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1.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(2): 67-71, 16 ene., 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187249

RESUMO

Introducción: Las alucinaciones visuales constituyen una de las manifestaciones más singulares de diversas situaciones clínicas, ya sea en el ámbito de las enfermedades mentales, de las alteraciones físicas o del consumo de drogas. Sin embargo, el análisis detallado de su vivencia en relación con las causas que pueden producirlas es poco frecuente. Objetivo: Considerar la representación de las alucinaciones visuales en las publicaciones del neurólogo y escritor Oliver Sacks, con especial atención a su obra Hallucinations. Desarrollo: Las alucinaciones han llamado la atención de la cultura, la religión y el arte, lo que ha conllevado múltiples interpretaciones. El interés de Sacks por la percepción de las sensaciones le llevó a investigar los mecanismos por los que se producen las alucinaciones, debido al escaso conocimiento que se tenía sobre el tema. Las alucinaciones aparecieron ya en obras como Migraine, Awakenings o A leg to stand on. En Musicophilia abordó las alucinaciones auditivas, y en Hallucinations las consideró de forma monográfica. En esta última obra, Sacks analizó especialmente las presentes en el síndrome de Charles Bonnet, en situaciones de privación sensorial y en pacientes con epilepsia, las precipitadas por la levodopa y las causadas por drogas de abuso. Conclusiones: Hallucinations es una de las obras de Oliver Sacks con mayor contenido neurooftalmológico. La descripción de las alucinaciones de sus pacientes o las experimentadas en su propia piel y la reflexión sobre el mundo de la percepción hacen de Hallucinations una de las obras más fascinantes de Sacks


Introduction: Hallucinations are one of the most bizarre experiences in several diseases. They appear in mental diseases as well as in physical illnesses and may be the consequence of the usage of drugs of abuse. However, a detailed analysis of how patients feel under hallucinations caused by different diseases is uncommon. Aim: This article analyses how visual hallucinations are considered in the works of the neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks, with special attention to his book Hallucinations. Development: Hallucinations have been under consideration by culture, religion and arts, which has led to multiple interpretations. Sackss interest in perception of sensations led him to work on the analysis of hallucinations, given the limited knowledge on the topic. References to hallucinations appeared in several of his books like Migraine, Awakenings and A leg to stand on. In Musicophilia Sacks approached the auditory hallucinations and in Hallucinations he considered them in depth. In the latter work, Sacks analyses especially those present in Charles Bonnet syndrome, in situations of sensory deprivation, in patients with epilesy, those present during treatment with levodopa and those caused by drug of abuse. Conclusions: Hallucinations is one of Sacks’s books with greater neuroophthalmological content. The descriptions of the hallucinations of his patients or those experienced by himself, as well as the reflective analysis on the world of perception make this book one of the most fascinating works of Oliver Sacks


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , Alucinações/história , Neurologia/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Alucinógenos/história , Literatura/história
4.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(3): 353-357, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859754

RESUMO

Surely Thomas Mann is today a forgotten writer, with only a little and selected group of readers between our young colleagues. However, perhaps could be useful for the others some knowledge about his vision of the infectious diseases in the first half of the twentieth century, when he wrote the novels here reviewed. Typhoid fever, meningitis, syphilis, tuberculosis and cholera are present in Mann's thematic from Buddenbrooks till Doktor Faustus, always with a personal focus, more on spirit -the will to live- rather than flesh and bones... or bacteria. One of his lasts and minor works let us throw an ironical glance over transplant, no so named, indeed, by Mann, who speaks of "exchange". In this second part we present tuberculosis, cholera and…transplant.


Assuntos
Cólera/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Transplantes/história , Tuberculose/história , História do Século XX
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , História do Século XV , Humanos
9.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 1-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402341

RESUMO

In her 1926 essay On Being Ill, Virginia Woolf explores the "poverty of the language" in matters of illness and uncovers a lexical rift between patients and caregivers-one that continues to trouble contemporary medical culture. Even as her essay exposes and deplores the sick room's scant lexicon, Woolf herself worked to address these shortcomings throughout her career, steadily crafting a wider and more capacious vocabulary for illness. Such a language, she felt, could heighten the patient's ability to articulate the sensory nuances of illness and, in so doing, foster empathy for the ill. In arguing for the patient's expressive autonomy and advancing new models of humane caregiving, Woolf's writings and nascent lexicography anticipate the rise of narrative medicine in the twenty-first century.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Idioma , Medicina na Literatura , Medicina Narrativa , Empatia , Humanos
10.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 26-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402342

RESUMO

Virginia Woolf's On Being Ill (1926) is the first published essay in English on illness in literature. Historically neglected, in recent years rising popular and academic interest in the intersection of illness and the arts has led to a rediscovery of sorts, exemplified by its republication by Paris Press in 2002 and 2012. And yet, in spite of this surge in attention, contemporary writers and scholars routinely undervalue the scope of Woolf's argument about illness and its literary representation. By placing On Being Ill within a wider context of writing and reading illness in the modern and contemporary period, my study opens up hitherto unexplored dimensions of the essay, arguing for a more expansive understanding of the critical and creative interventions it seeks to make, and a new appreciation of its relevance to present day debates around the meaning and value of illness in literature.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , Redação
11.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 67-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402343

RESUMO

This article explores the representation of Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's disease in the television series The Good Wife and The Michael J. Fox Show. We suggest that serial narration offers intriguing ways to rethink the function and meaning of narratives in health contexts, and that the episodic narrative form of television series may afford insights into the structure of medical encounters. Specifically, we examine to what extent serial narration, with its focus on continuity and repetition, might help reimagine the typical narrative of decline, which is implicit in the terminology of neurodegeneration, as well as the narrative of (premature) closure or finitude that often accompanies a diagnosis such as Parkinson's disease. With the dual perspective of a literature and film researcher and a medical practitioner specializing in neurology, we bring serial narration into conversation with the representation of chronic illness and disability on one hand and actual clinical encounters on the other.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Pessoas com Deficiência , Televisão , Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 96-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402344

RESUMO

Grounded in analyses of two graphic memoirs, Ellen Forney's Marbles: Mania, Depression, Michelangelo and Me and Allie Brosh's "Depression (Parts One & Two)," this article draws from Sara Ahmed's 2006 book, Queer Phenomenology: Objects, Orientations, Others, in order to theorize the "queer phenomenology" of what gets called depression within many Western psychiatric, medical, and cultural discourses. Arguing that queer desires orient the subject away from (hetero)normative objects (or "happy objects," as Ahmed calls them, because they promise a life of happiness), Queer Phenomenology suggests that the subsequent turn toward queer objects produces feelings of dis-orientation in the subject. Noting the similarities between Ahmed's idea of queer disorientations and my own disorienting experiences of depression, this essay posits that depression similarly constitutes a turn away from"happy objects" andtoward objects which, through their newfound prominence in the depressed person's life, may appear as strange or even queer.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Medicina na Literatura , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos
13.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 113-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402345

RESUMO

This essay explores how phobia emerged as a familiar medical diagnostic in the United States and Atlantic world in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Before phobia developed into a variable suffix that could attach to different objects and ideas, its meaning took shape in literature on rabies. Until the late 1800s, the common name for rabies among English speakers was hydrophobia. Transliterated from the Greek, the term was used to designate a dread of liquids, prompted by difficulties in swallowing-a symptom doctors considered the most familiar form the disease took. By the late eighteenth century a diagnostic twist had taken effect: many physicians agreed that one could acquire hydrophobia without being bitten. Doctors called this subspecies "spontaneous hydrophobia." This article argues that phobia's variability as a concept grew in dialogue with case studies documenting the phenomenon of spontaneous rabies.


Assuntos
Emoções , Medicina Narrativa , Transtornos Fóbicos , Raiva , Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Estados Unidos
14.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 141-165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402346

RESUMO

With its focus on genetics, the mutant body, and social discrimination, the X-Men franchise explores themes pertinent to the health humanities. The 2017 film Logan sharpens this focus and presents a world that echoes many current social, political, and bioethical anxieties. In the film, as a result of widescale eugenics, natural-born mutants are on the verge of extinction while genetically engineered mutants are secretly manufactured as weapons. In this paper, we explore the theme of boundaries in order to examine various intersections in Logan, including the corporeal boundlessness of dying mutants, the transgressive exploits of biotechnology, the permeability of national borders, and the unbounded potential embodied by the remnants of mutantkind. The multi-vocal nature of our approach reflects the respective perspectives of our authors as well as the rich array of topical interpretive lenses which Logan invites, offering a powerful pedagogical tool to the health humanities, bioethics, and other disciplines.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura , Mutação , Eugenia (Ciência) , Humanos
15.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 196-218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402348

RESUMO

This paper builds on simultaneous calls for a critical health humanities that engages with the complexities and difficulties of imaginative literature and with structural injustice, rather than straightforward formulations of interpersonal empathy. I take Ruth Ozeki's A Tale for the Time Being (2013) as a case study for suggesting that attention to difficulty and disconnection in literary engagement is a critical methodology that can model and make visceral the challenges of empathy and structural consideration as processes that are deeply enmeshed in one another. Ozeki's novel depicts illness experience as a bodily state that is enfolded into the formulation of ethical responsiveness to both intimate and globally-connected others. The novel constructs these embodied processes as ones that fundamentally involve dislocation and incoherence. Embodied and ethical limitations beyond straightforward characterizations of pathology are thus also the ground for responding differently to intimate and global concerns both within and beyond the clinic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Bullying , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Medicina na Literatura , Psicologia do Adolescente , Redação
16.
Lit Med ; 37(1): 219-240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402349

RESUMO

While New Materialism and Object Oriented Ontology have provided frameworks to consider human relationships to nonhuman beings and objects in the twenty-first century, scientists and authors explored similar ethical dilemmas brought about by the newly identified presence of microorganisms in what had previously been imagined as a human world at the turn of the twentieth century. This essay considers Mark Twain's later fiction alongside the work of American bacteriologist Herbert W. Conn. Already invested in undermining human exceptionalism through scalar differences in his Mysterious Stranger manuscripts (1897-1908), Twain adapts Conn's bacteriology to experiment with microbial ethics in Three Thousand Years Among the Microbes (1905). While Conn uses microbes to assert scientific mastery and professional authority, Twain uses them to experiment with ethical structures on nonhuman scales. I argue that the failures of Twain's imaginative experiment dramatize the practical challenges to radically inclusive ethical structures proposed by New Materialists and others.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Bacteriologia , Ética , Medicina na Literatura
17.
Med Humanit ; 45(2): 124-130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289218

RESUMO

In her lead article in this special issue, Monica Greco (2018) offers the concept of participating bodies as a 'possibility of conceiving bodies themselves-and bodily events such as disease/illness-as expressing values and perhaps even socially meaningful "preferences"'. Such a position seeks to avoid capitulation to a) an image of bodily processes as without values or responsiveness, object rather than participant; b) an image of human agents as unitary, self-knowing, sovereign choosers-unless ill. This article will explore this perspective as applied to the idea of coping. The article will explore strategies of everyday living, through particular consideration of Lauren Berlant's reading of Two Girls, Fat and Thin by Mary Gaitskill. In her interpretation of the novel, Berlant assesses the kinds of problems for subjects and bodies that may be solved or managed through participation in or refraining from participation in thinking, food or sex. The account of coping and embodiment in Berlant's reflections will then be placed in dialogue with findings by Alexandra Michel, who watched the process of physical burnout in investment banking associates during a 13-year cultural ethnography, observing as the bankers heeded or ignored the cues their bodies gave about the limits of feasible demands. The article as a whole offers an illustration of the value of Greco's reflections for offering a fresh and valuable perspective on the concept of coping.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Medicina na Literatura , Filosofia Médica , Humanos
18.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 449-453, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite United States national learning objectives referencing research fundamentals and the critical appraisal of medical literature, many paramedic programs are not meeting these objectives with substantive content. PROBLEM: The objective was to develop and implement a journal club educational module for paramedic training programs, which is all-inclusive and could be distributed to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators and EMS medical directors to use as a framework to adapt to their program. METHODS: Four two-hour long journal club sessions were designed. First, the educator provided students with four types of articles on a student-chosen topic and discussed differences in methodology and structures. Next, after a lecture about peer-review, students used search engines to verify references of a trade magazine article. Third, the educator gave a statistics lecture and critiqued the results section of several articles found by students on a topic. Finally, students found an article on a topic of personal interest and presented it to their classmates, as if telling their paramedic partner about it at work. Before and after the series, students from two cohorts (2017, 2018) completed a survey with questions about demographics and perceptions of research. Students from one cohort (2017) received a follow-up survey one year later. RESULTS: For the 2016 cohort, 13 students participated and provided qualitative feedback. For the 2017 and 2018 cohorts, 33 students participated. After the series, there was an increased self-reported ability to find, evaluate, and apply medical research articles, as well as overall positive trending opinions of participating in and the importance of prehospital research. This ability was demonstrated by every student during the final journal club session. McNemar's and Related-Samples Cochran's Q testing of questionnaire responses suggested a statistically significant improvement in student approval of exceptions from informed consent. CONCLUSION: The framework for this paramedic journal club series could be adapted by EMS educators and medical directors to enable paramedics to search for, critically appraise, and discuss the findings of medical literature.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Currículo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Medicina na Literatura , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Amostragem , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
19.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(2): 190-194, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344155

RESUMO

Surely, Thomas Mann is today a forgotten writer, with only a little and precious group of readers between our young colleagues. However, perhaps could be useful for the others some knowledge about his vision of the infectious diseases in the first half of the twentieth century, when he wrote the novels here reviewed. Typhoid fever, meningitis, tuberculosis, syphilis and cholera are present in Mann's thematic from Buddenbrooks till Doktor Faustus, always with a personal focus, more on spirit -the will to live - rather than on flesh and bones… or bacteria. One of his later and minor works let us throw an ironical glance over transplant, no so named, indeed, by Mann, who speaks of "exchange". In this first part we present typhoid fever, meningitis and syphilis.


Assuntos
Medicina na Literatura/história , Meningite/história , Sífilis/história , Febre Tifoide/história , História do Século XX
20.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 69(2): 77-86, 16 jul., 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184018

RESUMO

Introducción. La parálisis cerebral se define como un grupo de trastornos del desarrollo del movimiento y la postura que limitan la actividad de la persona, que se deben a alteraciones no progresivas que se produjeron en el cerebro fetal o infantil en desarrollo en los primeros años de vida y que se acompaña con frecuencia de epilepsia, alteraciones cognitivas, sensoriales, de la comunicación o el comportamiento. La parálisis cerebral se ha mostrado en la literatura, el cine y la televisión, y este estudio tiene por objetivo conocer cómo se ha representado en estos medios. Desarrollo. La parálisis cerebral se ha representado en la literatura, el cine y la televisión de manera exhaustiva y con mayor o menor acierto. Se ha mostrado la sintomatología, las vivencias de pacientes, familiares y cuidadores, los tratamientos, los productos de apoyo, las barreras arquitectónicas o las relaciones sociales y laborales. En ocasiones, la representación se ha realizado de forma muy ajustada a la realidad, mientras que en otros casos se han amplificado los aspectos más dramáticos para dar consistencia a la trama. Conclusiones. La parálisis cerebral se ha representado ampliamente en obras de ficción y testimonio, cómics, películas, cortometrajes, documentales y series de televisión, en ocasiones de manera muy realista, mientras que en otras se ha podido contribuir a incrementar el estigma ofreciendo una visión distorsionada de la realidad, pero que en cualquier caso han contribuido a dar visibilidad a este cuadro patológico


Introduction. Cerebral palsy is defined as a group of developmental disorders affecting movement and posture that limit a person's activity. They due to non-progressive alterations that occurred in the developing foetal or infant brain in the early years of life and are often accompanied by epilepsy and cognitive, sensory, communication or behavioural disorders. Cerebral palsy has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television, and this study aims to explore how it has been represented in these media. Development. Cerebral palsy has frequently been represented in literature, cinema and television and with varying degrees of realism. The symptoms, the experiences of patients, relatives and caregivers, treatments, supporting products, architectural barriers or social and labour relations have all been portrayed. Sometimes they have been represented in a way that is very close to reality, while in other cases the most dramatic aspects have been amplified to add to the plot. Conclusions. Cerebral palsy has been widely represented in works of fiction and testimonies, comics, films, short films, documentaries and television series, sometimes in a very realistic way, while in others it has been done in a way that may increase the stigma surrounding this condition by offering a distorted vision of reality. Nevertheless, in any event they have helped to make this condition more visible


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Filmes Cinematográficos , Televisão , Paralisia Cerebral
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