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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2943, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316821

RESUMO

The global market has a high demand for premium edible grade groundnut, particularly for table use. India, in particular, exhibits significant potential for exporting confectionary grade large seeded groundnut. The environment plays a significant impact in influencing the expression of seed traits, which subsequently affects the confectionary quality of groundnut genotypes. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in India are prominent producers of high-quality groundnuts specifically used for confectionary purposes. The current study was conducted with 43 confectionery groundnut genotypes at Junagadh, Gujarat, and Bikaner, Rajasthan, with the goals of understanding genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) effects and identifying stable, high yielding confectionery quality groundnut genotypes using AMMI and GGE biplot models. Pod yield per plant (PYP), number of pods per plant (NPP), hundred kernel weight (HKW), and shelling percent (SP) were estimated. The interplay between the environment and genotype has had a notable impact on the manifestation of confectionary grade characteristics in peanuts. The results from the Interaction Principal Component Analysis (IPCA) indicate that HKW contributed 76.68% and 18.95% towards the Global Environmental Index (GEI) through IPCA1 and IPCA2, respectively. Similarly, NPP contributed 87.52% and 8.65%, PYP contributed 95.87% and 2.1%, and SP contributed 77.4% and 16.22% towards GEI through IPCA1 and IPCA2, respectively. Based on the ranking of genotypes, the ideal genotypes were PBS 29079B for HKW, PBS 29230 for NPP. The genotypes PBS 29233 and PBS 29230 exhibited superior performance and stability in terms of pod yield, hundred kernel weight, number of pods per plant, and shelling percentage across various sites. These breeding lines have the potential to be developed for the purpose of producing confectionary grade groundnut with larger seeds, in order to fulfil the growing demand for export.


Assuntos
Ammi , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Índia , Genótipo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 90, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photoperiod, or the length of the day, has a significant impact on the flowering and sex differentiation of photoperiod-sensitive crops. The "miben" pumpkin (the main type of Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is well-known for its high yield and strong disease resistance. However, its cultivation has been limited due to its sensitivity to photoperiod. This sensitivity imposes challenges on its widespread cultivation and may result in suboptimal yields in regions with specific daylength conditions. As a consequence, efforts are being made to explore potential strategies or breeding techniques to enhance its adaptability to a broader range of photoperiods, thus unlocking its full cultivation potential and further promoting its valuable traits in agriculture. RESULTS: This study aimed to identify photoperiod-insensitive germplasm exhibiting no difference in sex differentiation under different day-length conditions. The investigation involved a phenotypic analysis of photoperiod-sensitive (PPS) and photoperiod-insensitive (PPIS) pumpkin materials exposed to different day lengths, including long days (LDs) and short days (SDs). The results revealed that female flower differentiation was significantly inhibited in PPS_LD, while no differences were observed in the other three groups (PPS_SD, PPIS_LD, and PPIS_SD). Transcriptome analysis was carried out for these four groups to explore the main-effect genes of sex differentiation responsive to photoperiod. The main-effect gene subclusters were identified based on the principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. Further, functional annotations and enrichment analysis revealed significant upregulation of photoreceptors (CmCRY1, F-box/kelch-repeat protein), circadian rhythm-related genes (CmGI, CmPRR9, etc.), and CONSTANS (CO) in PPS_LD. Conversely, a significant downregulation was observed in most Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factors. Regarding the gibberellic acid (GA) signal transduction pathway, positive regulators of GA signaling (CmSCL3, CmSCL13, and so forth) displayed higher expression levels, while the negative regulators of GA signaling, CmGAI, exhibited lower expression levels in PPS_LD. Notably, this effect was not observed in the synthetic pathway genes. Furthermore, genes associated with ethylene synthesis and signal transduction (CmACO3, CmACO1, CmERF118, CmERF118-like1,2, CmWIN1-like, and CmRAP2-7-like) showed significant downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: This study offered a crucial theoretical and genetic basis for understanding how photoperiod influences the mechanism of female flower differentiation in pumpkins.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Cucurbita/genética , Fotoperíodo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 88, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317087

RESUMO

Mounting evidence recognizes structural variations (SVs) and repetitive DNA sequences as crucial players in shaping the existing grape phenotypic diversity at intra- and inter-species levels. To deepen our understanding on the abundance, diversity, and distribution of SVs and repetitive DNAs, including transposable elements (TEs) and tandemly repeated satellite DNA (satDNAs), we re-sequenced the genomes of the ancient grapes Aglianico and Falanghina. The analysis of large copy number variants (CNVs) detected candidate polymorphic genes that are involved in the enological features of these varieties. In a comparative analysis of Aglianico and Falanghina sequences with 21 publicly available genomes of cultivated grapes, we provided a genome-wide annotation of grape TEs at the lineage level. We disclosed that at least two main clusters of grape cultivars could be identified based on the TEs content. Multiple TEs families appeared either significantly enriched or depleted. In addition, in silico and cytological analyses provided evidence for a diverse chromosomal distribution of several satellite repeats between Aglianico, Falanghina, and other grapes. Overall, our data further improved our understanding of the intricate grape diversity held by two Italian traditional varieties, unveiling a pool of unique candidate genes never so far exploited in breeding for improved fruit quality.


Assuntos
Vitis , Humanos , Vitis/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Satélite
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3189, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326435

RESUMO

Feeding billions, a healthy and nutritious diet in the era of climate change is a major challenge before plant breeders, geneticists and agronomist. In this context, the continuous search for adaptive and nutritious crops could be a better alternative to combat the problems of hunger and malnutrition. The zombi pea, a nutritious and underutilized leguminous vegetable, is one of such better alternatives to feed billions a nutritious food besides being a potential gene source for breeding abiotic stress resistant varieties. To evaluate its potential as a wonder crop in the tropical and subtropical regions of India, the nutritional status of tubers, pods and pericarp were investigated under different treatments of plant spacings and deblossoming. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications and eight treatments during 2021-2022 in the coastal regions of India. The nutrient profiling in tubers and pericarp of pods in zombi pea revealed higher accumulation of nutrients viz. potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) with blossom retention. The zombi pea tubers reflected significantly high protein accumulation with the increase in plant spacing. The results pertaining to nutrient profiling in the pods of zombi pea indicated that the plant spacing has no significant effect on the accumulation of majority of nutrients under study. The above-mentioned findings are conspicuously novel and valuable. The present study would pave the way for understanding nutritional importance and breeding potential of this orphan crop. The blossom retention renders higher nutrient accumulation in tubers, pods and pericarp of zombi pea. Deblossoming has no significant influence on nutritional profile of this wonder crop but, wider spacing is effective in producing tubers with high protein content.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Vigna , Vigna/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Produtos Agrícolas/genética
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 94, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auxin response factors (ARFs) are critical transcription factors that mediate the auxin signaling pathway and are essential for regulating plant growth. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the ARF gene family in Liriodendron chinense, a vital species in landscaping and economics. Thus, further research is needed to explore the roles of ARFs in L. chinense and their potential applications in plant development. RESULT: In this study, we have identified 20 LcARF genes that belong to three subfamilies in the genome of L. chinense. The analysis of their conserved domains, gene structure, and phylogeny suggests that LcARFs may be evolutionarily conserved and functionally similar to other plant ARFs. The expression of LcARFs varies in different tissues. Additionally, they are also involved in different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis. Overexpression of LcARF1, LcARF2a, and LcARF5 led to increased activity within callus. Additionally, our promoter-GFP fusion study indicated that LcARF1 may play a role in embryogenesis. Overall, this study provides insights into the functions of LcARFs in plant development and embryogenesis, which could facilitate the improvement of somatic embryogenesis in L. chinense. CONCLUSION: The research findings presented in this study shed light on the regulatory roles of LcARFs in somatic embryogenesis in L. chinense and may aid in accelerating the breeding process of this tree species. By identifying the specific LcARFs involved in different stages of somatic embryogenesis, this study provides a basis for developing targeted breeding strategies aimed at optimizing somatic embryogenesis in L. chinense, which holds great potential for improving the growth and productivity of this economically important species.


Assuntos
Liriodendron , Liriodendron/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Genômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 152, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accurate prediction of genomic breeding values is central to genomic selection in both plant and animal breeding studies. Genomic prediction involves the use of thousands of molecular markers spanning the entire genome and therefore requires methods able to efficiently handle high dimensional data. Not surprisingly, machine learning methods are becoming widely advocated for and used in genomic prediction studies. These methods encompass different groups of supervised and unsupervised learning methods. Although several studies have compared the predictive performances of individual methods, studies comparing the predictive performance of different groups of methods are rare. However, such studies are crucial for identifying (i) groups of methods with superior genomic predictive performance and assessing (ii) the merits and demerits of such groups of methods relative to each other and to the established classical methods. Here, we comparatively evaluate the genomic predictive performance and informally assess the computational cost of several groups of supervised machine learning methods, specifically, regularized regression methods, deep, ensemble and instance-based learning algorithms, using one simulated animal breeding dataset and three empirical maize breeding datasets obtained from a commercial breeding program. RESULTS: Our results show that the relative predictive performance and computational expense of the groups of machine learning methods depend upon both the data and target traits and that for classical regularized methods, increasing model complexity can incur huge computational costs but does not necessarily always improve predictive accuracy. Thus, despite their greater complexity and computational burden, neither the adaptive nor the group regularized methods clearly improved upon the results of their simple regularized counterparts. This rules out selection of one procedure among machine learning methods for routine use in genomic prediction. The results also show that, because of their competitive predictive performance, computational efficiency, simplicity and therefore relatively few tuning parameters, the classical linear mixed model and regularized regression methods are likely to remain strong contenders for genomic prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The dependence of predictive performance and computational burden on target datasets and traits call for increasing investments in enhancing the computational efficiency of machine learning algorithms and computing resources.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina
7.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(2): 57, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319523

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Sl-lncRNA20718 acts as an eTM of Sl-miR6022 regulating its expression thereby affecting SlRLP6/10 expression. SlRLP6/10 regulate PRs expression, ROS accumulation, and JA/ET content thereby affecting tomato resistance to P. infestans. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important horticultural and cash crop whose yield and quality can be severely affected by Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in plant defense responses against pathogens. The involvement of Sl-lncRNA20718 and Sl-miR6022 in tomato resistance to P. infestans as well as the targeting of Sl-miR6022 to receptor-like protein genes (RLPs) were predicted in our previous study. However, uncertainty exists regarding their potential interaction as well as the molecular processes regulating tomato resistance. Here, we found that Sl-lncRNA20718 and Sl-miR6022 are positive and negative regulators of tomato resistance to P. infestans by gain- and loss-of-function experiments, respectively. Overexpression of Sl-lncRNA20718 decreased the expression of Sl-miR6022, induced the expression of PRs, reduced the diameter of lesions (DOLs), thereby enhanced disease resistance. A six-point mutation in the binding region of Sl-lncRNA20718 to Sl-miR6022 disabled the interaction, indicating that Sl-lncRNA20718 acts as an endogenous target mimic (eTM) of Sl-miR6022. We demonstrated that Sl-miR6022 cleaves SlRLP6/10. Overexpression of Sl-miR6022 decreases the expression levels of SlRLP6/10, induces the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduces the content of JA and ET, thus inhibiting tomato resistance to P. infestans. In conclusion, our study provides detailed information on the lncRNA20718-miR6022-RLPs module regulating tomato resistance to P. infestans by affecting the expression of disease resistance-related genes, the accumulation of ROS and the phytohormone levels, providing a new reference for tomato disease resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , MicroRNAs , Phytophthora infestans , RNA Longo não Codificante , Solanum lycopersicum , Resistência à Doença/genética , Phytophthora infestans/patogenicidade , Melhoramento Vegetal , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Doenças das Plantas
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 86, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early selection in tree breeding could be achieved by addressing the longevity of tree improvement activities. Genetic parameter changes and age-age correlations are essential for determining the optimal timing of early selection. Practical tracking of genetic parameters of Pinus koraiensis, a major timber species with economic and ecological value, has become feasible as its progeny testing has entered the mid-term age in Korea. However, research on the age-age correlation of P. koraiensis as progeny trials approach rotation age is limited. This study aimed to investigate genetic parameter trends and age-age correlations in P. koraiensis progeny. P. koraiensis progeny were assessed at two sites using a linear mixed-effects model with two-dimensional spatial autoregressive structure. Height, diameter, and volume growth were measured in 11 assessments over 40 years. RESULTS: Genetic parameters, such as height and diameter, showed different patterns of change. The heritability ranged for the three growth traits in 0.083-0.710, 0.288-0.781, and 0.299-0.755 across the sites and age. Height heritability and its coefficient of variance decreased, whereas the diameter and volume estimates remained relatively constant. Correlations with Age 40 for phenotypic, genetic, and rank of breeding values ranged between 0.16 and 0.92, 0.594 and 0.988, and 0.412 and 0.965, respectively. These correlations generally increased as the age approached Age 40, with particularly high levels observed at Age 26 and Age 30. CONCLUSION: The observed genetic trends in P. koraiensis progeny testing offer valuable insights for early and precise selection. Notably, selecting superior genotypes at Ages 26-30 is supported by discernible genetic gains and robust correlations. Future research should integrate unbalanced data for selecting mother trees or families and conduct a comprehensive economic analysis of early selection to validate its practical benefits.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pinus , Humanos , Adulto , Pinus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Árvores , Fenótipo
9.
PeerJ ; 12: e16570, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313025

RESUMO

Background: Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the major oil-producing crops. Improving the quality and increasing the production yield of oil palm have been the primary focuses of both conventional and modern breeding approaches. However, the conventional breeding approach for oil palm is very challenging due to its longevity, which results in a long breeding cycle. Thus, the establishment of marker assisted selection (MAS) for oil palm breeding programs would speed up the breeding pipeline by generating new oil palm varieties that possess high commercial traits. With the decreasing cost of sequencing, Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is currently feasible to many researchers and it provides a platform to accelerate the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as well as insertion and deletion (InDel) markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map. A genetic linkage map facilitates the identification of significant DNA regions associated with the trait of interest via quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Methods: A mapping population of 112 F1 individuals from a cross of Deli dura and Serdang pisifera was used in this study. GBS libraries were constructed using the double digestion method with HindIII and TaqI enzymes. Reduced representation libraries (RRL) of 112 F1 progeny and their parents were sequenced and the reads were mapped against the E. guineensis reference genome. To construct the oil palm genetic linkage map, informative SNP and InDel markers were used to discover significant DNA regions associated with the traits of interest. The nine traits of interest in this study were fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield, oil yield (OY), oil to bunch ratio (O/B), oil to dry mesocarp ratio (O/DM) ratio, oil to wet mesocarp ratio (O/WM), mesocarp to fruit ratio (M/F), kernel to fruit ratio (K/F), shell to fruit ratio (S/F), and fruit to bunch ratio (F/B). Results: A total of 2.5 million SNP and 153,547 InDel markers were identified. However, only a subset of 5,278 markers comprising of 4,838 SNPs and 440 InDels were informative for the construction of a genetic linkage map. Sixteen linkage groups were produced, spanning 2,737.6 cM for the maternal map and 4,571.6 cM for the paternal map, with average marker densities of one marker per 2.9 cM and one per 2.0 cM respectively, were produced. A QTL analysis was performed on nine traits; however, only QTL regions linked to M/F, K/F and S/F were declared to be significant. Of those QTLs were detected: two for M/F, four for K/F and one for S/F. These QTLs explained 18.1-25.6% of the phenotypic variance and were located near putative genes, such as casein kinase II and the zinc finger CCCH domain, which are involved in seed germination and growth. The identified QTL regions for M/F, K/F and S/F from this study could be applied in an oil palm breeding program and used to screen palms with desired traits via marker assisted selection (MAS).


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Ligação Genética , DNA
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 254, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become the food of choice owing to its wealthy nutritional profile, leading to a considerable increase in its cultivation worldwide. However, anthracnose has been a major impediment to production and productivity, as elite bean cultivars are vulnerable to this disease. To overcome barriers in crop production, scientists worldwide are working towards enhancing the genetic diversity of crops. One way to achieve this is by introducing novel genes from related crops, including landraces like KRC 8. This particular landrace, found in the North Western Himalayan region, has shown adult plant resistance against anthracnose and also possesses a recessive resistance gene. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, a population of 179 F2:9 RIL individuals (Jawala × KRC 8) was evaluated at both phenotypic and genotypic levels using over 830 diverse molecular markers to map the resistance gene present in KRC 8. We have successfully mapped a resistance gene to chromosome Pv01 using four SSR markers, namely IAC 238, IAC 235, IAC 259, and BM 146. The marker IAC 238 is closely linked to the gene with a distance of 0.29 cM, while the other markers flank the recessive resistance gene at 10.87 cM (IAC 259), 17.80 cM (BM 146), and 25.22 cM (IAC 235). Previously, a single recessive anthracnose resistance gene (co-8) has been reported in the common bean accession AB 136. However, when we performed PCR amplification with our tightly linked marker IAC 238, we got different amplicons in AB 136 and KRC 8. Interestingly, the susceptible cultivar Jawala produced the same amplicon as AB 136. This observation indicated that the recessive gene present in KRC 8 is different from co-8. As the gene is located far away from the Co-1 locus, we suggest naming the recessive gene co-Indb/co-19. Fine mapping of co-Indb in KRC 8 may provide new insights into the cloning and characterization of this recessive gene so that it can be incorporated into future bean improvement programs. Further, the tightly linked marker IAC 238 can be utilized in marker assisted introgression in future bean breeding programs. CONCLUSION: The novel co-Indb gene present in Himalayan landrace KRC 8, showing adult plant resistance against common bean anthracnose, is independent from all the resistance genes previously located on chromosome Pv01.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Humanos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos , Phaseolus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ligação Genética
11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 252, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a major limitation for rice farming due to climate change. Since salt stress adversely impact rice plants at germination, seedling, and reproductive stages resulting in poor crop establishment and reduced grain yield, enhancing salt tolerance at these vulnerable growth stages will enhance rice productivity in salinity prone areas. METHODS AND RESULTS: An introgression line (ILs) population from a cross between a high yielding cultivar 'Cheniere' and a salt tolerant donor 'TCCP' was evaluated to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits associated with salt tolerance at germination, seedling, and reproductive stages. Using a genotyping-by-sequencing based high density SNP linkage map, a total of 7, 16, and 30 QTLs were identified for five germination traits, seven seedling traits, and ten reproductive traits, respectively. There was overlapping of QTLs for some traits at different stages indicating the pleiotropic effects of these QTLs or clustering of linked genes. Candidate genes identified for salt tolerance were OsSDIR1 and SERF for the seedling stage, WRKY55 and OsUBC for the reproductive stage, and MYB family transcription factors for all three stages. Gene ontology analysis revealed significant GO terms related to nucleotide binding, protein binding, protein kinase activity, antiporter activity, active transmembrane transporter activity, calcium-binding protein, and F- box protein interaction domain containing protein. CONCLUSIONS: The colocalized QTLs for traits at different growth stages would be helpful to improve multiple traits simultaneously using marker-assisted selection. The salt tolerant ILs have the potential to be released as varieties or as pre-breeding lines for developing salt tolerant rice varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza , Plântula , Plântula/genética , Germinação/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(2): 50, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305919

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome editing by CRISPR/Cas9 can be applied to Z. matrella 'Wakaba', and knockout mutants of ZmNYC1 gene exhibited stay-green phenotype and reduced tillering. Zoysia matrella is a widely used C4 warm-season turfgrass for landscaping, golf courses, and sports fields. Here, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the Non-Yellow Coloring1 (ZmNYC1) gene in the highly heterozygous allotetraploid Z. matrella 'Wakaba', aiming to generate a novel stay-green variety. Of 441 Agrobacterium-infected calli, 22 (5.0%) were transformed, and 14 of these (63.6%) showed targeted mutations through cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences analysis. Sequencing analysis revealed mutations mostly consisting of 1 or 2 bp indels, occurring 2 to 4 bp upstream of the PAM sequence. Regenerated plants exhibited five ZmNYC1 target locus genotypes, including homozygous mutants with a complete knockout of all four alleles in the T0 generation. Under dark treatment, ZmNYC1-mutated plants displayed suppressed chlorophyll b (Chl b) degradation, leading to higher chlorophyll content and Chl b, with a lower chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio compared to the wild type (WT). However, the ZmNYC1 mutation also inhibited plant growth in homozygous mutant genotypes, exhibiting reduced tillering compared to WT. Additionally, during winter simulation, mutant with a complete knockout retained greenness longer than the WT. This is the first successful use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in zoysiagrass. The mutants of the ZmNYC1 gene would serve as valuable breeding material for developing improved zoysiagrass varieties that can maintain their green color for longer periods, even during winter dormancy.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Genoma de Planta , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Clorofila A , Melhoramento Vegetal , Edição de Genes , Poaceae/genética , Clorofila
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295006, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306337

RESUMO

Oat crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks. (Pca), is a major biotic impediment to global oat production. Crown rust resistance has been described in oat diploid species A. strigosa accession PI 258731 and resistance from this accession has been successfully introgressed into hexaploid A. sativa germplasm. The current study focuses on 1) mapping the location of QTL containing resistance and evaluating the number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning resistance in PI 258731; 2) understanding the relationship between the original genomic location in A. strigosa and the location of the introgression in the A. sativa genome; 3) identifying molecular markers tightly linked with PI 258731 resistance loci that could be used for marker assisted selection and detection of this resistance in diverse A. strigosa accessions. To achieve this, A. strigosa accessions, PI 258731 and PI 573582 were crossed to produce 168 F5:6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) through single seed descent. Parents and RILs were genotyped with the 6K Illumina SNP array which generated 168 segregating SNPs. Seedling reactions to two isolates of Pca (races TTTG, QTRG) were conditioned by two genes (0.6 cM apart) in this population. Linkage mapping placed these two resistant loci to 7.7 (QTRG) to 8 (TTTG) cM region on LG7. Field reaction data was used for QTL analysis and the results of interval mapping (MIM) revealed a major QTL (QPc.FD-AS-AA4) for field resistance. SNP marker assays were developed and tested in 125 diverse A. strigosa accessions that were rated for crown rust resistance in Baton Rouge, LA and Gainesville, FL and as seedlings against races TTTG and QTRG. Our data proposed SNP marker GMI_ES17_c6425_188 as a candidate for use in marker-assisted selection, in addition to the marker GMI_ES02_c37788_255 suggested by Rine's group, which provides an additional tool in facilitating the utilization of this gene in oat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Avena , Basidiomycota , Avena/genética , Diploide , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plântula/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 996, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307858

RESUMO

Postzygotic reproductive isolation, which results in the irreversible divergence of species, is commonly accompanied by hybrid sterility, necrosis/weakness, or lethality in the F1 or other offspring generations. Here we show that the loss of function of HWS1 and HWS2, a couple of duplicated paralogs, together confer complete interspecific incompatibility between Asian and African rice. Both of these non-Mendelian determinants encode the putative Esa1-associated factor 6 (EAF6) protein, which functions as a characteristic subunit of the histone H4 acetyltransferase complex regulating transcriptional activation via genome-wide histone modification. The proliferating tapetum and inappropriate polar nuclei arrangement cause defective pollen and seeds in F2 hybrid offspring due to the recombinant HWS1/2-mediated misregulation of vitamin (biotin and thiamine) metabolism and lipid synthesis. Evolutionary analysis of HWS1/2 suggests that this gene pair has undergone incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and multiple gene duplication events during speciation. Our findings have not only uncovered a pair of speciation genes that control hybrid breakdown but also illustrate a passive mechanism that could be scaled up and used in the guidance and optimization of hybrid breeding applications for distant hybridization.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Reprodução , Evolução Biológica , Hibridização Genética
15.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(2): 51, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308138

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We generated a new Koshihikari rice line with a drastically reduced content of glutelin proteins and higher lodging resistance by using new and conventional plant breeding techniques. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, we generated mutant rice with drastically decreased contents of major glutelins. A Koshihikari rice mutant line, a123, lacking four glutelins (GluA1, GluA2, GluB4, and GluB5) was used as a host, and another five major glutelin genes (GluA3, GluB1a, GluB1b, GluB2, and GluC) were knocked out through two iterations of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Mutant seeds were deficient in the GluA family, GluB family, and GluC, and the line obtained was named GluABC KO. Glutelin content was much lower in GluABC KO than in the existing low-glutelin rice mutant LGC-1. A null segregant of GluABC KO was selected using new-generation sequencing and backcrossing, and the sd-1 allele for the semi-dwarf trait was introduced to increase lodging resistance.


Assuntos
Glutens , Oryza , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Fenótipo
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 84, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cinnamomum cassia Presl, classified in the Lauraceae family, is widely used as a spice, but also in medicine, cosmetics, and food. Aroma is an important factor affecting the medicinal and flavoring properties of C. cassia, and is mainly determined by volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, little is known about the composition of aromatic VOCs in C. cassia and their potential molecular regulatory mechanisms. Here, integrated transcriptomic and volatile metabolomic analyses were employed to provide insights into the formation regularity of aromatic VOCs in C. cassia bark at five different harvesting times. RESULTS: The bark thickness and volatile oil content were significantly increased along with the development of the bark. A total of 724 differentially accumulated volatiles (DAVs) were identified in the bark samples, most of which were terpenoids. Venn analysis of the top 100 VOCs in each period showed that twenty-eight aromatic VOCs were significantly accumulated in different harvesting times. The most abundant VOC, cinnamaldehyde, peaked at 120 months after planting (MAP) and dominated the aroma qualities. Five terpenoids, α-copaene, ß-bourbonene, α-cubebene, α-funebrene, and δ-cadinene, that peaked at 240 MAP could also be important in creating C. cassia's characteristic aroma. A list of 43,412 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the biosynthetic pathways of aromatic VOCs were identified, including phenylpropanoids, mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP). A gene-metabolite regulatory network for terpenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism was constructed to show the key candidate structural genes and transcription factors involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our research revealed the composition and changes of aromatic VOCs in C. cassia bark at different harvesting stages, differentiated the characteristic aroma components of cinnamon, and illuminated the molecular mechanism of aroma formation. These foundational results will provide technical guidance for the quality breeding of C. cassia.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum aromaticum , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Casca de Planta/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Terpenos/análise
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 83, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sufficient nitrogen supply is crucial for high-quality wheat yields. However, the use of nitrogen fertilization can also negatively influence ecosystems due to leaching or volatile atmospheric emissions. Drought events, increasingly prevalent in many crop production areas, significantly impact nitrogen uptake. Breeding more efficient wheat varieties is necessary to achieve acceptable yields with limited nitrogen and water. Crop root systems play a crucial role as the primary organ for absorbing water and nutrients. To investigate the impact of an enhanced root system on nitrogen and water use efficiency in wheat under various irrigation conditions, this study conducted two experiments using precision phenotyping platforms for controlled drought stress treatment. Experiment 1 involved four contrasting winter wheat genotypes. It included the Chinese variety Ning0604, carrying a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 5B associated with a higher root dry biomass, and three elite German varieties, Elixer, Genius, and Leandrus. Experiment 2 compared near-isogenic lines (NIL) of the three elite varieties, each containing introgressions of the QTL on chromosome 5B linked to root dry mass. In both experiments, nitrogen partitioning was tracked via isotope discrimination after fertilization with 5 Atom % 15N-labeled KNO3-. RESULTS: In experiment 1 the quantification by 15N isotope discrimination revealed significantly (p < 0.05) higher nitrogen derived from fertilizer in the root organ for Ning0604 than those of the three German varieties. In experiment 2, two out of three NILs showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher uptake of N derived from fertilizer than their respective recipient line under well-watered conditions. Furthermore, significantly lower transpiration rates (p < 0.1) were observed in one NIL compared to its respective recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the DroughtSpotter facility coupled with 15N tracer-based tracking of N uptake and remobilization extends the insight into the impact of genetically altered root biomass on wheat NUE and WUE under different water availability scenarios. The study shows the potential for how a modified genetic constitution of the locus on wheat chromosome 5B can reduce transpiration and enhance N uptake. The dependence of the observations on the recipient and water availability suggests a need for further research to investigate the interaction with genetic background traits.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Secas , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Água , Cromossomos , Isótopos
18.
Food Res Int ; 178: 114008, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309890

RESUMO

Pigmented wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum spp.) are getting increasingly popular in modern nutrition and thoroughly researched for their functional and nutraceutical value. The colour of these wheat grains is caused by the expression of natural pigments, including carotenoids and anthocyanins, that can be restricted to either the endosperm, pericarp and/or aleurone layers. While contrasts in phytochemical synthesis give rise to variations among purple, blue, dark and yellow grain's antioxidant and radical scavenging capacities, little is known about their influence on gluten proteins expression, digestibility and immunogenic potential in a Celiac Disease (CD) framework. Herein, it has been found that the expression profile and immunogenic properties of gliadin proteins in pigmented wheat grains might be affected by anthocyanins and carotenoids upregulation, and that the spectra of peptide released upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion is also significantly different. Interestingly, anthocyanin accumulation, as opposed to carotenoids, correlated with a lower immunogenicity and toxicity of gliadins at both protein and peptide levels. Altogether, this study provides first-level evidence on the impact modern breeding practices, seeking higher expression levels of health promoting phytochemicals at the grain level, may have on wheat crops functionality and CD tolerability.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Gliadina , Humanos , Gliadina/química , Triticum/química , Antocianinas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Peptídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Carotenoides
19.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113982, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309884

RESUMO

The terms "New Genomic Techniques" (NGTs) or "Genome Editing" refer to various methods that allow finding, cleaving, and repairing specific sequences in the genome. These techniques could contribute to managing various challenges in plant breeding and agriculture. Aside from regulatory uncertainties, the lack of consumer acceptance has frequently been cited as a significant barrier to the widespread use of NGTs in plant breeding and agriculture across the planet. This study was based on an anonymous online survey (N = 1202). It investigated what consumers from two countries that differ in gene technology regulation, namely the United States of America and Switzerland, thought about three specific applications of NGTs in plant breeding (i.e., blight-resistant potato, gluten-free wheat, cold-resistant soybean). The study highlights the importance of the affect heuristic for acceptance, as half of the participants in both countries expressed positive feelings regarding the three applications, a quarter of the participants expressed negative, and the remaining participants expressed torn or neutral emotions. Some evidence was provided that the regulatory context might have acted as a risk cue, as participants in Switzerland expressed more negative feelings, perceptions, and lower acceptance than participants from the United States of America. Lastly, our findings underscore the importance of a collaboration between the life sciences and social sciences in balancing technological innovations and public perceptions and acceptance, which have been shown in this study to be impacted by affect, values, and context.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Suíça , Agricultura , Emoções
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(1): 9, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315324

RESUMO

To select poplar clones with excellent adventitious roots development (ARD) and deepen the understanding of its molecular mechanism, a comprehensive evaluation was conducted on 38 Populus germplasm resources with cuttings cultured in the greenhouse. Genetic differences between poplar clones with good ARD and with poor ARD were explored from the perspectives of genomics and transcriptomics. By cluster analysis of the seven adventitious roots (AR) traits, the materials were classified into three clusters, of which cluster I indicated excellent AR developmental capability and promising breeding potential, especially P.×canadensis 'Guariento', P. 'jingtong1', P. deltoides 'Zhongcheng5', P. deltoides 'Zhongcheng2'. At the genomic level, the cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) analysis identified 1944 positive selection regions related to ARD, and variation detection analysis identified 3426 specific SNPs and 687 specific Indels in the clones with good ARD, 3212 specific SNPs and 583 specific Indels in the clones with poor ARD, respectively. Through XP-CLR, variation detection, and weighted gene co-expression network analysis based on transcriptome data, eight major putative genes associated with poplar ARD were primary identified, and a co-expression network of eight genes was constructed, it was discovered that CSD1 and WRKY6 may be important in the ARD. Subsequently, we confirmed that SWEET17 had a non-synonymous mutation at the site of 928,404 in the clones with poor ARD, resulting in an alteration of the amino acid. After exploring phenotypic differences and the genetic variation of adventitious roots development in different poplar clones, this study provides valuable reference information for future poplar breeding and genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Populus , Populus/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética
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