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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3203-3212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602873

RESUMO

In order to provide guidance for the protection and utilization of resources,quality control and breeding of improved varieties,we compared the main phenotypic characters and quality of wild and transplanted Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from different producing areas. Seven phenotypic characters of 33 samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan were determined by conventional methods,and the principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the diversity of the samples. The parissaponin( polyphyllin Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ) content of the samples were detected by HPLC,and analyzed by cluster analysis. Correlation analysis of the phenotypic characters and the parissaponin content was performed. There were significant differences in seven phenotypic characters between wild and transplanted samples of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis from different habitats,with high phenotypic diversity and abundant genetic variation. The results of principal component analysis showed that leaf shape index was the main factor of morphological variation of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Cluster analysis showed that the phenotypic characters of wild and transplanted P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis could not be completely separated. The content of saponins in wild and transplanted samples from different habitats was quite different. Saponins content of 93. 94% samples met the criterion of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition,and the overall quality was relatively steady. The results of independent sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference of all the active ingredient between wild and transplanted samples,and it couldn't be used to distinguish between wild and transplanted samples. It is the same as the results of cluster analysis. The results of correlation analysis showed that the phenotypic traits of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were correlated with its medicine quality,and the total content of saponins was positively correlated with leaf length and leaf shape index( r = 0. 389,0. 441; P<0. 05). Yunnan,Guizhou and Sichuan are suitable for the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the transplaned P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis can be used as the same as the wild ones completely. The results provide reference for the protection and selective breeding of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.


Assuntos
Melanthiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Saponinas/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecossistema , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais/química
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(9): 1698-1706, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559751

RESUMO

Yuhua91 is a new peanut variety with high oleic acid content bred by Qingdao Agricultural University. The crossing was conducted with Luhua11 as female parent and with Kainong1715, an F435-type variety with high oleic acid content as male parent. The real F1 hybrids were screened by sequencing on PCR amplification products, and those homozygotes with bb genotype in F2 populations were screened by the same sequencing method as above. The content of oleic and linoleic acid was measured on the kernels harvested from F2 single plants by near infrared ray method, and those kernels whose content of oleic was above 80%, oleic and linoleic acid ratio was above 10.0 were obtained and planted into a row, with pedigree method for subsequent selection breeding. Yuhua91 has some characters of small pod, light and obvious pod texture, 148.06 g per 100 pods, 63.31 g per 100 kernels, 75.15% shelling percentage, long elliptic seed kernel, pink seed coat, without crack, white endotesta. Its content of protein, oil, oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid was 26.57%, 52.72%, 80.40%, 2.50% and 5.57% respectively. Yuhua91 has other characters of strong seedlings, compact pod areas, and moderate resistance to leaf spot disease and bacterial wilt. Average pod yield is 215.79 kg per Mu, 15.27% higher than the control variety Huayu20. Average seed kernels yield is 157.33 kg per Mu, 21.64% higher than the control variety Huayu20. Yuhua 91 has been registered on department of agriculture in 2018, and the registration No. is GPD peanut (2018) 370210, fit for growing in Shandong Province.


Assuntos
Arachis , Ácido Oleico , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes
3.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 827-835, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549681

RESUMO

Crop improvement by domestication and traditional breeding often results in fitness penalties and loss of genetic diversity, which greatly threatens crop production and food security under the challenging global climate. De novo domestication has been proposed as a novel strategy for crop breeding. By combining multi-omics, genome editing and synthetic biology approaches, domestication of wild or semi-wild plant species can be accelerated by rapidly introducing desirable traits without causing an associated drag on their inherent traits. In this review, we summarize the history of crop domestication, emphasize the urgency for breeding strategy innovation, and discuss recent progress of de novo crop domestication.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Domesticação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Edição de Genes
4.
Plant Dis ; 103(11): 2884-2892, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486740

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Leptosphaeria maculans are two of the most important pathogens of many cruciferous crops. The reaction of 30 genotypes of Camelina sativa (false flax) was determined against both pathogens. C. sativa genotypes were inoculated at seedling and adult stages with two pathotypes of S. sclerotiorum, highly virulent MBRS-1 and less virulent WW-1. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) among genotypes, between pathotypes, and a significant interaction between genotypes and pathotypes in relation to percent cotyledon disease index (% CDI) and stem lesion length. Genotypes 370 (% CDI 20.5, stem lesion length 1.8 cm) and 253 (% CDI 24.8, stem lesion length 1.4 cm) not only consistently exhibited cotyledon and stem resistance, in contrast to susceptible genotype 2305 (% CDI 37.7, stem lesion length 7.2 cm), but their resistance was independent to S. sclerotiorum pathotype. A F5-recombinant inbred line population was developed from genotypes 370 × 2305 and responses characterized. Low broad-sense heritability indicated a complex pattern of inheritance of resistance to S. sclerotiorum. Six isolates of L. maculans, covering combinations of five different avirulent loci (i.e., five different races), were tested on C. sativa cotyledons across two experiments. There was a high level of resistance, with % CDI < 17, and including development of a hypersensitive reaction. This is the first report of variable reaction of C. sativa to different races of L. maculans and the first demonstrating comparative reactions of C. sativa to S. sclerotiorum and L. maculans. This study not only provides new understanding of these comparative resistances in C. sativa, but highlights their potential as new sources of resistance, both for crucifer disease-resistance breeding in general and to enable broader adoption of C. sativa as a more sustainable oilseed crop in its own right.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Brassicaceae , Resistência à Doença , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(8): 754-760, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447426

RESUMO

Breeding by design is a new concept proposed in the beginning of the century. It refers to the breeding of varieties by crop design utilizing favorable alleles dispersed in different genetic resources in a genome. In the past 20 years, we have proposed a "three-step" strategy to carry out the research on breeding by design in rice. Firstly, we constructed a library of chromosomal single-segment substitution lines (SSSLs) by using of Huajingxian74 (HJX74), an elite xian (indica) variety from South China as the recipient and 43 accessions of seven species of rice AA genome as donors. The genes in the substituted segments of SSSLs were then detected. Breeding by design was conducted by selecting the favorable genes from the SSSL library. Our practice indicates that the SSSL library is a powerful platform for breeding by design and various "traits", "lines" and "varieties" of rice can be designed and bred by utilizing abundant genes in the SSSL library. Here, we introduce the platform of the HJX74-SSSL library and our work of breeding by design on the platform. It will provide a case study for crop design.


Assuntos
Biblioteca Gênica , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , China , Genes de Plantas
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 333, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat grains contain gluten proteins, which harbour immunogenic epitopes that trigger Coeliac disease in 1-2% of the human population. Wheat varieties or accessions containing only safe gluten have not been identified and conventional breeding alone struggles to achieve such a goal, as the epitopes occur in gluten proteins encoded by five multigene families, these genes are partly located in tandem arrays, and bread wheat is allohexaploid. Gluten immunogenicity can be reduced by modification or deletion of epitopes. Mutagenesis technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9, provide a route to obtain bread wheat containing gluten proteins with fewer immunogenic epitopes. RESULTS: In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity of over 600 α- and γ-gliadin gene sequences to design six sgRNA sequences on relatively conserved domains that we identified near coeliac disease epitopes. They were combined in four CRISPR/Cas9 constructs to target the α- or γ-gliadins, or both simultaneously, in the hexaploid bread wheat cultivar Fielder. We compared the results with those obtained with random mutagenesis in cultivar Paragon by γ-irradiation. For this, Acid-PAGE was used to identify T1 grains with altered gliadin protein profiles compared to the wild-type endosperm. We first optimised the interpretation of Acid-PAGE gels using Chinese Spring deletion lines. We then analysed the changes generated in 360 Paragon γ-irradiated lines and in 117 Fielder CRISPR/Cas9 lines. Similar gliadin profile alterations, with missing protein bands, could be observed in grains produced by both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using CRISPR/Cas9 to simultaneously edit multiple genes in the large α- and γ-gliadin gene families in polyploid bread wheat. Additional methods, generating genomics and proteomics data, will be necessary to determine the exact nature of the mutations generated with both methods.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Gliadina/genética , Glutens/genética , Triticum/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Glutens/imunologia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Alinhamento de Sequência
7.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1664-1675, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369363

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major fungal disease affecting wheat production worldwide. Since the early 1990s, FHB, caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, has become one of the most significant diseases faced by wheat producers in Canada and the United States. The increasing FHB problem is likely due to the increased adoption of conservation tillage practices, expansion of maize production, use of susceptible wheat varieties in rotation, and climate variability. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum sp. durum) is notorious for its extreme susceptibility to FHB and breeding for resistance is complicated because sources of FHB resistance are rare in the primary gene pool of tetraploid wheat. Losses due to this disease include yield, test weight, seed quality, food and feed quality, and when severe, market access. More importantly, it is the contamination with mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, in Fusarium-infected durum kernels that causes the most serious economic as well as food and feed safety concerns. Several studies and thorough reviews have been published on germplasm development and breeding for FHB resistance and the genetics and genomics of FHB resistance in bread or common wheat (T. aestivum); however, similar reviews have not been conducted in durum wheat. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the recent research efforts to mitigate FHB in durum wheat, including quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies, genomic prediction, mutagenesis and characterization of genes and pathways involved in FHB resistance. It also highlights future directions, FHB-resistant germplasm, and the potential role of morphological traits to enhance FHB resistance in durum wheat.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Fusarium , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Canadá , Fusarium/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pesquisa/tendências , Triticum/microbiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety assessment and control of stacked transgenic crops is increasingly important due to continuous crop development and is urgently needed in China. The genetic stability of foreign genes and unintended effects are the primary problems encountered in safety assessment. Omics techniques are useful for addressing these problems. The stacked transgenic maize variety 12-5 × IE034, which has insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant traits, was developed via a breeding stack using 12-5 and IE034 as parents. Using 12-5 × IE034, its parents (12-5 and IE034), and different maize varieties as materials, we performed proteomic profiling, molecular characterization and a genetic stability analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that the copy number of foreign genes in 12-5 × IE034 is identical to that of its parents 12-5 and IE034. Foreign genes can be stably inherited over different generations. Proteomic profiling analysis found no newly expressed proteins in 12-5 × IE034, and the differences in protein expression between 12 and 5 × IE034 and its parents were within the range of variation of conventional maize varieties. The expression levels of key enzymes participating in the shikimic acid pathway which is related to glyphosate tolerance of 12-5 × IE034 were not significantly different from those of its parents or five conventional maize varieties, which indicated that without selective pressure by glyphosate, the introduced EPSPS synthase is not has a pronounced impact on the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in maize. CONCLUSIONS: Stacked-trait development via conventional breeding did not have an impact on the genetic stability of T-DNA, and the impact of stacked breeding on the maize proteome was less significant than that of genotypic differences. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the development of a safety assessment approach for stacked-trait transgenic crops in China.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética , China , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Dosagem de Genes , Instabilidade Genômica , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Proteômica
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 348, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the major objectives in wheat breeding programs. However, the complex quantitative nature of this trait presents challenges when breeding for PHS resistance. Characterization of PHS using near-isogenic lines (NILs) targeting major quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL/QTLs) can be an effective strategy for the identification of responsible genes and underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: In this study, multiple pairs of NILs were developed and confirmed for a major QTL located on the 4BL chromosome arm that contributes to PHS resistance in wheat, using a combined heterogeneous inbred family method and a fast generation cycling system. Phenotypic characterization of these confirmed NILs revealed significant differences in PHS resistance between the isolines, where the presence of the resistant allele increased the resistance to sprouting on spikes by 54.0-81.9% (average 70.8%) and reduced seed germination by 59.4-70.5% (average 66.2%). The 90 K SNP genotyping assay on the confirmed NIL pairs identified eight SNPs on 4BL, associated with five candidate genes; two of the candidate genes were related to seed dormancy. Agronomic traits in the NIL pairs were investigated; both plant height and grain number per spike were positively correlated with PHS susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed multiple pairs of NILs and identified SNPs between PHS isolines, which are valuable resources for further fine-mapping of this locus to clone the major genes for PHS resistance and investigate the possible functional regulation of these genes on important agronomic traits, such as plant height and grain number per spike.


Assuntos
Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2421-2432, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359707

RESUMO

With the development of various biotechnology,the research on molecular genetics of medicinal plants has gradually deepened. In this paper,the research system of molecular genetics of medicinal plants was proposed for the first time,which was elaborated from the aspects of genetic resources,genome,gene function and research methods. The application fields of medicinal plant mainly contain species identification,molecular breeding and biosynthesis. The research directions of molecular genetics of medicinal plants in genetic resources,model platform,synthetic biology and molecular breeding were put forward,which include 1 000 genome projects of medicinal plants,model species and mutant libraries,gene original libraries of heterologous synthetic systems,construction gene original library and specific chassis cells in heterologous synthesis system of active ingredient,breeding of new varieties of medicinal plants with high active ingredient and high resistance based on molecular markers andtransgenes.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular/tendências , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Biotecnologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Pesquisa , Transgenes
11.
Yi Chuan ; 41(7): 599-610, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307969

RESUMO

Variety pedigree contains a lot of information, including parental origin, breeding methods, genetic relationship, and so on. Studying them could reveal the evolution characteristics and rules of breeding and ultimately guide practice. The pedigrees of 326 wheat varieties from 1936 to 2017 in the history of the Sichuan Province was collected and analyzed in terms of breeding methods, parental composition, changes of high frequency parents and backbone parents, genetic contribution, distribution of translocation lines and synthetic germplasms. Over the past 80 years since 1930s, breeders have selected 387 direct parents from a large number of materials, made 256 combinations by means of cross breeding, and have released 314 varieties from them, which contributed directly to wheat breeding and production in Sichuan. Wheat breeding experienced a process from utilizing landraces, introducing foreign germplasm to creating breeding materials independently; high-frequency parents and backbone parents used for breeding gradually changed in different stage of the breeding history. Synthetic germplasms contributed greatly to wheat breeding in recent years. The consistency of breeding objectives will inevitably lead to the loss of genetic diversity and the fragility of genetic basis. In the future, the protection and utilization of genetic resources should be strengthened. In this review, the development of wheat breeding in Sichuan was summarized through pedigree analysis, in order to provide a reference for future research.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , China , Linhagem
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1960-1964, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342727

RESUMO

Alpinia oxyphylla is mainly produced in Hainan,and also one of the four famous traditional Chinese medicines in South China with increasing importance in traditional Chinese medicine industry. Field surveys and literatures show that A. oxyphylla has widely used as a medicinal and edible plant,it is an important raw material for many Chinese patent medicines,health products and food,with a long history of artificial cultivation and application. The future development is prospected on health market. But A. oxyphylla industry has faced a lot of problems,including unreasonable planting layout,lack of good varieties,imperfect seed breeding system,low level of standardization,inconsistent quality of medicinal materials,low level of industry,and so on. The suggestions for sustainable development are listed below.First,it is essential to strengthen the research on the basis and application technology of A. oxyphylla,speed up the selection and breeding of improved varieties,and popularize standardized cultivation techniques. Secondly,it is important to strengthen the research on quality standards,improve the quality evaluation system of medicinal materials. Thirdly,it is necessary to take full advantage of the functional components to develop functional products with Hainan characteristics,find out the unique product characteristics of A. oxyphylla,build a famous brand and improve the product competitiveness in the market. It is also important to strengthen policy support and industrial supervision,promote the healthy and rapid development of A. oxyphylla industry.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/tendências , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sementes
13.
Ecol Lett ; 22(9): 1472-1482, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270929

RESUMO

Plant diversity fosters productivity in natural ecosystems. Biodiversity effects might increase agricultural yields at no cost in additional inputs. However, the effects of diversity on crop assemblages are inconsistent, probably because crops and wild plants differ in a range of traits relevant to plant-plant interactions. We tested whether domestication has changed the potential of crop mixtures to over-yield by comparing the performance and traits of major crop species and those of their wild progenitors under varying levels of diversity. We found stronger biodiversity effects in mixtures of wild progenitors, due to larger selection effects. Variation in selection effects was partly explained by within-mixture differences in leaf size. Our results indicate that domestication might disrupt the ability of crops to benefit from diverse neighbourhoods via reduced trait variance. These results highlight potential limitations of current crop mixtures to over-yield and the potential of breeding to re-establish variance and increase mixture performance.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Domesticação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
14.
Planta ; 250(3): 971-977, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256257

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In spite of the limited investment in orphan crops, access to new technologies such as bioinformatics and low-cost genotyping opens new doors to modernise their breeding effectively. Innovation in plant breeding is imperative to meet the world's growing demand for staple food and feed crops, and orphan crops can play a significant role in increasing productivity and quality, especially in developing countries. The short breeding history of most orphan crops implies that genetic gain should be achievable through easy-to-implement approaches such as forward breeding for simple traits or introgression of elite alleles at key target trait loci. However, limited financial support and access to sufficient, relevant and reliable phenotypic data continue to pose major challenges in terms of resources and capabilities. Digitalisation of orphan-crop breeding programmes can help not only to improve data quality and management, but also to mitigate data scarcity by allowing data to be accumulated and analysed over time and across teams. Bioinformatics tools and access to technologies such as molecular markers, some of them provided as services via specific platforms, allow breeders to implement modern strategies to improve breeding efficiency. In orphan crops, more marker-trait associations relevant to breeding germplasm are generally needed, but implementing digitalization, marker-based quality control or simple trait screening and introgression will help modernising breeding. Finally, the development of local capacities-of both people and infrastructure-remains a necessity to ensure the sustainable adoption of modern breeding approaches.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2989, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278252

RESUMO

Multiple cotton genomes (diploid and tetraploid) have been assembled. However, genomic variations between cultivars of allotetraploid upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most widely planted cotton species in the world, remain unexplored. Here, we use single-molecule long read and Hi-C sequencing technologies to assemble genomes of the two upland cotton cultivars TM-1 and zhongmiansuo24 (ZM24). Comparisons among TM-1 and ZM24 assemblies and the genomes of the diploid ancestors reveal a large amount of genetic variations. Among them, the top three longest structural variations are located on chromosome A08 of the tetraploid upland cotton, which account for ~30% total length of this chromosome. Haplotype analyses of the mapping population derived from these two cultivars and the germplasm panel show suppressed recombination rates in this region. This study provides additional genomic resources for the community, and the identified genetic variations, especially the reduced meiotic recombination on chromosome A08, will help future breeding.


Assuntos
Ordem dos Genes/genética , Gossypium/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Poliploidia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2982, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278256

RESUMO

Hybrid rice breeding for exploiting hybrid vigor, heterosis, has greatly increased grain yield. However, the heterosis-related genes associated with rice grain production remain largely unknown, partly because comprehensive mapping of heterosis-related traits is still labor-intensive and time-consuming. Here, we present a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method, GradedPool-Seq, for rapidly mapping QTLs by whole-genome sequencing of graded-pool samples from F2 progeny via bulked-segregant analysis. We implement this method and map-based cloning to dissect the heterotic QTL GW3p6 from the female line. We then generate the near isogenic line NIL-FH676::GW3p6 by introgressing the GW3p6 allele from the female line Guangzhan63-4S into the male inbred line Fuhui676. The NIL-FH676::GW3p6 exhibits grain yield highly increased compared to Fuhui676. This study demonstrates that it may be possible to achieve a high level of grain production in inbred rice lines without the need to construct hybrids.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(7): 1277-1285, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328484

RESUMO

Leaf water potential of peanut subjected to drought stress is positively related to the oil content of peanut kernels. The aim of this study was to directly screen the high oil mutants of peanut and create the new peanut varieties using hydroxyproline as water potential regulator. In vitro mutagenesis was carried out with the embryonic leaflets of peanut variety Huayu 20 as explants and pingyangmycin as a mutagen added into the somatic embryo formation medium. The formed somatic embryos were successively transferred to somatic embryo germination and selection medium containing 6 mmol/L hydroxyproline (at -2.079 MPa water potential ) to induce regeneration and directionally screen high oil content mutants. After that, these plantlets were grafted and transplanted to the experimental field and 132 high oil mutants with oil content over 55% were obtained from the offspring of regenerated plants. Finally, among them, the oil contents of 27 lines were higher than 58% and of 2 lines were higher than 60%. A new peanut variety Yuhua 9 with high yield and oil content was bred from the regenerated plant progenies combining the pedigree breeding method. The yield was 14.0% higher than that of the control cultivar in the testing new peanut varieties of Liaoning province, and also it has passed the national registration of non-major crop varieties. Yuhua 9 with an oil content of 61.05%, which was 11.55 percentage points higher than that of the parent Huayu 20, was the peanut cultivar with the highest oil content in the world. The result showed that it was an effective way for directional breeding of high oil peanut varieties by means of the three-step technique including in vitro mutagenesis, directional screening by reducing water potential in medium and pedigree selection of regenerated plant progenies.


Assuntos
Arachis , Germinação , Secas , Mutagênese , Melhoramento Vegetal
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8766-8772, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313921

RESUMO

In decades of hybrid rice breeding, the combining ability has been successfully used to evaluate excellent parental lines and predict heterosis. However, previous studies for the combining ability mainly focused on cultivated rice and rarely involved wild rice. In this study, for the first time, we identified 20 new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the combining ability in wild rice using a North Carolina II mating design. Among them, qGCA1, one of the major QTLs that can significantly improve the general combining ability of the plant height, spikelet number, and yield per plant, was delimited to an interval of about 72 kb on chromosome 1. qSCA8, another major QTL, which can significantly improve the specific combining ability of the seed-setting rate and yield per plant, was located in an interval of about 90 kb on chromosome 8. These QTLs discovered from wild rice will provide new ideas to explain the genetic mechanism of the combining ability and establish the basis for breeding of high-combining-ability rice.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 291, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sand oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), one of the four cultivated species of the genus Avena, could be considered as another alternative crop. In gene banks 865 germplasm samples of this species have been preserved that have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The results of phenotyping (36 traits), isoenzymatic (12 systems) and genetic (8 pairs of Sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers) variation were used to obtain the complete description of 56 accessions diversity originated from different parts of world. RESULTS: Breeded and weedy forms represented similar pool of morphological traits that indicated a short-term and extensive breeding process, albeit all accessions which we classified as cultivated were characterized by better grain and green mass parameters compared to the weedy ones. Isoenzymes showed relationships with geographical origin, which was not possible to detect by SRAP markers. There was no similarity between morphological and biochemical results. The polymorphism level of SRAP markers was lower than indicated by the available literature data for other species, however it may result from the analysis of pooled samples of accessions with a high internal variability. The extensive type of breeding and its relatively short duration was also reflected in the population structure results. Joint analysis revealed that a secondary centre of diversity is being created in South America and that it has its genealogy from the Iberian Peninsula. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively large representation of this species is in various gene banks, it is highly probable that the vast majority of stored worldwide accessions are duplicates, and the protected gene pool is relatively narrow. Sand oat meets all the requirements for an alternative crop species, but further studies are needed to identify the genotypes/populations with the most favourable distribution of utility and quality parameters.


Assuntos
Avena/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Melhoramento Vegetal
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 296, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature senescence of flag leaf severely affects wheat yield and quality. Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is the most obvious symptom during leaf senescence and catalyzed by a series of enzymes. Pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase (Pheophytinase, PPH) gene encodes a Chl degradation hydrolase. RESULTS: In this study, the coding, genomic and promoter sequences of wheat TaPPH-A gene were cloned. The corresponding lengths were 1467 bp, 4479 bp and 3666 bp, respectively. Sequence structure analysis showed that TaPPH-A contained five exons and four introns. After the multiple sequences alignment of TaPPH-A genome from 36 accessions in a wheat diversity panel, four SNPs and one 2-bp InDel were observed, which formed two haplotypes, TaPPH-7A-1 and TaPPH-7A-2. Based on the SNP at 1299 bp (A/G), a molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS was developed to distinguish allelic variation (A/G). Using the molecular markers, 13 SSR, and 116 SNP markers, a linkage map of chromosome 7A were integrated. TaPPH-A was mapped on the chromosome region flanked by Xwmc9 (0.94 cM) and AX-95634545 (1.04 cM) on 7A in a DH population. Association analysis between TaPPH-7A allelic variation and agronomic traits found that TaPPH-7A was associated with TGW in 11 of 12 environments and Chl content at grain-filling stage under drought stress using Population 1 consisted of 323 accessions. The accessions possessed TaPPH-7A-1 (A) had higher TGW and Chl content than those possessed TaPPH-7A-2 (G), thus TaPPH-7A-1 (A) was a favorable allelic variation. By analyzing the frequency of favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) in Population 2 with 157 landraces and Population 3 with 348 modern cultivars, we found it increased from pre-1950 (0) to 1960s (54.5%), then maintained a relatively stable level about 56% from 1960s to 1990s. CONCLUSION: These results suggested the favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) should be valuable in enhancing grain yield by improving the source (chlorophyll content) and sink (the developing grain) simultaneously. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS could be integrated into a breeding kit of screening high TGW wheat for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
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