cynodont Galesaurus planiceps (including eight that were scanned using micro-computed tomography) representing different ontogenetic stages were assembled to study the dental replacement in the species. The growth series shows that the incisors and postcanines continue to develop and replace, even in the largest (presumably oldest) specimen. In contrast, replacement of the canines ceased with the attainment of skeletal maturity, at a basal skull length of ~90 mm, suggesting that Galesaurus had a finite number of canine replacement cycles. Additionally, the functional canine root morphology of these larger specimens showed a tendency to be open-rooted, a condition not previously reported in Mesozoic theriodonts. An alternating pattern of tooth replacement was documented in the maxillary and mandibular postcanine series. Both postcanine series increased in tooth number as the skull lengthened, with the mandibular postcanine series containing more teeth than the maxillary series. In the maxilla, the first postcanine is consistently the smallest tooth, showing a proportional reduction in size as skull length increased. The longer retention of a tooth in this first locus is a key difference between Galesaurus and Thrinaxodon, in which the mesial-most postcanines are lost after replacement. This difference has contributed to the lengthening of the postcanine series in Galesaurus, as teeth continued to be added to the distal end of the tooth row through ontogeny. Overall, there are considerable differences between Galesaurus and Thrinaxodon relating to the replacement and development of their teeth.


Assuntos
Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Dinossauros/classificação , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22778, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the sagittal positions of the mandibular prominence and maxillary central incisors in adult Chinese Han men to establish their aesthetic profile characteristics. METHODS: Seventy-four Chinese Han men aged 18 to 40 years underwent cone beam computed tomography for detecting the distances between Glabella and Subnasale, Subnasale and Menthon of soft tissue, Condyle and Gonion, Pogonion and Pogonion's Anterior Limit Line, Facial Axis point of maxillary central incisor and the Goal Anterior Limit Line as well as the angle of the Occlusal Plane. Dolphin Imaging and Photoshop software packages were used to generate silhouette profiles. Thirteen orthodontists assessed the silhouette profiles and assigned visual analog scale scores. Scores >70 were assigned to the aesthetic (group 1), scores of 60to 70 to the general (group 2), scores of 50 to 60 to the acceptable (group 3), and scores of <50 to the unaesthetic profile (group 4). RESULTS: A total of 15 men were assigned to group 1, 35 to group 2, 14 to group 3, and 10 to group 4. There were no significant differences in the variables examined between groups 1, 2, and 3, but comparing group 1 with group 4, Pogonion and Pogonion's Anterior Limit Line (1.16 ±â€Š2.61 mm vs -1.44 ±â€Š2.92 mm, P = .046) and Facial Axis-Goal Anterior Limit Line (-0.61 ±â€Š2.54 mm vs 1.70 ±â€Š2.62 mm, P = .038) there were significant differences. CONCLUSION: Compared with the unaesthetic profile group, the sagittal positions of the maxillary central incisors were slightly posterior, and the chin was slightly anterior in adult Chinese Han men with an aesthetic profile.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/métodos , Queixo/anatomia & histologia , Queixo/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 30, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651638

RESUMO

This paper examines the points of disagreement between Petrus Camper and J. W. von Goethe regarding the existence of the inter-maxillary bone in humans as the link between man and the rest of nature. This historical case illustrates the fundamental role of aesthetic judgements in scientific discovery. Thus, I shall show how the eighteenth century discovery of the inter-maxillary bone in humans was largely determined by aesthetic factors-specifically, those sets of assumptions and criteria implied in the aesthetic schemata of Camper and Goethe. I argue that the relevance of scientifically ascertainable morphological properties that count as evidence for the existence of bona fide anatomical structures depend on the aesthetic schema adopted by the communities assessing the classification. At the same time, I propose and explain mechanisms by which aesthetic considerations might determine the acceptability of empirical claims about the world. Based on the reconstruction of the arguments of Camper and Goethe, I conclude that aesthetic considerations play a substantive role in both the generation and preliminary evaluation of scientific hypotheses. This paper suggests a complementary relation between the mediation of aesthetic criteria in theory choice and in scientific discovery in that while aesthetic considerations in theory choice lead to conservatism; in the context of discovery they often lead to innovation.


Assuntos
Estética/história , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 34, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Horses may acquire a range of paranasal sinus diseases. Clinical studies show slight differences regarding anatomical regions and age. Histopathological examination of tissue samples could play an important role in the diagnostic process. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the histological appearance of the paranasal sinus mucosa (PSM) and the nasomaxillary aperture mucosa (NAM) is essential. The objective of this study was to determine topographic and age-related differences within the healthy equine PSM. In addition, we aimed to gain detailed knowledge of the histological appearance of the NAM in comparison to the PSM. RESULTS: The PSM had an average height of 75.72 ± 44.48 µm with a two-row pseudostratified columnar epithelium of 13.52 ± 4.78 µm. The parameters mucosal height, epithelial height and number of goblet cells revealed significant dependency of the sample site and age group. The maxillary and dorsal conchal sinus showed the highest values for these parameters. In terms of age, younger horses showed a significantly higher total mucosal height in contrast to a significantly lower epithelial height than older horses. Positive correlation was seen between the epithelial height and number of goblet cells. The NAM had an average height of 820.27 ± 653.21 µm. Its pseudostratified epithelium was usually arranged in three rows and had an average height of 44.9 ± 12.78 µm. The number of goblet cells in the NAM was five times higher than in the PSM. Serous glands were found in only 4% of the PSM samples and 100% of the NAM samples. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant histological differences between different paranasal sinus sites and between different groups of age. This may be related to an altered susceptibility for certain pathologies. The striking difference in the histological appearance of the NAM compared to the PSM could be due to an enhanced role in mucociliary clearance. Further studies are necessary to improve the understanding of mucosal function in specific paranasal sinus compartments and mucosal changes generated by different diseases.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Seios Paranasais/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8566, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444685

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to define the location of the accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF) with reference to accessible external landmarks in order to facilitate orbital and oculoplastic surgical procedures in the maxillofacial region. Forty-four hemifaces from 25 cadavers were dissected. The lateral canthus, subnasal point, and lacrimal caruncle were used as anatomic reference points. The AIOF was observed in 8 of the 44 hemifaces (18.2%) and was situated at a mean distance of 7.2 mm superomedial to the IOF. The horizontal distance from the lacrimal caruncle to the AIOF was 0.3 mm. In all cases the AIOF was situated at a point that was no more than 8 mm from the intersection point of a vertical line passing through the lacrimal caruncle and an oblique line joining the lateral canthus and the subnasal point. Surgeons anesthetizing or performing surgical procedures in the maxillofacial region should be aware of the frequency of the AIOF (18.2%) and its location (on the superomedial side of the IOF). We propose that injecting at the intersection point of a vertical line passing through the lacrimal caruncle and an oblique line joining the lateral canthus and the subnasal point would successfully block the accessory branch of the infraorbital nerve. Likewise, surgeons operating in this region should be aware of the location of the AIOF in order to avoid inadvertent iatrogenic injury to a duplicated infraorbital nerve.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 963e-974e, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates for the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 46 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients underwent bimaxillary surgery with computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates (experimental group) or computer-aided design and manufacturing splints (control group). Preoperative and postoperative imaging data were collected and then analyzed using Mimics Research 19.0, Geomagic Studio, and IBM SPSS Version 21.0. RESULTS: Deformity evaluation and posttreatment assessment were performed for all patients. The experimental group had fewer postoperative complications. Comparison of the linear and angular differences to facial reference planes revealed more accurate repositioning of the mandible and condyles in the experimental group, although the position of several landmarks still requires small adjustments. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided design and manufacturing cutting and drilling guides with prebent titanium plates effectively corrected skeletal class III malocclusion, providing positional control of segments with reasonable surgical accuracy. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/instrumentação , Osteotomia de Le Fort/instrumentação , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Placas Ósseas , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteotomia de Le Fort/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Contenções , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Titânio , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348443

RESUMO

Objectives To evaluate the acoustic properties of the /s/ sound in individuals with different occlusion types and to investigate relationships between these properties and cephalometric measurements. Methodology Sixty patients were divided into three groups based on malocclusion. Group 1 included 20 patients (mean age: 14.85±2.01 years) with Class I skeletal and dental relationships. Group 2 included 20 patients (mean age: 13.49±1.78 years) with Class II skeletal and dental relationships. Group 3 included 20 patients (mean age: 12.46±2.62 years) with Class III skeletal and dental relationships. Cephalometric tracings were obtained from cephalometric radiographs. All included patients were native speakers of Turkish. The /s/ sound was selected for center of gravity analysis. Correlations between cephalometric values and acoustic parameters were also investigated. Results The center of gravity of the /s/ sound had the lowest value in Group 2 (p<0.05). For the /s/ sound in Group 3, moderate positive correlations were found between center of gravity and Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (p<0.05, r=0.444) Lower incisor to Nasion-B point (p<0.023, r=0.505), and Lower incisor to Nasion-B point angle (p<0.034; r=0.476). No correlation was found in other cephalometric measurements. Conclusions The /s/ sound was affected by malocclusion due to the changing place of articulation. Therefore, referral to an orthodontist for malocclusion treatment especially patients with class III in the early period is suggested for producing acoustically ideal sound.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Má Oclusão/fisiopatologia , Acústica da Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/complicações , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/fisiopatologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Valores de Referência , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Turquia
9.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 93-97, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151849

RESUMO

Objective: To determine regression models to predict the mesiodistal widths of the maxillary anterior teeth from interalar width of the nose in subjects with facial harmony. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 75 subjects with facial harmony and ages ranging from 18 to 30 years (21.28±3.75 years). The mesiodistal width of the central (CI), lateral (LI) incisors, and canines (C), as well as the interalar width (IW) of each subject were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Simple linear regression analyses were used to predict the width of the maxillary anterior teeth from the nasal interalar width, from which formulas for predicting the dimensions of each anterior tooth were obtained. Results: A statistically significant relationship was found between the nasal interalar width and the mesiodistal widths of the upper central incisor (p=0.019, R2=5.23%), upper lateral incisor (p=0.019, R2=2.31%), and upper canine (p=0.016, R2=12.04%) that allowed to develop simple linear prediction models for each tooth represented by the following formulas: CI=7.04+0.04(IW); LI=6.01+0.03 (IW); C=6.19+0.05 (IW). Conclusion: The nasal interalar width is a good predictor of the mesiodistal widths of the maxillary anterior teeth.


Objectivo: Determinar modelos de regresión para predecir los anchos mesiodistales de los dientes anterosuperiores a partir del ancho interalar de la nariz en individuos con armonía facial. Materiales and Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal con una muestra de 75 sujetos con armonía facial entre 18 a 30 años (21.28 ± 3.75 años), se midió el ancho mesiodistal de incisivos centrales (IC), laterales (IL) y caninos (C) así como el ancho interalar (AI) de cada sujeto empleando un calibrador vernier digital. Para la predicción del ancho de los dientes anterosuperiores a partir del ancho interalar nasal se emplearon análisis de regresión lineal simple, a partir de los cuales se obtuvieron fórmulas de predicción de las dimensiones de cada pieza dentaria anterior. Resultados: Se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa entre el ancho interalar nasal y los anchos mesiodistales del incisivo central superior (p=0.019, R2 5.23%), incisivo lateral superior (=0.019, R2=2.31%) y canino superior (p=0.016, R2=12.04%) que permitieron generar modelos de predicción lineal simple para cada pieza dentaria representados mediante las siguientes fórmulas: IC=7.04+0.04(AI); IL=6.01+0.03(AI); C=6.19+0.05(AI). Conclusión:El ancho interalar nasal es un buen predictor de los anchos mesiodistales de los dientes anterosuperiores.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Dente Canino/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Peru , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Regressão
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 59, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the clinical parameters of crown and gingival morphology (CGM) of the maxillary anterior teeth (MAT). We also analyzed the correlation of these parameters with periodontal biotype (PB), with a view to providing objective standards for PB diagnosis. METHODS: The three-dimensional (3D) maxillary digital models of 56 individuals were obtained using an intra-oral scanner. The following parameters were measured with the SpaceClaim software: gingival angle (GA), papilla width (PW), papilla height (PH), crown length (CL), crown width (CW), crown width/crown length ratio (CW/CL), bucco-lingual width of the crown (BLW), contact surface width (CSW), and contact surface height/crown length ratio (CS/CL). The PB were determined based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival sulcus. Independent factors influencing PB were analyzed by logistic regression, and the optimal cutoff values for the independent influencing factors were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the parameters of CGM of the MAT at the left and right sides. The thick biotype accounted for 69.6%, and the parameters of GA, PW, PH, CW, CW/CL and CS/CL were significantly correlated with PB (P ≤ 0.2). GA (odds ratio (OR) = 1.206) and PW (OR = 5.048) were identified as independent predictive factors of PB, with areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.807 and 0.881, respectively, and optimal cutoff values of 95.95° and 10.01 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The CGMs of the MAT at the left and right side are symmetrical. The thin biotype accounts for a small proportion, and GA and PW are independent influencing factors of PB. GA of 95.95° and PW of 10.01 mm are the optimal cutoff values for categorization of individuals as thick biotype. This indicates that when the GA and PW of the right maxillary central incisor are G ≥ 95.95° and ≥ 10.01 mm, respectively, there is a higher probability that these individuals will be categorized as thick biotype.


Assuntos
Coroas , Gengiva/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Periodontia/instrumentação , Coroa do Dente/anatomia & histologia
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 55, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the difference of palatal morphology in different vertical patterns between skeletal Class I subjects and skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible. METHODS: Seventy-six skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible (38 females, 38 males) and 85 skeletal Class I subjects (45 females, 40 males) were collected retrospectively and divided into hyperdivergent, normodivergent and hypodivergent groups. CBCT images of these subjects were reoriented by Dolphin 3D Imaging software. Three-dimensional (3D) maxilla was segmented by ProPlan software before using Geomagic Studio software to reconstruct 3D palatal morphology. Deviation patterns on 3D colored map analysis was performed to compare the difference of 3D palatal morphology between different groups. RESULTS: 3D colored map analysis showed that male's palate was higher and wider than that of female in the posterior part, regardless of different sagittal and vertical patterns. In skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible, males with hyperdivergent and normodivergent showed higher and narrower in the posterior part of palate, while females with hyperdivergent and normodivergent had a higher but no obviously narrow palate compared with the hypodivergent subjects. Skeletal Class II subjects with retrusive mandible showed flatter and narrower in the posterior part of palate than that of skeletal Class I subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Sagittal and vertical patterns have great influence on the palatal morphology and as the vertical dimension increased, the palate tended to be higher and narrower.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/patologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Palato/patologia , Dimensão Vertical , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/patologia , Radiografia Dentária Digital/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med ; 22(2): 93-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069136

RESUMO

Importance: Aesthetically pleasing and functionally stable total maxillectomy reconstruction is among the greatest of challenges within head and neck surgery. Maintaining presurgical midface projection, contour, and cheek volume requires high-fidelity restorative control incorporating the provision of stable osseous support to prevent the relatively commonplace complications of lower lid and globe malposition. Objective: To determine the difference in position of the reconstructed infraorbital rim compared with the contralateral normal side, and its effect on globe position, lower eyelid position, orbital volume, and soft tissue contour. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a case series from 2011 to 2018 in a tertiary academic center. Twelve adult patients underwent free flap reconstruction of the maxilla and inferior orbit by the senior surgeon. Patients with bilateral defects, intact orbital floors, or orbital exenterations were excluded, as were patients without high-resolution postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans. Exposures: Fibular free flaps with orbital floor plates were used in all but one patient, in whom an anterolateral thigh free flap with mesh was used instead. Digital three-dimensional models of the bone and soft tissue were generated from postoperative CT scans using open-source software. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in vertical height and anterior projection of the infraorbital rim on the reconstructed side were compared with the normal side. Differences in globe position and lower lid margin were obtained, as were orbital volumes. Differences in soft tissue contour were also examined in six patients who had CT scans at least 6 months after surgery and/or radiation therapy. Results: The absolute mean differences in infraorbital rim height, globe height, lower lid height, and orbital volume were 3.5 mm, 2.5 mm, 3.2 mm, and 2.4 cm3, respectively. The absolute mean difference in soft tissue contour was 10.3 mm for those patients with >6 months follow-up. Differences in infraorbital rim height and globe height were highly correlated (R = 0.77, p = 0.004), as were differences in infraorbital rim height and lower lid height (R = 0.76, p = 0.004). Conclusions and Relevance: Accurate orbitomaxillary free flap reconstruction is possible with precise positioning of the reconstructed infraorbital rim, as this likely affects the position of the lower lid and globe. This methodology of computer-aided modeling with free open-source software may lay the groundwork for future studies seeking to quantify results of facial reconstruction. Level of Evidence: 4.


Assuntos
Face/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Maxila/cirurgia , Órbita/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Anatômicos , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1820, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019986

RESUMO

During human evolution there has been an increase in the size of the brain and the cranium, whereas the size of the face, as well as the size and number of teeth have decreased. In modern humans, the occurrence of missing permanent teeth, namely tooth agenesis, is common. It could be attributed to a biological mechanism of tooth number reduction that has evolved during time and might still be active. Although, if evident, it would add support to this theory, the relationship between this phenotype and craniofacial size remains largely unknown. The present case-control study shows that modern individuals with tooth agenesis have indeed smaller facial configurations. For example, a 15-year-old female with no, one, or ten missing teeth would have a facial centroid size of 511.83, 510.81, or 501.70 mm, respectively. No such effect was observable in the cranial base and the cranium. Our results suggest that common gene regulatory mechanisms that have evolved over time, continue to regulate the number of teeth and facial size of modern humans in a coordinated manner. We anticipate our findings to enrich our understanding of the evolution and development of the human head and kindle future developmental research on this field.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anodontia/patologia , Evolução Biológica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Radiografia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 42, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of reference patterns such as the interincisal line, curve of the upper lip, width of the smile or shape of the teeth have been studied in different populations. Determining the frequency of different smile aesthetic parameters in a European Caucasian population and exploring possible gender differences is important in order to obtain predictable treatment outcomes. METHODS: Photographs were obtained under resting and forced smiling conditions in 140 individuals (70 males and 70 females) with a mean age of 20.1 ± 4.3 years. Different variables were recorded, including the position of the maxillary interincisal midline in relation to the facial midline, the arc and width of the smile, and the shape of the teeth. The data were processed using the SPSS version 15.0 statistical package, with application of the chi-squared test and a confidence level of 95%. The statistical power was 80%, and the level of significance 5% (α = 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 94.3% of the sample presented a maxillary interincisal midline coinciding with the facial midline, and 80% had a consonant smile line. The curve of the upper lip was upwards in 47.1% of the cases, followed by a straight curve in 41.4%. Most of the subjects (84.3%) presented a medium smile line with tooth exposure to the second premolar (61.4%). There were no significant differences between males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of aesthetic criteria is needed in order to guarantee satisfactory and predictable dental treatment outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences between males and females. The maxillary interincisal midline coincided with the facial midline, with a consonant smile arc and a medium smile line, upward lip curve and oval tooth shape.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Face/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Sorriso , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dente , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between tooth size and root canal morphology by using CBCT analysis. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, tooth anatomic lengths (crown and root lengths, buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions) of 384 patients were assessed and correlated with Vertucci's root canal morphology classification. Data was analyzed for gender-related differences using the independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and the Pearson's correlation for a possible relation between anatomic lengths and canal morphology. RESULTS: The maxillary first and second premolars showed a greater predilection for Type IV and II variants, respectively, while the mandibular first premolar showed a greater predilection for Type II canal system. The root canal system of the mandibular second premolar showed maximal diversity (47% Type I, 30% Type II, and 20% Type III). The dimensions were greater in men regardless of tooth type. The most significant relation (p<0.05) between the anatomic size and canal morphology was observed in the maxillary first premolars, followed by the mandibular canines (buccolingual dimension) and the lower second premolars (crown length). Negative correlations existed between the crown length and the patient's age for the anterior teeth and mandibular second premolar (r=-0.2, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The most common canal formation for anterior teeth was the Type I. The anatomic lengths had the strongest influence on the canal configuration of the maxillary first premolar, with Type IV being the most common root canal system. The mandibular second premolars showed maximal diversity in the canal classification terms and had a significant correlation with their crown lengths. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The complex relationship between the canal morphology and anatomic tooth sizes need meticulous awareness and recognition during endodontic procedures, in conjunction with the demographic variabilities.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odontometria/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Estados Unidos
16.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The site of the sinus tract depends on the rate of resistance against abscess exudate drainage, bone morphology, and distance from the root apex to the outer cortical bone. To assess apical bone thickness in buccal and palatal/lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth, using a high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. METHODOLOGY: In total, 422 CBCT examinations were included in the study, resulting in a sample of 1400 teeth. The scans were acquired by PreXion 3D, with a high-resolution protocol. The bone thickness was taken as the distance between the center of the apical foramen and the buccal and lingual/palatal cortical bone. The quantitative variables were expressed as mean values±standard deviation. The independent samples were analyzed using the t-test or the Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The lowest mean value of bone thickness was observed in the buccal cortical bone of the upper canines (1.49 mm±0.86) and in the upper central incisors (1.59 mm±0.67). In premolar teeth, the lowest values were found in the buccal cortical bone of upper first premolars (1.13 mm±0.68). In the posterior teeth, the lowest values were found in the buccal cortical bone of upper first molars (1.98 mm±1.33). In the lower second molar region, the buccal cortical bone (8.36 mm±1.84) was thicker than the lingual cortical bone (2.95 mm±1.16) (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The lowest mean values of bone thickness are in the buccal cortical bone of the maxillary teeth. In the mandible, bone thickness is thinner in the buccal bone around the anterior and premolar teeth, and in the lingual aspect of mandibular molars. All these anatomic characteristics could make the occurrence of the sinus tract more susceptible in these specific regions of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Odontometria/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the incidence and variability features of root canals system (RCS) and their ramifications according to Pucci & Reig (PR) (1944) and the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) (2017) by micro-computed tomography (µCT). METHODOLOGY: 500 representative extracted human teeth of each tooth group (n=50) (maxillary/mandibular central and lateral incisors, canines, first and second premolars and molars) were scanned by µCT with a resolution of 26.70 µm. The reconstructed cross-sections images and the visualization of the continuous slices in the transversal axis were performed using DataViewer software. RCS were classified according to Pucci & Reig (main canal, collateral canal, lateral canal, secondary canal, accessory canal, intercanal, recurrent canal) and AAE (main canal, accessory canal, lateral canal). The apical deltas were assessed for both classifications. The prevalence of apical deltas was evaluated using the Chi-squared test (p<0.05). RESULTS: According to PR, a higher incidence of lateral canals was observed in maxillary canines (10%), central incisors (8%) and first premolars (6%). Using AAE, the highest incidence of lateral canals was observed in the mandibular first premolars (85%), first and second molars (84%), lateral incisors (67%), canines (59%), and in maxillary first premolars (52%). Regarding accessory canals, the PR showed a frequency in 2% of the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular first premolars and 3% of mandibular first and second molars. On the other hand, the AAE showed the highest incidence of accessory canals in 86% of the maxillary first premolars, 71% in mandibular lateral incisors, 69% in mandibular first premolars, 65% in mandibular canines, and 56% in maxillary canines. The PR showed the lowest incidence of apical deltas for all dental groups when compared with AAE (p=0.004). Interestingly, distal canals in maxillary molars showed a significant discrepancy between classifications (p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: µCT enabled accurately describing the RC system and related ramifications, adding to the PR and AAE classifications, with some discrepancies reported for maxillary molars. Clinical Relevance This µCT study enabled a thorough description of the variability among root canals and their ramifications, including clinically relevant details on the presence and location of lateral canals and accessories in all human tooth groups, beyond the currently existing classification systems.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Ápice Dentário/anatomia & histologia , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 4, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932579

RESUMO

The morphology of the alveolar bone at the maxillary anterior teeth in periodontitis patients was evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to investigate the distribution of alveolar defects and provide guidance for clinical practice. Ninety periodontitis patients and 30 periodontally healthy individuals were selected to determine the morphology of the alveolar bone at the maxillary anterior teeth according to the degree of bone loss, tooth type, sex and age. The differences in the dimensions between periodontitis patients and healthy individuals were compared, and the distribution of alveolar bone defects was analyzed. A classification system was established regarding the sagittal positions and angulations of the teeth. The buccal residual bone was thicker and the lingual bone was thinner in the periodontitis patients than in the periodontally healthy individuals, and there were differences between the different tooth types, sexes and age subgroups. The buccal undercut was close to the alveolar ridge, while fenestration was reduced and the apical bone height was higher in periodontitis patients than in periodontally healthy individuals. The apical bone height increased with the aggravation of bone loss and age. The proportions of different sagittal positions changed with the aggravation of bone loss. Moreover, the teeth moved more buccally regarding the positions of the maxillary anterior teeth. The morphology of the alveolar bone at the maxillary anterior teeth differed between periodontitis patients and healthy individuals, and the differences were related to the degree of bone loss, tooth type, sex and age.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Periodontite/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Processo Alveolar/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ápice Dentário/anatomia & histologia , Ápice Dentário/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Dente/anatomia & histologia , Colo do Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(1): 31-35, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186062

RESUMO

The foramen tympanicum, also known as the foramen of Huschke (FH), is a permanent anatomical variation situated in the anteroinferior section of the external auditory canal, posteromedial to the temporomandibular joint. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of the FH in Cleft Lip and Palate (CL/P) patients, compared to healthy individuals by using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) data. We retrospectively analyzed the CBCT images of 272 individuals, who had been referred to our Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology clinic various reasons. For comparison, 226 randomly selected healthy individuals and 46 CL/P patients (35 unilateral and 11 bilateral) were evaluated. FH in 35 (12.9%) of the 272 individuals; 26 of them healthy individuals, 9 of them CL/P patients. The FH was higher in patients with CL/P (19.6%) than healthy individuals (11.5%). Clinicians should be aware of the variability of TME and especially the FH in the ear region when radiographically examining these sites prior to CL/P surgery to prevent postoperative reconstruction and complications. Moreover, to evaluate these anatomical variations, CBCT


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Palato/diagnóstico por imagem , Variação Anatômica , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Palato/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Osso Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação
20.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(1): e124-e130, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the presence, to reveal the frequency and characteristics of accessory canals (ACs) of the canalis sinuosus (CS) by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 326 CBCT examinations were scanned retrospectively. The anatomical views were evaluated on sagittal, axial, coronal and cross sectional imaging. The following parameters were recorded: age, sex, presence or absence of ACs, location in relation to the adjacent teeth and distance to the nasal cavity floor (NCF), alveolar ridge crest (ARC) and buccal cortical bone (BCB), and incisive canal. All the collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: 113 patients (34,7%); presented ACs in total 214 foramina of the sample. There were no statistically sig-nificant changes in the presence of ACs regarding age groups excluding 80-89 years. But there is a statistically significant difference regarding the frequency of ACs and the gender. The prevalence for male patients was higher than female patients. Curved-shape configuration of CS prevalence is found as 69,15%. The prevalence of vertical tracing is 26,16% and Y-shape configuration of CS prevalence is 4,67%. Diameter of the foramens of the CS branches was 1.30 mm. The mean distance of the AC to the NCF, BCB, and ARC were found 13,83 mm, 6,60 mm and 5,32 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the anterior palatal region, ACs are mostly related to CS's branches. So; knowing the course of CS branches in surgical planning and radiographic evaluations in this region is extremely important for preventing complications and avoiding misdiagnosis


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Maxilar/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Osso Cortical/anatomia & histologia , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Etários , Fatores Sexuais , Padrões de Referência , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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