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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-9, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213880

RESUMO

Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common mental health problem, and its core cognitive manifestation is the persistent fear of being evaluated, including both negatively (FNE) and positively (FPE). This study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships of FNE, FPE and SAD and explore their neural basis. Methods: Three samples were retrieved in this study. First, the data of 649 college students who completed a survey and fMRI scan were used to explore the neural basis of FNE, FPE, and SAD symptoms. Next, the data of 450 participants who completed the same survey twice were used to examine the longitudinal relationships of the variables. Finally, the overlapping of the two samples (N = 288) who completed two surveys and the fMRI scan were used to establish a brain-behavior model. Results: Both FNE and FPE predicted SAD, and SAD also predicted FPE. The neural signals of subregions in prefrontal cortex were correlated with the scores of FNE, FPE and SAD. Abnormal prefrontal signals influenced SAD symptoms via fears of evaluation. Conclusions: Our findings explain the behavioral and neural underpinnings of social anxiety from a fear of evaluation angle. This contributes to a better theorical understanding of SAD and clinical practice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Medo , Fobia Social/classificação , Fobia Social/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Universidades
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-10, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213889

RESUMO

Background/Objective: Most studies investigating the neural correlates of threat learning were carried out using an explicit Pavlovian conditioning paradigm where declarative knowledge on contingencies between conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) is acquired. The current study aimed at understanding the neural correlates of threat conditioning when contingency awareness is limited or even absent. Method: We conducted an fMRI report of threat learning in an implicit associative learning paradigm called multi-CS conditioning, in which a number of faces were associated with aversive screams (US) such that participants could not report contingencies between the faces and the screams. Results: The univariate results showed support for the recruitment of threat-related regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the cerebellum during acquisition. Further analyses by the multivariate representational similarity technique identified learning-dependent changes in the bilateral dlPFC. Conclusion: Our findings support the involvement of the dlPFC and the cerebellum in threat conditioning that occurs with highly limited or even absent contingency awareness. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Cerebelo , Aprendizagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ameaças , Medo
3.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-7, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213894

RESUMO

Background/objective: This study examines the paths through which Covid-19 can negatively impact health and lead to somatic symptoms. Based on the dual process theory, fears can impair health in two ways: through psychological distress, which is an automatic reaction to fear, and through a more conscious and deliberative rumination process. Method: Data from a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 3083 subjects,18 years or older) were obtained from a Survey by the Sociological Research Center (CIS). The dual path model was tested, and a longer sequence was included where the two mediators act sequentially to produce an impact on somatic symptoms. Results: The results showed how Covid-19 fears translate into somatic problems. Beyond the direct relations, and after comparing with other possible alternative models, our findings support a process where rumination mediates between fears and psychological distress, and psychological distress in turn leads to somatic problems. Conclusions: This process reveals a plausible mechanism that explains the somatization of health problems during the Covid-19 pandemic, and it provides theoretical and practical inputs to better understand the role of fears in health in crisis contexts. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679404

RESUMO

Trait anxiety relates to the steady propensity to experience and report negative emotions and thoughts such as fear and worries across different situations, along with a stable perception of the environment as characterized by threatening stimuli. Previous studies have tried to investigate neuroanatomical features related to anxiety mostly using univariate analyses and thus giving rise to contrasting results. The aim of this study is to build a predictive model of individual differences in trait anxiety from brain morphometric features, by taking advantage of a combined data fusion machine learning approach to allow generalization to new cases. Additionally, we aimed to perform a network analysis to test the hypothesis that anxiety-related networks have a central role in modulating other networks not strictly associated with anxiety. Finally, we wanted to test the hypothesis that trait anxiety was associated with specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and whether anxiety may decrease with ageing. Structural brain images of 158 participants were first decomposed into independent covarying gray and white matter networks with a data fusion unsupervised machine learning approach (Parallel ICA). Then, supervised machine learning (decision tree) and backward regression were used to extract and test the generalizability of a predictive model of trait anxiety. Two covarying gray and white matter independent networks successfully predicted trait anxiety. The first network included mainly parietal and temporal regions such as the postcentral gyrus, the precuneus, and the middle and superior temporal gyrus, while the second network included frontal and parietal regions such as the superior and middle temporal gyrus, the anterior cingulate, and the precuneus. We also found that trait anxiety was positively associated with catastrophizing, rumination, other- and self-blame, and negatively associated with positive refocusing and reappraisal. Moreover, trait anxiety was negatively associated with age. This paper provides new insights regarding the prediction of individual differences in trait anxiety from brain and psychological features and can pave the way for future diagnostic predictive models of anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Encéfalo , Medo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
5.
Behav Brain Funct ; 19(1): 1, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647145

RESUMO

Despite significant differences between men and women in the symptoms of PTSD and the response to therapeutic interventions, most PTSD studies have been done on male subjects. Continuing our previous study in male rats, this study aimed at better understanding the effect of a combination therapy of exercise with fluoxetine on female PTSD rats. The results were then compared with our past findings in male animals. Female adult Wistar rats subjected to PTSD were treated with moderate treadmill exercise or fluoxetine, or a combination of both. PTSD was induced by the single prolonged stress (SPS) model. Elevated plus-maze (EPM), serum and prefrontal BDNF, and fear extinctions were evaluated. The results showed that exercise plus fluoxetine decreased anxiety-like behavior, improved fear extinction, and increased BDNF changes in female rats. The effects of exercise alone were comparable with those of combination therapy except that combination therapy was more effective on OAT (open arm entry). The majority of results in female rats, except for those of prefrontal BDNF, 4th extinction, and OAT, were similar to those of male rats as shown in our previous study. According to our findings, exercise as a safe and cost-effective intervention can be considered as a complementary efficient option for PTSD treatment in both sexes. To achieve better treatment outcomes in PTSD patient, considering sex differences is recommended.


Assuntos
Fluoxetina , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 10, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646675

RESUMO

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is caused by traumatic social experiences. It is characterized by intense fear and avoidance of social contexts, which can be robustly mimicked by the social fear conditioning (SFC) paradigm. The extinction phase of the SFC paradigm is akin to exposure therapy for SAD and requires learning to disassociate the trauma with the social context. Learning-induced acetylation of histones is critical for extinction memory formation and its endurance. Although class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the abovementioned learning process, there is a lack of clarity in isoforms and spatial specificity in HDAC function in social learning. Utilizing the SFC paradigm, we functionally characterized the role of HDAC1, specifically in the lateral septum (LS), in regulating the formation of long-term social fear extinction memory. We measured a local increase in activity-inducing HDAC1 phosphorylation at serine residues of social fear-conditioned (SFC+) mice in response to the extinction of social fear. We also found that LS-HDAC1 function negatively correlates with acute social fear extinction learning using pharmacological and viral approaches. Further, inhibition of LS-HDAC1 enhanced the expression of the GABA-A receptor ß1 subunit (Gabrb1) in SFC+ mice, and activation of GABA-A receptors facilitated acute extinction learning. Finally, the facilitation of extinction learning by HDAC1 inhibition or GABA-A receptor activation within the LS led to the formation of long-lasting extinction memory, which persisted even 30 days after extinction. Our results show that HDAC1-mediated regulation of GABA signaling in the LS is crucial for the formation of long-lasting social fear extinction memory.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica , Medo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Aprendizagem , Receptores de GABA-A
7.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 34, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fear of childbirth can develop due to the concerns or adverse maternal or foetal outcomes experienced in a previous pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the main risk factors associated with the development of fear of childbirth during subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. METHODS: In this case-control study, data from the National Medical Birth Register were used to evaluate the events in previous pregnancies that were potential risk factors for fear of childbirth in subsequent pregnancies. The first and second pregnancies of women registered during our study period (2004-2018) were included. The exposure variable was delivery mode, obstetric challenge or adverse neonatal outcomes during the first pregnancy. The outcome was the development of FOC during the second pregnancy. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% CIs were used for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 13 064 pregnancies were included in the case group and 195 351 in the control group. Previous emergency caesarean section was the strongest risk factor for the development of FOC in the second pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio 5.27, CIs 4.83-5.75). In addition, unplanned CS (adjusted odds ratio 3.93, CIs 3.77-4.10) and vacuum delivery (adjusted odds ratio 1.69, CIs 1.61-1.77) also increased the odds of fear of childbirth. Of the obstetric complications, third- or fourth-degree tear of the perineum was the strongest risk factor (adjusted odds ratio 2.99, CIs 2.69-3.31), followed by shoulder dystocia (adjusted odds ratio 2.82, CIs 2.16-3.62). Neonatal mortality also increased the odds for the development of FOC (adjusted odds ratio 2.17, CIs 1.77-2.64). CONCLUSION: The main risk factors for the development of fear of childbirth in the second pregnancy were previous fear of childbirth, unplanned CS, vacuum delivery, perineal tear or shoulder dystocia. The results of this study can be used in a clinical setting to improve the prevention of fear of childbirth.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Distocia do Ombro , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Parto , Medo , Parto Obstétrico
8.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 55(1): 102528-102528, Ene. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214191

RESUMO

Objetivo: Diseñar y validar una escala de nomofobia en escolares de 9 a 13 años. Diseño: Estudio observacional descriptivo transversal. Emplazamiento: El estudio piloto se realizó en diciembre de 2019 con alumnos de un colegio de Ávila y otro de Madrid. El estudio de campo se realizó los meses de enero-marzo de 2020, recogiendo datos de 592 alumnos de un colegio de Badajoz y 3 de Ávila. Participantes: Alumnos de ambos sexos de 4.o, 5.o y 6.o de Educación Primaria y de 1.o y 2.o de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, de colegios públicos y concertados. Método: El estudio se hizo en 2 fases. Fase I: elaboración de un cuestionario de 40 ítems con el asesoramiento de un panel de expertos. Este cuestionario se pasó, dentro del estudio piloto, a 312 niños matriculados en Educación Primaria o Educación Secundaria Obligatoria. Tras analizar los resultados, se modificó la escala de 40 ítems para mejorar la comprensión de los escolares y se realizó un estudio de campo con 592 participantes. Fase II: consistió en un análisis factorial exploratorio realizado por el método de componentes principales que proporcionó la distribución de los ítems en 7 componentes. Tras el análisis factorial confirmatorio se definió la escala definitiva de 32 ítems. Resultados: Se demostró que esta escala produce puntuaciones válidas y confiables. Conclusiones: La validación de esta escala será útil para identificar a niños con riesgo de nomofobia, permitiendo a educadores, padres y profesionales de la salud detectarla precozmente para prevenir un uso patológico del teléfono móvil.(AU)


Objective.To design and validate a nomophobia scale in childre: aged 9–13 years. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive observational study. Site: The pilot study was carried out in December 2019 with students from a school in Ávila and another in Madrid. The field study was carried out during the months of January to March 2020, collecting data from 592 students from a school in Badajoz and 3 from Ávila. Participants: Students of both sexes from 4th, 5th and 6th of Primary Education and from 1st and 2nd of Compulsory Secondary Education, from public and private schools. Method: The study has been divided in 2 phases. Phase I: consisted of the preparation of a 40-item questionnaire with the advice of a panel of experts. This questionnaire was passed, within the pilot study, to 312 children enrolled in Primary Education or Compulsory Secondary Education. After analyzing the results, the 40-item scale was modified to improve the understanding of the schoolchildren and a field study was carried out with 592 participants. Phase II: consisted of an exploratory factorial analysis carried out using the principal components method, which provided the distribution of the items in 7 components. After the confirmatory factorial analysis, the final 32-item scale was defined. Results: This scale was shown to produce valid and reliable scores. Conclusions: The validation of this scale will be useful to identify children at risk of nomophobia, allowing educators, parents and health professionals to detect this phenomenon early in order to prevent pathological smartphone use.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Telefone Celular , Medo , Estudantes , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279292, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb orthoses intend to improve walking in adults with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). Yet, reported group effects of lower limb orthoses on treatment outcomes have generally been small and heterogeneous. We propose that guideline-based orthotic care within a multidisciplinary expert setting may improve treatment outcomes. AIM: To examine the effectiveness of specialist care orthoses compared to usual care orthoses on personal goal attainment and walking ability. DESIGN: Cohort study. POPULATION: Adults with NMD who experienced walking problems due to calf and/or quadriceps muscle weakness and were provided with a specialist care lower limb orthosis between October 2011 and January 2021. METHODS: Three months after provision, the specialist care orthosis was compared to the usual care orthosis worn at baseline in terms of personal goal attainment (Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS)), comfortable walking speed (m/s), net energy cost (J/kg/m) (both assessed during a 6-minute walk test), perceived walking ability and satisfaction. RESULTS: Sixty-four adults with NMD were eligible for analysis. The specialist care orthoses comprised 19 dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), 22 stance-control knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) and 23 locked KAFOs. Overall, 61% of subjects showed a clinically relevant improvement in GAS score. Perceived safety, stability, intensity, fear of falling and satisfaction while walking all improved (p≤0.002), and subjects were satisfied with their specialist care orthosis and the services provided. Although no effects on walking speed or net energy cost were found in combined orthosis groups, specialist care AFOs significantly reduced net energy cost (by 9.5%) compared to usual care orthoses (from mean (SD) 3.81 (0.97) to 3.45 (0.80) J/kg/m, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Guideline-based orthotic care within a multidisciplinary expertise setting could improve treatment outcomes in adults with NMD compared to usual orthotic care by improvements in goal attainment and walking ability. A randomized controlled trial is now warranted to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Órtoses do Pé , Doenças Neuromusculares , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Objetivos , Medo , Caminhada/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673852

RESUMO

As the front line of epidemic prevention, firefighters are responsible for the transportation of infected cases. Firefighters are under a lot of stress from the new COVID-19, especially the fear that they may contract the virus at work and spread the virus to their families. In particular, the framework of this study incorporates Riggs' formalism variables. When firefighters think that the epidemic prevention regulations are inconsistent with the actual epidemic prevention, it will increase their work pressure on COVID-19. In this study, firefighters from all over Taiwan were used as the respondents, and a total of 453 respondents were obtained. This study uses confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the established hypotheses. The findings confirm that formalism, fear of self and family infection are positively influencing COVID-19 stress. COVID-19 stress positively affects PTSD and insomnia. COVID-19 stress negatively affects problem-focused strategies. Problem-focused strategies negatively affect post-traumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bombeiros , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Medo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674020

RESUMO

Although a growing body of research has analyzed the determinants and effects of technostress, it is still unclear how and when technostress would impact workers' psycho-physical health and work-family interface during the pandemic. To fill this gap, this study tests the mediating mechanisms and the boundary conditions associated with the impact of technostress on workers' psycho-physical well-being and work-family conflict. A total of 266 Italian workers completed online questionnaires measuring (traditional vs. remote) working modalities, technostress, fear of COVID-19, working excessively, psycho-physical distress, work-family conflict, loss of a loved one due to COVID-19, and resilience. Structural equation models were performed. Results indicated that technostress was positively related to psycho-physical distress and work-family conflict, as mediated by fear of COVID-19 and working excessively, respectively. The loss of a loved one exacerbated the effects of fear of COVID-19 on psycho-physical health, while resilience buffered the effects of working excessively on work-family conflict. Since numerous organizations intend to maintain remote working also after the COVID-19 emergency, it is crucial to study this phenomenon during its peaks of adoption, to prevent its potential negative outcomes. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Itália/epidemiologia , Conflito Familiar , Medo
14.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 184: 110-117, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621629

RESUMO

Threat-related attentional bias is thought to have a causal influence on the etiology of social anxiety. However, there is uncertainty on whether attention dwells on or diverts away from threats, and the measurements typically utilized to explore attentional bias cannot continuously quantify changes in attention. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) as a continuous neurophysiological measure of visual attentional processing to examine the time course of attentional bias in social anxiety. Participants with high (n = 18) and low (n = 18) social anxiety passively viewed two faces flickering at 15 and 20 Hz frequency to evoke ssVEPs, and completed Attentional Control Scale. The results showed that angry faces, as compared to happy and neutral faces, elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes for the time window of 180-500 ms after facial stimuli onset only in the high socially anxious individuals, and the effect extended to the next two periods of 500-1000 ms and 1000-1500 ms. The ssVEP amplitudes differed most when individuals with high social anxiety viewed angry-neutral expression combinations. Additionally, attentional control was negatively correlated with social anxiety and threat-related attentional bias. The results suggested that individuals with social anxiety initially oriented attention toward the threat and subsequently exhibited difficulty in disengaging attention from it, possibly due to impaired attentional control.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos , Medo , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Expressão Facial
15.
J Vis ; 23(1): 10, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652236

RESUMO

Task-irrelevant threatening faces (e.g., fearful) are difficult to filter from visual working memory (VWM), but the difficulty in filtering non-threatening negative faces (e.g., sad) is not known. Depressive symptoms could also potentially affect the ability to filter different emotional faces. We tested the filtering of task-irrelevant sad and fearful faces by depressed and control participants performing a color-change detection task. The VWM storage of distractors was indicated by contralateral delay activity, a specific event-related potential index for the number of objects stored in VWM during the maintenance phase. The control group did not store sad face distractors, but they automatically stored fearful face distractors, suggesting that threatening faces are specifically difficult to filter from VWM in non-depressed individuals. By contrast, depressed participants showed no additional consumption of VWM resources for either the distractor condition or the non-distractor condition, possibly suggesting that neither fearful nor sad face distractors were maintained in VWM. Our control group results confirm previous findings of a threat-related filtering difficulty in the normal population while also suggesting that task-irrelevant non-threatening negative faces do not automatically load into VWM. The novel finding of the lack of negative distractors within VWM storage in participants with depressive symptoms may reflect a decreased overall responsiveness to negative facial stimuli. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms underlying distractor filtering in depressed populations.


Assuntos
Medo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 174, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599964

RESUMO

Studies of the impact of face masks on emotional facial expression recognition are sparse in children. Moreover, to our knowledge no study has so far considered mask color (in adults and in children), even though this esthetic property is thought to have an impact on information processing. In order to explore these issues, the present study looked at whether first- and fifth-graders and young adults were influenced by the absence or presence (and color: pink, green, red, black, or white) of a face mask when asked to judge emotional facial expressions of fear, anger, sadness, or neutrality. Analysis of results suggested that the presence of a mask did affect the recognition of sad or fearful faces but did not influence significantly the perception of angry and neutral faces. Mask color slightly modulated the recognition of facial emotional expressions, without a systematic pattern that would allow a clear conclusion to be drawn. Moreover, none of these findings varied according to age group. The contribution of different facial areas to efficient emotion recognition is discussed with reference to methodological and theoretical considerations, and in the light of recent studies.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Ira , Medo , Expressão Facial
17.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280133, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607983

RESUMO

The brain- and testis-specific Ig superfamily protein (BT-IgSF, also termed IgSF11) is a homotypic cell adhesion protein. In the nervous system, BT-IgSF regulates the stability of AMPA receptors in the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons, modulates the connectivity of chandelier cells and controls gap junction-mediated astrocyte-astrocyte communication. Here, we performed behavioral tests in BT-IgSF-deficient mice. BT-IgSF-deficient mice were similar to control littermates with respect to their reflexes, motor coordination and gating, and associative learning. However, BT-IgSF-deficient mice displayed an increased tendency to stay in the central illuminated areas in the open field and O-Maze paradigms suggesting reduced anxiety or increased scotophobia (fear of darkness). Although BT-IgSF-deficient mice initially found the platform in the water maze their behavior was compromised when the platform was moved, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. This deficit was overcome by longer training to improve their spatial memory. Furthermore, male BT-IgSF-deficient mice displayed increased aggression towards an intruder. Our results show that specific behaviors are modified by the lack of BT-IgSF and demonstrate a contribution of BT-IgSF to network functions.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Medo , Agressão , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos Knockout
18.
Behav Ther ; 54(1): 156-169, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608973

RESUMO

Fear of enclosed spaces prevents many people from receiving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Although exposure therapy can effectively treat such fears, reductions in fear during exposure often do not generalize beyond the context in which they took place. This study tested a strategy designed to increase generalization, which involved revisiting the memory of a prior exposure to enhance retrieval of extinction learning. Forty-five participants with claustrophobia that included fear of MRI scans underwent a series of exposures lying inside a narrow cabinet. One week later, participants were randomly assigned to enhanced mental reinstatement (EMR) or control procedures. Prior to entering a mock MRI scanner, EMR participants recalled the memory of exposure training and listened to an audio recording of themselves describing what they learned, whereas control participants recalled a neutral memory. Compared to the control condition, EMR led to significantly reduced heart rate reactivity in the mock MRI scanner, but not self-reported fear or avoidance. There were no differences between conditions in claustrophobia symptoms or MRI fear at 1-month follow-up. Results suggest some benefits of mental reinstatement for improving generalization of gains following exposure training for claustrophobia, with measures of subjective fear and physiological arousal showing discordant outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Medo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental , Generalização Psicológica/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia
19.
Behav Ther ; 54(1): 29-42, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608975

RESUMO

Socially anxious adolescents commonly experience impaired interpersonal functioning with unfamiliar, same-age peers. Yet, we lack short screening tools for assessing peer-related impairments. Recent work revealed that a parent-reported, three-item screening tool produced scores that uniquely related to social anxiety concerns. However, this tool ought to go beyond linking impairments to service needs (i.e., social anxiety symptoms). This tool should also inform the goals of services, in particular by linking impairments to key domains relevant to therapeutically addressing adolescents' anxiety-related needs, such as social skills when interacting with unfamiliar peers. This requires an assessment approach that involves strategic selection of informants who vary in their expertise for observing anxiety-related needs, as well as the therapeutic goals for addressing anxiety-related impairments (e.g., social skills within peer interactions). We leveraged parents' reports to link impairments to social anxiety-related needs. To link impairments to social skills, we leveraged informants (i.e., unfamiliar untrained observers [UUOs]) who observed adolescents within tasks designed to simulate interactions with same-age, unfamiliar peers. We tested this approach using a mixed-clinical/community sample of 134 adolescents, ages 14- to 15 years old. We leveraged multi-informant survey reports to assess adolescent social anxiety, and trained independent observers rated adolescents' social skills within unfamiliar peer interactions. Parents' reports performed best when distinguishing adolescents on referral status and predicting survey-reported social anxiety, whereas only UUOs' reports predicted independent observers' social skills ratings. These findings inform the strategic selection of informants for assessing impairments that commonly prompt the need for adolescents to access mental health services for social anxiety.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Adolescente , Habilidades Sociais , Medo , Ansiedade/psicologia
20.
Br J Psychol ; 114(1): 1-20, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609781

RESUMO

Aesthetic and moral evaluations engage appetitive and defensive emotions. While the role played by pleasure in positive aesthetic and moral judgements has been extensively researched, little is known about how defensive emotions influence negative aesthetic and moral judgements. Specifically, it is unknown which defensive emotions such judgements tap into, and whether both kinds of judgement share a common emotional root. Here, we investigated how participants' individual sensitivity to disgust, fear, anger and sadness predicted subjective judgements of aesthetic and moral stimuli. Bayesian modelling revealed that participants who were more sensitive to anger and fear found conventional and moral transgressions more wrong. In contrast, participants who were more sensitive to disgust disliked asymmetrical geometric patterns and untidy rooms more. These findings suggest that aesthetic and moral evaluations engage multiple defensive emotions, not just disgust, and that they may rely on different defensive emotions as part of their computational mechanism.


Assuntos
Asco , Julgamento , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Emoções , Ira , Medo , Princípios Morais , Estética
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