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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4916, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004803

RESUMO

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a breeding system that promotes cross-fertilization. In Brassica, pollen rejection is induced by a haplotype-specific interaction between pistil determinant SRK (S receptor kinase) and pollen determinant SP11 (S-locus Protein 11, also named SCR) from the S-locus. Although the structure of the B. rapa S9-SRK ectodomain (eSRK) and S9-SP11 complex has been determined, it remains unclear how SRK discriminates self- and nonself-SP11. Here, we uncover the detailed mechanism of self/nonself-discrimination in Brassica SI by determining the S8-eSRK-S8-SP11 crystal structure and performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Comprehensive binding analysis of eSRK and SP11 structures reveals that the binding free energies are most stable for cognate eSRK-SP11 combinations. Residue-based contribution analysis suggests that the modes of eSRK-SP11 interactions differ between intra- and inter-subgroup (a group of phylogenetically neighboring haplotypes) combinations. Our data establish a model of self/nonself-discrimination in Brassica SI.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Cristalografia , Flores/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Pólen/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4954, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009396

RESUMO

Genetic variation is of crucial importance for crop improvement. Landraces are valuable sources of diversity, but for quantitative traits efficient strategies for their targeted utilization are lacking. Here, we map haplotype-trait associations at high resolution in ~1000 doubled-haploid lines derived from three maize landraces to make their native diversity for early development traits accessible for elite germplasm improvement. A comparative genomic analysis of the discovered haplotypes in the landrace-derived lines and a panel of 65 breeding lines, both genotyped with 600k SNPs, points to untapped beneficial variation for target traits in the landraces. The superior phenotypic performance of lines carrying favorable landrace haplotypes as compared to breeding lines with alternative haplotypes confirms these findings. Stability of haplotype effects across populations and environments as well as their limited effects on undesired traits indicate that our strategy has high potential for harnessing beneficial haplotype variation for quantitative traits from genetic resources.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Zea mays/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haploidia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Componente Principal , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20012, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016625

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) based recurrent selection methods were developed to accelerate the domestication of intermediate wheatgrass [IWG, Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey]. A subset of the breeding population phenotyped at multiple environments is used to train GS models and then predict trait values of the breeding population. In this study, we implemented several GS models that investigated the use of additive and dominance effects and G×E interaction effects to understand how they affected trait predictions in intermediate wheatgrass. We evaluated 451 genotypes from the University of Minnesota IWG breeding program for nine agronomic and domestication traits at two Minnesota locations during 2017-2018. Genet-mean based heritabilities for these traits ranged from 0.34 to 0.77. Using four-fold cross validation, we observed the highest predictive abilities (correlation of 0.67) in models that considered G×E effects. When G×E effects were fitted in GS models, trait predictions improved by 18%, 15%, 20%, and 23% for yield, spike weight, spike length, and free threshing, respectively. Genomic selection models with dominance effects showed only modest increases of up to 3% and were trait-dependent. Cross-environment predictions were better for high heritability traits such as spike length, shatter resistance, free threshing, grain weight, and seed length than traits with low heritability and large environmental variance such as spike weight, grain yield, and seed width. Our results confirm that GS can accelerate IWG domestication by increasing genetic gain per breeding cycle and assist in selection of genotypes with promise of better performance in diverse environments.


Assuntos
Agropyron , Melhoramento Vegetal , Agropyron/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Poaceae/genética
4.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 183-191, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118775

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate and select progenies and matrices of cupuassu-tree siblings, and to select Brazilian mahogany matrices with superior characteristics to be used in agroforestry systems (AFS). Twenty-five full cupuassu tree sibling progenies and one Brazilian mahogany half-sibling progeny were evaluated. The study was conducted for 14 years in a commercial property in Tomé Açu, Pará State, Brazil. The number of fruits and fruit yield per plant, as well as the rate of plants with symptoms of witches' broom disease, were used as response variables for cupuassu. For mahogany, the following response variables were used: total height, commercial height, crown height, diameter at breast height and commercial wood volume. There were five cupuassu tree progenies with interesting characteristics to be used in AFS. Based on the high values observed in the selection accuracy and heritabilities, a good potential for the selection of promising individuals in the cupuassu tree population is inferred. Based on the ranking of genotypic values and their agronomic performance, 10 matrices of cupuassu tree were selected. For Brazilian mahogany, three matrices showed excellent silvicultural performance. The matrices of these two species should be propagated vegetatively in order to evaluate clonal tests. (AU)


Assuntos
Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4447, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895382

RESUMO

Tea is an economically important plant characterized by a large genome, high heterozygosity, and high species diversity. In this study, we assemble a 3.26-Gb high-quality chromosome-scale genome for the 'Longjing 43' cultivar of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. Genomic resequencing of 139 tea accessions from around the world is used to investigate the evolution and phylogenetic relationships of tea accessions. We find that hybridization has increased the heterozygosity and wide-ranging gene flow among tea populations with the spread of tea cultivation. Population genetic and transcriptomic analyses reveal that during domestication, selection for disease resistance and flavor in C. sinensis var. sinensis populations has been stronger than that in C. sinensis var. assamica populations. This study provides resources for marker-assisted breeding of tea and sets the foundation for further research on tea genetics and evolution.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Domesticação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4418, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887885

RESUMO

Chromosomal inversions are recurrent rearrangements that occur between different plant isolates or cultivars. Such inversions may underlie reproductive isolation in evolution and represent a major obstacle for classical breeding as no crossovers can be observed between inverted sequences on homologous chromosomes. The heterochromatic knob (hk4S) on chromosome 4 is the most well-known inversion of Arabidopsis. If a knob carrying accession such as Col-0 is crossed with a knob-less accession such as Ler-1, crossovers cannot be recovered within the inverted region. Our work shows that by egg-cell specific expression of the Cas9 nuclease from Staphylococcus aureus, a targeted reversal of the 1.1 Mb long hk4S-inversion can be achieved. By crossing Col-0 harbouring the rearranged chromosome 4 with Ler-1, meiotic crossovers can be restored into a region with previously no detectable genetic exchange. The strategy of somatic chromosome engineering for breaking genetic linkage has huge potential for application in plant breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Recombinação Genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Inversão Cromossômica , Troca Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866164

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a gene co-expression network for identifying principal modules and hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, analyzing their mechanisms, and exploring candidate genes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 42 data sets including PRJNA380841 and PRJNA369686 were used to construct the co-expression network through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A total of 1,896,897,901 (284.30 Gb) clean reads and 35,021 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from 42 samples. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that photosynthesis, DNA replication, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and cell cycle were significantly influenced by drought stress. Furthermore, the DEGs with similar expression patterns, detected by K-means clustering, were grouped into 29 clusters. Genes involved in the modules, such as dark turquoise, yellow, and brown, were found to be appreciably linked with drought resistance. Twelve central, greatly correlated genes in stage-specific modules were subsequently confirmed and validated at the transcription levels, including TraesCS7D01G417600.1 (PP2C), TraesCS5B01G565300.1 (ERF), TraesCS4A01G068200.1 (HSP), TraesCS2D01G033200.1 (HSP90), TraesCS6B01G425300.1 (RBD), TraesCS7A01G499200.1 (P450), TraesCS4A01G118400.1 (MYB), TraesCS2B01G415500.1 (STK), TraesCS1A01G129300.1 (MYB), TraesCS2D01G326900.1 (ALDH), TraesCS3D01G227400.1 (WRKY), and TraesCS3B01G144800.1 (GT). CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing the response of wheat to drought stress during different growth stages, we have detected three modules and 12 hub genes that are associated with drought resistance mechanisms, and five of those genes are newly identified for drought resistance. The references provided by these modules will promote the understanding of the drought-resistance mechanism. In addition, the candidate genes can be used as a basis of transgenic or molecular marker-assisted selection for improving the drought resistance and increasing the yields of wheat.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , RNA-Seq , Seleção Genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810182

RESUMO

Alleles at the Glu-1 loci play important roles in the functional properties of wheat flour. The effects of various high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) compositions on quality traits and bread-making properties were evaluated using 235 doubled haploid lines (DHs). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with two water regimes as the main plot treatment, and DH lines as the subplot treatments. Results showed that the presence of subunit pair 5+10 at the Glu-D1 locus, either alone or in combination with others, appears to provide an improvement in quality and bread-making properties. At the Glu-A1 locus, subunit 1 produced a higher Zeleny sedimentation value (Zel) and stretch area (SA) than subunit 2* when subunits 14+15 and 5+10 were expressed at the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, and 2* had a positive effect on the maximum dough resistance (Rmax) when subunits 14+15 and 5'+12 were expressed at the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Given subunit 1 at the Glu-A1 locus and 5'+12 at the Glu-D1 locus, the effects of Glu-B1 subunits 14+15 on the tractility (Tra), dough stability time (ST), and dough development time (DT) under the well-watered regime were significantly higher than those of Glu-B1 subunits 13+16. However, 13+16 had a positive effect on SA under the rain-fed regime when subunits 2* and 5+10 were expressed at the Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Multiple comparisons analysis revealed that the Zel and Rmax of the six subunits and eight HMW-GS compositions were stable under different water regimes. Overall, subunit compositions 1, 13+16 and 5+10 and 1, 14+15 and 5+10 had higher values for quality traits and bread-baking properties under the two water regimes. These results could play a positive guiding role in selecting and popularizing varieties suitable for production and cultivation in local areas.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Triticum/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Pão/normas , China , Farinha/normas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos , Glutens/metabolismo , Haploidia , Peso Molecular , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804977

RESUMO

Region-specific local landraces represent a germplasm diversity adapted and acclimatized to local conditions, and are ideal to breed for targeted market niches while maintaining the variability of heirloom traits. A collection of 180 pepper accessions, collected from 62 diverse locations across six Balkan countries, were characterized and evaluated for phenotypic and biochemical variation during a multi-year environment. An assortment of 32 agro-morphological, fruit quality, and virus resistance traits were evaluated, and the top 10% accessions were identified. A wide range of trait variation concerning plant architecture, inflorescence and fruit traits, yield and fruit quality was observed, and appreciable variation was noticed. According to hierarchical clustering, six distinct clusters were established based on pre-defined varietal groups. Divergence among accessions for phenotypic and fruit compositional variability was analyzed, and eight principal components were identified that contributed ~71% of the variation, with fruit shape, width, wall thickness, weight, and fruit quality traits being the most discriminant. Evaluation of the response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and pepper mild mottle mosaic virus (PMMoV) showed that 24 and 1 accession were resistant, respectively while no tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance was found. Considerable diversity for agro-bio-morphological traits indicates the Balkan pepper collection as good gene sources for pre-breeding and cultivar development that are locally adapted.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Península Balcânica , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/virologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/virologia , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Tobamovirus/patogenicidade , Tospovirus/patogenicidade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760091

RESUMO

Wild relatives represent a source of variation for many traits of interest for eggplant (Solanum melongena) breeding, as well as for broadening its genetic base. However, interspecific hybridization with wild relatives has been barely used in eggplant breeding programs, and reproductive barriers have resulted in reduced seed numbers in interspecific combinations. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. We hybridized females of cultivated eggplant 177 (Solanum melongena) with males of wild relatives 53 and Y11 (Solanum aethiopicum). Self-crossed 177 was the control. The seed number per control fruit was significantly higher than that of the hybrids. Paraffin sections showed no significant difference between control and 177×53 and 177×Y11. Double fertilization began 4 days post-pollination. Sperm cells were fused with egg cells 6 days post-pollination. To understand the differences in molecular mechanisms underlying this process, transcriptomes of ovaries at 0, 4, and 6 days after self-crossing and hybridization were analyzed. We screened 22,311 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the control and hybrids 4 and 6 days post-pollination. A total of 497 DEGs were shared among all pollination combinations. These DEGs were enriched in plant hormone transduction, cell senescence, metabolism, and biosynthesis pathways. DEG clustering analysis indicated distinct expression patterns between the control and hybrids but not between the hybrids. The DEGs in hybrids involved secondary metabolic process, phenylpropanoid metabolic process, and carboxypeptidase activity, while those in the control involved xyloglucan metabolic process, auxin-activated signaling pathway, cell wall polysaccharide metabolic process, and xyloglucosyl transferase activity. Additionally, 1683 transcription factors, including members of the AP2-ERF, MYB, bHLH, and B3 families may play important roles in self-crossing and hybridization. Our results provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying variations between ovaries of self-crossed and hybrid eggplants and a basis for future studies on crossbreeding Solanum and genetic mechanisms underlying double fertilization.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Solanum/genética , Fertilização/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Polinização
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2714-2719, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627508

RESUMO

To breed new varieties of medicinal plants with high resistance is the premise to ensure the production of high-quality medicinal materials. Molecular breeding using modern molecular biology and genetic technology can save time and effort and realize rapid and accurate breeding. Here we are trying to summarize the difference of breeding characteristics between medicinal plants and crops such as genetic background and breeding purpose. The strategy of molecular breeding of medicinal plants was summarized, and the four-phases breeding based on high-throughput sequencing and target gene mining was emphasized. We put forward the current molecular breeding of medicinal plants in the condition of four phases breeding is the optimal technological way of breeding, and gene editing breeding is the direction of medicinal plants breeding.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/genética , Cruzamento , Embaralhamento de DNA , Edição de Genes , Melhoramento Vegetal
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18091-18098, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661148

RESUMO

The frequent mutations recovered recently from the pollen of select maize lines resulted from the meiotic mobilization of specific low-copy number long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which differ among lines. Mutations that arise at male meiosis produce kernels with concordant mutant phenotypes in both endosperm and embryo because the two sperms that participate in double fertilization are genetically identical. Those are in a majority. However, a small minority of kernels with a mutant endosperm carry a nonconcordant normal embryo, pointing to a postmeiotic or microgametophytic origin. In this study, we have identified the basis for those nonconcordant mutations. We find that all are produced by transposition of a defective LTR retrotransposon that we have termed dRemp (defective retroelement mobile in pollen). This element has several unique properties. Unlike the mutagenic LTR retrotransposons identified previously, dRemp is present in hundreds of copies in all sequenced lines. It seems to transpose only at the second pollen mitosis because all dRemp insertion mutants are nonconcordant yet recoverable in either the endosperm or the embryo. Although it does not move in most lines, dRemp is highly mobile in the Corn Belt inbred M14, identified earlier by breeders as being highly unstable. Lastly, it can be recovered in an array of structures, ranging from solo LTRs to tandem dRemp repeats containing several internal LTRs, suggestive of extensive recombination during retrotransposition. These results shed further light on the spontaneous mutation process and on the possible basis for inbred instability in maize.


Assuntos
Mitose , Mutação , Pólen , Retroelementos , Zea mays/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Endogamia , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609773

RESUMO

The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) was introduced into Japan about 100 years ago. Since then, a number of Chinese chestnut cultivars and Japanese-Chinese hybrid cultivars have been selected by farmers and plant breeders, but little information has been available about their origins and genetic relationships. A classification based on simple sequence repeat markers was conducted using 230 cultivars including Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) cultivars originated in Japan, Japanese-Chinese hybrid cultivars, and Chinese chestnut cultivars originated in both Japan and China. First, a search for synonyms (cultivars with identical genotypes) revealed 23 synonym groups among the Chinese chestnut cultivars, and all but one cultivar from each synonym group was omitted from further analyses. Second, genetic structure analysis showed a clear division between Japanese and Chinese chestnut, and most of the Japanese and Chinese cultivars had a simple genetic structure corresponding to the expected species. On the other hand, most Japanese-Chinese hybrid cultivars had admixed genetic structure. Through a combination of parentage and chloroplast haplotype analyses, 16 of the 18 hybrid cultivars in this study were inferred to have parent-offspring relationships with other cultivars originated in Japan. Finally, Bayesian clustering and chloroplast haplotype analysis showed that the 116 Chinese chestnut cultivars could be divided into two groups: one originated in the Hebei region of China and the other originated in the Jiangsu and Anhui regions of China. The Chinese chestnut cultivars selected in Japan showed various patterns of genetic structure including Hebei origin, Jiangsu or Anhui origin, and admixed. The chestnut cultivar genetic classifications obtained in this study will be useful for both Japanese and Chinese chestnut breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Fagaceae/classificação , Fagaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , China , Deriva Genética , Genótipo , Japão , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal
14.
Gene ; 759: 144993, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717311

RESUMO

Plants generate many secondary metabolites, so called phyto-metabolites, which can be used as toxins, dyes, drugs, and insecticides in bio-warfare plus bio-terrorism, industry, medicine, and agriculture, respectively. To 2013, the first generation metabolic engineering approaches like miRNA-based manipulation were widely adopted by researchers in biosciences. However, the discovery of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) genome editing system revolutionized metabolic engineering due to its unique features so that scientists could manipulate the biosynthetic pathways of phyto-metabolites through approaches like miRNA-mediated CRISPR-Cas9. According to the increasing importance of the genome editing in plant sciences, we discussed the current findings on CRISPR-based manipulation of phyto-metabolites in plants, especially medicinal ones, and suggested the ideas to phyto-metabolic editing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Edição de Genes/métodos
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491135

RESUMO

In plant breeding, the dialelic models univariate have aided the selection of parents for hybridization. Multivariate analyses allow combining and associating the multiple pieces of information of the genetic relationships between traits. Therefore, multivariate analyses might refine the discrimination and selection of the parents with greater potential to meet the goals of a plant breeding program. Here, we propose a method of multivariate analysis used for stablishing mega-traits (MTs) in diallel trials. The proposed model is applied in the evaluation of a multi-environment complete diallel trial with 90 F1's of simple maize hybrids. From a set of 14 traits, we demonstrated how establishing and interpreting MTs with agronomic implication. The diallel analyzes based on mega-traits present an important evolution in statistical procedures since the selection is based on several traits. We believe that the proposed method fills an important gap of plant breeding. In our example, three MTs were established. The first, formed by plant stature-related traits, the second by tassel size-related traits, and the third by grain yield-related traits. Individual and joint diallel analysis using the established MTs allowed identifying the best hybrid combinations for achieving F1's with lower plant stature, tassel size, and higher grain yield.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Zea mays/genética , Análise Fatorial , Genótipo , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526769

RESUMO

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, supplying up to 80% of the table sugar and ~60% of bio-ethanol worldwide. Due to population growth and dwindling fossil-fuel reserves, the demand for sugar and bio-ethanol requires significant improvement in sugarcane production. Breeding sugarcane cultivars with high-performance agronomic traits is undoubtedly the most efficient way to achieve this goal. Therefore, evaluating agronomic traits and dissecting underlying loci are critically important for this aim steps in providing genetic resources and molecular markers for selection. In this study, we assembled a diversity panel of 236 elite sugarcane germplasms originally collected from 12 countries. We evaluated 28 agronomic traits in the diversity panel with three replicates. The diversity panel was genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, and a total of 1,359 markers were generated. Through the genome-wide association study, we identified three markers significantly associated with three traits evaluated at a stringent threshold (P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). The genotypes of the three associated markers grouped respective trait values into two distinct groups, supporting the reliability of these markers for breeding selection. Our study provides putative molecular markers linked to agronomic traits for breeding robust sugarcane cultivars. Additionally, this study emphasized the importance of sugarcane germplasm introduced from other countries and suggested that the use of these germplasms in breeding programs depends on local industrial needs.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Saccharum/genética , Sementes/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474384

RESUMO

High temperatures limit the successful cultivation of the Hylocereus species on a global basis. We aimed to investigate the degree of heat tolerance in three species, namely, the diploids Hylocereus undatus and H. monacanthus, and the tetraploid H. megalanthus, and nine of their interspecific-interploid hybrids. Rooted cuttings were exposed to heat stress (45/35 °C) or control conditions (25/20 °C) for eight days. Initially, the plants were screened for their tolerance to heat stress and ranked into four heat tolerance categories: good tolerance, moderate tolerance, low tolerance, or sensitive, according to the decrease in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and visual stem damage. The physiological and biochemical performances of the parental species and of three hybrids representing three different heat-tolerance categories were further analyzed in depth. H. megalanthus (classified as heat sensitive) showed a 65% decrease in Fv/Fm and severe visual stem damage, along with a marked reduction in total chlorophyll content, a large increase in malondialdehyde, and inhibition of catalase activity. H. undatus and H. monacanthus, (classified as low-tolerance species) exhibited slight stem "liquification." The good-tolerance hybrid Z-16 exhibited the best performance under heat stress (21% decrease in Fv/Fm) and the absence of stem damage, coupled with a small decrease in total chlorophyll content, a slight increase in malondialdehyde, high antioxidant activity, and proline accumulation progressing with time. Our findings revealed that most of the hybrids performed better than their parental species, indicating that our breeding programs can provide Hylocereus cultivars suitable for cultivation in heat-challenging regions.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico , Clorofila/análise , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2902, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518223

RESUMO

It remains a major challenge to identify the genes and mutations that lead to plant sexual differentiation. Here, we study the structure and evolution of the sex-determining region (SDR) in Vitis species. We report an improved, chromosome-scale Cabernet Sauvignon genome sequence and the phased assembly of nine wild and cultivated grape genomes. By resolving twenty Vitis SDR haplotypes, we compare male, female, and hermaphrodite haplotype structures and identify sex-linked regions. Coupled with gene expression data, we identify a candidate male-sterility mutation in the VviINP1 gene and potential female-sterility function associated with the transcription factor VviYABBY3. Our data suggest that dioecy has been lost during domestication through a rare recombination event between male and female haplotypes. This work significantly advances the understanding of the genetic basis of sex determination in Vitis and provides the information necessary to rapidly identify sex types in grape breeding programs.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vitis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Domesticação , Flores , Mutação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530960

RESUMO

Cuscuta (dodders) is a group of parasitic plants with tremendous economic and ecological significance. Their seeds are often described as "simple" or "unspecialized" because they do not exhibit any classical dispersal syndrome traits. Previous studies of seed morphology and/or anatomy were conducted on relatively few species. We expanded research to 101 species; reconstructed ancestral character states; investigated correlations among seed characters and explored allometric relationships with breeding systems, the size of geographical distribution of species in North America, as well as the survival of seedlings. Seed morphological and anatomical characters permit the separation of subgenera, but not of sections. Identification of Cuscuta species using seed characteristics is difficult but not impossible if their geographical origin is known. Seeds of subg. Monogynella species, exhibit the likely ancestral epidermis type consisting of elongated and interlocked cells, which are morphologically invariant, uninfluenced by dryness/wetness. Subgenera Cuscuta, Pachystigma and Grammica have evolved a seed epidermis with isodiametric cells that can alternate their morphology between two states: pitted when seeds are dry, and papillose after seed imbibition. A seed coat with double palisade architecture throughout the entire seed has also apparently evolved in subgenera Cuscuta, Pachystigma and Grammica, but several species in two clades of the latter subgenus reverted to a single palisade layer outside the hilum area. The same latter species also evolved a peculiar, globose embryo, likely having a storage role, in contrast to the ancestral filiform and coiled embryo present throughout the remainder of the genus. Autogamous species had on average the highest number of seeds per capsule, whereas fully xenogamous taxa had the lowest. No correlation was revealed between the size of the seeds and the size of their geographical distribution in North America, but seedlings of species with larger seeds survived significantly longer than seedlings resulted from smaller seeds. Diversity and evolution of seed traits was discussed in relationship with their putative roles in dormancy, germination and dispersal.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Classificação , Cuscuta/anatomia & histologia , Cuscuta/classificação , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Regressão , Plântula/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/ultraestrutura
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