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1.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(6): e241383, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848088

RESUMO

Importance: Dual Eligible Special Needs Plans (D-SNPs) are private managed care plans designed to promote Medicare and Medicaid integration for full-benefit, dually eligible beneficiaries. Currently, the highest level of D-SNP integration occurs in plans with exclusively aligned enrollment (EAE). Objective: To compare patient experience of care, out-of-pocket spending, and satisfaction among dually enrolled Medicaid beneficiaries in D-SNPs with EAE, those in D-SNPs without EAE, and those with traditional Medicare. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included respondents to a mail survey fielded to a stratified random sample of full-benefit, community-dwelling, dual-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries who qualified for receipt of home and community-based services in the Virginia Medicaid Commonwealth Coordinated Care Plus program between March and October 2022. Exposure: Enrollment in a D-SNP with EAE or a D-SNP without EAE vs traditional Medicare. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were self-reported measures of access and delays in receiving plan approvals, out-of-pocket spending, and satisfaction with health plans' customer service and choice of primary care and specialist physicians. Results: Of 7200 surveys sent, 2226 were completed (response rate, 30.9%). The analytic sample consisted of 1913 Medicaid beneficiaries with nonmissing data on covariates (mean [SD] age, 70.8 [15.6] years; 1367 [71.5%] female). Of these, 583 (30.5%) were enrolled in D-SNPs with EAE, 757 (39.6%) in D-SNPs without EAE, and 573 (30.0%) in traditional Medicare. Compared with respondents enrolled in D-SNPs without EAE, those in D-SNPs with the highest level of integration (EAE) were 6.77 percentage points (95% CI, 8.81-12.66 percentage points) more likely to report being treated with courtesy and respect and 5.83 percentage points (95% CI, 0.21-11.46 percentage points) more likely to know who to call when they had a health problem. No statistically significant differences were found between members in either type of D-SNP and between those in D-SNPs and traditional Medicare in terms of their difficulty accessing care, delays in care, and satisfaction with care coordination and physician choice. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found some benefits of integrating administrative processes under Medicare and Medicaid but suggests that care coordination and access improvements under full integration require additional time and/or efforts to achieve.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Medicare , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Virginia , Definição da Elegibilidade , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(6): e241359, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848089

RESUMO

Importance: Improving access to the choice of postpartum contraceptive methods is a national public health priority, and the need is particularly acute within the Medicaid population. One strategy to ensure individuals have access to the full range of contraceptive methods is the provision of a method prior to hospital discharge following a birth episode. Beginning in 2016, some states changed their Medicaid billing policy, allowing separate reimbursement for intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants to increase the provision of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods immediately postpartum (IPP). Objective: To assess the association of a change in Medicaid billing policy with use of IPP LARC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The cohort study of postpartum Medicaid recipients in 9 treatment and 6 comparison states was conducted from January 2016 to October 2019. Data were analyzed from August 2023 to January 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was use of IPP LARC. Results: The final sample included 1 378 885 delivery encounters for 1 197 287 Medicaid enrollees occurring in 15 states. Mean age of beneficiaries at delivery was 27 years. The IPP LARC billing policy was associated with a mean increase of 0.74 percentage points (95% CI, 0.30-1.18 percentage points) in the immediate receipt of IPP LARC, with a prepolicy baseline rate of 0.54%. The IPP LARC billing policy was also associated with an overall increase of 1.48 percentage points (95% CI, 0.43-2.73 percentage points) in LARC use by 60 days post partum. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, changing Medicaid billing policy to allow for separate reimbursement of LARC devices from the global fee was associated with increased use of IPP LARC, suggesting that this may be a strategy to improve access to the full range of postpartum contraceptive methods.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Medicaid , Período Pós-Parto , Humanos , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/economia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients who leave against medical advice (AMA) face increased risks of negative health outcomes, presenting a challenge for healthcare systems. This study examines demographic and hospital course factors associated with patients leaving AMA after an upper extremity (UE) orthopaedic procedure. METHODS: We analyzed 262,912 patients who underwent UE orthopaedic procedures between 2011 and 2020, using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. We then compared demographic and hospital course factors between patients who left AMA and those who did not leave AMA. RESULTS: Of 262,912 UE orthopaedic patients, 0.45% (1,173) left AMA. Those more likely to leave AMA were aged 30 to 49 (OR, 5.953, P < 0.001), Black (OR, 1.708, P < 0.001), had Medicaid (OR, 3.436, P < 0.001), and were in the 1st to 25th income percentile (OR, 1.657, P < 0.001). Female patients were less likely to leave AMA than male patients (OR, 0.647, P < 0.001). Patients leaving AMA had longer stays (3.626 versus 2.363 days, P < 0.001) and longer recovery times (2.733 versus 1.977, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found that male, Black, younger than 49 years old, Medicaid-insured, and lowest income quartile patients are more likely to leave AMA after UE orthopaedic treatment.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Extremidade Superior , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Medicaid , Fatores Sexuais , Tempo de Internação , Adulto Jovem , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento
4.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(2): 503-515, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of adverse social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDH) on health care use in a safety-net community hospital (SNCH) heart failure (HF) population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of HF patients at a single SNCH between 2018-2019 (N= 4594). RESULTS: At least one adverse SBDH was present in 21% of the study population. Patients with at least one adverse SBDH were younger (57 vs. 68 years), more likely to identify as Black (50% vs. 36%), be male (68% vs. 53%), and have Medicaid insurance (48% vs. 22%), p<.001. Presence of at least one adverse SBDH (homelessness, substance use, or incarceration) correlated with increased hospitalizations (2.3 vs 1.4/patient) and ED visits (5.1 vs 2.1/patient), p<.0001. Adverse SBDH were independent predictors of HF readmissions. Prescribing of guideline-directed medical therapy was similar among all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a SNCH HF cohort, adverse SBDH predominantly afflict younger Black men on Medicaid and are associated with increased utilization.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Idoso , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
5.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(6): e151-e153, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) are common cosmetic dermatologic conditions that predominantly affect patients with skin phototypes III-VI. Comparing treatment coverage for these pigmentary disorders to treatment coverage for acne vulgaris may demonstrate disparities in insurance coverage for diseases that primarily affect patients of color. OBJECTIVE: Describe differences in Medicaid coverage for topical tretinoin for melasma and PIH vs. acne vulgaris in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Medicaid insurance plans in all 50 states and the District of Columbia conducted between February 1 and 28, 2023. Data was collected from online publicly available preferred drug lists, prior authorization criteria, and email/telephone inquiries. Information was collected regarding coverage restrictions, including age restrictions, diagnostic restrictions, preferred drug status, and prior authorization requirements. RESULTS: Complete coverage data for all three clinical indications was retrieved from 30 (58.8%) states; partial coverage data for acne vulgaris was retrieved from 16 (31.4%) states; no coverage data was retrieved from 5 (9.8%) states. Of states reporting coverage data, topical tretinoin is covered in 45 (97.8%) states for acne vulgaris and 10 (33.3%) states for melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. There was decreased Medicaid coverage of topical tretinoin for acne vulgaris compared to melasma and PIH (P<0.05).  Conclusion: There is differential Medicaid coverage for acne vulgaris compared to pigmentary disorders which disproportionately affect patients of color. Greater advocacy is required to ensure equal treatment for conditions that affect racial minority patients. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(6):e151-e153.     doi:10.36849/JDD.8069e  .


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Tretinoína , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem , Tretinoína/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Ceratolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ceratolíticos/economia , Melanose/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1486, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence on the effects of Medicaid expansion is mixed and highly state-dependent. The objective of this study is to examine the association of Medicaid expansion with preterm birth and low birth weight, which are linked to a higher risk of infant mortality and chronic health conditions throughout life, providing evidence from a non-expansion state, overall and by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We used the newborn patient records obtained from Texas Public Use Data Files from 2010 to 2019 for hospitals in Texarkana, which is located on the border of Texas and Arkansas, with all of the hospitals serving pregnancy and childbirth patients on the Texas side of the border. We employed difference-in-differences models to estimate the effect of Medicaid expansion on birth outcomes (preterm birth and low birth weight) overall and by race/ethnicity. Newborns from Arkansas (expanded Medicaid in 2014) constituted the treatment group, while those from Texas (did not adopt the expansion) were the control group. We utilized a difference-in-differences event study framework to examine the gradual impact of the Medicaid expansion on birth outcomes. RESULTS: Medicaid expansion was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point decrease (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-2.67) in preterm birth overall. Event study results suggest that preterm births decreased gradually over time. Medicaid expansion was associated with a 2.04-percentage-point decrease (95% CI, 0.24-3.85) in preterm birth and a 1.75-percentage-point decrease (95% CI, 0.42-3.08) in low birth weight for White infants. However, Medicaid expansion was not associated with significant changes in birth outcomes for other race/ethnicity groups.  CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Medicaid expansion in Texas can potentially improve birth outcomes. However, bridging racial disparities in birth outcomes might require further efforts such as promoting preconception and prenatal care, especially among the Black population.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Medicaid , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Texas , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Arkansas , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Masculino
7.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 122, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two propensity score (PS) based balancing covariate methods, the overlap weighting method (OW) and the fine stratification method (FS), produce superb covariate balance. OW has been compared with various weighting methods while FS has been compared with the traditional stratification method and various matching methods. However, no study has yet compared OW and FS. In addition, OW has not yet been evaluated in large claims data with low prevalence exposure and with low frequency outcomes, a context in which optimal use of balancing methods is critical. In the study, we aimed to compare OW and FS using real-world data and simulations with low prevalence exposure and with low frequency outcomes. METHODS: We used the Texas State Medicaid claims data on adult beneficiaries with diabetes in 2012 as an empirical example (N = 42,628). Based on its real-world research question, we estimated an average treatment effect of health center vs. non-health center attendance in the total population. We also performed simulations to evaluate their relative performance. To preserve associations between covariates, we used the plasmode approach to simulate outcomes and/or exposures with N = 4,000. We simulated both homogeneous and heterogeneous treatment effects with various outcome risks (1-30% or observed: 27.75%) and/or exposure prevalence (2.5-30% or observed:10.55%). We used a weighted generalized linear model to estimate the exposure effect and the cluster-robust standard error (SE) method to estimate its SE. RESULTS: In the empirical example, we found that OW had smaller standardized mean differences in all covariates (range: OW: 0.0-0.02 vs. FS: 0.22-3.26) and Mahalanobis balance distance (MB) (< 0.001 vs. > 0.049) than FS. In simulations, OW also achieved smaller MB (homogeneity: <0.04 vs. > 0.04; heterogeneity: 0.0-0.11 vs. 0.07-0.29), relative bias (homogeneity: 4.04-56.20 vs. 20-61.63; heterogeneity: 7.85-57.6 vs. 15.0-60.4), square root of mean squared error (homogeneity: 0.332-1.308 vs. 0.385-1.365; heterogeneity: 0.263-0.526 vs 0.313-0.620), and coverage probability (homogeneity: 0.0-80.4% vs. 0.0-69.8%; heterogeneity: 0.0-97.6% vs. 0.0-92.8%), than FS, in most cases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that OW can yield nearly perfect covariate balance and therefore enhance the accuracy of average treatment effect estimation in the total population.


Assuntos
Pontuação de Propensão , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Texas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 30(6): 549-559, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder require long-term antipsychotic treatment with antipsychotic medications, but poor medication adherence can lead to increased health care utilization and costs. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) offer potential therapeutic advantages in that they require less frequent dosing and improved medication adherence. South Carolina has the highest adoption of LAIs among US states, making it an ideal population for comparing the effectiveness of LAIs vs oral antipsychotics (OAPs) in treating schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of LAIs compared with OAPs on medication adherence, health care resource utilization, and costs among South Carolina Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: South Carolina Medicaid beneficiaries with at least 1 claim for an LAI or OAP between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018, aged 18 to 65, with at least 2 claims with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included. Propensity scores (PSs) were calculated using logistic regression adjusting for confounders and predictors of the outcome. We estimated the "average treatment effect on the treated" by employing PS-weighted t-tests and chi-square tests. RESULTS: A total of 3,531 patients met the inclusion criteria, with 1,537 (44.5%) treated with LAIs and 1,994 (56.5%) treated with OAPs. In PS-weighted analyses, the LAI cohort had a greater proportion of days covered than the OAP cohort with a 365-day fixed denominator (69% vs 64%; P < 0.0001), higher medication possession ratio with a variable denominator while on therapy (85% vs 80%; P < 0.0001), and higher persistence (82% vs 64%; P < 0.0001). The average number of inpatient visits and emergency department visits did not significantly differ between cohorts (0.28 hospitalizations, P = 0.90; 3.68 vs 2.96 emergency department visits, P = 0.19). The number of outpatient visits, including visits for medication administration, were greater in the LAI cohort (23.1 [SD 24.2]) vs OAP (16.9 [SD 21.2]; P < 0.0001); however, including the costs for medication administration visits, outpatient costs (per member) were approximately $2,500 lower in the LAI cohort (P < 0.0001). The number of pharmacy visits was greater in the OAP cohort (LAI 21.0 [SD 17.0] vs OAP 23.0 [SD 15.0]; P = 0.006). All-cause total costs were greater in the LAI cohort ($26,025 [SD $29,909]) vs the OAP cohort ($17,291 [SD $25,261]; P < 0.0001) and were driven by the difference in pharmaceutical costs (LAI $15,273 [SD $16,183] vs OAP $4,696 [SD $10,371]; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among South Carolina Medicaid beneficiaries, treatment with LAIs for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was associated with greater medication adherence rates. Patients using LAIs had higher drug costs and total costs, but lower outpatient and total nondrug costs compared with those using OAPs.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Medicaid , Adesão à Medicação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Antipsicóticos/economia , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/economia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina , Administração Oral , Adulto Jovem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Injeções , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/economia
10.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 40(1): 127, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is suspected to have worse outcomes when length of illness prior to presentation is prolonged. Our objective was to evaluate how social determinants of health influence medical care and outcomes for babies with IHPS. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed over 10 years. Census data were used as proxy for socioeconomic status via Geo-Identification codes and correlated with food access and social vulnerability variables. The cohort was subdivided to understand the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC). RESULTS: The cohort (279 cases) was divided into two groups; early group from 2011 to 2015 and late from 2016 to 2021. Cases in the late group were older at the time of presentation (41.5 vs. 36.5 days; p = 0.022) and presented later in the disease course (12.8 vs. 8.9 days; p = 0.021). There was no difference in race (p = 0.282), gender (p = 0.874), or length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who presented with IHPS after implementation of phased MMC were older, had a longer symptomatic course, and shorter pylorus measurements. Patients with public insurance after the implementation of MMC were more likely to follow-up with an outpatient pediatrician within a month of hospitalization. These results suggest that MMC may have improved access to care for infants with IHPS.


Assuntos
Cobertura do Seguro , Estenose Pilórica Hipertrófica , Humanos , Estenose Pilórica Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Lactente , Estados Unidos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 574, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A/F), which include initiatives like report cards, have an inconsistent impact on clinicians' prescribing behavior. This may be attributable to their focus on aggregate prescribing measures, a one-size-fits-all approach, and the fact that A/F initiatives rarely engage with the clinicians they target. METHODS: In this study, we describe the development and delivery of a report card that summarized antipsychotic prescribing to publicly-insured youth in Philadelphia, which was introduced by a Medicaid managed care organization in 2020. In addition to measuring aggregate prescribing behavior, the report card included different elements of care plans, including whether youth were receiving polypharmacy, proper medication management, and the concurrent use of behavioral health outpatient services. The A/F initiative elicited feedback from clinicians, which we refer to as an "audit and feedback loop." We also evaluate the impact of the report card by comparing pre-post differences in prescribing measures for clinicians who received the report card with a group of clinicians who did not receive the report card. RESULTS: Report cards indicated that many youth who were prescribed antipsychotics were not receiving proper medication management or using behavioral health outpatient services alongside the antipsychotic prescription, but that polypharmacy was rare. In their feedback, clinicians who received report cards cited several challenges related to antipsychotic prescribing, such as the logistical difficulties of entering lab orders and family members' hesitancy to change care plans. The impact of the report card was mixed: there was a modest reduction in the share of youth receiving polypharmacy following the receipt of the report card, while other measures did not change. However, we documented a large reduction in the number of youth with one or more antipsychotic prescription fill among clinicians who received a report card. CONCLUSIONS: A/F initiatives are a common approach to improving the quality of care, and often target specific practices such as antipsychotic prescribing. Report cards are a low-cost and feasible intervention but there is room for quality improvement, such as adding measures that track medication management or eliciting feedback from clinicians who receive report cards. To ensure that the benefits of antipsychotic prescribing outweigh its risks, it is important to promote quality and safety of antipsychotic prescribing within a broader care plan.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Medicaid , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , Philadelphia , Adolescente , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Polimedicação
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2411742, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758556

RESUMO

Importance: The National Health Service Corps (NHSC) Loan Repayment Program (LRP) expansion in fiscal year (FY) 2019 intended to improve access to medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) by adding more clinicians who could prescribe buprenorphine. However, some clinicians still face barriers to prescribing, which may vary between rural and nonrural areas. Objective: To examine the growth in buprenorphine prescribing by NHSC clinicians for Medicaid beneficiaries during the NHSC LRP expansion and describe the challenges to prescribing that persist in rural and nonrural areas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed preexpansion and postexpansion Medicaid claims data to evaluate the percentage of prescriptions of buprenorphine filled during FY 2017 through 2021. This study also analyzed challenges and barriers to prescribing MOUD between rural and urban areas, using results from annual surveys conducted with NHSC clinicians and sites from FY 2019 through FY 2021. Exposure: Prescribing of buprenorphine by NHSC clinicians. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the percentage and number of Medicaid beneficiaries with opioid use disorder (OUD) who filled a prescription for buprenorphine before and after the LRP expansion and the challenges NHSC clinicians and sites faced in providing substance use disorder and OUD services. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: During FYs 2017 through 2021, 7828 NHSC clinicians prescribed buprenorphine (standard LRP: mean [SD] age, 38.1 [8.4] years and 4807 females [78.9%]; expansion LRPs: mean [SD] age, 39.4 [8.1] years and 1307 females [75.0%]). A total of 3297 NHSC clinicians and 4732 NHSC sites responded to at least 1 survey question to the 3 surveys. The overall percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries with OUD who filled a prescription for buprenorphine during the first 2.5 years post expansion increased significantly from 18.9% before to 43.7% after expansion (an increase of 123 422 beneficiaries; P < .001). The percentage more than doubled among beneficiaries living in areas with a high Social Vulnerability Index score (from 17.0% to 36.7%; an increase of 31 964) and among beneficiaries living in rural areas (from 20.8% to 55.7%; an increase of 45 523). However, 773 of 2140 clinicians (36.1%; 95% CI, 33.6%-38.6%) reported a lack of mental health services to complement medication for OUD treatment, and 290 of 1032 clinicians (28.1%; 95% CI, 24.7%-31.7%) reported that they did not prescribe buprenorphine due to a lack of supervision, mentorship, or peer consultation. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that although the X-waiver requirement has been removed and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines encourage all eligible clinicians to screen and offer patients with OUD buprenorphine, as permissible by state law, more trained health care workers and improved care coordination for counseling and referral services are needed to support comprehensive OUD treatment.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Medicaid , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Padrões de Prática Médica , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico
13.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(5): e241077, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758569

RESUMO

Importance: Controlled substances have regulatory requirements under the US Federal Controlled Substance Act that must be met before pharmacies can stock and dispense them. However, emerging evidence suggests there are pharmacy-level barriers in access to buprenorphine for treatment for opioid use disorder even among pharmacies that dispense other opioids. Objective: To estimate the proportion of Medicaid-participating community retail pharmacies that dispense buprenorphine, out of Medicaid-participating community retail pharmacies that dispense other opioids and assess if the proportion dispensing buprenorphine varies by Medicaid patient volume or rural-urban location. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study included Medicaid pharmacy claims (2016-2019) data from 6 states (Kentucky, Maine, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia) participating in the Medicaid Outcomes Distributed Research Network (MODRN). Community retail pharmacies serving Medicaid-enrolled patients were included, mail-order pharmacies were excluded. Analyses were conducted from September 2022 to August 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of pharmacies dispensing buprenorphine approved for opioid use disorder among pharmacies dispensing an opioid analgesic or buprenorphine prescription to at least 1 Medicaid enrollee in each state. Pharmacies were categorized by median Medicaid patient volume (by state and year) and rurality (urban vs rural location according to zip code). Results: In 2016, 72.0% (95% CI, 70.9%-73.0%) of the 7038 pharmacies that dispensed opioids also dispensed buprenorphine to Medicaid enrollees, increasing to 80.4% (95% CI, 79.5%-81.3%) of 7437 pharmacies in 2019. States varied in the percent of pharmacies dispensing buprenorphine in Medicaid (range, 73.8%-96.4%), with significant differences between several states found in 2019 (χ2 P < .05), when states were most similar in the percent of pharmacies dispensing buprenorphine. A lower percent of pharmacies with Medicaid patient volume below the median dispensed buprenorphine (69.1% vs 91.7% in 2019), compared with pharmacies with above-median patient volume (χ2 P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this serial cross-sectional study of Medicaid-participating pharmacies, buprenorphine was not accessible in up to 20% of community retail pharmacies, presenting pharmacy-level barriers to patients with Medicaid seeking buprenorphine treatment. That some pharmacies dispensed opioid analgesics but not buprenorphine suggests that factors other than compliance with the Controlled Substance Act influence pharmacy dispensing decisions.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicaid , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/provisão & distribuição , Estados Unidos , Estudos Transversais , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribuição
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(5): 725-731, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709963

RESUMO

Policy responses to the March 31, 2023, expiration of the Medicaid continuous coverage provision need to consider the difference between self-reported Medicaid participation on government surveys and administrative records of Medicaid enrollment. The difference between the two is known as the "Medicaid undercount." The size of the undercount increased substantially after the continuous coverage provision took effect in March 2020. Using longitudinal data from the Current Population Survey, we examined this change. We found that assuming that all beneficiaries who ever reported enrolling in Medicaid during the COVID-19 pandemic public health emergency remained enrolled through 2022 (as required by the continuous coverage provision) eliminated the worsening of the undercount. We estimated that nearly half of the 5.9 million people who we projected were likely to become uninsured after the provision expired, or "unwound," already reported that they were uninsured in the 2022 Current Population Survey. This finding suggests that the impact of ending the continuous coverage provision on the estimated uninsurance rate, based on self-reported survey data, may have been smaller than anticipated. It also means that efforts to address Medicaid unwinding should include people who likely remain eligible for Medicaid but believe that they are already uninsured.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pandemias , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(5): 701-706, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709970

RESUMO

Remote physiologic monitoring use increased more than 1,300 percent from 2019 to 2021, and use varied by state. This increase was driven by a small number of (predominantly internal medicine) providers. Female beneficiaries, residents of metropolitan areas, and people diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension had the highest rates of use.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Sci Adv ; 10(19): eadg9674, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718116

RESUMO

Prenatal opioid exposure is an established public health problem, in particular among Medicaid-covered births. Yet, existing prevalence rates are plausibly underestimated. We leverage extensive linked longitudinal administrative data for all Medicaid-covered live births in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2019 to estimate a range of prevalence rates using an innovative strategy that jointly accounts for both likelihood of exposure and potential risk to prenatal development. We find that 20.8% of infants may have been prenatally exposed to opioids, with 1.7% diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome and an additional 1.2% having a high combined likelihood of exposure and potential risk to prenatal development, 2.6% a moderate combined likelihood and risk, and 15.3% a low or uncertain combined likelihood and risk. We assess improvements in prevalence estimates based on our nuanced classification relative to those of prior studies. Our strategy could be broadly used to quantify the scope of the opioid crisis for pregnant populations, target interventions, and promote child health and development.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Medicaid , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto , Fatores de Risco
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 71(7): e31048, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: National guidelines recommend that children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) be seen regularly by primary care providers (PCPs) as well as hematologists to receive comprehensive, multidisciplinary care. The objective is to characterize the patterns of primary and hematology care for children with SCA in Michigan. METHODS: Using validated claims definitions, children ages 1-17 years with SCA were identified using Michigan Medicaid administrative claims from 2010 to 2018. We calculated the number of outpatient PCP and hematologist visits per person-year, as well as the proportion of children with at least one visit to a PCP, hematologist, or both a PCP and hematologist annually. Negative binomial regression was used to calculate annual rates of visits for each provider type. RESULTS: A total of 875 children contributed 2889 person-years. Of the total 22,570 outpatient visits, 52% were with a PCP and 34% with a hematologist. Annually, 87%-93% of children had a visit with a PCP, and 63%-85% had a visit with a hematologist. Approximately 66% of total person-years had both visit types within a year. The annual rate ranged from 2.3 to 2.5 for hematologist visits and from 3.7 to 4.1 for PCP visits. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial gaps exist in the receipt of annual hematology care. Given that the majority of children with SCA see a PCP annually, strategies to leverage primary care visits experienced by this population may be needed to increase receipt of SCA-specific services.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Criança , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Adolescente , Lactente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Michigan , Hematologia , Seguimentos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico
19.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 15: 21501319241253524, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Worsening rates of infant and maternal mortality in the United States serve as an urgent call for multi-modal intervention. Infant Well Child Visits (WCVs) provide an opportunity for prevention, however not all infants receive the recommended schedule of visits, with infants of low-income and Black families missing a higher portion of WCVs. Due to diverse experiences and needs of under-resourced communities throughout the United States, caregiver voice is essential when designing improvement efforts. METHODS: Purposeful sampling and interviewing of 10 caregivers in Cincinnati, OH was performed by community peer researchers. Interview transcripts were evaluated by the research team, with identification of several important themes. RESULTS: Nine out of 10 caregivers self-identified as Black. All young children of the interviewed caregivers had Medicaid as their insurance provider. All interviews highlighted rich perspectives on caregiver hopes for their child, family, and selves. Establishing trust through empathy, shared decision making, and the nurturing of interpersonal patient-practitioner relationships is crucial for fostering a positive healthcare experience. Levels of mistrust was perceptibly high across several interviews, with lack of racial concordance between medical provider and family exacerbating the issue for some caregivers. Caregivers voiced a tendency to rely on family and community members for when to seek out health care for their children, and additionally cited racism and perceptions of being rushed or judged as barriers to seeking further care. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the importance of being community-informed when considering interventions. Prior research on the topic of missed WCV's often focused on material resource availability and limitations. While that was commented on by caregivers in this study as well, equal-if not more-attention was directed toward interpersonal relationship formation, the presence or absence of trust between practitioner and caregiver, and the importance of social-emotional support for caregivers. We highlight several opportunities for systemic improvements as well as future directions for research.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Lactente , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Confiança , Entrevistas como Assunto , Ohio , Medicaid , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410713, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728030

RESUMO

Importance: Older adults with socioeconomic disadvantage develop a greater burden of disability after critical illness than those without socioeconomic disadvantage. The delivery of in-hospital rehabilitation that can mitigate functional decline may be influenced by social determinants of health (SDOH). Whether rehabilitation delivery differs by SDOH during critical illness hospitalization is not known. Objective: To evaluate whether SDOH are associated with the delivery of skilled rehabilitation during critical illness hospitalization among older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study linked with Medicare claims (2011-2018). Participants included older adults hospitalized with a stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Data were analyzed from August 2022 to September 2023. Exposures: Dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid, education, income, limited English proficiency (LEP), and rural residence. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was delivery of physical therapy (PT) and/or occupational therapy (OT) during ICU hospitalization, characterized as any in-hospital PT or OT and rate of in-hospital PT or OT, calculated as total number of units divided by length of stay. Results: In the sample of 1618 ICU hospitalizations (median [IQR] patient age, 81.0 [75.0-86.0] years; 842 [52.0%] female), 371 hospitalizations (22.9%) were among patients with dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility, 523 hospitalizations (32.6%) were among patients with less than high school education, 320 hospitalizations (19.8%) were for patients with rural residence, and 56 hospitalizations (3.5%) were among patients with LEP. A total of 1076 hospitalized patients (68.5%) received any PT or OT, with a mean rate of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.86-1.02) units/d. After adjustment for age, sex, prehospitalization disability, mechanical ventilation, and organ dysfunction, factors associated with lower odds of receipt of PT or OT included dual Medicare and Medicaid eligibility (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.50-0.97]) and rural residence (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.48-0.87]). LEP was associated with a lower rate of PT or OT (adjusted rate ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.32-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the need to consider SDOH in efforts to promote rehabilitation delivery during ICU hospitalization and to investigate factors underlying inequities in this practice.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Medicare , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos
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