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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 1-11, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229021

RESUMO

A pesar de los descubrimientos recientes, los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) aún enfrentan desafíos para lograr la remisión. Los objetivos del estudio fueron identificar las características de los pacientes con el Inventario de Personalidad de Freiburg y la intensidad de la enfermedad colónica, comorbilidades que podrían estar relacionadas con la personalidad de los sujetos. Los datos se recopilaron en el período 2019-2020 de 46 pacientes y utilizaron métodos no paramétricos. En comparación con el grupo de control, las escalas de Inhibición, Problemas de salud y Emocionalidad tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Las escalas de Orientación Social, Franqueza y Extraversión tuvieron puntajes brutos significativamente más bajos. El estado de salud fue un factor médico que influyó en la escala de Quejas Somáticas, los pacientes que tenían lesiones o comorbilidades tenían puntuaciones brutas significativamente más altas. Los pacientes que tenían comorbilidades además de la EII tenían puntuaciones brutas considerablemente más altas en la escala de Excitabilidad. Se requieren intervenciones psicoterapéuticas de cambio en la percepción de la vida para abordar la descripción del sufrimiento subjetivo relacionado con molestias físicas (escala de quejas somáticas), una fuerte orientación hacia el rendimiento (escala de tensión), cambios de humor, ansiedad y pesimismo (escala de emocionalidad). Otra intervención es la reconsideración y (re)priorización de valores, como la familia, las relaciones íntimas, los amigos, la salud, el crecimiento, el desarrollo, el trabajo equilibrado, todos los cuales pueden promover una sensación de bienestar y equilibrio.(AU)


Despite recent discoveries, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still face challenges with attainment of remission. The objectives of the study were to identify the characteristics of patients with the Freiburg Personality Inventory and the intensity of the intestinal disease, comorbidities that could be related to the personality of the subjects. Data were collected in the period 2019–2020 from 46 patients and used nonparametric methods. Compared to the normative sample, the Inhibitedness, Health Concerns, and Emotionality scales had significantly higher raw scores. The Social Orientation, Frankness, and Extraversionscales had significantly lower raw scores. Health status was a medical factor that influenced the Somatic Complaintsscale, patients who had lesions or comorbidities had significantly higher raw scores. Patients who had comorbidities in addition to IBD had considerably higher raw scores on the Excitability scale. Psychotherapeutic change interventions regarding life perception are required to tackle the description of subjective suffering related to physical inconveniences (Somatic Complaintsscale), a strong orientation toward performance (Strainscale), mood swings, anxiety, and pessimism (Emotionality scale). Another intervention is reconsidering values and (re) prioritization, such as family, intimate relationships, friends, health, growth, development, balanced work, all of which can promote a feeling of well-being and balance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos , Doença de Crohn/psicologia , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Colite Ulcerativa
2.
Transl Behav Med ; 14(3): 187-188, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217523

RESUMO

Under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), current federal policy mandates a lifetime ban for individuals with a past felony drug conviction from receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits. Denying nutritional and financial assistance to individuals with a past felony conviction will widen existing structural health inequities, set back individuals' successful re-entry into society, and contribute to recidivism and poorer health outcomes. Therefore, the Society of Behavioral Medicine supports the RESTORE ACT (Re-Entry Support Through Opportunities for Resources and Essentials Act), which would repeal the lifetime ban on receiving SNAP and TANF benefits for individuals convicted of a drug felony.


Current US law bans people who have been convicted of felony drug crime from participating in nutritional and financial assistance programs (i.e. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP] and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families [TANF]). By not allowing people who have been convicted of a drug felony to access these programs, this law risks worsening health outcomes and perpetuating existing health disparities. The Society of Behavioral Medicine supports the RESTORE Act (Re-Entry Support Through Opportunities for Resources and Essentials Act), which would end the federal ban and allow all income-eligible people to access SNAP and TANF benefits.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Assistência Alimentar , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Políticas
4.
Health Psychol ; 42(12): 835-838, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032598

RESUMO

The empirical reports in this special issue of Health Psychology showcase the work of a diverse array of accomplished early-stage investigators who are members of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study consortium and who are drawn from the community of female and underrepresented scientists. Their studies focus primarily on youth assessed during preadolescence and early adolescence, and they are based on the ABCD data that were available to the scientific community at the time this special issue was being prepared (e.g., baseline, Years 1 and 2 assessments). They address a variety of questions about adolescent health behavior, such as the effects of screen time and caffeine on sleep; individual lifestyle, neighborhood, and environmental factors associated with physical health conditions and brain development; and the antecedents and consequences of prenatal and adolescent substance exposure. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Medicina do Comportamento , Criança , Gravidez , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Saúde do Adolescente , Cognição , Encéfalo
5.
Health Psychol ; 42(12): 839, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032599

RESUMO

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is the largest, long-term study of brain development and child and adolescent health that has ever been conducted in the United States. The ABCD Research Consortium is supported by the National Institutes of Health and includes a central coordinating center, a data analysis and informatics core, and 21 research sites across the country. This special issue of Health Psychology presents some important findings on adolescent health behavior that have recently emerged from the ABCD Study (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Medicina do Comportamento , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde do Adolescente , Pesquisa Comportamental , Bases de Dados Factuais
6.
Health Psychol ; 42(9): 625-627, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37589700

RESUMO

Health equity is the aspirational assurance of optimal health for all. Synonymous with fair and just opportunities for physical and mental health, equity work reflects intentional efforts to remove access barriers and allocate high-quality, need-based resources. Health equity is not possible without meaningful reductions in disparities-and evaluating progress goes further to describe, assess, and continuously evaluate fairness and social justice within structures, community contexts, and healthcare. The National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) has a longstanding and deep commitment to advancing health equity. This article describes efforts in two specific areas: workforce diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) and scientific initiatives. We also summarize five actionable strategies for health equity promotion in health psychology-relevant research and practice, including increasing workforce DEI, inclusive research participation, cultural competence and humility, applying community-engaged research principles, and going beyond "do no harm." Meaningful equity work often requires major shifts in approaches, dedicated resources, and targeted efforts toward social justice. The current emphasis on addressing health disparities and understanding the structural factors underlying them presents unequivocal opportunities for changes in clinical practice and research. NIMHD seeks to support innovative health psychology and behavioral medicine research with the potential to transform health via effective and equitable interventions/treatments, systems changes, and policies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Terapia Comportamental , Pesquisa Comportamental , Competência Cultural
7.
Health Psychol ; 42(8): 511-515, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37486374

RESUMO

This is an introduction to the special issue "Vaccine Hesitancy and Refusal." This special issue of Health Psychology examines various aspects of vaccine hesitancy using a health psychology lens. The timing of this issue, following a call for papers issued in the summer of 2021, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, is reflected in the focus on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the papers included here. This is important, as the field of vaccine hesitancy research has expanded greatly in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As of March 2, 2023, a search of PubMed for "vaccine hesitancy" yielded 5,635 papers, dating back to 1968. A similar search for "COVID vaccine hesitancy" yielded 3,851 papers, starting in 2020. This highlights the need for new and novel theory-based interventions that can be broadly applicable to hesitancy to other routine vaccinations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pandemias , Vacinação
8.
Transl Behav Med ; 13(11): 809-816, 2023 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37432369

RESUMO

Six years ago, we published a paper describing the Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) health policy organizational leadership structure and policy initiatives. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an update on changes in the infrastructure and new policy initiatives that have been developed since 2017. We review each of the policy leadership arms of SBM including details of the work of each and goals for the future. The SBM engages in several health policy advocacy efforts through their Advocacy Council and Position Statements Committee. The Advocacy Council launched the Health Policy Ambassador Program in 2020. The Ambassador Program serves to train members to develop longer-term relationships with legislative staff around key policy priority areas. The Position Statements Committee is responsible for overseeing the development and dissemination of health policy position statements. Both groups work together and with partner organizations to increase the impact of our science. Over the last 6 years, developing a stronger infrastructure and implementing metrics for progress such as tracking social media engagement has helped to move SBM's policy agenda forward. The work of the policy-related leadership teams can serve as a model for other organizations who are interested in further developing their policy advocacy efforts.


The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) engages in several health policy advocacy efforts through their Advocacy Council and Position Statements Committee. The Advocacy Council launch the Health Policy Ambassador Program in 2020. The Ambassador Program serves to train members to develop longer-term relationships with legislative staff around key policy priority areas. The Position Statements Committee is responsible for overseeing the development and dissemination of health policy position statements. Both groups work together and with partner organizations to increase the impact of our science. Over the last 6 years, developing a stronger infrastructure and implementing metrics for progress has helped to move SBM's policy agenda forward. The work of the policy-related leadership teams can serve as a model for other organizations who are interested in further developing their policy advocacy efforts.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Sociedades , Política de Saúde
9.
Health Psychol ; 42(11): 778-787, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37410423

RESUMO

Mediation analysis has been widely applied to explain why and assess the extent to which an exposure or treatment has an impact on the outcome in health psychology studies. Identifying a mediator or assessing the impact of a mediator has been the focus of many scientific investigations. This tutorial aims to introduce causal mediation analysis with binary exposure, mediator, and outcome variables, with a focus on the resampling and weighting methods, under the potential outcomes framework for estimating natural direct and indirect effects. We emphasize the importance of the temporal order of the study variables and the elimination of confounding. We define the causal effects in a hypothesized causal mediation chain in the context of one exposure, one mediator, and one outcome variable, all of which are binary variables. Two commonly used and actively maintained R packages, mediation and medflex, were used to analyze a motivating example. R code examples for implementing these methods are provided. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos , Análise de Mediação , Causalidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37297586

RESUMO

Liminality was described more than 20 years ago as a major category explaining how cancer is experienced. Since then, it has been widely used in the field of oncology research, particularly by those using qualitative methods to study patient experience. This body of work has great potential to illuminate the subjective dimensions of life and death with cancer. However, the review also reveals a tendency for sporadic and opportunistic applications of the concept of liminality. Rather than being developed in a systematic way, liminality theory is being recurrently 're-discovered' in relatively isolated studies, mostly within the realm of qualitative studies of 'patient experience'. This limits the capacity of this approach to influence oncological theory and practice. In providing a theoretically informed critical review of liminality literature in the field of oncology, this paper proposes ways of systematizing liminality research in line with a processual ontology. In so doing, it argues for a closer engagement with the source theory and data, and with more recent liminality theory, and it sketches the broad epistemological consequences and applications.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Oncologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Conhecimento
11.
Patient Educ Couns ; 114: 107851, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37329725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with asplenia have an increased lifelong risk of severe infections especially post splenectomy sepsis with hospital mortality rates of 30-50%. Adherence to existing guidelines for preventive measures is low. Objective of the study is the evaluation of a novel intervention to increase health psychological outcomes in patients with asplenia resulting in better adherence to preventive measures. METHODS: The intervention was evaluated by conducting a prospective, two-armed historical control group design via propensity score analysis. Focus are health-psychological outcomes: self-efficacy, intention, risk perception, behaviour planning, self-management, health literacy, patient involvement and disease-knowledge. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group (N = 110) showed a higher increase in almost all outcomes compared to a historical control group (N = 115). The strongest increase was observed in "asplenia-specific self-management" (average treatment effect: ATE 1.14 [95% CI 0.91-1.36] p < .001) and "asplenia-specific health-literacy" (ATE 1.42 [95% CI 1.18-1.65] p < .001). Significant intervention effects were also found in behaviour planning, perceived involvement and disease-knowledge. CONCLUSION: The patient-focused intervention is effective in improving health-psychological outcomes in patients with asplenia. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The implementation of the intervention can make an important contribution to care and lead to an improvement of health-psychological outcomes that may result in a higher adherence to prevention measures.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pontuação de Propensão , Autoeficácia
12.
S Afr Med J ; 113(6): 8-9, 2023 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37278265

RESUMO

South Africa is confronted with multi-morbid chronic physical and mental disorders. The relationships between these conditions are often multidirectional and result in a variety of adverse mental and physical health outcomes. The risk factors and perpetuating conditions in multi-morbidity are potentially modifiable through effective behaviour change. However, in South Africa, interventions and clinical care that address these co-occurring factors have traditionally functioned in a vacuum, created by a lack of formalised multidisciplinary collaboration. In high-income settings, the field of Behavioural Medicine was established in recognition of the importance of psychosocial factors in illness and assumes that the presence of physical concerns can be influenced by psychological and behavioural factors. The large body of evidence supporting Behavioural Medicine has afforded the field global recognition. Yet, it remains an emerging field in South Africa and on the African continent. The purpose of this paper is to contextualise the field of Behavioural Medicine in South Africa and present a way forward to establish the field in our context.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Comorbidade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Phys Ther ; 103(5)2023 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37249532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A behavioral medicine approach, incorporating a biopsychosocial view and behavior change techniques, is recommended in physical therapy for the management of musculoskeletal pain. However, little is known about physical therapists' actual practice behavior regarding the behavioral medicine approach. The aim of this study was to examine how physical therapists in primary health care judge their own practice behavior of a behavioral medicine approach in the assessment and treatment of patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain versus how they practice a behavioral medicine approach as observed by independent experts in video recordings of patient consultations. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Video recordings of 23 physical therapists' clinical behavior in 139 patient consultations were observed by independent experts and compared with the physical therapists' self-reported practice behavior, using a protocol including 24 clinical behaviors. The difference between observed and self-reported clinical behaviors was analyzed with a Chi-square test and a Fisher exact test. RESULTS: The behavioral medicine approach was, in general, practiced to a small extent and half of the self-reported clinical behaviors were overestimated when compared with the observed behaviors. According to the observations, the physical perspective dominated in assessment and treatment, the functional behavioral analysis was never performed, and the mean number of behavior change techniques used was 0.7. CONCLUSION: There was a discrepancy between how physical therapists perceived the extent to which they practiced a behavioral medicine approach in their clinical behavior compared with what the independent researchers observed in the video recordings. IMPACT: This study demonstrates the importance of using observations instead of using self-reports when evaluating professionals' clinical behavior. The results also suggest that-to ensure that physical therapy integrates the biopsychosocial model of health-physical therapists need to increase their focus on psychosocial factors in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Dor Musculoesquelética , Fisioterapeutas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia Comportamental
15.
Ann Behav Med ; 57(10): 846-854, 2023 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37084792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a widely used measure designed to assess perceptions of recent stress. However, it is unclear to what extent the construct assessed by the PSS represents factors that are stable versus variable within individuals, and how these components might vary over time. PURPOSE: Determine the degree to which variability in repeated PSS assessments is attributable to between-person versus within-person variance in two different studies and populations. METHODS: Secondary analyses utilized data from two studies with up to 13 PSS assessments: An observational study of 127 patients with heart failure followed over 39 months (Study 1), and an experimental study of 73 younger, healthy adults followed over 12 months (Study 2). Multilevel linear mixed modeling was used to estimate sources of variance in the PSS total and subscale scores across assessments. RESULTS: Between-person variance accounted for a large proportion of the total variance in PSS total scores in Study 1 (42.3%) and Study 2 (51.1%); within-person variance comprised the remainder. Between-person variance was higher for shorter assessment periods (e.g., 1 week), and was comparable when examining only the first 12 months of assessments in each study (52.9% vs. 51.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Within two samples differing in age and health status, between-person variance accounted for approximately half of the total variation in PSS scores over time. While within-person variance was observed, the construct assessed by the PSS may substantially reflect a more stable characteristic of how an individual perceives stressful life circumstances than previously appreciated.


The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a widely used questionnaire designed to assess how an individual perceives recent stress in their life. It is unclear, however, the degree to which the PSS is measuring factors that are consistent within individuals versus those that fluctuate, and how these components might change when the PSS is administered repeatedly over time. To address this knowledge gap, data from two studies were used­a study of 137 patients with heart failure followed for 39 months and a study of 73 younger, healthy adults followed for 12 months. In each, participants completed up to 13 PSS assessments, with 2,880 total PSS assessments completed across the studies. Multilevel linear mixed modeling was used to examine sources of score variance across assessments. Between-person variance (i.e., score variability that is relatively stable over time but differs between individuals) accounted for approximately half of the total variation in PSS scores over time, and was higher over shorter assessment periods. While within-person variance was observed (i.e., score variability that fluctuates within the same individual over time), these results suggest that the PSS may assess a substantially more stable characteristic of how an individual perceives stressful life circumstances than previously appreciated.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Adulto , Humanos , Psicometria , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Psychosom Med ; 85(4): 298-307, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010234

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Open Science practices include some combination of registering and publishing study protocols (including hypotheses, primary and secondary outcome variables, and analysis plans) and making available preprints of manuscripts, study materials, de-identified data sets, and analytic codes. This statement from the Behavioral Medicine Research Council (BMRC) provides an overview of these methods, including preregistration; registered reports; preprints; and open research. We focus on rationales for engaging in Open Science and how to address shortcomings and possible objections. Additional resources for researchers are provided. Research on Open Science largely supports positive consequences for the reproducibility and reliability of empirical science. There is no solution that will encompass all Open Science needs in health psychology and behavioral medicine's diverse research products and outlets, but the BMRC supports increased use of Open Science practices where possible.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa Comportamental , Editoração
18.
Ann Behav Med ; 57(5): 357-367, 2023 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010262

RESUMO

Open Science practices include some combination of registering and publishing study protocols (including hypotheses, primary and secondary outcome variables, and analysis plans) and making available preprints of manuscripts, study materials, de-identified data sets, and analytic codes. This statement from the Behavioral Medicine Research Council (BMRC) provides an overview of these methods, including preregistration; registered reports; preprints; and open research. We focus on rationales for engaging in Open Science and how to address shortcomings and possible objections. Additional resources for researchers are provided. Research on Open Science largely supports positive consequences for the reproducibility and reliability of empirical science. There is no solution that will encompass all Open Science needs in health psychology and behavioral medicine's diverse research products and outlets, but the BMRC supports increased use of Open Science practices where possible.


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Editoração , Pesquisa Comportamental
20.
Health Psychol ; 42(5): 287-298, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37011155

RESUMO

Open Science practices include some combination of registering and publishing study protocols (including hypotheses, primary and secondary outcome variables, and analysis plans) and making available preprints of manuscripts, study materials, de-identified data sets, and analytic codes. This statement from the Behavioral Medicine Research Council (BMRC) provides an overview of these methods, including preregistration; registered reports; preprints; and open research. We focus on rationales for engaging in Open Science and how to address shortcomings and possible objections. Additional resources for researchers are provided. Research on Open Science largely supports positive consequences for the reproducibility and reliability of empirical science. There is no solution that will encompass all Open Science needs in health psychology and behavioral medicine's diverse research products and outlets, but the BMRC supports increased use of Open Science practices where possible. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Editoração , Pesquisa Comportamental
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