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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248359, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345547

RESUMO

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.


Resumo A mancha bacteriana das folhas (BLB) é uma das principais doenças do arroz na Malásia. Essa doença causa perdas substanciais de rendimento de até 70%. O desenvolvimento de variedades de arroz que herdaram características de resistência ao BLB é uma abordagem crucial para promover e sustentar a indústria do arroz na Malásia. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi aumentar os caracteres BLB resistentes a doenças da variedade comercial MR219 de alto rendimento por meio de uma abordagem de cruzamento retrocruzamento com ferramenta de apoio de seleção assistida por marcador (MAS). O gene de resistência a BLB de amplo espectro, Xa7 do pai doador IRBB7, foi introgressado no MR219 suscetível (pai recorrente) usando dois marcadores flanqueadores ID7 e ID15. No BC3F4, conseguimos gerar 19 linhagens introgressadas com o gene Xa7 homozigoto e apresentamos características de resistência como genitor doador quando desafiado com Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae por inoculação artificial. O pai recorrente MR219 e a variedade controle, MR263, estavam gravemente infectados pela doença. As linhas melhoradas exibiram características morfológicas e de desempenho de rendimento semelhantes às da variedade elite, MR219. Duas linhas, PB-2-107 e PB-2-34, foram escolhidas como linhas potenciais por causa de seus desempenhos excelentes em comparação com a mãe, MR219. Este estudo demonstra uma história de sucesso de aplicação de MAS no desenvolvimento de linhas de arroz melhoradas com resistência a doenças contra a doença BLB.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

RESUMO

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Assuntos
Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/genética , Fenótipo , Bangladesh , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Mutação
3.
Food Chem ; 402: 134491, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303386

RESUMO

As an important sensory indicator, aroma affects the quality of wine and consumer preference. In this review, the following aspects are comprehensively analyzed: (1) Varietal aroma, fermentation aroma and aging aroma formation mechanism include metabolic pathways etc. (2) The main factors affecting the aroma formation include environment, raw and auxiliary materials and brewing process. (3) In the process of winemaking, environmental factors can be controlled by regulating deficit irrigation, leaf removal and reflective mulch; the quality of raw and auxiliary materials can also be controlled through the varieties breeding of grape and yeast; flash evaporation, ultrasonic aging and other advanced brewing technologies can be used to synergistically control aroma formation. In the future, the wine brewing process can be controlled from the following aspects to ensure the precise regulation of aroma. This research will provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of wine production technology and quality.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Odorantes/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vitis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 403: 134471, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358103

RESUMO

Peach fruits are rich in phenolic compounds and have considerable health benefits. In this study, 19 proanthocyanidins (PACs) and 37 other phenolic compounds are identified and evaluated in the mature fruits of 217 peach accessions using LC-QTRAP-MS/MS and LC-QTOF-MS analyses. Total PAC quantities ranged from 18.93 to 697.52 µg/g fresh weight with a variance of 36.8-fold, and accounted for 11.2 % - 85.6 % of total phenolics content. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (0.001-0.968 µg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (0.001-0.300 µg/g), taxifolin (0.006-0.078 µg/g), luteoloside (0.002-0.068 µg/g), prunin (0.043-33.333 µg/g), phlorizin (0.018-1.100 µg/g), and trans-piceid (0.013-0.472 µg/g) were also highly diverse. The fruit ripening period, breeding background and fruit type significantly influenced the PACs and phenolic glycosides. This study presents a complete profile of PACs and other major phenolics in 217 peach germplasms, and is expected to aid future peach breeding procedures targeted at producing plants rich in specific phenolics.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Prunus persica , Proantocianidinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenóis/análise , Frutas/química
5.
Food Chem ; 403: 134380, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194931

RESUMO

Banana fruits have attracted considerable attention for health-promoting effects attributed to ubiquitous functional metabolites. However, genotype-dependent accumulation patterns of carotenoids in banana remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a systematic metabolomic investigation of 18 banana cultivars of the AAA, AAB, or ABB genome groups. Our results indicate that the levels of soluble sugars increase during postharvest ripening regardless of genotype, whereas amino acids (AAs) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-derived organic acids display genotype-dependent patterns. The levels of AAs derived from the glycolytic pathway increased, whereas those derived from the TCA cycle significantly decreased during ripening. The carotenoid composition in banana pulp was genotype-specific, and the contents of α-carotene were the highest in AAA-genome bananas. Moreover, high α-carotene and ß-carotene contents in banana were correlated with elevated levels of TCA cycle-derived AAs and decreased levels of glycolysis-derived AAs. Taken together, these findings provide a comprehensive understanding of genotype-associated carotenoid accumulation, thereby facilitating the breeding of future high carotenoid banana cultivars.


Assuntos
Musa , Musa/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Genótipo
6.
Food Chem ; 398: 133863, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961173

RESUMO

Beer quality generally diminishes over time as staling compounds accumulate through various oxidation reactions. Here, we show that refermentation, a traditional practice where Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are added to beer prior to bottling, diminishes the accumulation of staling aldehydes. However, commonly used beer yeasts only show a limited lifespan in beer. Using high-throughput screening and breeding, we were able to generate novel S. cerevisiae hybrids that survive for over a year in beer. Extensive chemical and sensory analyses of the two most promising hybrids showed that they slow down the accumulation of staling aldehydes, such as furfural and trans-2-nonenal and significantly increased beer flavor stability for up to 12 months. Moreover, the strains did not change the original flavor of the beer, highlighting their potential to be integrated in existing products. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to breed novel microbes that function as natural and sustainable anti-oxidative food preservatives.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aldeídos/análise , Cerveja/análise , Fermentação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

RESUMO

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Triticum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252059, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339358

RESUMO

Abstract The present study describes the haematological profile, feeding preference, and comparison of morphometric characters of blue rock pigeon (Columba livia) breeding pairs. For this purpose, 25 pairs (25 samples per sex) were sampled through Mist nets from district Okara and Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Birds were then anaesthetized with a combination of ketamine HCL (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.2 mg/kg) and subjected to morphometric measurements. 5µL blood also was taken from the jugular vein of each anaesthetized bird for haematological analysis. Few pairs were also dissected to remove gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) for food preferences. Results revealed that there are no significant differences in the haematological parameters and feeding preference of breeding pairs of Columba livia. The gut analysis further revealed, the major portion of gut contents consisted of pea and corn in most of the pairs. Regarding the mensural measurements, significant differences were recorded in the body weight, length of the longest primary feather, and chest circumference, whereas the rest of the studied parameters remain nonsignificant between sexes. So, it is concluded that apart from 3 morphometric parameters (body weight, length of longest primary feather and chest circumference), both sexes are alike in term of morphometry, haematology and food preference.


Resumo O presente estudo descreve o perfil hematológico, a preferência alimentar e a comparação de caracteres morfométricos de casais reprodutores de pombo-rocha (Columba livia). Para tanto, 25 pares (25 amostras por sexo) foram amostrados por meio de redes de névoa do distrito de Okara e Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Paquistão. As aves foram então anestesiadas com uma combinação de cetamina HCL (10 mg/kg) e diazepam (0,2 mg/kg) e submetidas a medidas morfométricas; 5 µL de sangue também foram retirados da veia jugular de cada ave anestesiada para análise hematológica. Poucos pares também foram dissecados para remover o trato gastrointestinal (GITs) para preferências alimentares. Os resultados revelaram que não há diferenças significativas nos parâmetros hematológicos e na preferência alimentar dos casais reprodutores de Columba livia. A análise intestinal revelou ainda que a maior parte do conteúdo intestinal consistia em ervilha e milho na maioria dos pares. Em relação às medidas mensurais, foram registradas diferenças significativas no peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica, enquanto os demais parâmetros estudados permanecem não significativos entre os sexos. Assim, conclui-se que além de três parâmetros morfométricos (peso corporal, comprimento da pena primária mais longa e circunferência torácica), ambos os sexos são semelhantes em termos de morfometria, hematologia e preferência alimentar.


Assuntos
Animais , Columbidae , Preferências Alimentares , Paquistão , Plumas , Melhoramento Vegetal
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

RESUMO

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Assuntos
Annonaceae , Annona/genética , Sementes/genética , Brasil , Melhoramento Vegetal , Frutas/genética
10.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106706, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191628

RESUMO

Dengue fever is a reemerging disease of global concern among health authorities due to its high rate of proliferation. In 2019, Brazil registered its second-highest dengue mortality rate since 1998, with approximately 754 deaths and 1.5 million probable cases. Brazilian Ministry of Health prevention and control strategies for Aedes include insecticides, eradication of breeding sites, and awareness campaigns. However, as new mosquito variants resistant to conventional insecticides emerge, there is an increasing demand for effective environment-friendly plant extracts and natural substances against adult mosquitos and/or larvae of Aedes aegypti L. with no negative impacts on human health. This study aimed to investigate the larvicidal activity of Dizygostemon riparius extracts and analyze its chemical profile for the first time. Dizygostemon is a Plantaginaceae bytipic genus and D. riparius is an aromatic plant recently identified in Maranhão, Brazil. The essential oil from its lilac morphotype already exhibited larvicidal potential against Aedes albopictus, but the still limited data on this new plant species require further chemical and biological studies on other species, such as Aedes aegypti. Ethyl acetate and methanol crude leaf extracts yielded, respectively, 17.60 and 25.96%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-IT/MS) analyses confirmed the presence of polymethoxyflavones and coumarins, such as isorhamnetin 3-galactoside-7-rhamnoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-4-benzopyrone and 3',5-dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavone. Ethyl acetate extract presented the best performance in larvicide bioassays (LC50 = 542.2 ± 11.5 µg.mL-1). Our results highlight the chemical and biological potential of this new species found in the cerrado of eastern Maranhão and open perspectives for future studies focusing on isolating and identifying other active secondary metabolites of Dizygostemon riparius.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Plantaginaceae , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
11.
Gigascience ; 112022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important clonally propagated food crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Genetic gain by molecular breeding has been limited, partially because cassava is a highly heterozygous crop with a repetitive and difficult-to-assemble genome. FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that Pacific Biosciences high-fidelity (HiFi) sequencing reads, in combination with the assembler hifiasm, produced genome assemblies at near complete haplotype resolution with higher continuity and accuracy compared to conventional long sequencing reads. We present 2 chromosome-scale haploid genomes phased with Hi-C technology for the diploid African cassava variety TME204. With consensus accuracy >QV46, contig N50 >18 Mb, BUSCO completeness of 99%, and 35k phased gene loci, it is the most accurate, continuous, complete, and haplotype-resolved cassava genome assembly so far. Ab initio gene prediction with RNA-seq data and Iso-Seq transcripts identified abundant novel gene loci, with enriched functionality related to chromatin organization, meristem development, and cell responses. During tissue development, differentially expressed transcripts of different haplotype origins were enriched for different functionality. In each tissue, 20-30% of transcripts showed allele-specific expression (ASE) differences. ASE bias was often tissue specific and inconsistent across different tissues. Direction-shifting was observed in <2% of the ASE transcripts. Despite high gene synteny, the HiFi genome assembly revealed extensive chromosome rearrangements and abundant intra-genomic and inter-genomic divergent sequences, with large structural variations mostly related to LTR retrotransposons. We use the reference-quality assemblies to build a cassava pan-genome and demonstrate its importance in representing the genetic diversity of cassava for downstream reference-guided omics analysis and breeding. CONCLUSIONS: The phased and annotated chromosome pairs allow a systematic view of the heterozygous diploid genome organization in cassava with improved accuracy, completeness, and haplotype resolution. They will be a valuable resource for cassava breeding and research. Our study may also provide insights into developing cost-effective and efficient strategies for resolving complex genomes with high resolution, accuracy, and continuity.


Assuntos
Manihot , Alelos , Cromossomos , Diploide , Haplótipos , Manihot/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
12.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 735, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil salinity is a problem in more than 100 countries across all continents. It is one of the abiotic stress that threatens agriculture the most, negatively affecting crops and reducing productivity. Transcriptomics is a technology applied to characterize the transcriptome in a cell, tissue, or organism at a given time via RNA-Seq, also known as full-transcriptome shotgun sequencing. This technology allows the identification of most genes expressed at a particular stage, and different isoforms are separated and transcript expression levels measured. Once determined by this technology, the expression profile of a gene must undergo validation by another, such as quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study aimed to select, annotate, and validate stress-inducible genes-and their promoters-differentially expressed in the leaves of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plants under saline stress. RESULTS: The transcriptome analysis led to the selection of 14 genes that underwent structural and functional annotation, besides having their expression validated using the qRT-PCR technique. When compared, the RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR profiles of those genes resulted in some inconsistencies. The structural and functional annotation analysis of proteins coded by the selected genes showed that some of them are orthologs of genes reported as conferring resistance to salinity in other species. There were those coding for proteins related to the transport of salt into and out of cells, transcriptional regulatory activity, and opening and closing of stomata. The annotation analysis performed on the promoter sequence revealed 22 distinct types of cis-acting elements, and 14 of them are known to be involved in abiotic stress. CONCLUSION: This study has helped validate the process of an accurate selection of genes responsive to salt stress with a specific and predefined expression profile and their promoter sequence. Its results also can be used in molecular-genetics-assisted breeding programs. In addition, using the identified genes is a window of opportunity for strategies trying to relieve the damages arising from the salt stress in many glycophyte crops with economic importance.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Salino/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Arecaceae/genética , Transcriptoma
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6541, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319648

RESUMO

Rapid global climate change is posing a substantial threat to biodiversity. The assessment of population vulnerability and adaptive capacity under climate change is crucial for informing conservation and mitigation strategies. Here we generate a chromosome-scale genome assembly and re-sequence genomes of 230 individuals collected from 24 populations for Populus koreana, a pioneer and keystone tree species in temperate forests of East Asia. We integrate population genomics and environmental variables to reveal a set of climate-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms, insertion/deletions and structural variations, especially numerous adaptive non-coding variants distributed across the genome. We incorporate these variants into an environmental modeling scheme to predict a highly spatiotemporal shift of this species in response to future climate change. We further identify the most vulnerable populations that need conservation priority and many candidate genes and variants that may be useful for forest tree breeding with special aims. Our findings highlight the importance of integrating genomic and environmental data to predict adaptive capacity of a key forest to rapid climate change in the future.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Árvores , Humanos , Árvores/fisiologia , Florestas , Mudança Climática , Genômica
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18436, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319819

RESUMO

Dioscorea nipponica Makino is an optimal candidate to develop the diosgenin industry in North China. Due to its increasing demand in the medicine industry, it is urgent to apply new biotechnological tools to foster breeds with desirable traits and enhanced secondary metabolite production. The production of useful metabolites by the in vitro cultured rhizomes can be explored successfully for utilization by various food and drug industries. In this study, we reported callus formation and plantlet regeneration of the medicinal plant D. nipponica. Explants of leaves, stem segments and rhizomes of aseptic seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing various combinations of auxin and cytokinin to find the optimal PGRs of each type of explant for callus induction and shoot regeneration of D. nipponica. The paraffin section technique was also used to observe of the morphogenesis of callus and adventitious bud. Explants of seeds and rhizomes formed calli at high frequency in all lines we examined. However, the explant of leaves rarely formed callus. Three kinds of callus were detected during the induction phase. Here, we describe three types of callus (Callus I-III) with different structure characteristics. Greenish in color and a nodule-like protrusion surface (Callus type III) were arranged more closely of cells with less interstitial substance, cell differentiation ability stronger than other callus types. The optimum combination was the maximum shoot differentiation frequency of 90% in callus derived from seeds cultured on MS medium with 2.0 mg L-16-BA + 0.2 mg L-1NAA. The shoot differentiation frequency (88.57%) of rhizome-induced callus was obtained by the combination of MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg L-16-BA + 2.0 mg L-1NAA. 1/2 MS medium plus 0.5 mg L-1NAA resulted in a higher root regeneration frequency of 86.70%. In vitro propagated plantlets with healthy roots were domesticated and transplanted into small plastic pots containing sterile soil rite under greenhouse conditions with 80% survivability. Bud differentiation is mostly of exogenous origin, mostly occurring on the near callus surface. Therefore, it may be surmised that in vitro morphogenesis of D. nipponica is mainly caused by indirect organogenesis (adventitious bud).


Assuntos
Dioscorea , Melhoramento Vegetal , Organogênese Vegetal , Citocininas , Regeneração , Brotos de Planta
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 510, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are transcription factors that regulate diverse biological and physiological processes in plants, including growth, development, and abiotic stress. Although GRF family genes have been studied in a variety of plant species, knowledge about the identification and expression patterns of GRFs in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is still lacking. RESULTS: In the present study, a comprehensive analysis was conducted in the genome of wild sugarcane (Saccharum spontaneum) and 10 SsGRF genes were identified and characterized. The phylogenetic relationship, gene structure, and expression profiling of these genes were analyzed entirely under both regular growth and low-nitrogen stress conditions. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the 10 SsGRF members were categorized into six clusters. Gene structure analysis indicated that the SsGRF members in the same group were greatly conserved. Expression profiling demonstrated that most SsGRF genes were extremely expressed in immature tissues, implying their critical roles in sugarcane growth and development. Expression analysis based on transcriptome data and real-time quantitative PCR verification revealed that GRF1 and GRF3 were distinctly differentially expressed in response to low-nitrogen stress, which meant that they were additional participated in sugarcane stress tolerance. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a scientific basis for the potential functional prediction of SsGRF and will be further scrutinized by examining their regulatory network in sugarcane development and abiotic stress response, and ultimately facilitating their application in cultivated sugarcane breeding.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Saccharum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273959, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322533

RESUMO

Tropical fruit tree species constitute a yet untapped supply of outstanding diversity of taste and nutritional value, barely developed from the genetics standpoint, with scarce or no genomic resources to tackle the challenges arising in modern breeding practice. We generated a de novo genome assembly of the Psidium guajava, the super fruit "apple of the tropics", and successfully transferred 14,268 SNP probesets from Eucalyptus to Psidium at the nucleotide level, to detect genomic loci linked to resistance to the root knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne enterolobii derived from the wild relative P. guineense. Significantly associated loci with resistance across alternative analytical frameworks, were detected at two SNPs on chromosome 3 in a pseudo-assembly of Psidium guajava genome built using a syntenic path approach with the Eucalyptus grandis genome to determine the order and orientation of the contigs. The P. guineense-derived resistance response to RKN and disease onset is conceivably triggered by mineral nutrients and phytohormone homeostasis or signaling with the involvement of the miRNA pathway. Hotspots of mapped resistance quantitative trait loci and functional annotation in the same genomic region of Eucalyptus provide further indirect support to our results, highlighting the evolutionary conservation of genomes across genera of Myrtaceae in the adaptation to pathogens. Marker assisted introgression of the resistance loci mapped should accelerate the development of improved guava cultivars and hybrid rootstocks.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Myrtaceae , Psidium , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Tylenchoidea/genética , Psidium/genética , Eucalyptus/genética , Myrtaceae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genômica
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2206846119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322735

RESUMO

Heat stress limits plant growth, development, and crop yield, but how plant cells precisely sense and transduce heat stress signals remains elusive. Here, we identified a conserved heat stress response mechanism to elucidate how heat stress signal is transmitted from the cytoplasm into the nucleus for epigenetic modifiers. We demonstrate that HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 (HDA9) transduces heat signals from the cytoplasm to the nucleus to play a positive regulatory role in heat responses in Arabidopsis. Heat specifically induces HDA9 accumulation in the nucleus. Under heat stress, the phosphatase PP2AB'ß directly interacts with and dephosphorylates HDA9 to protect HDA9 from 26S proteasome-mediated degradation, leading to the translocation of nonphosphorylated HDA9 to the nucleus. This heat-induced enrichment of HDA9 in the nucleus depends on the nucleoporin HOS1. In the nucleus, HDA9 binds and deacetylates the target genes related to signaling transduction and plant development to repress gene expression in a transcription factor YIN YANG 1-dependent and -independent manner, resulting in rebalance of plant development and heat response. Therefore, we uncover an HDA9-mediated positive regulatory module in the heat shock signal transduction pathway. More important, this cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of HDA9 in response to heat stress is conserved in wheat and rice, which confers the mechanism significant implication potential for crop breeding to cope with global climate warming.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364086

RESUMO

Gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection were used to characterize the fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten commonly consumed (i.e., market class) pulses. Lipids from ground pulses were extracted using a classical chloroform/methanol extraction and quantified by GC-FID with structural confirmation by GC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to FA compositions of the pulse extracts, and the pulses clustered into three distinct groups: one rich in linolenic acid, 18:3 (carbon number:unsaturation, C:U), one rich in 16:0, and one in which 18:1 was highest, along with predominant 18:2. These ten pulses averaged 46.1% linoleic acid (18:2), 22.7% oleic acid (18:1), 18.0% palmitic acid (16:0), and 7.6% linolenic acid (18:3). Individual values ranged widely, with 18:2 ranging from 26.0% in black beans to 48.4% in garbanzo beans. The greatest difference was in 18:3, which ranged from 2.2% in garbanzo beans to 38.8% in pinto beans. Oxo-FA were observed in all ten samples, and the distribution of oxo-FA in the samples also varied. Overall, the very different FA compositions of pulses lead to the possibility of breeding and genetic modification between pulses to produce the most desirable FA composition for nutritional benefit.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Ácido alfa-Linolênico , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ionização de Chama
19.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364475

RESUMO

Domesticated international (standard) apple cultivars, together with resistant apple cultivars are the core of the Serbian apple production. Furthermore, autochthonous cultivars are characterized by a good adaptability to the local environmental conditions and represent a valuable source of genetic variability, as well as an important source of the gene pool for further breeding programs. Additionally, they show a higher phenolic content and a stronger antioxidant activity, in comparison to commercial cultivars. Therefore, they are more likely to be used as a functional food. The subjects of this study were seventeen samples of fruits and leaves from autochthonous apple cultivars, five international standard cultivars, and six resistant apple cultivars. The phenolic profile was determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled with a diode array detector and a TSQ Quantum Access Max triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. A total of twenty compounds were quantified in the samples. Most of the analyzed phenolics were detected in higher amounts in the peel, compared to the mesocarp. The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicate that 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid is present in the highest amount in the mesocarp, while in the peel and leaves, quercetin-glycosides were detected in the highest amount. According to the MANOVA: phloretin, phlorizin, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, and p-coumaric acid are present in significantly higher levels in the autochthonous cultivars, compared to the standard and resistant ones (in both fruits and leaves). Therefore, these compounds can be used as chemical tracers of the apple varietal origin.


Assuntos
Malus , Humanos , Malus/química , Sérvia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenóis/química , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277545, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367885

RESUMO

Passive rewilding is a potential tool for expanding woodland cover and restoring biodiversity by abandoning land management and allowing natural vegetation succession to occur. Land can be abandoned to passive rewilding deliberately or due to socio-economic change. Despite abandonment being a major driver of land use change, few have studied the long-term outcomes for vegetation and biodiversity in Western Europe. Studies are also biased towards sites that are close to seed sources and favourable to woodland colonisation. In this case-study, we reconstruct a time series of passive rewilding over 33 years on 25 ha of former farmland that had been subject to soil tipping, far from woodland seed sources. Natural colonisation by shrubs and trees was surveyed at three points during the time series, using field mapping and lidar. Breeding birds were surveyed at three time points, and compared with surveys from nearby farmland. Results showed that natural colonisation of woody vegetation was slow, with open grassland dominating the old fields for two decades, and small wetlands developing spontaneously. After 33 years, thorny shrub thickets covered 53% of the site and former hedgerows became subsumed or degraded, but trees remained scarce. However, the resulting habitat mosaic of shrubland, grassland and wetland supported a locally distinctive bird community. Farmland bird species declined as passive rewilding progressed, but this was countered by relatively more wetland birds and an increase in woodland birds, particularly songbirds, compared to nearby farmland. Alongside biodiversity benefits, shrubland establishment by passive rewilding could potentially provide ecosystem services via abundant blossom resources for pollinators, and recreation and berry-gathering opportunities for people. Although closed-canopy woodland remained a distant prospect even after 33 years, the habitat mosaic arising from passive rewilding could be considered a valuable outcome, which could contribute to nature recovery and provision of ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fazendas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Florestas , Aves , Biodiversidade , Árvores
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