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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e50388, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since September 2020, the National Health Service (NHS) COVID-19 contact-tracing app has been used to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. Since its launch, this app has been a part of the discussion regarding the perceived social agency of decision-making algorithms. On the social media website Twitter, a plethora of views about the app have been found but only analyzed for sentiment and topic trajectories thus far, leaving the perceived social agency of the app underexplored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the discussion of social agency in social media public discourse regarding algorithm-operated decisions, particularly when the artificial intelligence agency responsible for specific information systems is not openly disclosed in an example such as the COVID-19 contact-tracing app. To do this, we analyzed the presentation of the NHS COVID-19 App on Twitter, focusing on the portrayal of social agency and the impact of its deployment on society. We also aimed to discover what the presentation of social agents communicates about the perceived responsibility of the app. METHODS: Using corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis, underpinned by social actor representation, we used the link between grammatical and social agency and analyzed a corpus of 118,316 tweets from September 2020 to July 2021 to see whether the app was portrayed as a social actor. RESULTS: We found that active presentations of the app-seen mainly through personalization and agency metaphor-dominated the discourse. The app was presented as a social actor in 96% of the cases considered and grew in proportion to passive presentations over time. These active presentations showed the app to be a social actor in 5 main ways: informing, instructing, providing permission, disrupting, and functioning. We found a small number of occasions on which the app was presented passively through backgrounding and exclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Twitter users presented the NHS COVID-19 App as an active social actor with a clear sense of social agency. The study also revealed that Twitter users perceived the app as responsible for their welfare, particularly when it provided instructions or permission, and this perception remained consistent throughout the discourse, particularly during significant events. Overall, this study contributes to understanding how social agency is discussed in social media discourse related to algorithmic-operated decisions This research offers valuable insights into public perceptions of decision-making digital contact-tracing health care technologies and their perceptions on the web, which, even in a postpandemic world, may shed light on how the public might respond to forthcoming interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , Mídias Sociais , Inteligência Artificial , Medicina Estatal
2.
BMJ ; 384: e077039, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the number and type of breast cancers developed after screen detected atypia compare with the anticipated 11.3 cancers detected per 1000 women screened within one three year screening round in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Observational analysis of the Sloane atypia prospective cohort in England. SETTING: Atypia diagnoses through the English NHS breast screening programme reported to the Sloane cohort study. This cohort is linked to the English Cancer Registry and the Mortality and Birth Information System for information on subsequent breast cancer and mortality. PARTICIPANTS: 3238 women diagnosed as having epithelial atypia between 1 April 2003 and 30 June 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of invasive breast cancers detected at one, three, and six years after atypia diagnosis by atypia type, age, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: There was a fourfold increase in detection of atypia after the introduction of digital mammography between 2010 (n=119) and 2015 (n=502). During 19 088 person years of follow-up after atypia diagnosis (until December 2018), 141 women developed breast cancer. Cumulative incidence of cancer per 1000 women with atypia was 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.28 to 2.69), 14.2 (10.3 to 19.1), and 45.0 (36.3 to 55.1) at one, three, and six years after atypia diagnosis, respectively. Women with atypia detected more recently have lower rates of subsequent cancers detected within three years (6.0 invasive cancers per 1000 women (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.9) in 2013-18 v 24.3 (13.7 to 40.1) in 2003-07, and 24.6 (14.9 to 38.3) in 2008-12). Grade, size, and nodal involvement of subsequent invasive cancers were similar to those of cancers detected in the general screening population, with equal numbers of ipsilateral and contralateral cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Many atypia could represent risk factors rather than precursors of invasive cancer requiring surgery in the short term. Women with atypia detected more recently have lower rates of subsequent cancers detected, which might be associated with changes to mammography and biopsy techniques identifying forms of atypia that are more likely to represent overdiagnosis. Annual mammography in the short term after atypia diagnosis might not be beneficial. More evidence is needed about longer term risks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Medicina Estatal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
4.
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e083488, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endovenous therapy is the first choice management for symptomatic varicose veins in NICE guidelines, with 56-70 000 procedures performed annually in the UK. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a known complication of endovenous therapy, occurring at a rate of up to 3.4%. Despite 73% of UK practitioners administering pharmacological thromboprophylaxis to reduce VTE, no high-quality evidence supporting this practice exists. Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis may have clinical and cost benefit in preventing VTE; however, further evidence is needed. This study aims to establish whether when endovenous therapy is undertaken: a single dose or course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis alters the risk of VTE; pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is associated with an increased rate of bleeding events; pharmacological prophylaxis is cost effective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multi-centre, assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial (RCT) will recruit 6660 participants from 40 NHS and private sites across the UK. Participants will be randomised to intervention (single dose or extended course of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis plus compression) or control (compression alone). Participants will undergo a lower limb venous duplex ultrasound scan at 21-28 days post-procedure to identify asymptomatic DVT. The duplex scan will be conducted locally by blinded assessors. Participants will be contacted remotely for follow-up at 7 days and 90 days post-procedure. The primary outcome is imaging-confirmed lower limb DVT with or without symptoms or PE with symptoms within 90 days of treatment. The main analysis will be according to the intention-to-treat principle and will compare the rates of VTE at 90 days, using a repeated measures analysis of variance, adjusting for any pre-specified strongly prognostic baseline covariates using a mixed effects logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by Brent Research Ethics Committee (22/LO/0261). Results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18501431.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Estatal , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
8.
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs ; 37(1): e12455, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368534

RESUMO

TOPIC: Internationally, preventing suicide in children and young people is a priority and there are a range of preventative approaches available for health professionals to use, including brief interventions. Safety planning is one such brief intervention. Safety plans have long been recommended for use with young people who are suicidal but, these were initially developed for adults. A recent scoping review revealed safety plans need to be tailored to children and young people. This review also identified an important practice gap, that parents also require plans supporting them to keep their child safe. PURPOSE: This paper highlights how a Scottish clinical child and adolescent mental health setting in the UK's National Health Service developed and implemented evidence-based safety plans for suicidality-the Lothian Safety Plan for young people and the Lothian Safekeeping Plan for parents. This paper outlines both plans and gives recommendations for their use by healthcare professionals. The parental Lothian Safekeeping Plan is discussed in more depth as this is a novel intervention. CONCLUSION: The Lothian Safekeeping Plan is a clinically led evidence-based practice innovation. It is a specific suicide prevention plan for use by parents as an additional, complementary, and enhanced resource to the Lothian Safety Plan for young people. It is recommended that healthcare professionals also use a parental safety plan when supporting young people presenting with suicidal crisis. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of these plans.


Assuntos
Medicina Estatal , Suicídio , Adulto , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Ideação Suicida , Pais
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077156, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coexisting multiple health conditions is common among older people, a population that is increasing globally. The potential for polypharmacy, adverse events, drug interactions and development of additional health conditions complicates prescribing decisions for these patients. Artificial intelligence (AI)-generated decision-making tools may help guide clinical decisions in the context of multiple health conditions, by determining which of the multiple medication options is best. This study aims to explore the perceptions of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patients on the use of AI in the management of multiple health conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A qualitative study will be conducted using semistructured interviews. Adults (≥18 years) with multiple health conditions living in the West Midlands of England and HCPs with experience in caring for patients with multiple health conditions will be eligible and purposively sampled. Patients will be identified from Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum; CPRD will contact general practitioners who will in turn, send a letter to patients inviting them to take part. Eligible HCPs will be recruited through British HCP bodies and known contacts. Up to 30 patients and 30 HCPs will be recruited, until data saturation is achieved. Interviews will be in-person or virtual, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The topic guide is designed to explore participants' attitudes towards AI-informed clinical decision-making to augment clinician-directed decision-making, the perceived advantages and disadvantages of both methods and attitudes towards risk management. Case vignettes comprising a common decision pathway for patients with multiple health conditions will be presented during each interview to invite participants' opinions on how their experiences compare. Data will be analysed thematically using the Framework Method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee (Reference: 22/SC/0210). Written informed consent or verbal consent will be obtained prior to each interview. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conferences and lay summaries.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Medicina Estatal , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Multimorbidade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Polimedicação
10.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e075066, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Like many countries, England has a national shortage of registered nurses. Employers strive to retain existing staff, to ease supply pressures. Disproportionate numbers of nurses leave the National Health Services (NHS) both early in their careers, and later, as they near retirement age. Research is needed to understand the job preferences of early-career and late-career nurses working in the NHS, so tailored policies can be developed to better retain these two groups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will collect job preference data for early-career and late-career NHS nurses, respectively using two separate discrete choice experiments (DCEs). Findings from the literature, focus groups, academic experts and stakeholder discussions will be used to identify and select the DCE attributes (ie, job features) and levels. We will generate an orthogonal, fractional factorial design using the experimental software Ngene. The DCEs will be administered through online surveys distributed by the regulator Nursing and Midwifery Council. For each group, we expect to achieve a final sample of 2500 registered NHS nurses working in England. For early-career nurses, eligible participants will be registered nurses who graduated in the preceding 5 years (ie, 2019-2023). Eligible participants for the late-career survey will be registered nurses aged 55 years and above. We will use conditional and mixed logit models to analyse the data. Specifically, study 1 will estimate the job preferences of early-career nurses and the possible trade-offs. Study 2 will estimate the retirement preferences of late-career NHS nurses and the potential trade-offs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The research protocol was reviewed and approved by the host research organisation Ethics Committees Research Governance (University of Southampton, number 80610) (https://www.southampton.ac.uk/about/governance/regulations-policies/policies/ethics). The results will be disseminated via conference presentations, publications in peer-reviewed journals and annual reports to key stakeholders, the Department of Health and Social Care, and NHS England/Improvement retention leaders. REGISTRATION DETAILS: Registration on OSF http://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/RDN9G.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Medicina Estatal , Humanos , Grupos Focais , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inglaterra
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 104, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health rehabilitation services provide specialist treatment to people with particularly severe and complex problems. In 2018, the Care Quality Commission reported that over half the 4,400 mental health inpatient rehabilitation beds in England were provided by the independent sector. They raised concerns that the length of stay and cost of independent sector care was double that of the NHS and that their services tended to be provided much further from people's homes. However, there has been no research comparing the two sectors and we therefore do not know if these concerns are justified. The ACER Study (Assessing the Clinical and cost-Effectiveness of inpatient mental health Rehabilitation services provided by the NHS and independent sector) is a national programme of research in England, funded from 2021 to 2026, that aims to investigate differences in inpatient mental health rehabilitation provided by the NHS and independent sector in terms of: patient characteristics; service quality; patient, carer and staff experiences; clinical and cost effectiveness. METHODS: ACER comprises a:1) detailed survey of NHS and independent sector inpatient mental health rehabilitation services across England; 2) qualitative investigation of patient, family, staff and commissioners' experiences of the two sectors; 3) cohort study comparing clinical outcomes in the two sectors over 18 months; 4) comprehensive national comparison of inpatient service use in the two sectors, using instrumental variable analysis of routinely collected healthcare data over 18 months; 5) health economic evaluation of the relative cost-effectiveness of the two sectors. In Components 3 and 4, our primary outcome is 'successful rehabilitation' defined as a) being discharged from the inpatient rehabilitation unit without readmission and b) inpatient service use over the 18 months. DISCUSSION: The ACER study will deliver the first empirical comparison of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of NHS and independent sector inpatient mental health rehabilitation services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17381762 retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Estudos de Coortes , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Pacientes Internados
13.
BMJ ; 384: q240, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325876
14.
PLoS Med ; 21(2): e1004343, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of a range of health outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the long-term risk of major health outcomes following MI and generate sociodemographic stratified risk charts in order to inform care recommendations in the post-MI period and underpin shared decision making. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This nationwide cohort study includes all individuals aged ≥18 years admitted to one of 229 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in England between 1 January 2008 and 31 January 2017 (final follow-up 27 March 2017). We analysed 11 non-fatal health outcomes (subsequent MI and first hospitalisation for heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, severe bleeding, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, dementia, depression, and cancer) and all-cause mortality. Of the 55,619,430 population of England, 34,116,257 individuals contributing to 145,912,852 hospitalisations were included (mean age 41.7 years (standard deviation [SD 26.1]); n = 14,747,198 (44.2%) male). There were 433,361 individuals with MI (mean age 67.4 years [SD 14.4)]; n = 283,742 (65.5%) male). Following MI, all-cause mortality was the most frequent event (adjusted cumulative incidence at 9 years 37.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] [37.6,37.9]), followed by heart failure (29.6%; 95% CI [29.4,29.7]), renal failure (27.2%; 95% CI [27.0,27.4]), atrial fibrillation (22.3%; 95% CI [22.2,22.5]), severe bleeding (19.0%; 95% CI [18.8,19.1]), diabetes (17.0%; 95% CI [16.9,17.1]), cancer (13.5%; 95% CI [13.3,13.6]), cerebrovascular disease (12.5%; 95% CI [12.4,12.7]), depression (8.9%; 95% CI [8.7,9.0]), dementia (7.8%; 95% CI [7.7,7.9]), subsequent MI (7.1%; 95% CI [7.0,7.2]), and peripheral arterial disease (6.5%; 95% CI [6.4,6.6]). Compared with a risk-set matched population of 2,001,310 individuals, first hospitalisation of all non-fatal health outcomes were increased after MI, except for dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.01; 95% CI [0.99,1.02];p = 0.468) and cancer (aHR 0.56; 95% CI [0.56,0.57];p < 0.001). The study includes data from secondary care only-as such diagnoses made outside of secondary care may have been missed leading to the potential underestimation of the total burden of disease following MI. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, up to a third of patients with MI developed heart failure or renal failure, 7% had another MI, and 38% died within 9 years (compared with 35% deaths among matched individuals). The incidence of all health outcomes, except dementia and cancer, was higher than expected during the normal life course without MI following adjustment for age, sex, year, and socioeconomic deprivation. Efforts targeted to prevent or limit the accrual of chronic, multisystem disease states following MI are needed and should be guided by the demographic-specific risk charts derived in this study.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Demência , Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Neoplasias , Insuficiência Renal , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Medicina Estatal , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações
16.
BMJ ; 384: q414, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359934
17.
Riv Psichiatr ; 59(1): 35-42, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362787

RESUMO

Mental health interventions for Italian prisoners with mental disorder remain a problematic issue, despite radical changes in psychiatric care and a 2008 major government reform transferring mental health care in prison to the National Health Service. Indeed, prison has increasingly become a place of severe psychological distress, where also serious mental illnesses sometimes occur. In this contribution, we commented on the recommendations recently proposed by the Emilia-Romagna Region on how structuring mental healthcare interventions in all regional jails. Moreover, starting from the findings reported in recent epidemiological studies examining the prevalence of mental disorders in Emilia-Romagna prisons, we proposed a new treatment model for mental health and pathological addictions in jail, which took into account the current incidence of inmates with severe mental illness, psychological distress due to incarceration, and substance use disorder. Perhaps, this new intervention model (specifically centered on clinical psychology and case management by intramural mental health professionals) requires a vision able to overcome the classical "medical-centered" approach, which still too often permeates many sectors of public mental healthcare services. In our opinion, if we decide to look at the moon, we shouldn't dwell too much on the finger pointing to it.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisões , Saúde Mental , Medicina Estatal , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Itália/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296901, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Providing advice to consumers in the form of labelling may mitigate the increased availability and low cost of foods that contribute to the obesity problem. Our objective was to test whether making the source of the health advice on the label more credible makes labelling more effective. METHODS AND MEASURES: Vending machines in different locations were stocked with healthy and unhealthy products in a hospital. Healthy products were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (i) a control condition in which no labelling was present (ii) a low source credibility label, "Lighter choices", and (iii) a high source credibility label that included the UK National Health Service (NHS) logo and name, "NHS lighter choices". Unhealthy products received no labelling. The outcome measure was sales volume. RESULTS: There were no main effects of labelling. However, there were significant interactions between labelling, vending machine location and payment type. For one location and payment type, sales of products increased in the high credibility label condition compared to control, particularly for unhealthy products, contrary to expectations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high source credibility health labels (NHS endorsement) on food either have little effect, or worse, can "backfire" and lead to effects opposite to those intended. The primary limitations are the limited range of source credibility labels and the scale of the study.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Medicina Estatal , Hospitais , Rotulagem de Produtos , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Urolithiasis ; 52(1): 29, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300331

RESUMO

There is no clear guidance on the efficacy of stone follow-up. NICE have been unable to make recommendations with current published evidence. The aim of this study was to understand the patient journey resulting in surgical intervention, and whether traditional stone follow-up is effective. A retrospective review of patients undergoing ureteroscopy (URS) or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) over a 3 year period identified 471 patients who underwent these procedures to treat stone disease. Records were interrogated for the following: symptoms, mechanism of booking, reason for intervention, stone size, stone location, risk factors and previous follow-up. Of 471 patients who underwent intervention, 168 were booked from stone clinic follow-up (36%). Of these, 96% were symptomatic and 4% were asymptomatic. When risk factors were removed, this figure was reduced to 1%. Sepsis rate for emergency admissions differs between those followed up (13%) versus new presentations (19)%. There was no statistically significant difference in the outpatient imaging frequency between patients booked from an emergency admission (80% having imaging every 6 months) and those from the clinic (82%). Our Hospital provides on average 650 stone clinic appointments a year with a cost of £93,000. Given the low rate of intervention in patients with asymptomatic renal stones, a symptomatic, direct-access emergency stone clinic could be a better model of care and use of NHS resources. Urgent research is required in this area to further assess if this is the case.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Humanos , Hospitalização , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Ureteroscopia
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