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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2671, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302474

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by significant metabolic disruptions, including weight loss and hypermetabolism in both patients and animal models. Leptin, an adipose-derived hormone, displays altered levels in ALS. Genetically reducing leptin levels (Lepob/+) to maintain body weight improved motor performance and extended survival in female SOD1G93A mice, although the exact molecular mechanisms behind these effects remain elusive. Here, we corroborated the sexual dimorphism in circulating leptin levels in ALS patients and in SOD1G93A mice. We reproduced a previous strategy to generate a genetically deficient leptin SOD1G93A mice (SOD1G93ALepob/+) and studied the transcriptomic profile in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and the spinal cord. We found that leptin deficiency reduced the inflammation pathways activated by the SOD1G93A mutation in the adipose tissue, but not in the spinal cord. These findings emphasize the importance of considering sex-specific approaches in metabolic therapies and highlight the role of leptin in the systemic modulation of ALS by regulating immune responses outside the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Haploinsuficiência , Leptina/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
2.
Theranostics ; 14(3): 1168-1180, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323310

RESUMO

Background: Effector T cell activation, migration, and proinflammatory cytokine production are crucial steps in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While several therapeutic approaches targeting T cell activation and proinflammatory cytokines have been developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, there are no therapeutic agents targeting the migration of effector T cells, largely due to our limited understanding of regulatory mechanisms of T cell migration in autoimmune disease. Here we reported that midline-1 (Mid1) is a key regulator of effector T cell migration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model of MS. Methods: Mid1-/- mice were generated by Crispr-Cas9 technology. T cell-specific Mid1 knockout chimeric mice were generated by adoptive transfer of Mid1-/- T cells into lymphocyte deficient Rag2-/- mice. Mice were either immunized with MOG35-55 (active EAE) or received adoptive transfer of pathogenic T cells (passive EAE) to induce EAE. In vitro Transwell® assay or in vivo footpad injection were used to assess the migration of T cells. Results: Mid1 was significantly increased in the spinal cord of wild-type (Wt) EAE mice and disruption of Mid1 in T cells markedly suppressed the development of both active and passive EAE. Transcriptomic and flow cytometric analyses revealed a marked reduction in effector T cell number in the central nervous system of Mid1-/- mice after EAE induction. Conversely, an increase in the number of T cells was observed in the draining lymph nodes of Mid1-/- mice. Mice that were adoptively transferred with pathogenic Mid1-/- T cells also exhibited milder symptoms of EAE, along with a lower T cell count in the spinal cord. Additionally, disruption of Mid1 significantly inhibited T-cell migration both in vivo and in vitro. RNA sequencing suggests a suppression in multiple inflammatory pathways in Mid1-/- mice, including mTOR signaling that plays a critical role in cell migration. Subsequent experiments confirmed the interaction between Mid1 and mTOR. Suppression of mTOR with rapamycin or microtubule spindle formation with colcemid blunted the regulatory effect of Mid1 on T cell migration. In addition, mTOR agonists MHY1485 and 3BDO restored the migratory deficit caused by Mid1 depletion. Conclusion: Our data suggests that Mid1 regulates effector T cell migration to the central nervous system via mTOR/microtubule pathway in EAE, and thus may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MS.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Esclerose Múltipla , Camundongos , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Sci Adv ; 10(5): eadj3808, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306424

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) senses the change of extracellular divalent zinc ion and signals through multiple G proteins to a broad spectrum of downstream effectors. Here, we found that GPR39 was prevalent at inhibitory synapses of spinal cord somatostatin-positive (SOM+) interneurons, a mechanosensitive subpopulation that is critical for the conveyance of mechanical pain. GPR39 complexed specifically with inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) and helped maintain glycinergic transmission in a manner independent of G protein signalings. Targeted knockdown of GPR39 in SOM+ interneurons reduced the glycinergic inhibition and facilitated the excitatory output from SOM+ interneurons to spinoparabrachial neurons that engaged superspinal neural circuits encoding both the sensory discriminative and affective motivational domains of pain experience. Our data showed that pharmacological activation of GPR39 or augmenting GPR39 interaction with GlyRs at the spinal level effectively alleviated the sensory and affective pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant and implicated GPR39 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory mechanical pain.


Assuntos
Dor , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores de Glicina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
4.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 38(2): 198-205, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385233

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of M2 microglia (M2-MG) transplantation on spinal cord injury (SCI) repair in mice. Methods: Primary MG were obtained from the cerebral cortex of 15 C57BL/6 mice born 2-3 days old by pancreatic enzyme digestion and identified by immunofluorescence staining of Iba1. Then the primary MG were co-cultured with interleukin 4 for 48 hours (experimental group) to induce into M2 phenotype and identified by immunofluorescence staining of Arginase 1 (Arg-1) and Iba1. The normal MG were harvested as control (control group). The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of 5 C57BL/6 mice born 1 week old were co-cultured with M2-MG for 5 days to observe the axon length, the DRG alone was used as control. Forty-two 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham group ( n=6), SCI group ( n=18), and SCI+M2-MG group ( n=18). In sham group, only the laminae of T 10 level were removed; SCI group and SCI+M2-MG group underwent SCI modeling, and SCI+M2-MG group was simultaneously injected with M2-MG. The survival of mice in each group was observed after operation. At immediate (0), 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after operation, the motor function of mice was evaluated by Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) score, and the gait was evaluated by footprint experiment at 28 days. The spinal cord tissue was taken after operation for immunofluorescence staining, in which glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining at 7, 14, and 28 days was used to observe the injured area of the spinal cord, neuronal nuclei antigen staining at 28 days was used to observe the survival of neurons, and GFAP/C3 double staining at 7 and 14 days was used to observe the changes in the number of A1 astrocytes. Results: The purity of MG in vitro reached 90%, and the most of the cells were polarized into M2 phenotype identified by Arg-1 immunofluorescence staining. M2-MG promoted the axon growth when co-cultured with DRGs in vitro ( P<0.05). All groups of mice survived until the experiment was completed. The hind limb motor function of SCI group and SCI+M2-MG group gradually recovered over time. Among them, the SCI+M2-MG group had significantly higher BMS scores than the SCI group at 21 and 28 days ( P<0.05), and the dragging gait significantly improved at 28 days, but it did not reach the level of the sham group. Immunofluorescence staining showed that compared with the SCI group, the SCI+M2-MG group had a smaller injury area at 7, 14, and 28 days, an increase in neuronal survival at 28 days, and a decrease in the number of A1 astrocytes at 7 and 14 days, with significant differences ( P<0.05). Conclusion: M2-MG transplantation improves the motor function of the hind limbs of SCI mice by promoting neuron survival and axon regeneration. This neuroprotective effect is related to the inhibition of A1 astrocytes polarization.


Assuntos
Microglia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Axônios/metabolismo , Regeneração Nervosa , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
5.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 38(2): 189-197, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385232

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the mechanisms for repairing spinal cord injury (SCI) with tetramethylpyrazine-loaded electroconductive hydrogel (hereinafter referred to as "TGTP"). Mehtods: A total of 72 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operation group (group A), SCI group (group B), SCI+electroconductive hydrogel group (group C), and SCI+TGTP group (group D). Only the vertebral plate was removed in group A, while the remaining groups were subjected to a whole transection model of spinal cord with a 2 mm gap in the lesions. The recovery of hindlimb motor function was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) score and modified Rivlin-Tator inclined plate test before operation and at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after operation, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at 7 days and 28 days after modeling. Neovascularisation was observed by immunofluorescence staining of CD31 and the expression levels of angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and Tie-2 were assessed by Western blot assay. At 28 days postoperatively, the expression levels of pro-angiogenic related proteins, including platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B), PDGF receptor ß (PDGFR-ß), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), were also assessed by Western blot. The fibrous scar in the injured area was assessed using Masson staining, while neuronal survival was observed through Nissl staining. Furthermore, LFB staining was utilized to detect myelin distribution and regeneration. Immunofluorescence and Western blot assay were employed to evaluate the expression of neurofilament 200 (NF200). Results: The hindlimb motor function of rats in each group gradually recovered from the 3rd day after operation. The BBB score and climbing angle in group D were significantly higher than those in group B from 3 to 28 days after operation, and significantly higher than those in group C at 14 days and 28 days after operation ( P<0.05). Masson staining showed that the collagen volume fraction in groups B-D were significantly higher than that in group A, and that in group D was significantly lower than that in groups B and C ( P<0.05); a small amount of black conductive particles were scattered at the broken end in group D, and the surrounding collagen fibers were less than those in group C. Nissl and LFB staining showed that the structure of neurons and myelin sheath in the injured area of spinal cord in group D was relatively complete and continuous, and the number of Nissl bodies and the positive area of myelin sheath in group D were significantly better than those in groups B and C ( P<0.05). NF200 immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assay results showed that the relative expression of NF200 protein in group D was significantly higher than that in groups B and C ( P<0.05). CD31 immunofluorescence staining showed that the fluorescence intensity of group D was better than that of groups B and C at 28 days after operation, and tubular or linear neovascularization could be seen. The relative expressions of Ang-1 and Tie-2 proteins in group D were significantly higher than those in groups B and C at 7 and 28 days after operation ( P<0.05). The relative expressions of PDGF-B and PDGFR-ß proteins in group D were significantly higher than those in groups B and C, and group B was significantly higher than group C at 28 days after operation ( P<0.05). The relative expressions of VEGF-A and VEGFR2 proteins in group D were higher than those in groups B and C, showing significant difference when compared with group B ( P<0.05), but only the expression of VEGF-A protein was significantly higher than that in group C ( P<0.05). There was significant difference only in VEGFR-2 protein between groups B and C ( P<0.05). Conclusion: TGTP may enhance the revascularization of the injured area and protect the neurons, thus alleviating the injury of spinal cord tissue structure and promoting the recovery of neurological function after SCI in rats.


Assuntos
Pirazinas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Hidrogéis , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo
6.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(1): 213-218, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372091

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation induced by microglia following spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to secondary neurologic injury. Androgens including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) show as endogenous neuroprotective factors against multiple neurologic diseases, while their therapeutic role in SCI-induced neuroinflammation and underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the study, we aimed to investigate the role of DHT against microglia-induced neuroinflammation in SCI and evaluate its protective treatment. BV2 cells were activated by neuroinflammation via LPS in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the SCI model. BV2 cells and SCI mice were administrated DHT. Microglia activation, pro-inflammatory factors, p38 and p65 phosphorylation, glial scar, fibrotic scar, histology, and locomotor function recovery were measured, respectively. We demonstrated that DHT administration attenuates neuroinflammation in microglia through inhibition of p38 and p65 pathways. Moreover, DHT reduces microglia and astrocyte accumulation, cord fibrosis and histologic damage. Besides, DHT ameliorates locomotor functional recovery after SCI. DHT is verified to play a neuroprotective role in SCI, which fights against neuroinflammation by inhibition of p38 and p65 pathways. Therefore, Mel is defined as a promising factor in protecting neural tissue after SCI.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339048

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain, which is initiated by a malfunction of the somatosensory cortex system, elicits inflammation and simultaneously activates glial cells that initiate neuroinflammation. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to have therapeutic effects for neuropathic pain, although with uncertain mechanisms. We suggest that EA can reliably cure neuropathic disease through anti-inflammation and transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) signaling pathways from the peripheral to the central nervous system. To explore this, we used EA to treat the mice spared nerve injury (SNI) model and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms through novel chemogenetics techniques. Both mechanical and thermal pain were found in SNI mice at four weeks (mechanical: 3.23 ± 0.29 g; thermal: 4.9 ± 0.14 s). Mechanical hyperalgesia was partially attenuated by 2 Hz EA (mechanical: 4.05 ± 0.19 g), and thermal hyperalgesia was fully reduced (thermal: 6.22 ± 0.26 s) but not with sham EA (mechanical: 3.13 ± 0.23 g; thermal: 4.58 ± 0.37 s), suggesting EA's specificity. In addition, animals with Trpv1 deletion showed partial mechanical hyperalgesia and no significant induction of thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain mice (mechanical: 4.43 ± 0.26 g; thermal: 6.24 ± 0.09 s). Moreover, we found increased levels of inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1 beta (IL1-ß), IL-3, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma after SNI modeling, which decreased in the EA and Trpv1-/- groups rather than the sham group. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed similar tendencies in the dorsal root ganglion, spinal cord dorsal horn, somatosensory cortex (SSC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In addition, a novel chemogenetics method was used to precisely inhibit SSC to ACC activity, which showed an analgesic effect through the TRPV1 pathway. In summary, our findings indicate a novel mechanism underlying neuropathic pain as a beneficial target for neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Neuralgia , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Hiperalgesia/terapia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Neuralgia/etiologia , Neuralgia/terapia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
8.
eNeuro ; 11(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302457

RESUMO

Cypin (cytosolic postsynaptic density protein 95 interactor) is the primary guanine deaminase in the central nervous system (CNS), promoting the metabolism of guanine to xanthine, an important reaction in the purine salvage pathway. Activation of the purine salvage pathway leads to the production of uric acid (UA). UA has paradoxical effects, specifically in the context of CNS injury as it confers neuroprotection, but it also promotes pain. Since neuropathic pain is a comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), we postulated that small molecule cypin inhibitor B9 treatment could attenuate SCI-induced neuropathic pain, potentially by interfering with UA production. However, we also considered that this treatment could hinder the neuroprotective effects of UA and, in doing so, exacerbate SCI outcomes. To address our hypothesis, we induced a moderate midthoracic contusion SCI in female mice and assessed whether transient intrathecal administration of B9, starting at 1 d postinjury (dpi) until 7 dpi, attenuates mechanical pain in hindlimbs at 3 weeks pi. We also evaluated the effects of B9 on the spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. We found that B9 alleviates mechanical pain but does not affect locomotor function. Importantly, B9 does not exacerbate lesion volume at the epicenter. In accordance with these findings, B9 does not aggravate glutamate-induced excitotoxic death of SC neurons in vitro. Moreover, SCI-induced increased astrocyte reactivity at the glial scar is not altered by B9 treatment. Our data suggest that B9 treatment reduces mechanical pain without exerting major detrimental effects following SCI.


Assuntos
Neuralgia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/etiologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Purinas , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(4): e18136, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334255

RESUMO

Chronic pain is the key manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Neuroinflammation in the spinal cord drives central sensitization and chronic pain. Ferroptosis has potentially important roles in the occurrence of neuroinflammation and chronic pain. In the current study, mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis was established by intradermal injection of type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) solution. CFA inducement resulted in swollen paw and ankle, mechanical and spontaneous pain, and impaired motor coordination. The spinal inflammation was triggered, astrocytes were activated, and increased NLRP3-mediated inflammatory signal was found in CFA spinal cord. Oxidative stress and ferroptosis in the spinal cord were manifested. Meanwhile, enhancive spinal GSK-3ß activity and abnormal phosphorylated Drp1 were observed. To investigate the potential therapeutic options for arthritic pain, mice were intraperitoneally injected with AB4 for three consecutive days. AB4 treatment reduced pain sensitivity and increased the motor coordination. In the spinal cord, AB4 treatment inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory response, increased antioxidation, decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and ferroptosis. Furthermore, AB4 decreased GSK-3ß activity by binding with GSK-3ß through five electrovalent bonds. Our findings indicated that AB treatment relieves arthritis pain by inhibiting GSK-3ß activation, increasing antioxidant capability, reducing Drp1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and suppressing neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Dor Crônica , Ferroptose , Saponinas , Camundongos , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
10.
J Neurosci ; 44(6)2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326029

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response after CNS injury. Although TLR4 is one of the best characterized, its role in chronic stages after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well understood. We examined the role of TLR4 signaling in injury-induced responses at 1 d, 7 d, and 8 weeks after spinal cord contusion injury in adult female TLR4 null and wild-type mice. Analyses include secondary damage, a range of transcriptome and protein analyses of inflammatory, cell death, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, as well as immune cell infiltration and changes in axonal sprouting and locomotor recovery. Lack of TLR4 signaling results in reduced neuronal and myelin loss, reduced activation of NFκB, and decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines and necroptotic cell death pathway at a late time point (8 weeks) after injury. TLR4 null mice also showed reduction of scar-related ECM molecules at 8 weeks after SCI, accompanied by increase in ECM molecules associated with perineuronal nets, increased sprouting of serotonergic fibers, and improved locomotor recovery. These findings reveal novel effects of TLR4 signaling in chronic SCI. We show that TLR4 influences inflammation, cell death, and ECM deposition at late-stage post-injury when secondary injury processes are normally considered to be over. This highlights the potential for late-stage targeting of TLR4 as a potential therapy for chronic SCI.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia
11.
Neuroscience ; 539: 21-34, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176610

RESUMO

Patients receiving neuraxial treatment with morphine for pain relief often experience a distressing pruritus. Neuroinflammation-mediated plasticity of sensory synapses in the spinal cord is critical for the development of pain and itch. Caspase-6, as an intracellular cysteine protease, is capable of inducing central nociceptive sensitization through regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. Given the tight interaction between protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) and excitatory synaptic plasticity, this pre-clinical study investigates whether caspase-6 contributes to morphine-induced itch and chronic itch via PKMζ. Intrathecal morphine and contact dermatitis were used to cause pruritus in mice. Morphine antinociception, itch-induced scratching behaviors, spinal activity of caspase-6, and phosphorylation of PKMζ and ERK were examined. Caspase-6 inhibitor Z-VEID-FMK, exogenous caspase-6 and PKMζ inhibitor ZIP were utilized to reveal the mechanisms and prevention of itch. Herein, we report that morphine induces significant scratching behaviors, which is accompanied by an increase in spinal caspase-6 cleavage and PKMζ phosphorylation (but not expression). Intrathecal injection of Z-VEID-FMK drastically reduces morphine-induced scratch bouts and spinal phosphorylation of PKMζ, without abolishing morphine analgesia. Moreover, intrathecal strategies of ZIP dose-dependently reduce morphine-induced itch-like behaviors. Spinal phosphorylation of ERK following neuraxial morphine is down-regulated by ZIP therapy. Recombinant caspase-6 directly exhibits scratching behaviors and spinal phosphorylation of ERK, which is compensated by PKMζ inhibition. Also, spinal inhibition of caspase-6 and PKMζ reduces the generation and maintenance of dermatitis-induced chronic itch. Together, these findings demonstrate that spinal caspase-6 modulation of PKMζ phosphorylation is important in the development of morphine-induced itch and dermatitis-induced itch in mice.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato , Morfina , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Fosforilação , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Caspase 6/metabolismo , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Dermatite de Contato/metabolismo
12.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 33, 2024 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord ischemia‒reperfusion injury (SCIRI) can lead to paraplegia, which leads to permanent motor function loss. It is a disastrous complication of surgery and causes tremendous socioeconomic burden. However, effective treatments for SCIRI are still lacking. PANoptosis consists of three kinds of programmed cell death, pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis, and may contribute to ischemia‒reperfusion-induced neuron death. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts a neuroprotective effect in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether H2S is anti-PANoptosis and neuroprotective in the progression of acute SCIRI remains unclear. Thus, in this study we aimed to explore the role of H2S in SCIRI and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Measurements of lower limb function, neuronal activity, microglia/macrophage function histopathological examinations, and biochemical levels were performed to examine the efficacy of H2S and to further demonstrate the mechanism and treatment of SCIRI. RESULTS: The results showed that GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor) treatment attenuated the loss of Nissl bodies after SCIRI and improved the BBB score. Additionally, the number of TUNEL-positive and cleaved caspase-3-positive cells was decreased, and the upregulation of expression of cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bad and downregulation of Bcl-2 expression were reversed after GYY4137 administration. Meanwhile, both the expression and activation of p-MLKL, p-RIP1, and p-RIP3, along with the number of PI-positive and RIP3-positive neurons, were decreased in GYY4137-treated rats. Furthermore, GYY4137 administration reduced the expression of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1 and cleaved GSDMD, decreased the colocalization NeuN/NLRP3 and Iba1/interleukin-1ß-expressing cells, and inhibited proinflammatory factors and microglia/macrophage polarization. CONCLUSIONS: H2S ameliorated spinal cord neuron loss, prevented motor dysfunction after SCIRI, and exerted a neuroprotective effect via the inhibition of PANoptosis and overactivated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in SCIRI.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Morfolinas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Animais , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Apoptose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
13.
Elife ; 122024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231910

RESUMO

Axon regeneration is abortive in the central nervous system following injury. Orchestrating microtubule dynamics has emerged as a promising approach to improve axonal regeneration. The microtubule severing enzyme spastin is essential for axonal development and regeneration through remodeling of microtubule arrangement. To date, however, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying spastin action in neural regeneration after spinal cord injury. Here, we use glutathione transferase pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays to demonstrate that 14-3-3 interacts with spastin, both in vivo and in vitro, via spastin Ser233 phosphorylation. Moreover, we show that 14-3-3 protects spastin from degradation by inhibiting the ubiquitination pathway and upregulates the spastin-dependent severing ability. Furthermore, the 14-3-3 agonist Fusicoccin (FC-A) promotes neurite outgrowth and regeneration in vitro which needs spastin activation. Western blot and immunofluorescence results revealed that 14-3-3 protein is upregulated in the neuronal compartment after spinal cord injury in vivo. In addition, administration of FC-A not only promotes locomotor recovery, but also nerve regeneration following spinal cord injury in both contusion and lateral hemisection models; however, the application of spastin inhibitor spastazoline successfully reverses these phenomena. Taken together, these results indicate that 14-3-3 is a molecular switch that regulates spastin protein levels, and the small molecule 14-3-3 agonist FC-A effectively mediates the recovery of spinal cord injury in mice which requires spastin participation.


Assuntos
Axônios , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Axônios/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Estabilidade Proteica , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Espastina/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo
14.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 17, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212835

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is not solely a neuronal cell- or brain tissue-autonomous disease and that neuroinflammation plays a key role in disease progression. Furthermore, whereas both CD4 and CD8 T cells were observed in spinal cords of ALS patients and in mouse models of the disease, their role in the neuroinflammatory process, especially considering their functional changes with age, is not fully explored. In this study, we revealed the structure of the CD4 T-cell compartment during disease progression of early-onset SOD1G93A and late-onset SOD1G37R mouse models of ALS. We show age-related changes in the CD4 T-cell subset organization between these mutant SOD1 mouse models towards increased frequency of effector T cells in spleens of SOD1G37R mice and robust infiltration of CD4 T cells expressing activation markers and the checkpoint molecule PD1 into the spinal cord. The frequency of infiltrating CD4 T cells correlated with the frequency of infiltrating CD8 T cells which displayed a more exhausted phenotype. Moreover, RNA-Seq and immunohistochemistry analyses of spinal cords from SOD1G37R mice with early clinical symptoms demonstrated immunological trajectories reminiscent of a neurotoxic inflammatory response which involved proinflammatory T cells and antigen presentation related pathways. Overall, our findings suggest that age-related changes of the CD4 T cell landscape is indicative of a chronic inflammatory response, which aggravates the disease process and can be therapeutically targeted.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Modelos Animais de Doenças
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 29, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168763

RESUMO

Chromatin accessibility has been used to define how cells adopt region-specific neural fates. BAF45D is one of the subunits of a specialised chromatin remodelling BAF complex. It has been reported that BAF45D is expressed in spinal cord neural stem cells (NSCs) and regulates their fate specification. Within the developing vertebrate spinal cord, HOX genes exhibit spatially restricted expression patterns. However, the chromatin accessibility of BAF45D binding HOX genes in spinal cord NSCs is unclear. In the present study, we found that in H9-derived spinal cord NSCs, BAF45D targets TBX6, a gene that regulates spinal cord neural mesodermal progenitors. Furthermore, BAF45D binding to the NES gene is much more enriched in H9-derived spinal cord NSCs chromatin compared to ESCs chromatin. In addition, BAF45D binding to anterior and trunk/central HOX genes, but not to lumbosacral HOX genes, was much more enriched in NSCs chromatin compared to ESCs chromatin. These results may shed new light on the role of BAF45D in regulating region-specific spinal cord NSCs by targeting HOX genes.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Genes Homeobox , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 823: 137663, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Elucidating the mechanism of neuropathic pain (NeP) is crucial as it can result in motor dysfunction and negatively impact quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Although it has been reported that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) is involved in NeP in rat models of peripheral nerve injury and that COX2 inhibitors can alleviate NeP, these mechanisms after SCI have not been fully investigated. PURPOSE: The purpose is to investigate whether the thoracic SCI affects the expression of mRNAs for COX1 and COX2 in the lumbar spinal cord, and the effect of COX2 inhibitor on its behavior. STUDY DESIGN: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent thoracic (T10) spinal cord contusion injury using an Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor device. SCI rats received COX2 inhibitors (50 µg/day) on days 5 and 6 after SCI. METHODS: Male SD rats underwent T10 laminectomy under mixed anesthesia, and IH impactors were applied to the same site to create a rat SCI model. Rats that underwent only laminectomy were designated as sham. Lumbar spinal cord at the L4-5 level was harvested at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 28 days after SCI, and COX2 and COX1 were quantified by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). COX2 expression, expression site, and expression time were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) at the same time points. The expression site and time of COX2 expression were also examined at the same time point by ISHH. On 5th and 6th day after SCI, saline and COX2 inhibitor (50 µg/day) were administered into the subarachnoid space as a single dose, and the two groups were compared in terms of mechanical withdrawal latency using the dynamic plantar esthesiometer, which is an automated von Frey-type system. RESULTS: COX2 was significantly increased at 5 and 7 days after SCI, but no significant difference in COX1 was observed after SCI by RT-PCR. ISHH targeting COX2 showed clear expression of COX2 in spinal cord vascular endothelial cells at 5 and 7 days after SCI. COX2 expression was almost abolished at day 14 and 28. Behavioral experiments showed that pain was significantly improved from day 2 after COX2 inhibitor administration compared to the saline group, with improvement up to day 14 after SCI, but no significant difference was observed after day 21. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that thoracic SCI increased COX2 in vascular endothelial cells in the lumbar spinal cord and that the administration of COX2 inhibitor significantly alleviated mechanical hypersensitivity of the hind-paw following the thoracic SCI. Therefore, endothelial cell derived COX2 in the lumbar spinal cord may be involved in the induction of neuropathic pain in the SCI model rats. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The findings in the present study regarding the induction of endothelial COX2 and the effect of its inhibitor on the mechanical hypersensitivity suggest that endothelial cell-derived COX2 is one of the focuses for the treatment for neuropathic pain in the acute phase of SCI.


Assuntos
Neuralgia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo
17.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 37(1): 61-8, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of shikonin on the recovery of nerve function after acute spinal cord injury(SCI) in rats. METHODS: 96 male Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats were divided into 4 groups randomly:sham operation group (Group A), sham operation+shikonin group (Group B), SCI+ DMSO(Group C), SCI+shikonin group (Group D).The acute SCI model of rats was made by clamp method in groups C and D . After subdural catheterization, no drug was given in group A. rats in groups B and D were injected with 100 mg·kg-1 of shikonin through catheter 30 min after modeling, and rats in group C were given with the same amount of DMSO, once a day until the time point of collection tissue. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan(BBB) scores were performed on 8 rats in each group at 6, 12, and 3 d after moneling, and oblique plate tests were performed on 1, 3, 7 and 14 d after modeling, and then spinal cord tissues were collected. Eight rats were intraperitoneally injected with propidine iodide(PI) 1 h before sacrificed to detection PI positive cells at 24 h in each group. Eight rats were sacrificed in each group at 24 h after modeling, the spinal cord injury was observed by HE staining.The Nissl staining was used to observe survivor number of nerve cells. Western-blot technique was used to detect the expression levels of Bcl-2 protein and apoptosis related protein RIPK1. RESULTS: After modeling, BBB scores were normal in group A and B, but in group C and D were significantly higher than those in group A and B. And the scores in group D were higher than those in group C in each time point (P<0.05). At 12 h after modeling, the PI red stained cells in group D were significantly reduced compared with that in group C, and the disintegration of neurons was alleviated(P<0.05). HE and Nissl staining showed nerve cells with normal morphology in group A and B at 24h after operation. The degree of SCI and the number of neuronal survival in group D were better than those in group C, the difference was statistically significant at 24h (P<0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and RIPK1 proteins was very low in group A and B;The expression of RIPK1 was significantly increased in Group C and decreased in Group D, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05);The expression of Bcl-2 protein in group D was significantly higher than that in group C (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Shikonin can alleviate the pathological changes after acute SCI in rats, improve the behavioral score, and promote the recovery of spinal nerve function. The specific mechanism may be related to the inhibition of TNFR/RIPK1 signaling pathway mediated necrotic apoptosis.


Assuntos
Dimetil Sulfóxido , Naftoquinonas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo
18.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 388(3): 765-773, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278551

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is a pressing unmet medical need requiring novel nonopioid-based therapeutic approaches. Using unbiased transcriptomic analysis, we found that the expression of Gpr31, a G protein-coupled receptor, increased in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats with traumatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Daily intrathecal injections of siGpr31 reversed behavioral hypersensitivities in a time-dependent manner. GPR31, a Gα i protein-coupled receptor, has recently been cloned and is a receptor for 12-(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12-(S)-HETE]. The lack of commercially available GPR31 antagonists has hampered the understanding of this receptor in pathophysiological states, including pain. To investigate this, our first approach was to identify novel GPR31 antagonists. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including in silico modeling, we identified the first highly potent and selective small-molecule GPR31 antagonist, SAH2. Here, we characterize the pharmacological activity in well-described models of neuropathic pain in rodents and provide evidence that 12-(S)-HETE/GPR31-dependent behavioral hypersensitivities are mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the spinal cord. Our studies provide the pharmacological rationale for investigating contributions of GPR31 along the pain neuroaxis and the development of nonopioid GPR31-targeted strategies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We have identified the first highly selective GPR31 antagonist. Using this antagonist, we have demonstrated that GPR31 signaling in the spinal cord is pronociceptive and MAPK pathways provided signaling mechanisms downstream of GPR31 activation in these processes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Neuralgia , Ratos , Animais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal/metabolismo
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 127: 111367, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38160564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by oxidative stress is a crucial factor affecting neuronal dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI). IL-11 has been reported to have antioxidative stress capacity. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect and mechanism of IL-11 against neuronal cell damage caused by oxidative imbalance. METHODS: We established a H2O2-induced oxidative stress injury model in PC12 cells and observed the effects of IL-11 on cellular activity, morphology, oxidase and antioxidant enzymes, and ROS release. Furthermore, the effect of IL-11 on apoptosis of PC12 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, a TUNEL assay and Western blotting. Transcriptome analysis and rescue experiments revealed the mechanism by which IL-11 protects neurons from oxidative stress damage. For the in vivo investigation, an adenovirus-mediated IL-11 overexpression SCI rat model was constructed to validate the beneficial effect of IL-11 against SCI. RESULTS: IL-11 significantly improved the viability and enhanced the antioxidant activity of H2O2-treated PC12 cells while reducing ROS release. In addition, IL-11 reduced H2O2-induced PC12 cell apoptosis. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the JAK/STAT pathway may be related to the antioxidant activity of IL-11. Treatment with a JAK/STAT inhibitor (Stattic) exacerbated the oxidative damage induced by H2O2 and attenuated the protective effects of IL-11. The results of in vivo studies showed that IL-11 prevented neuronal apoptosis due to oxidative imbalance and promoted the restoration of motor function in SCI rats by activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: IL-11 inhibited oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis at least in part by activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and further promoted the recovery of motor function. These findings suggest that IL-11 may be an effective target for the treatment for SCI.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Ratos , Animais , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Neurônios , Apoptose , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
20.
Mol Pain ; 20: 17448069231225810, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148592

RESUMO

The number of patients with neuropathic pain is increasing in recent years, but drug treatments for neuropathic pain have a low success rate and often come with significant side effects. Consequently, the development of innovative therapeutic strategies has become an urgent necessity. Kilohertz High Frequency Electrical Stimulation (KHES) offers pain relief without inducing paresthesia. However, the specific therapeutic effects of KHES on neuropathic pain and its underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous, warranting further investigation. In our previous study, we utilized the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify datasets related to neuropathic pain mice. The majority of the identified pathways were found to be associated with inflammatory responses. From these pathways, we selected the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-2B (NMDAR2B) pathway for further exploration. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: a Sham group, a Sham/KHES group, a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) group, and a CCI/KHES stimulation group. KHES administered 30 min every day for 1 week. We evaluated the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL). The expression of TRPV1 and NMDAR2B in the spinal cord were analyzed using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assay. KHES significantly alleviated the mechanical and thermal allodynia in neuropathic pain mice. KHES effectively suppressed the expression of TRPV1 and NMDAR2B, consequently inhibiting the activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) in the spinal cord. The administration of the TRPV1 pathway activator partially reversed the antinociceptive effects of KHES, while the TRPV1 pathway inhibitor achieved analgesic effects similar to KHES. KHES inhibited the activation of spinal dorsal horn glial cells, especially astrocytes and microglia, by inhibiting the activation of the TRPV1/NMDAR2B signaling pathway, ultimately alleviating neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neuralgia , Animais , Camundongos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Constrição , Estimulação Elétrica , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
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