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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130543, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284193

RESUMO

Differences in Mixolab measurements of dough processing were examined using, as a base, flour from pure breeding, isogenic, wheat lines carrying either the high molecular weight glutenin subunits 5 + 10 or 2 + 12. Before dough pasting, subunits 5 + 10 tend to form a stable gluten network relying mainly on disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds, but 2 + 12 flour was prone to generating fragile protein aggregates dominated by disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity. During dough pasting, a broader protein network rich in un-extractable polymeric proteins, disulfide bonds and ß-sheets was formed in the dough with subunits 5 + 10, thus resulting in an extensive and compact protein-starch complex which was characterized by high thermal stability and low starch gelatinization, while in the dough of the 2 + 12 line, a porous protein-starch gel with fragmented protein aggregates was controlled by the combination of disulfide bonds, hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonds that facilitated the formation of antiparallel ß-sheets.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Pão , Glutens , Melhoramento Vegetal , Amido
2.
Planta ; 254(5): 90, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609619

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Identification of molecular markers and characterization of nutrient transporters could help to improve the tolerance under abiotic and low nutrient stresses in sorghum ensuring higher yield to conserve food security Sorghum is an important cereal crop delivering food and energy security in the semi-arid tropics of the world. Adverse climatic conditions induced by global warming and low input agriculture system in developing countries demand for the improvement of sorghum to tolerate various abiotic stresses. In this review, we discuss the application of marker-assisted breeding and nutrient transporter characterization studies targeted towards improving the tolerance of sorghum under drought, salinity, cold, low phosphate and nitrogen stresses. Family members of some nutrient transporters such as nitrate transporter (NRT), phosphate transporter (PHT) and sulphate transporter (SULTR) were identified and characterized for improving the low nutrient stress tolerance in sorghum. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for drought, salinity and cold stresses with an intention to enhance the tolerance of sorghum under these stresses. A very few QTL and nutrient transporters have been identified and validated under low nitrogen and phosphorus stresses compared to those under drought, salinity and cold stresses. Marker-assisted breeding and nutrient transporter characterization have not yet been attempted in sorghum under other macro- and micro-nutrient stresses. We hope this review will raise awareness among plant breeders, scientists and biotechnologists about the importance of sorghum and need to conduct the studies on marker-assisted breeding and nutrient transporter under low nutrient stresses to improve the sorghum production.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Grão Comestível , Nutrientes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 706, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of wheat gercTriticum aestivum L.) yield could relieve global food shortages. Kernel size, as an important component of 1000-kernel weight (TKW), is always a significant consideration to improve yield for wheat breeders. Wheat related species possesses numerous elite genes that can be introduced into wheat breeding. It is thus vital to explore, identify, and introduce new genetic resources for kernel size from wheat wild relatives to increase wheat yield. RESULTS: In the present study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel length (KL) and width (KW) were detected in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a wild emmer accession 'LM001' and a Sichuan endemic tetraploid wheat 'Ailanmai' using the Wheat 55 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based constructed linkage map and phenotype from six different environments. We identified eleven QTL for KL and KW including two major ones QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B, the positive alleles of which were from LM001 and Ailanmai, respectively. They explained 17.57 to 44.28% and 13.91 to 39.01% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. For these two major QTL, Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed and used to successfully validate their effects in three F3 populations and two natural populations containing a panel of 272 Chinese wheat landraces and that of 300 Chinese wheat cultivars, respectively. QKL.sicau-AM-3B was located at 675.6-695.4 Mb on chromosome arm 3BL. QKW.sicau-AM-4B was located at 444.2-474.0 Mb on chromosome arm 4BL. Comparison with previous studies suggested that these two major QTL were likely new loci. Further analysis indicated that the positive alleles of QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B had a great additive effect increasing TKW by 6.01%. Correlation analysis between KL and other agronomic traits showed that KL was significantly correlated to spike length, length of uppermost internode, TKW, and flag leaf length. KW was also significantly correlated with TKW. Four genes, TRIDC3BG062390, TRIDC3BG062400, TRIDC4BG037810, and TRIDC4BG037830, associated with kernel development were predicted in physical intervals harboring these two major QTL on wild emmer and Chinese Spring reference genomes. CONCLUSIONS: Two stable and major QTL for KL and KW across six environments were detected and verified in three biparental populations and two natural populations. Significant relationships between kernel size and yield-related traits were identified. KASP markers tightly linked the two major QTL could contribute greatly to subsequent fine mapping. These results suggested the application potential of wheat related species in wheat genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 492, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596804

RESUMO

The Chino Santandereano (CHS) creole cattle breed has undergone an adaptation process of more than 500 years to the Colombian mountainous tropics. Despite its advantages, the breed has been replaced by specialized cattle that put it at risk of extinction. The aim of this work was to estimate the genomic diversity and population structure of the nucleus of conservation of the CHS breed. Thirty-seven CHS and 20 Brahman animals were genotyped due to the possible introgression of genes with the GGP Bovine LD v3 chip. Quality control was performed, and linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (Ne), ROH segments, homozygosity, and genomic inbreeding in the breed were estimated. Subsequently, 50 K genomic information of the Holstein (n = 30) and Romosinuano (n = 8) breeds were included to estimate the minor allele frequency (MAF) with common markers and constructing the graphs of the principal component analysis (PCA). Pairwise FSTs were estimated and a neighbor-joining tree was constructed using the IBS matrix. Admixture was used with k = 2 to 10 for the racial composition. LD (r2) was found up to a distance of 0.13 Mb, r2 > 0.3 at a distance of 340.3 kb, and Ne of 32 ± 1. ROH inbreeding was 5.36 ± 0.86%, with a higher contribution from recent inbreeding (4.55%). The PCA showed that the creole breeds were closer together, and the Brahman was more distant. The admixture analysis suggested k = 5 possible ancestral groups and shows that within the CHS breed, there seem to be two different groups with little Holstein and Brahman introgression. The genetic diversity parameters obtained in this work show minimal diversity in this breed and reinforce the need to protect this resource and the conservation banks.


Assuntos
Genoma , Melhoramento Vegetal , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Genômica , Endogamia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
5.
Planta ; 254(5): 92, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633541

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: From Brassica oleracea genome, 88 anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were identified. They expanded via whole-genome or tandem duplication and showed significant expression differentiation. Functional characterization revealed BoMYB113.1 as positive and BoMYBL2.1 as negative regulators responsible for anthocyanin accumulation. Brassica oleracea produces various health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, and vitamins. Despite the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana being well characterized, little is known about the genetic basis of anthocyanin biosynthesis in B. oleracea. In this study, we identified 88 B. oleracea anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (BoABGs) representing homologs of 46 Arabidopsis anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (AtABGs). Most anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, having expanded via whole-genome duplication and tandem duplication, retained more than one copy in B. oleracea. Expression analysis revealed diverse expression patterns of BoABGs in different tissues, and BoABG duplications showed significant expression differentiation. Additional expression analysis and functional characterization revealed that the positive regulator BoMYB113.1 and negative regulator BoMYBL2.1 may be key genes responsible for anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage and ornamental kale by upregulating the expression of structural genes. This study paves the way for a better understanding of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in B. oleracea and should promote breeding for anthocyanin content.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , Antocianinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/genética , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal
6.
Planta ; 254(5): 96, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655339

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: NB-LRR genes in the three Solanum species showed specific constitution characteristics and evolved multiple clusters and duplicates. Some genes could respond to biotic stresses such as tomato bacterial wilt. Nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR, NLR) is a largest resistance gene family in plants, which plays a key role in response to biotic stresses. In this study, NB-LRR genes in cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Sl) and its wild relatives S. pennellii (Spe) and S. pimpinellifolium (Spi) were analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. In total, 238, 202 and 217 NB-LRR genes of 8 different types were found in Sl, Spe and Spi, respectively. The three species showed similar genomic characteristics. The NB-LRR genes were mainly distributed on chromosomes 4, 5 and 11 and located at the distal zones, forming multiple clusters and tandem duplicates. A large number of homologs appeared through gene expansion, with most Ka/Ks values being less than 1, indicating that purifying selection had occurred in evolution. These genes were mainly expressed in root and could respond to different biotic stresses. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that SlNLR genes could respond to tomato bacterial wilt, with SlNLR1 probably involved in the resistance response, whereas others being the opposite. The transcription factors (TFs) and interaction proteins that regulate target genes were mainly Dof, NAC and MYB families and kinases. The results provide a basis for the isolation and application of related genes in plant disease resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Ralstonia solanacearum , Solanum , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum/genética
7.
Planta ; 254(5): 98, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657208

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Mota Maradi is a sorghum line that exhibits holistic salinity tolerance mechanisms, making it a viable potential donor in breeding efforts for improved sorghum lines. High soil salinity is one of the global challenges for crop growth and productivity. Understanding the salinity tolerance mechanisms in crops is necessary for genetic breeding of salinity-tolerant crops. In this study, physiological and molecular mechanisms in sorghum were identified through a comparative analysis between a Nigerien salinity-tolerant sorghum landrace, Mota Maradi, and the reference sorghum line, BTx623. Significant differences on physiological performances were observed, particularly on growth and biomass gain, photosynthetic rate, and the accumulation of Na+, K+, proline, and sucrose. Transcriptome profiling of the leaves, leaf sheaths, stems, and roots revealed contrasting differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Mota Maradi and BTx623 which supports the physiological observations from both lines. Among the DEGs, ion transporters such as HKT, NHX, AKT, HAK5, and KUP3 were likely responsible for the differences in Na+ and K+ accumulation. Meanwhile, DEGs involved in photosynthesis, cellular growth, signaling, and ROS scavenging were also identified between these two genotypes. Functional and pathway analysis of the DEGs has revealed that these processes work in concert and are crucial in elevated salinity tolerance in Mota Maradi. Our findings indicate how different complex processes work synergistically for salinity stress tolerance in sorghum. This study also highlights the unique adaptation of landraces toward their respective ecosystems, and their strong potential as genetic resources for future plant breeding endeavors.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal , Sorghum , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sorghum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 646, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for commercial F1 hybrid seeds production. CMS is primarily caused by chimeric genes in mitochondrial genomes. However, which specific stages of anther development in cabbage are affected by the chimeric genes remain unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and assembled for the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage lines. The genome size of the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage are 219,962 bp and 236,648 bp, respectively. There are 67 and 69 unknown function ORFs identified in the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Four orfs, orf102a, orf122b, orf138a and orf154a were specifically identified in the Ogura CMS mitochondrial genome, which were likely generated by recombination with Ogura type radish during breeding process. Among them, ORF138a and ORF154a possessed a transmembrane structure, and orf138a was co-transcribed with the atp8 and trnfM genes. orf154a is partially homologous to the ATP synthase subunit 1 (atpA) gene. Both these genes were likely responsible for the CMS phenotype. In addition, cytological sections showed that the abnormal proliferation of tapetal cells might be the immediate cause of cytoplasmic male-sterility in Ogura CMS cabbage lines. RNA-seq results showed that orf138a and orf154a in Ogura CMS might influence transcript levels of genes in energy metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of orf138a and orf154a lead to increased of ATPase activity and ATP content by affecting the transcript levels of genes in energy metabolic pathways, which could provide more energy for the abnormal proliferation of tapetal cells. Our data provides new insights into cytoplasmic male-sterility from whole mitochondrial genomes, cytology of anther development and transcriptome data.


Assuntos
Brassica , Genoma Mitocondrial , Infertilidade , Brassica/genética , Citoplasma/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
9.
Planta ; 254(4): 67, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495419

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Transcriptomic and volatile component analyses showed that high expression levels of genes from the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway and the monoterpene metabolic pathway can strengthen the floral fragrance of tree peony. Floral fragrance is a crucial ornamental trait whose improvement is one of the primary objectives of tree peony breeding. So far, exploration of the floral fragrance of tree peony has focused on the identification of its volatile components, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their formation remain unclear. Here, we identified 128 volatile components from the petals of tree peony and found that they consisted primarily of terpenes, alcohols, and esters. Based on the distribution pattern of these major fragrance components, 24 tree peony cultivars were classified into 4 types: grassy scent (ocimene), woody scent (longifolene), lily of the valley scent (linalool), and fruity scent (2-ethyl hexanol). We used RNA-seq to explore the mechanistic basis of terpenoid metabolism in tree peony petals with various scents. The expression levels of AACT, HMGR, PMK, DXS, DXR, HDS, HDR, and GGPS, which encode key enzymes of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, were upregulated in 'Huangguan' (strong fragrance) compared to 'Fengdan' (faint fragrance). Moreover, the transcript abundance of LIS and MYS, two monoterpene synthase genes, was also enhanced in petals of 'Huangguan' compared to those of 'Fengdan'. Together, these results demonstrate that differences in the expression of genes from the monoterpene synthesis and terpenoid backbone pathways are associated with differences in the fragrance of tree peony. This research provides crucial genetic resources for fragrance improvement and also lays a foundation for further clarification of the mechanisms that underlie tree peony fragrance.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paeonia/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Terpenos , Transcriptoma/genética , Árvores
10.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 650, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterosis has been exploited for decades in different animals and crops due to it resulting in dramatic increases in yield and adaptability. Hybridization is a classical breeding method that can effectively improve the genetic characteristics of organisms through heterosis. Abalone has become an increasingly economically important aquaculture resource with high commercial value. However, due to changing climate, abalone is now facing serious threats of high temperature in summer. Interspecific hybrid abalone (Haliotis gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂, SD) has been cultured at large scale in southern China and has been shown high survival rates under heat stress in summer. Therefore, SD has become a good model material for heterosis research, but the molecular basis of heterosis remains elusive. RESULTS: Heterosis in thermal tolerance of SD was verified through Arrhenius break temperatures (ABT) of cardiac performance in this study. Then RNA-Sequencing was conducted to obtain gene expression patterns and alternative splicing events at control temperature (20 °C) and heat stress temperature (30 °C). A total of 356 (317 genes), 476 (435genes), and 876 (726 genes) significantly diverged alternative splicing events were identified in H. discus hannai (DD), H. gigantea (SS), and SD in response to heat stress, respectively. In the heat stress groups, 93.37% (20,512 of 21,969) of the expressed genes showed non-additive expression patterns, and over-dominance expression patterns of genes account for the highest proportion (40.15%). KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the overlapping genes among common DEGs and NAGs were significantly enriched in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitophagy, and NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, we found that among these overlap genes, 39 genes had undergone alternative splicing events in SD. These pathways and genes may play an important role in the thermal resistance of hybrid abalone. CONCLUSION: More alternative splicing events and non-additive expressed genes were detected in hybrid under heat stress and this may contribute to its thermal heterosis. These results might provide clues as to how hybrid abalone has a better physiological regulation ability than its parents under heat stress, to increase our understanding of heterosis in abalone.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Vigor Híbrido , Animais , Gastrópodes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3102-3105, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467701

RESUMO

Trollius chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal material in China, the wild resource of T. chinensis are now exhausted, and commercial medicinal T. chinensis mainly depends on artificial cultivation. As one of the most severely happened diseases at the seedling period, damping off has been a serious threaten to the breeding of T. chinensis seedlings. However, no related research have been reported so far. So, the authors collected damping-off samples of T. chinensis in 2018 from seedling breeding nursery in Guyuan, Hebei province, and carried out study on taxonomic identification of the pathogen. Damping off occurs in the T. chinensis production area from mid-May to late June every year. At the beginning, brown lesions were observed on the basal stem, then the lesions circumferential expanded and constricted, and finally resulted in the fall and death of T. chinensis seedlings. Pathogenic isolate was growing rapidly on the PDA medium, well developed aerial mycelia were grey white at first, then turned brown gradually, and a great number of small dark brown sclerotia were developed in the middle and periphery of the colony. Mycelial diameter of the pathogen was about 7 to 10 µm, near right angle or acute angle branches, near branches with septa, branches and septa with constriction. After the healthy T. chinensis seedlings were inoculated by pathogenic isolate, damping-off was observed soon, and the symptom was as same as those observed in the field. Through homogenous blast, the rDNA-ITS sequence of the pathogenic isolate shown 99.49% to 99.84% homology with Rhizoctonia solani, R. solani AG-1 IC mycelium anastomosis group and Thanatephorus cucumeris, the sexual type of Rhizoctonia. Furthermore, obvious mycelial anastomosis phenomena were observed when the pathogenic isolate and R. solani AG-1 IC strain were confronting cultured. Based on the results above, the pathogenic isolate causing damping off of T. chinensis was identified as R. solani AG-1 IC mycelial anastomosis group. RESULTS:: in the present work have important significance for further research on basic biology of the pathogen and integrated control of damping off causing by it on T. chinensis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Plântula , Basidiomycota , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rhizoctonia
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3814-3823, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472254

RESUMO

Volatile oil is the main effective component and an important quality indicator of Artemisia argyi leaves. In this study, 100 germplasm resources of A. argyi were collected from all the related habitats in China. The total volatile oils in A. argyi leaves were extracted by steam distillation and the content was determined by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that the content of total volatile oils was in the range of 0.53%-2.55%, with the average of 1.43%. A total of 39 chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oils, including 13 shared by the 100 germplasm resources. Clustering analysis of the 39 constituents showed that the 100 A. argyi samples were categorized into groups Ⅰ(9), Ⅱ(2), Ⅲ(66) and Ⅳ(23), and group Ⅲ had the most volatile medicinal components, with the highest content. Five principal components(PCs) were extracted from 13 shared constituents, which explained 73.454% of the total variance. PC1, PC2, and PC3 mainly reflected the pharmacological activity of volatile oils and the rest two the aroma information. The volatile oils identified in this study lay a foundation for variety breeding of and rational utilization of volatile oils in A. argyi leaves.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Destilação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2836-2844, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472301

RESUMO

It has been reported that ODB genes play an important role in homologous recombination-directed DNA repair, suggesting their potential applications in plant breeding. To analyze the expression characteristics of tobacco NtODB gene, the cDNA sequence of NtODB was obtained using in silico cloning technique. The physicochemical properties, signal peptide, and advanced structures of the predicted protein were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the NtODB gene has a 579-bp open reading frame which encodes a protein with 192 amino acid residues. The protein NtODB is predicted to be alkaline and hydrophilic. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that NtODB was constitutively expressed in different tissues. Subcellular localization showed that NtODB was mainly expressed in cell membrane and chloroplast. These results may help us to better understand and elucidate the roles of ODB genes in the homologous recombination-directed DNA repair.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Tabaco , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Simulação por Computador , DNA Complementar , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Tabaco/genética
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2845-2855, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472302

RESUMO

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Assuntos
Amido , Tabaco , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502759

RESUMO

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a multi-hop wireless network composed of a group of static or mobile sensor nodes in the form of self-organization. Uneven distribution of nodes often leads to the problem of over coverage and incomplete coverage of monitoring areas. To solve this problem, this paper establishes a network coverage optimization model and proposes a coverage optimization method based on an improved hybrid strategy weed algorithm (LRDE_IWO). The improvement of the weed algorithm includes three steps. Firstly, the standard deviation of normal distribution based on the tangent function is used as the seed's new step size in the seed diffusion stage to balance the ability of the global search and local search of weed algorithm. Secondly, to avoid the problem of premature convergence, a disturbance mechanism combining enhanced Levy flight and the adaptive random walk strategy is proposed in the process of seed breeding. Finally, in competition of invasive weed stage, the differential evolution strategy is introduced to optimize the competition operation process and speed up convergence. The improved weed algorithm is applied to coverage optimization of WSNs. The simulation results show that the coverage rate of LRDE_IWO is increased by about 1% to 6% compared with the original invade weed algorithm (IWO) and the differential evolution invasive weed optimization algorithm (DE_IWO), and the coverage rate of the LRDE_IWO algorithm is increased by 4.10%, 2.73% and 1.19%, respectively, compared with the antlion optimization algorithm (ALO), the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) and the gauss mutation weed algorithm (IIWO). The results prove the superiority and validity of the improved weed algorithm for coverage optimization of wireless sensor networks.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Simulação por Computador , Plantas Daninhas , Sementes
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Winter freezing temperature impacts alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and seasonal yield and can lead to the death of the plant. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of alfalfa freezing tolerance (FT) using high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping is crucial to select suitable germplasm and develop winter-hardy cultivars. Several clones of an alfalfa F1 mapping population (3010 x CW 1010) were tested for FT using a cold chamber. The population was genotyped with SNP markers identified using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with FT were mapped on the parent-specific linkage maps. The ultimate goal is to develop non-dormant and winter-hardy alfalfa cultivars that can produce extended growth in the areas where winters are often mild. RESULTS: Alfalfa FT screening method optimized in this experiment comprises three major steps: clone preparation, acclimation, and freezing test. Twenty clones of each genotype were tested, where 10 samples were treated with freezing temperature, and 10 were used as controls. A moderate positive correlation (r ~ 0.36, P < 0.01) was observed between indoor FT and field-based winter hardiness (WH), suggesting that the indoor FT test is a useful indirect selection method for winter hardiness of alfalfa germplasm. We detected a total of 20 QTL associated with four traits; nine for visual rating-based FT, five for percentage survival (PS), four for treated to control regrowth ratio (RR), and two for treated to control biomass ratio (BR). Some QTL positions overlapped with WH QTL reported previously, suggesting a genetic relationship between FT and WH. Some favorable QTL from the winter-hardy parent (3010) were from the potential genic region for a cold tolerance gene CBF. The BLAST alignment of a CBF sequence of M. truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, against the alfalfa reference showed that the gene's ortholog resides around 75 Mb on chromosome 6. CONCLUSIONS: The indoor freezing tolerance selection method reported is useful for alfalfa breeders to accelerate breeding cycles through indirect selection. The QTL and associated markers add to the genomic resources for the research community and can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for alfalfa cold tolerance improvement.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Medicago sativa/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 405, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clones provide a sensitive method for evaluating genotypic stability and detecting genotype-environment (G × E) interactions because of non-additive genetic effects among clones and there being no genetic effect among ramets of an ortet. With this study, we aimed to confirm and expand earlier findings, estimate stability parameters, and provide accurate estimates of clonal repeatabilities and genetic gains for a triploid breeding program of P. tomentosa Carr. RESULTS: Six 5-year-old clonal trials established in Northern China were used to determine the clonal variation, clone × site interactions, and the stability parameters of fiber properties of wood and growth traits. 360 trees from ten hybrid clones were collected from six sites. The clonal and site effects had a highly significant effect (P < 0.001) for all studied traits. While the clone × site interactions had a highly significant effect (P < 0.001) on fiber length (FL), coarseness (C), and tree growth (tree height [H], diameter at breast height [DBH] and stem volume [SV]), and a moderate effect (P < 0.05) on fiber width (FW) and fiber length/width (FL/W). For FL and SV, most of the triploid hybrid clones had higher reaction norms to the improvement in growth conditions and higher phenotypic plasticity. The estimated clonal repeatability of FW (0.93) was slightly higher than for FL (0.89), FL/W (0.83), C (0.91), DBH (0.76), H (0.85), and SV (0.80). Three clonal testing sites were sufficient to estimate quantitative parameters of fiber properties, however, more clonal testing sites would help improve the accuracy of quantitative parameters of the growth traits. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight that accurate estimation of quantitative parameters for growth traits in triploid hybrid clones of P. tomentosa requires more clonal testing sites than the fiber properties.


Assuntos
Clonagem de Organismos , Genótipo , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/genética , Triploidia , Madeira , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20191458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550197

RESUMO

Tawny-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila hypoxantha) is an endangered (in Brazil) grassland dependent species, whose breeding success remains poorly known hampering conservation measures on its breeding grounds. Here we analyze the nest survival of the species in relation to temporal and environmental variables over three breeding seasons in hilly dry grasslands in southern Brazil. The apparent nest success was 40%, and MARK survival 20%. Predation was the main cause of failure, affecting 55% of the unsuccessful nests, followed by desertion, infestation by Philornis fly larvae, cattle trampling and burning. The productivity was 1.77 young per pair. Best models include time-specific factors (nest age and time of breeding season), reflected by a gradual reduction in nest survival over the nesting cycle, accompanied by an increase in temperature, subcutaneous larvae infestation, and predation. Nest site characteristics did not influence nest survival. Predation is more prevalent in the nestling rearing period than during incubation. This tendency may be caused by an increase in the activity in the nests, as is predicted by the Skutch hypothesis. The conclusion that time-specific factors influence nest survival more than ecological variables is important to plan on seasonally dependent conservation and management measures.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Passeriformes , Animais , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Melhoramento Vegetal , Comportamento Predatório
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550201

RESUMO

Astragalus argaeus is an endemic plant species that is under critical risk of extinction. Here we investigated its population census, breeding system and reproductive success to determine the main factors affecting restricted distribution of this species. According to the results from pollination experiments, A. argaeus was autogamous but benefit from the cross pollination (xenogamous) and the presence of pollinators increases fruit set. The pollen/ovule ratio of A. argaeus was calculated as 3119,which correspond to facultative xenogamy. Reproduction biology data obtained by both methods are quite compatible with each other. Pollen viability and stigma receptivity data showed that both stigma receptivity and pollen viability were high and was no temporal isolation throughout the anthesis. Seed viability of A. argaues was determined as 52%. The low reproductive success of the species could be attributed to low seed viability and germination rates, small population size and variations in season and climate.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Biologia , Flores , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polinização , Reprodução
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