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J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 11, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245738


The Homeric plant moly is a mysterious herb mentioned in Book 10 of the Odyssey. In the early 1980s, a pharmacological thesis to identify the plant was put forward for the first time, regarding the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.) as candidate species. The proposal was inspired by the snowdrop's acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting properties and its alleged morphological reminiscence to other plants called moly by ancient Greek herbalists. Here, we draw from a compilation of literature from various disciplines, together with an understanding of the Homeric epic as a repository of information based on oral traditions, to (i) show that the assimilation of Homer's moly to Galanthus nivalis is, at the very least, questionable and (ii) frame and support a new synthesis of the pharmacological thesis. We suggest that the uncertainty that revolves around the identity of Homer's moly can be tied to an unnamed phylogenetic clade of closely related Mediterranean native species with AChE-inhibiting properties. Further, we speculate that Homer's moly might represent an early record of an ethnobotanical complex, a sort of cultural taxon resulting from the cognitive crossbreeding of closely related taxonomic species that could have been interchangeably used due to their rough resemblance and common AChE-inhibiting properties. Such cultural taxon would have referred to the phytonym moly by the centuries-old oral traditions that ultimately crystallized in the poem. We also venture that sea daffodils (Pancratium spp.) could have greatly contributed to shaping the botanical archetype in the myth as we know it today.

Acetilcolinesterase , Medicina na Literatura , Filogenia , Mundo Grego , Etnobotânica
N Engl J Med ; 389(26): 2410-2411, 2023 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38146707
JAMA ; 330(24): 2399, 2023 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147091
Reumatismo ; 75(2)2023 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37462127


Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, was an experienced physician who treated gouty patients. A gouty character appears in The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter, a Sherlock Holmes novel. This offers the possibility of discussing gout from the peculiar perspective of a medical writer in light of the historical-medical context of the time. This study was conducted using Conan Doyle's autobiographical, scientific, and literary primary sources, as well as past and current medical literature. The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter was autobiographical. Conan Doyle himself was a rugby player and his wife died of tuberculosis. Furthermore, in 1884, in The Lancet, he described the hereditary case of a female gouty patient, presenting with ocular manifestations. In agreement with the concept of rich man's gout, the gouty patient of Sherlock Holmes' story, Lord Mount James, was a rich irascible noble but he was not addicted to the pleasures of food and sex. Following the usual funny representation of gouty patients, Conan Doyle made fun of Lord Mount James, but he misquoted a true case of gout cited in the literature. In his scientific and literary production on gout, Conan Doyle stuck to the most updated medical concepts of the time, demonstrating an uncommon knowledge of scientific literature.

Literatura Moderna , Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , Feminino , História do Século XIX
JAMA ; 329(22): 1990, 2023 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37314272
JAMA ; 329(18): 1613, 2023 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37159032
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282716, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37083841


Since 2007 a number of investigators have compiled statistics on the length in words of speeches in plays by William Shakespeare and his contemporaries, focusing on a change to shorter speeches around 1600. In this article we take account of several potentially confounding factors in the variation of speech lengths in these works and present a model of this variation in the period 1538-1642 through Linear Mixed Models. We confirm that the mode of speech lengths in English plays changed from nine words to four words around 1600, and that Shakespeare's plays fit this wider pattern closely. We establish for the first time: that this change is independent of authorship, dramatic genre, theatrical company, and the proportion of verse in a play's dialogue; that the chosen time span can be segmented into pre-1597 plays (with high modes), 1597-1602 plays (with mixed high and low modes), and post-1602 plays (with low modes); that some additional secondary modes are evident in speech lengths, at 16 and 24 words, suggesting that the length of a standard blank verse line (around 8 words) is an underlying unit in speech length; and that the general change to short speeches also holds true when the data is viewed through the perspective of the median and the mean. The change in speech lengths is part of a collective drift in the plays towards liveliness and verisimilitude and is evidence of a hitherto hidden constraint on the playwrights: whether or not they were aware of the fact, playwrights as a group were conforming to a structure for the distribution of speech lengths peculiar to the era they were writing in. The authors hope that the full modelling of this variation in the article will help bring this change to the attention of scholars of Shakespeare and his contemporaries.

Drama , Medicina na Literatura , Fala , Idioma , Autoria , Drama/história
JAMA ; 329(17): 1437-1438, 2023 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37027151


This Arts and Medicine feature excerpts a chapter from The Covenant of Water, the new novel from Abraham Verghese, which follows the lives of a family in South India over the 20th century who have a "condition" that consigns at least 1 member per generation to death by drowning.

Morte , Afogamento , Família , Medicina na Literatura , Características da Família , Índia
Risk Anal ; 43(5): 871-874, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37012223


"Modest doubt is call'd the beacon of the wise."-William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida. Although the character Hector warns his fellow Trojans with this line not to engage in war against the Greeks, Shakespeare's works are replete with characters who do not incorporate modest doubt, or any consideration of uncertainty, in their risk decisions. Perhaps Shakespeare was simply a keen observer of human nature. Although risk science has developed tremendously over the last five decades (and scientific inquiry over five centuries), the human mind still frequently defaults to conviction about certain beliefs, absent sufficient scientific evidence-which has effects not just on individual lives, but on policy decisions that affect many. This perspective provides background on the Shakespearean quote in its literary and historical context. Then, as this quote is the theme of the 2023 Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, we describe how "modest doubt"-incorporating the notion of uncertainty into risk analysis for individual and policy decisions-is still the "beacon of the wise" today.

Drama , Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , Incerteza , Drama/história , Emoções , Políticas
Rev. Rol enferm ; 46(3,supl): 4-8, mar. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-216891


O interesse pela inteligência emocional e desenvolvimento das competências emocionais tem vindo a aumentar. A iliteracia emocional gera problemas socio emocionais e conflitos (Goleman, 2010). O desenvolvimento das competências emocionais dá lugar à educação emocional e representa um dos objetivos primordiais– promover a Literacia Emocional dos Enfermeiros e consequentemente uma Saúde Mental Positiva.No âmbito da Promoção da Saúde Mental, pretende-se elaborar um Módulo “+Literacia Emocional: Competências Emocionais dos Enfermeiros” de acordo com as 5 dimensões, identificadas por Xavier e Nunes (2016): Conhecimento emocional; Autonomia emocional; Regulação emocional; Competência social; Habilidades de vida e bem-estar. A intervenção, baseada no modelo multifatorial de Saúde Mental Positiva, pretende ser um recurso para o programa de Promoção de Saúde Mental Positiva “+ por Ti”, recorrendo aos instrumentos de avaliação utilizados neste programa. A metodologia adotada tem como base o método exploratório e descritivo, com revisão sistemática da literatura. (AU)

Interest in emotional intelligence and the development of emotional skills has been increasing. Emotional illiteracy generates socio-emotional problems and conflicts (Goleman, 2010). The development of emotional competencies gives rise to emotional education and represents one of the primary objectives – to promote the Emotional Literacy of Nurses and, consequently, Positive Mental Health. Within the scope of Mental Health Promotion, this study sought to develop a Module “+Emotional Literacy: Emotional Competences of Nurses” according to the five dimensions identified by Xavier and Nunes (2016): Emotional knowledge; Emotional autonomy; Emotional regulation; Social competence; Life skills and well-being. Based on the multifactorial model of Positive Mental Health, the intervention intends to be a resource for the Promotion of Positive Mental Health programme “+ por Ti”, using the evaluation instruments used in this programme. The methodology adopted is based on the exploratory and descriptive method, with a systematic literature review. (AU)

Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Saúde Mental , Inteligência Emocional , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia
Rev. Rol enferm ; 46(3,supl): 11-15, mar. 2023.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-216892


Introdução: Associado à iliteracia do que fazer para prevenir, retardar e quando procurar ajuda, perante a esquizofrenia, requer-se ao enfermeiro especialista em saúde mental um agir ético, alicerçado no conhecimento empírico, técnico-científico, envolvendo os deveres profissionais: dignidade, individualidade e autonomia. Objetivo: Promover a literacia em saúde mental, através da análise do adoecer de uma pessoa com esquizofrenia e das questões éticas associadas ao cuidar em enfermagem de saúde mental. Metodologia: Estudo de caso – filme “Uma Mente Brilhante”, de natureza qualitativa, exploratória-descritiva. Resultados e Discussão: A esquizofrenia transforma a forma de pensar, de sentir e de relação com as pessoas, conduzindo à estigmatização associada a mitos conectivos entre a doença mental e a violência, contribuindo para a dificuldade/exclusão no emprego, apoio social e procura de ajuda. Conclusão: Salienta-se a promoção da literacia do agir perante uma pessoa com esquizofrenia, e do cuidado ético em enfermagem inerente. (AU)

Introduction: Associated with the illiteracy of what to do to prevent, delay, and when to seek help, in the face of schizophrenia, the nurse specialist in mental health is required to act ethically, based on empirical, technical-scientific knowledge, involving professional duties: dignity, individuality and autonomy. Objective: To promote mental health literacy by analysing the illness of a person with schizophrenia and the ethical issues associated with mental health nursing care. Methodology: Case study – film “A Brilliant Mind”, of a qualitative, exploratory-descriptive nature. Results and Discussion: Schizophrenia transforms the way of thinking, feeling, and relating to people, leading to stigmatisation associated with connecting myths between mental illness and violence, contributing to difficulty/exclusion in employment, social support and seeking help. Conclusion: The promotion of literacy on how to act towards a person with schizophrenia, and the inherent ethical care in nursing, are highlighted. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Medicina na Literatura , Filmes Cinematográficos , Medicina nas Artes
Rev. Rol enferm ; 46(3,supl): 16-21, mar. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-216893


Enquadramento: A transição parental pode ter um significado relevante na saúde mental dos pais. Facilitar esta transição é uma importante função dos enfermeiros. A informoterapia pode beneficiar tomadas de decisão parentais. Um portal orientado para a promoção das competências parentais administrado pela internet, integrado no plano de cuidados individual, pode promover competências parentais, neste caso, relativamente à segurança do recém-nascido. Objetivos: Definir um modelo de dados relativo às oportunidades de desenvolvimento do conhecimento parental sobre segurança do recém-nascido articulado com a ontologia de enfermagem, definir conteúdos multimédia necessários para uma literacia promotora da transição parental saudável. Metodologia: Análise de conteúdo ao material usado nos cursos de preparação e apoio à parentalidade e gravidez em funcionamento nos anos 2020 e 2021, no âmbito das Unidades de Cuidados na Comunidade dos Centros de Saúde da Boavista e de Paranhos. O processo de análise foi realizado por 3 investigadores sem modelo de análise à priori. Resultados: Relativamente ao conhecimento sobre segurança, foram identificadas duas categorias: segurança rodoviária e segurança não rodoviária. Na categoria segurança rodoviária foram definidas vinte subcategorias do conhecimento. Para cada subcategoria determinaram-se questões a colocar aos pais e o elenco de respostas indicativas de conhecimento facilitador ou potencial para melhorar o conhecimento. Conclusões: O conhecimento associado à transição parental pode ser alterado pela ação do enfermeiro através da informoterapia. O uso da internet mediado pelo enfermeiro pode promover a literacia em saúde como parte do processo de cuidados, facilitando a mestria dos pais e a perceção da sua saúde mental. (AU)

Background: Parental transition can impact parents’ mental health. Facilitating this transition process is an essential role of nurses. Information therapy can benefit parental decision-making. A website oriented towards the promotion of parenting skills administered over the internet, integrated into the individual care plan, can promote parenting skills such as newborn safety. Objectives: To define a data model regarding the opportunities for developing parental knowledge about newborn safety, articulated with a nursing ontology, and to define multimedia content appropriated for literacy that promotes a healthy parental transition. Methodology: A content analysis on the material used in parenting and pregnancy courses was carried out under the scope of Boavista and Paranhos Health Centers in 2020 and 2021. The analysis was performed by three independent researchers without a prior analysis model. Results: In the domain of parents’ knowledge about newborn safety, two categories were identified: newborn safety in traffic and newborn safety other than traffic. In the newborn safety in the traffic category, twenty subcategories of knowledge were identified. For each subcategory, a set of questions were defined to be answered by parents and a set of possible answers that represents accurate knowledge and lack of knowledge on each issue. Conclusions: Parents’ knowledge about newborn safety can be modified by nursing therapeutics using information therapy. Nurse-mediated internet use can promote health literacy as part of the care process by facilitating parents’ mastery and perception of their mental health. (AU)

Humanos , Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar , Medicina na Literatura , Internet , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros
Rev. Rol enferm ; 46(3,supl): 22-26, mar. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-216894


Introdução: O consumo de substâncias psicoativas pelos jovens tornou-se uma questão inquietante para a enfermagem. Sabendo que a Literacia em Saúde (LS) é a capacidade das pessoas adquirirem conhecimento de modo a tomarem decisões relativamente à prevenção da doença e promoção de saúde, surgiu a questão: qual a relação entre a LS e o consumo de substâncias psicoativas nos jovens? Objetivos: Caracterizar a LS, o consumo de substâncias psicoativas e a sua relação. Metodologia: Estudo exploratório, descritivo e correlacional. Amostra de conveniência com 103 jovens. Instrumentos: Questionário sociodemográfico, Escala de Literacia em Saúde e Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. O tratamento de dados foi realizado através do SPSS 25. Resultados e discussão: Amostra maioritariamente do sexo feminino (82,5%) e estudantes (62,1%), cuja média de idades é 21,05 anos. As substâncias mais consumidas são o álcool (75%), o tabaco (50,5%), a cannabis (35%) e as benzodiazepinas (22,5%). Verificaram-se policonsumos (álcool, tabaco e cannabis). O grau de LS é desadequado, e não se verificaram associações entre o consumo de substâncias e o grau de literacia. Detetaram-se diferenças estatisticamente significativa entre o consumo de benzodiazepinas e a situação profissional, verificando-se que as pessoas desempregadas têm maior consumo de benzodiazepinas. Conclusão: Urge intervir na promoção da LS dos jovens, com a finalidade de os motivar a diminuir ou parar o consumo de substâncias que possam comprometer a sua saúde. Sugerem-se estudos com amostras maiores e analisar outras variáveis que contribuam para estes comportamentos aditivos. (AU)

Introduction: The consumption of psychoactive substances by young people has become a topic of great concern for nursing. Knowing that Health Literacy (HL) is the ability of people to acquire knowledge to make decisions regarding disease prevention and health promotion, the question arose: what is the relationship between HL and the consumption of psychoactive substances in young people? Objectives: To characterize HL, the consumption of psychoactive substances and their relationship. Methodology: Exploratory, descriptive, and correlational study. Convenience sample with 103 young people. Instruments: Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Health and Alcohol Literacy Scale, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Data processing was performed using SPSS 25. Results and discussion: The sample was primarily female (82.5%) and students (62.1%), with an average age of 21.05. The most consumed substances were alcohol (75%), followed by tobacco (50.5%), cannabis (35%) and benzodiazepines (22.5%). Also, polyconsumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) was observed. The degree of HL is inadequate, and there were no associations between substance use and the degree of literacy. However, statistically significant differences were found between the consumption of benzodiazepines and the professional situation, concluding that unemployed people have a higher consumption of benzodiazepines. Conclusion: It is urgent to intervene in the promotion of HL in young people to motivate them to reduce or stop the consumption of substances that may compromise their health. Further studies with larger samples and analysing other variables that contribute to these addictive behaviours are suggested. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Medicina na Literatura , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Compostos Orgânicos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Correlação de Dados
Rev. Rol enferm ; 46(3,supl): 28-32, mar. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-216895


Introdução: A situação pandémica da COVID-19 colocou à prova a saúde mental, em particular, de atletas jovens e de seus treinadores, envolvendo todos numa incerteza permanente e global, e forçando-os a enfrentar adversidades, gerir emoções e relações e a testar orientações sanitárias e novas soluções. Objetivos: Identificar as principais alterações na perceção do papel social e no funcionamento psicológico do treinador de desporto, produzidas pelo prolongado período pandémico. Métodos: Entrevistas semiestruturadas a quatro treinadores especialistas na formação de atletas jovens de diferentes modalidades desportivas, com idades compreendidas entre os 34 e os 63 anos (M=48,0). Resultados: Foram identificadas as ações prioritárias, os recursos pessoais e sociais mobilizados, aprendizagens efetuadas e dificuldades sentidas enquanto procuraram lidar com os variados constrangimentos surgidos. Conclusão: Da adversidade vivenciada, decisiva da capacitação efetuada, decorrem implicações sobre a necessidade de atualização dos programas de formação de treinadores bem como para a intervenção psicológica com essa população. (AU)

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic tested the mental health of young athletes and their coaches, involving everyone in permanent and global uncertainty, forcing them to face adversity, manage emotions and relationships and check health guidelines and new solutions. Objectives: To identify the perceived main changes in sports coaches’ social role and psychological functioning produced by the prolonged pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with four coaches specialized in training young athletes from different sports, aged between 34 and 63 years (M=48.0). Results: Priority actions, personal and social resources mobilized, lessons learned, and difficulties experienced while dealing with the various emerging constraints were identified. Conclusion: Considering the adversity experienced, which is recognized as decisive for psychological empowerment, there are some implications: the need to update educational programmes for coaches and psychological intervention with this population. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atletas/educação , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Esportes , Saúde Mental , Entrevistas como Assunto , Medicina na Literatura
Rev. Rol enferm ; 46(3,supl): 34-38, mar. 2023. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-216896


Introdução: As intervenções de enfermagem de promoção da saúde mental positiva (SMP)em adolescentes aumentam a autoestima, as habilidades socio emocionais e a capacidade de resolução de problemas dos jovens, diminuem o estigma, e permitem incrementar a esperança. Objetivos: Analisar uma intervenção de promoção de saúde mental positiva em adolescentes em contexto escolar. Metodologia: Estudo quase-experimental com pré e pós-teste, numa amostra não probabilística de 72 adolescentes. Foi aplicado um programa de SMP por enfermeiros especialistas de saúde mental no grupo experimental. Para a recolha de dados foi usado questionário de autopreenchimento online que continha todos os instrumentos de medida, aplicados ao grupo experimental antes e depois da intervenção de promoção de saúde mental positiva. Resultados: Verificou-se melhoria da SMP, diminuição do estigma, diminuição da vulnerabilidade psicológica e aumento dos níveis de esperança. Conclusão: A intervenção de enfermagem de promoção da saúde mental positiva teve uma forte adesão dos adolescentes e uma melhoria nos indicadores de saúde mental estudados (AU)

Introduction: Nursing interventions to promote positive mental health (PMH) in adolescents increase self-esteem socio-emotional and problem-solving skills of young people, reduce stigma and increase hope. Objective: To analyse the programme’s effectiveness in promoting adolescents’ positive mental health in a school context. Methodology: A Quasi-experimental study using pre and post-test in a non-probabilistic sample of 72 adolescents. A PMH programme was applied by specialist mental health nurses in the experimental group. An online self-completion questionnaire was used for data collection, which contained the measurement instruments applied to the experimental group before and after the PMH intervention. Results: There was an improvement in PMH, a decrease in stigma, a decrease in psychological vulnerability and an increase in levels of hope. Conclusion: The positive mental health promotion nursing intervention had a strong adherence by adolescents and improved the mental health indicators under study. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Medicina na Literatura , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Inquéritos e Questionários
Med Humanit ; 49(2): 272-277, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600592


Since its debut, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein has, fittingly, assumed a life of its own. In today's cultural landscape, the mere mention of 'mutant' evokes the language of Othering, including Frankensteinian metaphors, such as those used to describe the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. When scientists referred to omicron as a Frankenstein variant, they demonstrated the inherent mutability of the myth-a myth that is crucial in biomedicine. In this article, the authors examine the shifting nature of Frankenstein metaphors and consider how they function in what Priscilla Wald refers to as outbreak narratives in the context of the USA's COVID-19 policies. The authors point to the ready instatement of travel bans as evidence of how such a potent myth is used to create and sell public policy. In response to such xenophobic policies, the authors apply Donna Haraway's concept of 'boundary breakdowns' in order to reimagine relationships with mutancy. They examine how moving past the idea of mutant is other in contemporary virus narratives may offer a way to reconfigure our relationships of self and other and move beyond the hegemonic and nativist policies of the present.

COVID-19 , Medicina na Literatura , Humanos , Metáfora , SARS-CoV-2
J Med Humanit ; 44(1): 27-41, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394788


The paper argues that historic events in the western Irish town of Sligo were more substantial in shaping Bram Stoker's novel Dracula (1897) than previously thought. Biographers of Stoker have credited his mother, Charlotte Thornley Stoker, for influencing her son's gothic imagination during his childhood by sharing tales of the Sligo cholera epidemic she had witnessed in 1832. While Charlotte Stoker's written account of Sligo's epidemic Experiences of the Cholera in Ireland (1873) influenced Bram Stoker, it is argued that as a voracious library researcher he is likely to have cross-referenced it with other historical accounts. Furthermore, by viewing the text of Dracula through the lens of Charlotte Stoker's account and the historical reportage of the epidemic, clear parallels emerge. Ultimately, the striking similarities between Sligo's cholera are marshaled to argue that Count Dracula may be read as the personification of Sligo's cholera.

Cólera , Medicina na Literatura , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Mães , Irlanda , Núcleo Familiar
Hist Psychol ; 26(1): 51-75, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548087


One of the most important successes in the history of psychology in Chile was the foundation in 1908 of the first experimental psychology laboratory in Santiago by the German psychologist Wilhelm Mann (1974-1943). Four years later, Mann give a shift to his classical experimental psychology research to intervene in the discussions about German School Reform (1900-1920). Mann used Chile as a "testing ground" for explore the viability of student self-government published in three papers. The method used to verify the early impact of Mann's papers was the quantitative analysis of citations with Publish or Perish software using a Google Books database and Scripta Paedagogica. The reception of Mann's texts was analyzed using the context of citation and the functions and use of those citations. The three unknow Mann's papers about Student Self-Government published in 1913 and his citations. The results shows that Mann's critics and recommendations published in one of his papers was the fourth more citated in a database of 16 foundational German works of to self-student government. Finally, this Mann's article was cited and used in an ideological way to argue in favor of reactionary and conservative opinions of school democratization in German Empire teacher circles. Mann's diagnosis and critical suggestions was recognized by prominent German philosophers and pedagogues. Precisely Mann criticized the Student Republics as the only way to stimulate the student self-government for their artificial character and especially for the loss of students' psychological individuality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Medicina na Literatura , Psicologia Experimental , Humanos , Chile