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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(10): 708-724, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480875

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes is characterised by autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic ß-cell mass. With the advent of insulin therapy a century ago, type 1 diabetes changed from a progressive, fatal disease to one that requires lifelong complex self-management. Replacing the lost ß-cell mass through transplantation has proven successful, but limited donor supply and need for lifelong immunosuppression restricts widespread use. In this Review, we highlight incremental advances over the past 20 years and remaining challenges in regenerative medicine approaches to restoring ß-cell mass and function in type 1 diabetes. We begin by summarising the role of endocrine islets in glucose homoeostasis and how this is altered in disease. We then discuss the potential regenerative capacity of the remaining islet cells and the utility of stem cell-derived ß-like cells to restore ß-cell function. We conclude with tissue engineering approaches that might improve the engraftment, function, and survival of ß-cell replacement therapies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Medicina Regenerativa , Animais , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/transplante , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/história , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/métodos , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/tendências , Regeneração/fisiologia , Medicina Regenerativa/história , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Engenharia Tecidual/história , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
2.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6718-6736, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494053

RESUMO

The body's self-repair capacity is limited, including injuries on articular cartilage zones. Over the past few decades, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) has focused its studies on the development of natural biomaterials for clinical applications aiming to overcome this self-therapeutic bottleneck. This review focuses on the development of these biomaterials using compounds and materials from marine sources that are able to be produced in a sustainable way, as an alternative to mammal sources (e.g., collagens) and benefiting from their biological properties, such as biocompatibility, low antigenicity, biodegradability, among others. The structure and composition of the new biomaterials require mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage tissue. To design an ideal temporary tissue-scaffold, it needs to provide a suitable environment for cell growth (cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation), towards the regeneration of the damaged tissues. Overall, the purpose of this review is to summarize various marine sources to be used in the development of different tissue-scaffolds with the capability to sustain cells envisaging cartilage tissue engineering, analysing the systems displaying more promising performance, while pointing out current limitations and steps to be given in the near future.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Medicina Regenerativa , Tecidos Suporte
3.
Biomater Sci ; 9(20): 6653-6672, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550125

RESUMO

Over the decades, researchers have strived to synthesize and modify nature-inspired biomaterials, with the primary aim to address the challenges of designing functional biomaterials for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Among these challenges, biocompatibility and cellular interactions have been extensively investigated. Some of the most desirable characteristics for biomaterials in these applications are the loading of bioactive molecules, strong adhesion to moist areas, improvement of cellular adhesion, and self-healing properties. Mussel-inspired biomaterials have received growing interest mainly due to the changes in mechanical and biological functions of the scaffold due to catechol modification. Here, we summarize the chemical and biological principles and the latest advancements in production, as well as the use of mussel-inspired biomaterials. Our main focus is the polydopamine coating, the conjugation of catechol with other polymers, and the biomedical applications that polydopamine moieties are used for, such as matrices for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, and hemostatic control. We also present a critical conclusion and an inspired view on the prospects for the development and application of mussel-inspired materials.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Adesão Celular , Medicina Regenerativa , Engenharia Tecidual
4.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570106

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides biophysical and biochemical stimuli to support self-renewal, proliferation, survival, and differentiation of surrounding cells due to its content of diverse bioactive molecules. Due to these characteristics, the ECM has been recently considered a promising candidate for the creation of biological scaffolds to boost tissue regeneration. Emerging studies have demonstrated that decellularized human tissues could resemble the native ECM in their structural and biochemical profiles, preserving the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the content of fundamental biological molecules. Hence, decellularized ECM can be employed to promote tissue remodeling, repair, and functional reconstruction of many organs. Selecting the appropriate decellularization procedure is crucial to obtain acellular tissues that retain the characteristics of the ideal microenvironment for cells. The protocol described here provides a detailed step-by-step description of the decellularization method to obtain a reproducible and effective cell-free biological ECM. Skin fragments from patients undergoing plastic surgery were scaled down and decellularized using a combination of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, and antibiotics. To promote the regular and homogeneous transport of the solution through the samples, they were enclosed in embedding cassettes to ensure protection from mechanical insults. After the decellularization procedure, the snow-white color of skin fragments indicated complete and successful decellularization. Additionally, decellularized samples showed an intact and well-preserved architecture. The results suggest that the proposed decellularization method was effective, fast, and reproducible and protected samples from architectural damages.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular , Medicina Regenerativa , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Octoxinol , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1345: 103-118, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582017

RESUMO

During the past decades, diverse methods have been used toward renal tissue engineering in order to replace renal function. The goals of all these techniques included the recapitulation of renal filtration, re-absorptive, and secretary functions, and replacement of endocrine/metabolic activities. It is also imperative to develop a reliable, up scalable, and timely manufacturing process. Decellularization of the kidney with intact ECM is crucial for in-vivo compatibility and targeted clinical application. Contemporarily there is an increasing interest and research in the field of regenerative medicine including stem cell therapy and tissue bioengineering in search for new and reproducible sources of kidneys. In this chapter, we sought to determine the most effective method of renal decellularization and recellularization with emphasis on biologic composition and support of stem cell growth. Current barriers and limitations of bioengineered strategies will be also discussed, and strategies to overcome these are suggested.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Matriz Extracelular , Rim/fisiologia , Medicina Regenerativa
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1345: 153-160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582021

RESUMO

The vagina is a fibromuscular elastic tubular tract that connects the cervix with the outer genitals and has an important function discharging uterine secretions, sexual intercourse and acts as the passage for the full-term fetus. Currently, a new field of investigation which aims to design tissues and organs similar to their native origin has been developed recently and was named regenerative medicine (tissue engineering and bioengineering). Malformations in cervix tissue represent a hard challenge for medicine. Experts in bioengineering have tried to reconstruct vaginas or cervix with the aim to achieve cervicovaginal disorders, most of them with congenital cause. However, only few research groups have launched themselves upon the decellularization. The aim of this chapter is investigating the decellularization methods for cervix and vaginal tissues.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Engenharia Tecidual , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa , Útero , Vagina
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1345: 225-239, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582026

RESUMO

Decellularization technology is a process that uses different methods such as physical, chemical or enzymatic methods in order to eliminate cellular remnants from original tissues or organs while minimizing any adverse effect on the structural properties, biological activity, and mechanical integrity of the remaining ECM. Regenerative medicine uses the most promising therapies to replace or regenerate tissues and organs in human, restore or establish normal functions lost due to disease or injury. By the combination between new biomaterials and cells, one of the goals of regenerative medicine is to create autologous grafts for transplantation therapies in the future.Various decellularization methods have been developed include chemical treatment, biological treatment and physical treatment. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the decellularization method and all available materials that preserves the matrix without structural disruption.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Osso e Ossos , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa
8.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440728

RESUMO

Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicles, produced within multivesicular bodies, that are then released into the extracellular space through a merging of the multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. These vesicles are secreted by almost all cell types to aid in a vast array of cellular functions, including intercellular communication, cell differentiation and proliferation, angiogenesis, stress response, and immune signaling. This ability to contribute to several distinct processes is due to the complexity of exosomes, as they carry a multitude of signaling moieties, including proteins, lipids, cell surface receptors, enzymes, cytokines, transcription factors, and nucleic acids. The favorable biological properties of exosomes including biocompatibility, stability, low toxicity, and proficient exchange of molecular cargos make exosomes prime candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Exploring the functions and molecular payloads of exosomes can facilitate tissue regeneration therapies and provide mechanistic insight into paracrine modulation of cellular activities. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of exosome biogenesis, composition, and isolation methods. We also discuss emerging healing properties of exosomes and exosomal cargos, such as microRNAs, in brain injuries, cardiovascular disease, and COVID-19 amongst others. Overall, this review highlights the burgeoning roles and potential applications of exosomes in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa , Animais , Exossomos/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445063

RESUMO

It is our pleasure to announce the publication of the Special Issue "Regeneration for Spinal Diseases" in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS, ISSN 1422-0067) [...].


Assuntos
Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Regeneração , Medicina Regenerativa , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
10.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(9): 4371-4387, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460238

RESUMO

The role of ultrasound in medicine and biological sciences is expanding rapidly beyond its use in conventional diagnostic imaging. Numerous studies have reported the effects of ultrasound on cellular and tissue physiology. Advances in instrumentation and electronics have enabled successful in vivo applications of therapeutic ultrasound. Despite path breaking advances in understanding the biophysical and biological mechanisms at both microscopic and macroscopic scales, there remain substantial gaps. With the progression of research in this area, it is important to take stock of the current understanding of the field and to highlight important areas for future work. We present herein key developments in the biological applications of ultrasound especially in the context of nanoparticle delivery, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine. We conclude with a brief perspective on the current promise, limitations, and future directions for interfacing ultrasound technology with biological systems, which could provide guidance for future investigations in this interdisciplinary area.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Terapia por Ultrassom , Medicina Regenerativa , Ultrassonografia
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4672959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368346

RESUMO

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a significant regenerative therapy used alone or combined mainly with stem cells, autologous fat grafts, hyaluronic acid, and biomaterials in a variety of medical fields, especially in hair regrowth, wound healing, and sports and rehabilitation medicine. However, the results obtained with this biologic therapy are heterogeneous and conflicting. The observed disparities in the effectiveness of PRP therapies may be due to a lack of standardization in blood processing and preparation. This article is aimed at reviewing the main biological parameters that need to be documented for a thorough reporting of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the PRP injected, to allow a comparison between the quality of samples and the clinically obtained results and advance the efforts towards treatment standardization.


Assuntos
Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Controle de Qualidade , Medicina Esportiva , Cicatrização
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5027, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413311

RESUMO

Engineered living materials (ELMs) based on bacterial cellulose (BC) offer a promising avenue for cheap-to-produce materials that can be programmed with genetically encoded functionalities. Here we explore how ELMs can be fabricated in a modular fashion from millimetre-scale biofilm spheroids grown from shaking cultures of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus. Here we define a reproducible protocol to produce BC spheroids with the high yield bacterial cellulose producer K. rhaeticus and demonstrate for the first time their potential for their use as building blocks to grow ELMs in 3D shapes. Using genetically engineered K. rhaeticus, we produce functionalized BC spheroids and use these to make and grow patterned BC-based ELMs that signal within a material and can sense and report on chemical inputs. We also investigate the use of BC spheroids as a method to regenerate damaged BC materials and as a way to fuse together smaller material sections of cellulose and synthetic materials into a larger piece. This work improves our understanding of BC spheroid formation and showcases their great potential for fabricating, patterning and repairing ELMs based on the promising biomaterial of bacterial cellulose.


Assuntos
Acetobacteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bioengenharia/métodos , Biofilmes , Celulose/química , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Acetobacteraceae/química , Acetobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Celulose/isolamento & purificação
13.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439807

RESUMO

Regenerative medicine is a dynamically developing field of human and veterinary medicine. The animal model was most commonly used for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment in experimental and preclinical studies with a satisfactory therapeutic effect. Year by year, the need for alternative treatments in veterinary medicine is increasing, and other applications for promising MSCs and their biological derivatives are constantly being sought. There is also an increase in demand for other methods of treating disease states, of which the classical treatment methods did not bring the desired results. Cell therapy can be a realistic option for treating human and animal diseases in the near future and therefore additional research is needed to optimize cell origins, numbers, or application methods in order to standardize the treatment process and assess its effects. The aim of the following work was to summarize available knowledge about stem cells in veterinary medicine and their possible application in the treatment of chosen musculoskeletal disorders in dogs and horses.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/veterinária , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/veterinária , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Cães , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/imunologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Placenta/citologia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/imunologia
14.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 710: 109002, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352243

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common painful disease with chronic articular cartilage degeneration. The pathological process of OA is complex and characterized by the imbalance between the synthesis and catabolism of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix, leading to the progressive destruction of articular cartilage damage. Because of the self-renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), various exogenous MSC-based cell therapies have been developed to treat OA. Moreover, the efficacy of MSC- based therapy is mainly attributed to the paracrine of cytokines, growth factors, and exosomes. Exosomes derived from MSCs can deliver various DNAs, RNAs, proteins and lipids, thus promoting MSCs migration and cartilage repair. Therefore, MSC-derived exosomes are considered as a promising alternative therapy for OA. In this review, we summarized properties of MSC-derived exosomes and the new role of MSC-derived exosomes in the treatment of OA. We also proposed possible perspectives of MSC-derived exosomes as cell-free regenerative reagents in the treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/transplante , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/terapia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Sistema Livre de Células , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Técnicas Genéticas , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356621

RESUMO

Dental follicle progenitor/stem cells (DFPCs) are a group of dental mesenchyme stem cells that lie in the dental follicle and play a critical role in tooth development and maintaining function. Originating from neural crest, DFPCs harbor a multipotential differentiation capacity. More importantly, they have superiorities, including the easy accessibility and abundant sources, active self-renewal ability and noncontroversial sources compared with other stem cells, making them an attractive candidate in the field of tissue engineering. Recent advances highlight the excellent properties of DFPCs in regeneration of orofacial tissues, including alveolar bone repair, periodontium regeneration and bio-root complex formation. Furthermore, they play a unique role in maintaining a favorable microenvironment for stem cells, immunomodulation and nervous related tissue regeneration. This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge of DFPCs, including their stem cell properties, physiological functions and clinical application potential. A deep understanding of DFPCs can thus inspire novel perspectives in regenerative medicine in the future.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Saco Dentário/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Regeneração/imunologia , Saco Dentário/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Medicina Regenerativa
16.
Transpl Int ; 34(9): 1588-1593, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448263

RESUMO

The generation of human mini-organs, the so-called organoids, is one of the biggest scientific advances in regenerative medicine. This technology exploits traditional three-dimensional culture techniques that support cell-autonomous self-organization responses of stem cells to derive micrometer to millimeter size versions of human organs. The convergence of the organoid technology with organ transplantation is still in its infancy but this alliance is expected to open new venues to change the way we conduct both transplant and organoid research. In this Forum we provide a summary on early achievements facilitating organoid derivation and culture. We further discuss on early advances of organoid transplantation also offering a comprehensive overview of current limitations and challenges to instruct organoid maturation. We expect that this Forum sets the ground for initial discussions between stem cell biologists, bioengineers, and the transplant community to better direct organoid basic research to advance the organ transplantation field.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Organoides , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa , Células-Tronco , Tecnologia
17.
J Vis Exp ; (174)2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424242

RESUMO

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are biological nanovesicles that play a key role in cell communication. Their content includes active biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids, which present great potential in regenerative medicine. More recently, EVs derived from Platelet Lysate (PL) have shown an osteogenic capability comparable to PL. Besides, biomaterials are frequently used in orthopedics or dental restoration. Here, we provide a method to functionalize Ti surfaces with PL-derived EVs in order to improve their osteogenic properties. EVs are isolated from PL by size exclusion chromatography, and afterward Ti surfaces are functionalized with PL-EVs by drop casting. Functionalization is proven by EVs release and its biocompatibility by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Ácidos Nucleicos , Plaquetas , Medicina Regenerativa , Titânio
18.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(4): 11-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424840

RESUMO

With the advent of additive manufacturing and a flurry of new-generation, three-dimensional (3D) printers that hit the market in the early 2000s, biomedical innovators began envisioning the technology as a way to replace damaged or diseased tissue and organs with on-demand, printed parts [1] - [3]. The path from vision to reality was not quite as quick or easy as many anticipated, but research groups today are making headway to keep the technology moving toward its goal.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Impressão Tridimensional , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Medicina Regenerativa
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445472

RESUMO

Background: Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) induces bone regeneration; however, there is low evidence supporting its efficacy in bone healing. The lack of a standardized protocol of administration represents the main obstacle to its use in the clinical routine for bone defects' treatment. The purpose of this study was to characterize PRP and elucidate its osteogenic potential. Methods: Platelet count, fibrinogen levels, and growth factors concentration were measured in PRP obtained by four apheresis procedures. HOB-01-C1, a pre-osteocytic cell line, was used to examine the effects of different PRP dilutions (from 1% to 50%) on cell viability, growth, and differentiation. Gene expression of RUNX2, PHEX, COL1A1, and OCN was also assayed. Results: PRP showed a mean 4.6-fold increase of platelets amount compared to whole blood. Among the 36 proteins evaluated, we found the highest concentrations for PDGF isoforms, EGF, TGF-ß and VEGF-D. PDGF-AA positively correlated with platelet counts. In three of the four tested units, 25% PRP induced a growth rate comparable to the positive control (10% FBS); whereas, for all the tested units, 10% PRP treatment sustained differentiation. Conclusions: This study showed that PRP from apheresis stimulates proliferation and differentiation of pre-osteocyte cells through the release of growth factors from platelets.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Osteócitos/citologia , Osteogênese , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Osteócitos/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2818624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458364

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is caused by genetics, aging, and environmental factors and is one of the leading causes of low back pain. The treatment of IDD presents many challenges. Hydrogels are biomaterials that possess properties similar to those of the natural extracellular matrix and have significant potential in the field of regenerative medicine. Hydrogels with various functional qualities have recently been used to repair and regenerate diseased intervertebral discs. Here, we review the mechanisms of intervertebral disc homeostasis and degeneration and then discuss the applications of hydrogel-mediated repair and intervertebral disc regeneration. The classification of artificial hydrogels and natural hydrogels is then briefly introduced, followed by an update on the development of functional hydrogels, which include noncellular therapeutic hydrogels, cellular therapeutic hydrogel scaffolds, responsive hydrogels, and multifunctional hydrogels. The challenges faced and future developments of the hydrogels used in IDD are discussed as they further promote their clinical translation.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Disco Intervertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Disco Intervertebral/fisiologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos
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