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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3857-3862, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893581

RESUMO

Licorice is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. In clinic, raw licorice and honey-fried licorice are used in medicines, with the main effects in clearing away heat and detoxifying, moistening lungs and removing phlegm. Honey-fried licorice has effects in nourishing the spleen and stomach and replenishing Qi and pulse. Because traditional Chinese medicine exerts the effects through multiple components and multiple targets, the index components used in the quality evaluation of licorice are often difficult to reflect their real quality. In addition, most of studies for the quality standards have shown that honey-fried licorice are the same as licorice, with a lack of quality evaluation standards that can demonstrate their processing characteristics. The quality of medicine is directly related to its clinical efficacy, so it is necessary to establish a more effective quality control method. Licorice has a beany smell, which is one of the main quality identification characteristics. In this study, by taking advantage of the odor characteristics, a headspace-gas chromatography-ion migration mass spectrometry technology was used to establish a quality evaluation method. A total of 76 volatile components were identified. Through the dynamic principal component analysis, 7 kinds of volatile substances in raw licorice and 13 kinds of volatile substances in honey-fried licorice were statistically obtained, and could be taken as index components for the quality evaluation of raw and honey-fried licorice, respectively. This study could help realize the combination and unification of modern detection and traditional quality evaluation methods, and make a more realistic evaluation for the quality of licorice.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza , Mel/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica
2.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 479-489, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755522

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate the anti-leishmanial effects of bee products (honey and propolis) by using the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania tropica promastigotes, in in vitro culture. In vitro anti-leishmanial efficacy of honey (pine, flower and chestnut) and propolis used in the study were evaluated using the microdilution method. Honey, which is a bee product, was dissolved with RPMI medium containing fetal calf serum (FCS) and diluted in the same medium, and serial dilutions were prepared in concentrations between 62.5-1000 mg/ml. Propolis, on the other hand, was dissolved with ethyl alcohol and only 2.5 µl was used from all these concentrations since the alcohol content was more than 50% in these concentrations prepared and we thought that this rate would negatively effect the parasite development. Then, RPMI containing FCS was diluted in the medium and serial dilutions were prepared at concentrations between 50-800 µg/ml. To the dilutions prepared, the promastigot suspension was added so that their final concentrations in the wells were 1 x 106 promastigot/ml and then the medium was incubated for 24 and 48 hours in 26°C. After the incubation, promastigotes were determined microscopically for morphology, mobility and live parasite density, and cell viability was determined by MTS method and 50% inhibitor concentrations (IC50) were compared with control groups. Anti-leishmanial activity of propolis (50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml) and honey (62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/ml) on promastigotes was evaluated in vitro. In microscopic examinations, pine honey showed anti-leishmanial activity starting from 62.5 mg/ml, flower honey 250 mg/ml, and chestnut honey 125 mg/ml, and pine honey was more effective on promastigotes (p< 0.05), and propolis was effective from 100 µg/ml concentration. It has been determined that very low concentrations of propolis caused changes in the morphological structure of the parasites and were more effective than the other bee products. The prevention of cell proliferation and decreasing of the IC50 values according with the time of pine honey (IC50= 109.28 mg/ml), flower honey (IC50= 248.07 mg/ml), chestnut honey (IC50= 147.65 mg/ml) and propolis (IC50= 82.98 µg/ml) applied on L.tropica promastigot cell culture was determined by MTS method. In this study, it was found that various concentrations of pine, flower, chestnut honey and propolis showed anti-leishmanial activity on L. tropica promastigotes. It has been observed that pine honey is more effective on promastigotes after 48 hours of incubation period, and propolis is more effective in both morphology and cell inhibition of the parasites even at very low concentrations. It is believed that these data can be used as an alternative treatment method against cutaneous leishmaniasis infections and further studies are required.


Assuntos
Mel , Leishmania tropica , Própole , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Abelhas/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Própole/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760092

RESUMO

Intertrigo is a skin fold dermatitis often requiring recurrent treatment with topical antiseptics or antibiotics, which can select antimicrobial resistance. To minimize this risk, we tested the effectiveness of medical-grade Manuka honey at treating intertrigo as compared to a placebo hydrogel. We additionally characterized the culturable microbial flora of intertrigo and recorded any adverse effect with either treatment. During this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, adaptive group-sequential trial, the owners washed the affected sites on their dog with water, dried and applied a thin film of either the honey or the placebo product once daily for 21 days. Cytological and lesional composite scores, owner-assessed pruritus, and microbial cultures were assessed prior to treatment and on Day-22. The fixed effects of time, treatment, and animal-related variables on the pruritus and on each composite score, accounting for random dog effect, were estimated separately with generalized linear mixed models for repeated count outcomes (α = 0.05). The null hypothesis of equal treatment effects was rejected at the first interim analysis. The placebo (n = 16 dogs) outperformed the medical honey (n = 13 dogs) at improving both the cytological score (Treatment×Time = -0.35±0.17; P = 0.04) and clinical score (Treatment×Time = -0.28±0.13; P = 0.04). A microbial burden score higher than 4 increased the severity of the cytological score (dichotomous score: 0.29±0.11; P = 0.01), which in turn increased the severity of the clinical score and pruritus score. For every unit increase in cytological score, the linear predictor of clinical score increased by 0.042±0.019 (P = 0.03), and the one of pruritus score increased by 0.12±0.05 (P = 0.01). However, medical honey outperformed the placebo at alleviating the dog's owner-assessed pruritus after statistically controlling for masking effects (Time = -0.94±0.24; P = 0.002; and Treatment×Time = 0.80±0.36; P = 0.04). Unilateral tests of the least-square mean estimates revealed that honey only significantly improved the pruritus (Hommel-adjusted P = 0.003), while the placebo only improved the cytological and clinical scores (Hommel-adjusted P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Taken together, these results question the value of Manuka honey at treating nasal intertrigo in dogs.


Assuntos
Apiterapia/métodos , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Mel , Intertrigo/veterinária , Prurido/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Intertrigo/complicações , Intertrigo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nariz , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/etiologia
4.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106376, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861138

RESUMO

In 2017, the Polish public consumed on average 0.61 kg of honey, while the European average consumption was 0.7 kg (Data on honey consumption in Poland, 2014) [http://www.portalspozywczy.pl]. The main point of this study was to investigate the 210Po activity concentrations in different types of floral and non-floral honey, type of clad honey is made of and honey yield in honey available on the Polish market. Activity of 210 Po in honey ranged from 0.006 ± 0.001 to 0.384 ± 0.004 Bq kg-1 with effective dose 0.005 ± 0.001 to 0.281 ± 0.003 µSv/year. The activity in honey was measured by alpha-spectrometry. The concentration of radionuclide depends on the raw material used by bees and plant type. The highest concentration of 210Po was observed in the honeydew honey and herbal honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Animais , Polônia , Radioisótopos
5.
Food Chem ; 332: 127229, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688187

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide plays a key role in honey antibacterial activity. The production of H2O2 in honey requires glucose oxidase (GOx) that oxidizes glucose to gluconolactone and reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The content of GOx of honeybee origin was believed to be the main predictor of H2O2 concentration in honey. The observed variations in H2O2 levels among honeys questioned however the direct GOx-H2O2 relationship and left its absence opened for exploration. Here, we evaluated principal causes underlying the imbalance in the quantitative enzyme-product relationship with respect to: (a) enzyme and the product inactivation or destruction by honey compounds; (b) non-enzymatic pathway of H2O2 formation, and (c) a potential contribution of enzymes with GOx activity originating from nectars and microorganisms inhabiting honey. We also bring new facts on the relationship between honey colloidal structure and H2O2 production that change our traditional understanding of honey function as antimicrobial agent.


Assuntos
Mel , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Glucose Oxidase/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127346, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619938

RESUMO

Fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor utilizing silver (Ag) and Ag-graphene oxide (GO) is designed and developed for the detection of adulteration of glucose and fructose in pure honey. The concentration range of the two adulterants in pure honey is varied from 4% to 20% with a step change of 4%. The experiments were performed with two different fiber optic probes viz. Probe 1 and Probe 2. Probe 1 is fabricated by coating 50 nm Ag film on unclad optical fiber portion and Probe 2 is fabricated by modifying Ag film with GO for sensitivity improvement. The study confirms that using GO modified fiber optic probe, the sensitivity is enhanced to 24% and 37% for glucose and fructose adulterated honey samples respectively. The technique presented in this study is easy, rapid, label free and shows high prospective for the detection of adulterants in pure honey.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Mel/análise , Fibras Ópticas , Prata/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127356, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619939

RESUMO

This study is about the rice syrup adulteration determination in different botanical origin honey in the food product. Due to time-consuming and large risk of misdiagnosis, it is essential to establish a general model for adulteration detection regardless of the original category of honey. In this paper, infrared (IR) spectra combined with four supervised pattern recognition methods were employed to establish the general model for rice syrup adulteration detection in acacia, linden and jujube honey samples simultaneously. Moreover, Monte-Carlo sampling technology was executed to evaluate the models via the average accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The first derivative-least squares support vector machines (Der-LS-SVM) gave an outstanding performance with higher accuracy (97.09%), higher sensitivity (96.64%), higher specificity (97.58%) and lower standard deviations after fifty trials. In addition, this study makes further efforts to control the quality of the honey product in the market on rice syrup adulteration.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Oryza/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Acacia/química , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Risco
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127371, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622188

RESUMO

A simple and sensitive salting out-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method using deep eutectic solvent combined with back extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (SO-DLLME-DES-BE-MECC) was developed for the determination of fluoroquinolones in milk, honey and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including DES volume, vortex time, centrifugation time, salt type and amount, sample pH and volume, etc. were investigated. Good linearity were obtained for fluoroquinolones in a range of 0.020-3.200 µg mL-1 and 0.030-4.800 µg mL-1 with LODs less than 0.010 µg mL-1. The recoveries were in the ranges of 95.0-104.9%, 90.1-110.2% and 87.8-114.1% for water, honey and milk samples, respectively. The relative standard deviations for reproducibility were all below 7.6%. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for analytes were achieved in the range from 531 to 858 folds. The presented method was successfully applied for the determination of fluoroquinolones in milk, honey and water samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Mel/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Leite/química , Solventes/química , Água/química , Animais , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Sais/química
9.
Food Chem ; 331: 127348, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619908

RESUMO

Information concerning food composition, including information on its glucose content, is essential for modern food industry due to greater consumer awareness and expectations. In this work, the gene encoding d-glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus Natto was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) firstly. Ni-IDA column was used for the purification of GDH. Then, the purified GDH was used to construct a color system with stable and effective measurement of concentration of d-glucose. The smart phone photographing and the software Microsoft Photoshop have been used in the system for determination of the color. The enzymatic analysis system can detect the concentration of d-glucose from 5 mM to 40 mM, and other various sugars has no interference to the system. The system was used to quantitatively detect the concentration of d-glucose in honey. The system can be used for convenient and rapid detection of d-glucose in food, especially for large numbers of samples.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glucose/análise , Mel/análise , Smartphone , Bacillus/genética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cor , Escherichia coli/genética , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/genética , Glucose 1-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Software
10.
Food Chem ; 333: 127524, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679418

RESUMO

Semicarbazide (SEM) is a protein-bound nitrofurazone metabolite that is detrimental to human health. Therefore, to ensure food safety, it is necessary to detect SEM in food samples. To this end, we developed a novel electrochemical sensor to detect SEM by using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as the recognition element. Computer-aided molecular modelling was performed to guide the synthesis of the MIP, and subsequently, MIP/carboxylated single-walled carbon-nanotubes/chitosan (MIP/SWNTs-COOH/CS) was prepared as the sensing platform to develop the electrochemical sensor. The linear range of the sensor was 0.04-7.6 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 0.025 ng mL-1. The sensor was successfully applied to detect SEM in four different real samples, with recoveries ranging from 83.16% to 93.40%. The results indicated that the fabricated electrochemical sensor can be widely applied to detect SEM in the environment and in agri-food products.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Impressão Molecular , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Semicarbazidas/análise , Eletrodos , Mel/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Carne/análise , Polímeros/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 38200-38211, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617820

RESUMO

Honeybees forage a large spatial area around the hives. In addition, honey production takes place in various environments, and polluted environment is often hard to detect. It impacts both human and beehive health, especially through honey which is used for human consumption. Pollen analysis was conducted by a novel approach through a multivariate principal component analysis where it was possible to obtain grouping patterns related to foraging plant species. Samples of honey were acquired from three different environmental production systems: (i) honey from the apiaries in the vicinity of thermal power plant, (ii) apiary of certified organic production and (iii) the conventional production with semi-controlled production. Significantly higher contents of the Pb, Cd and Zn are found in the analysed honeys taken near the thermal power plant compared with those of the other analysed honeys. The origin of Zn, Pb and Cd in the honey is the contaminated forage plants and foraging honeybees. Honey from certified organic production differentiated significantly from other two types of production by the water content, electrical conductivity and total soluble solids and notably it contained significantly less ash and lead. There is a clear advantage of certified organic honey in terms of heavy metal residues as the most prominent pollution factor in honey. Therefore, honey can be used as the broad range environmental pollution indicator, as bees will forage on polluted plants and bring the pollutant from a wide spatial range inside the hive, where it can be traced in the honey. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mel/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Pólen/química
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127398, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610260

RESUMO

Herein, a label-free and dual-readout immunochromatographic test strip (ITS) for the sensitive detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 by taking advantages of the strong capture ability of Fe3O4@CuS nanostructures (NSs) towards bacteria and their ultrahigh photothermal effects (PTEs) was reported. Especially, without the customarily antibody (Ab)-labeled probe, Fe3O4@CuS NSs could be adsorbed onto the surfaces of bacteria to form Fe3O4@CuS-bacteria conjugates and then trapped by immobilized Abs on the test line (T-line), forming a characteristic yellow band. After direct immunoreactions, the PTEs of Fe3O4@CuS NSs endowed T-line to be irradiated by an 808 nm infrared light, obtaining satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy. Under optimal conditions, E. coli O157:H7, as low as 103 and 102 CFU/mL, could be monitored in colorimetric and photothermal modes. Additionally, E. coli O157:H7 was successfully detected in beef, chicken, milk and honey samples by this proposed platform with a recovery of 80-120%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cobre/química , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Férricos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/instrumentação , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Mel/microbiologia , Limite de Detecção , Leite/microbiologia , Fitas Reagentes/química , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 804-810, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098323

RESUMO

Honey is a natural antioxidant that its protective effects have been proven against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Persian Honey, Apis mellifera meda skorikov, on gastrocnemius muscle IR injury. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used. They were divided into ten groups (N=8 per group). The ischemia was conducted with a silk suture 6-0 using the slipknot technique. All groups were rendered in ischemic for 3 h, and reperfused for various times of 3 days (3-day reperfusion), 7 days (7-day reperfusion), 14 days (14-day reperfusion), and 28 days (28-day reperfusion). Half of the groups had experimental honey (5 %) treatment immediately after ischemia. After reperfusion, the rats, based on the grouping, were killed with high doses of anesthetic, and the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and fixed. After the tissue processing, the evaluation of edema and mast cells infiltration was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining, respectively. TNF-α was detected with immunohistochemistry method. The amount of TNF-α as an index of acute inflammatory except the 3rd day significantly decreased on the other day of reperfusion (7th, 147th and 287th days). The mast cells infiltration was significantly decreased on 77th and 147th days. The tissue edema was decreased significantly in honey administrated group in the comparison with placebo groups. Honey administration can reduce damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the rat gastrocnemius muscle.


La miel es un antioxidante natural; sus efectos protectores han sido probados contra la lesión por isquemiareperfusión (IR). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de mejora de la miel persa Apis mellifera meda skorikov, en la lesión por IR del músculo gastrocnemio. Se utilizaron 80 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas con un peso entre 250 y 300 g divididas en diez grupos (N = 8 por grupo). La isquemia se realizó con una sutura de seda 6-0 utilizando la técnica slipknot permaneciendo isquémicos durante 3 h. La reperfusión se realizó durante varios tiempos de 3 días, 7 días (reperfusión de 7 días), 14 días (reperfusión de 14 días) y 28 días (28 días reperfusión). La mitad de los grupos recibió tratamiento experimental con miel (5 %) inmediatamente después de la isquemia. Después de la reperfusión, las ratas, fueron sacrificadas con altas dosis de anestésico, y los músculos gastrocnemios fueron removidos y fijados. Después de procesar el tejido, se realizó la evaluación del edema y la infiltración de mastocitos se realizó con tinción de hematoxilina-eosina y azul de toluidina, respectivamente. TNF-α se detectó con el método de inmunohistoquímica. La cantidad de TNF-α como índice de inflamación inflamatoria aguda, excepto en el tercer día, disminuyó significativamente al día siguiente de la reperfusión (7, 14 y 28 días). La infiltración de mastocitos disminuyó significativamente a los 7 y 14 días. El edema tisular disminuyó significativamente en el grupo administrado con miel en comparación con los grupos placebo. El tratamiento con miel puede reducir el daño causado por la isquemia-reperfusión en el músculo gastrocnemio de la rata.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Apis mellifica/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Mel , Imuno-Histoquímica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Apis mellifica/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139686, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474272

RESUMO

Several studies show that the elemental content of honey entirely depends on the botanical and geographical origin, but the information is incomplete regarding its time-dependent composition changes. Twenty-six acacia and three honey samples with unknown botanical origin were collected between 1958 and 2018 and analysed for elemental composition by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES). The elemental analysis was coupled with independent dating method by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to confirm the calendar age of the honey samples and test the possibility of radiocarbon based dating of bee products, which has not been applied before. According to the analytical measurements and statistical analysis, we can conclude that the elemental composition shows change with time in the acacia honey during the last five decades. We have proven that honey preserves carbon isotopic and elemental information of its production time and thus can be applied as an environmental indicator (e.g. trace urban pollutants, precipitation, local industrial or agricultural emission) in reconstruction studies by analysing the non-degradable mineral content. Our results further show that acacia honey is a suitable material for radiocarbon dating, proved by the results compared to the atmospheric radiocarbon bomb-peak. The new approach presented for investigation of honey by radiocarbon-based age determination coupled with elemental analysis can be used in biological, dietary, archaeological or other multidisciplinary studies as well. Some samples show slightly depleted radiocarbon content. This could be an indication of local fossil CO2 emission. Based on these depleted 14C results, honey could be used for atmospheric monitoring of fossil CO2 urban or industrial hot-spots.


Assuntos
Acacia , Mel/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Hungria , Minerais/análise , Análise Espectral
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 139953, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599396

RESUMO

Honey is the sweet natural substance produced by honeybees. It may be contaminated with pesticide residues due to its intensive use. Almost no reviews have addressed pesticide residues in honey, calculated a hazard index or discussed their potential reproductive toxicity. The focus of this article is primarily to summarize advances in research related to pesticide residues, estimate daily intake of pesticide residues from consuming honey only and discuss the potential reproductive toxicity associated with those residues. The results showed that 92 pesticide residues were found in honey samples from 27 countries. Six residues belong to class IA toxicity, eight residues belong to class IB toxicity, 42 residues belong to class II, 35 residues belong to class III and one residue belong to class IV toxicity. The calculated hazard indices (HIs) suggest high potential health risk by consuming honey. In addition, residues found in honey are known to impair semen quality among exposed individuals and experimental animal models. In conclusion, consumption of honey as one of many food items contaminated with pesticide residues may induce male and female reproductive toxicity in consumers.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodução , Análise do Sêmen
16.
Food Chem ; 328: 127169, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485580

RESUMO

For a long time, honey has been recognized for its health-promoting properties and, consequently, has been used in traditional medicine worldwide. Apart from the beneficial bioactive compounds found in this food (e.g. polyphenols), molecules with potentially harmful effects may also be present, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aiming the quality assessment of honeys produced from Echium plantagineum L., a species known for its content in pyrrolizidine alkaloids, this work was focused in the search of these alkaloids and of polyphenols in one monofloral and two multifloral honeys, using chromatographic techniques. Additionally, their cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory potential were assessed in cellular models. Several polyphenols were determined, but no pyrrolizidine alkaloid was detected in the analysed honey samples. Honey extracts exhibited capacity to decrease NO levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like cells (RAW 264.7) up to 40% at concentrations of 0.25 mg/mL. Therefore, this work highlights the health benefits of these honey samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Echium , Mel/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pólen/química , Portugal , Células RAW 264.7
17.
Food Chem ; 330: 127334, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569942

RESUMO

Varroa destructor, the primary honeybee pathogen, is kept in check by various chemical compounds which may enter the human diet through honeybee products. Lithium is an emerging varroa control substance, and we investigated its accumulation in honey, bee bread, brood and adults along with the mortality of bees. Increased lithium concentrations were detected in workers, fed individually once per os with 10 µL of 25 mM LiCl in sucrose solution (6.50-40.10 mg/kg) or had the same solution available ad libitum (39.25-266.00 mg/kg). A three-day treatment of honeybee colonies with 25 mM LiCl in 1L/day sucrose solution increased lithium concentrations in five-day-old larvae, honey, and bee bread: up to 45.0, 1.2, and 47.0 mg/kg, respectively. Lithium concentrations peaked three days post-treatment in both larvae and honey and increased worker mortality was observed. The control colonies exhibited lithium concentrations below the limit of quantification (0.5 mg/kg). Prudence in lithium use is advised.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mel/análise , Lítio/análise , Varroidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Larva/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Lítio/farmacologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127358, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563069

RESUMO

Honey bee mortality and colony losses have been reported worldwide. Although this phenomenon is caused by a combination of factors, agrochemicals have received special attention due to their potential effects on bees. In agricultural and urban environments bees are exposed to several compounds that may interact in unexpected ways, but information on the extent of pesticide exposure remains unclear. Several monitoring studies have been conducted to evaluate the field-realistic exposure of bees to pesticides after their release on the market. However, their outputs are difficult to compare and harmonize due to differences in the analytical methodologies and the sampling protocols (e.g. number of screened compounds and analysed samples, and detection limits (LODs)). Here, we hypothesize that the analytical methodologies used in the monitoring studies may strongly affect the pesticide occurrences in pollen underestimating the real pesticide exposure. By mean of a systematic literature review, we have collected relevant information on pesticide contaminations in the honey bee-collected pollen. Our findings showed that the pesticide occurrences were associated with the analytical methodologies and the real pesticide exposure has likely been underestimated in some monitoring studies. For four highly toxic compounds, the LOD used in these monitoring studies exceeded the doses that cause toxic effects on honey bees. We recommend that, especially for the highly toxic compounds, the LODs used in the monitoring studies should be low enough to exclude lethal or sublethal effects on bees and avoid "false negative" samples.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Pólen/química , Agricultura , Animais , Abelhas , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/análise
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3374-3378, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375978

RESUMO

Kluyveromyces osmophilus, a single-strain species isolated from Mozambique sugar, has been treated a synonym of Zygosaccharomyces mellis. Analyses of D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the species belongs to the genus Zygosaccharomyces but showed it to be distinct from strains of Z. mellis. During studies of yeasts associated with stingless bees in Brazil, nine additional isolates of the species were obtained from unripe and ripe honey and pollen of Scaptotrigona cfr. bipunctata, as well as ripe honey of Tetragonisca angustula. The D1/D2 sequences of the Brazilian isolates were identical to those of the type strain of K. osmophilus CBS 5499 (=ATCC 22027), indicating that they represent the same species. Phylogenomic analyses using 4038 orthologous genes support the reinstatement of K. osmophilus as a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces. We, therefore, propose the name Zygosaccharomyces osmophilus comb. nov. (lectotype ATCC 22027; MycoBank no. MB 833739).


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Mel/microbiologia , Kluyveromyces/classificação , Pólen/microbiologia , Zygosaccharomyces/classificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Food Chem ; 326: 126981, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416420

RESUMO

Water activity is a physical property measured in the food industry which helps predict shelf life and microbial activity. Honey normally has a water activity less than 0.6, but this can vary with the amount of crystallization in solution. The aim of this work was to obtain relationships, as fundamental as possible, that can be used to predict the water activity of solutions with compositions similar to honey. Water activity measurements of aqueous sucrose solutions have been well analysed in literature using hydration theory. The analysis based on hydration numbers was easily able to show the quality of data previously published, and hence relationships were proposed for the hydration numbers of glucose, fructose, maltose and glycerol. A model was proposed in this study, to predict the water activity of food systems containing high concentrations of sugars and some electrolytes. The model was analysed and validated using mostly literature data supplemented with new experimental data.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Soluções/química , Açúcares/química , Água/química , Cristalização , Eletrólitos/química , Glucose/química , Maltose/química , Modelos Teóricos , Sacarose/química
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