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2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(12): 613-615, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181596

RESUMO

Registered nurses (RNs) are leaving the bedside to become advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs). Failure to successfully transition APRNs into clinical practice represents a substantial financial burden to healthcare organizations. Organizations can use the standards of the Magnet Recognition Program to help support, develop, and transition APRNs into their advanced practice role.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/normas , Capacitação em Serviço/normas , Cultura Organizacional , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Hospitais , Humanos , Mentores
4.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 231-241, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119456

RESUMO

Research on adolescent sexuality, health and parenting has gained much attention in recent years. This growing body of research, however, has arguably limited qualitative outputs on HIV-positive adolescent mothers' sexual and reproductive health choices, needs, and rights in South Africa that could lead to informed policymaking. Through in-depth interviews conducted with a select group of ten HIV-positive adolescents and three key informants, the article explores the sexual, motherhood, risk discourses and reproductive health issues and rights of HIV-positive adolescent mothers as they come to terms with choices they have made and the challenges ahead. The findings highlight the dominant narratives on what are deemed to be the forces that shape these adolescent mothers' new social realities. With existing policies in place for adolescents, it is argued that a "one-size-fits-all" policy approach does not work, especially for HIV-positive adolescent mothers. Drawing on this identified gap and the tensions between individual needs, and the public welfare provision, the article highlights the need for tailored policy that will accommodate and promote the overall well-being of HIV-positive adolescent mothers and their children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Mentores , Mães/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mentores/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães/legislação & jurisprudência , Narração , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870930

RESUMO

Changing institutional culture to be more diverse and inclusive within the biomedical academic community is difficult for many reasons. Herein we present evidence that a collaborative model involving multiple institutions of higher education can initiate and execute individual institutional change directed at enhancing diversity and inclusion at the postdoctoral researcher (postdoc) and junior faculty level by implementing evidence-based mentoring practices. A higher education consortium, the Big Ten Academic Alliance, invited individual member institutions to send participants to one of two types of annual mentor training: 1) "Mentoring-Up" training for postdocs, a majority of whom were from underrepresented groups; 2) Mentor Facilitator training-a train-the-trainer model-for faculty and senior leadership. From 2016 to 2019, 102 postdocs and 160 senior faculty and administrative leaders participated. Postdocs reported improvements in their mentoring proficiency (87%) and improved relationships with their PIs (71%). 29% of postdoc respondents transitioned to faculty positions, and 85% of these were underrepresented and 75% were female. 59 out of the 120 faculty and administrators (49%) trained in the first three years provided mentor training on their campuses to over 3000 undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs and faculty within the project period. We conclude that early stage biomedical professionals as well as individual institutions of higher education benefited significantly from this collaborative mentee/mentor training model.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Tutoria , Mentores , Pesquisadores , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Estudantes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936827

RESUMO

The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research experiences) would promote both short- and long-term integration into STEM via social influence processes (operationalized as science self-efficacy, identity, and internalized community values). Moreover, we examined the previously untested hypothesis of reciprocal influences from early levels of social integration in STEM to future engagement with social influence agents. Results of a series of longitudinal structural equation model-based mediation analyses indicate that, in the short term, higher levels of faculty mentorship support and research engagement, and to a lesser degree more diverse mentor networks in college promote deeper integration into the STEM community through the development of science identity and science community values. Moreover, results indicate that, in the long term, earlier high levels of integration in STEM indirectly influences research engagement through the development of higher science identity. These results extend our understanding of the TIMSI framework and advance our understanding of the reciprocal nature of social influences that draw students into STEM careers.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciência/educação , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mentores , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 715, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are under-represented in many mid-career infectious diseases research fellowships, including a TDR fellowship for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers. TDR solicited creative ideas as part of a challenge contest to increase the number of women fellowship applicants. The purpose of this study is to examine themes from submitted ideas and the impact of implementing the top three ideas on the number of women applicants. METHODS: We solicited ideas for modifying the TDR fellowship using a crowdsourcing challenge. Then we used a mixed methods approach to evaluate texts submitted in response to the challenge. The qualitative analysis identified themes from eligible submissions. The quantitative analysis examined the mean score (1-10 scale) assigned to submitted ideas and also the number of eligible women applicants before (2014-7) and after (2018) implementing the top three ideas. RESULTS: We received 311 ideas on improving women's participation in this fellowship from 63 countries. Among all ideas, 282 (91%) were from women and 286 (92%) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thirty-three (17%) ideas received an overall mean score of 7.0 or greater. The top three ideas included enhanced social media communication targeting women, improving career mentorship, and creating a nomination system to nudge women applicants. These ideas were implemented as part of the 2018 fellowship application cycle. The number of eligible women applicants increased from 11 in 2016 to 48 in 2018. The number of eligible men applicants increased from 55 in 2016 to 114 in 2018. Women represent 44% (8/18) of the 2018 cohort. CONCLUSION: This suggests that the challenge contest resulted in strong participation from women in LMICs. The three top ideas likely contributed to a greater number of women applicants to this mid-career fellowship. Further ways of enhancing women's participation in global health training are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Bolsas de Estudo , Pesquisadores , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comunicação , Feminino , Saúde Global , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(12): 2409-2428, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974870

RESUMO

While formal youth mentoring can positively influence youth connectedness, little research has studied the specific approaches mentors engage in that support mentee social development. This study examines how mentors' specific approaches are uniquely associated with youth connection outcomes in formal community-based mentoring. Participants were 766 youth, ranging in age from 11 to 14 (M = 12.29), 56.7% female, and racially/ethnically diverse (41.0% Black/African American, 21.4% Hispanic/Latinx, 20.0% White, 10.2% Multiracial/Multiethnic, 5.9% Native American, 1.2% other race, and 0.4% Asian/Pacific Islander). Person-centered analyses revealed three mentoring profiles which were differentially associated with youth outcomes: "Status Quo Mentors," who reported low-to-moderate levels of closeness within the mentor-mentee dyad, low levels of connecting their mentees with programs and people in their community, and low levels of mediating for their mentees; "Close Connectors," who reported moderate-to-high levels of closeness, moderate-to-high levels of connecting, and low levels of mediating; and "Connector-Mediators," who reported moderate levels of closeness, connecting, and mediating. Youth mentored by "Close Connectors" demonstrated the greatest benefit, with significant improvements in parent-child relationship quality, extracurricular activity involvement, and help-seeking. Results suggest that community-based mentoring programs that emphasize connecting youth within their communities may be more effective in enhancing youth support networks.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Grupos Minoritários , Mudança Social
13.
Surgery ; 168(3): 355-362, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To interview extraordinary women who have made recent significant contributions to the field of colorectal surgery. DESIGN: The authors asked some of the many extraordinary women who have made significant contributions to the field of colorectal surgery to answer several questions. These women were selected from many potential candidates based upon their extraordinary recent contributions to the field of colorectal surgery. These thought leaders were asked about their contributions to colorectal surgery, their mentors, whether they had any women as role models, and, lastly, what they would tell their younger selves. The study was structured to recognize these women for their remarkable recent contributions to colorectal surgery, and we wished to encourage women to pursue leadership in colorectal surgery including the allied fields of colorectal pathology and colorectal imaging. Furthermore, the authors hoped to inspire male colorectal surgeons to actively mentor and help the career development of women colorectal surgeons. The potential limitations of the study include the fact that there are many more well-deserving women who could have been included in the sample survey but, because of space constraints, were not invited. CONCLUSION: Women in colorectal surgery and in the allied specialties of colorectal pathology and colorectal radiology have made many recent major significant contributions to colorectal surgery. The expectation is that the volume and frequency of such contributions as well as the number of women making these contributions should further significantly increase with time.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal/organização & administração , Liderança , Mentores , Médicas/psicologia , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Escolha da Profissão , Cirurgia Colorretal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Colorretal/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/tendências , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/tendências
14.
Stroke ; 51(9): e261-e265, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811376

RESUMO

In the past decade, stroke medicine has evolved from discovery of innovative diagnostic tools to implementation of new treatments. These advances are projected to increase the demand for stroke neurologists in academic and clinical practices, but hopefully with equitable opportunities for everyone across the gender spectrum. Academic medicine provides opportunities to participate in clinical care, teaching, research, and administration. The early career stage is short-focused on finding an academic niche and developing new skills that will help you navigate the academic environment. A recent InterSECT article emphasized the critical role of women's leadership in stroke medicine. In this article, we reflect on workforce gender disparities and provide 5 practical strategies that may help women overcome barriers and advance their work mission.


Assuntos
Neurologia/educação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Retorno ao Trabalho , Fatores Sexuais , Mulheres
16.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(5): E31-E32, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826692

RESUMO

The growing population of older adults requires that nursing programs provide nursing students with the skills and knowledge needed to provide gerontological nursing care. This article describes a reciprocal mentoring exercise used for the clinical practice experience in a new 16-week stand-alone gerontology nursing course. Reflective journaling and responses to a survey revealed positive outcomes for students and mentors.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Tutoria , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Idoso , Humanos , Mentores
17.
Am J Nurs ; 120(8): 50-55, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Writing for publication in peer-reviewed journals is one of the most important types of writing that nurses engage in. It is essential for advancing the nursing profession, health care organizations, and individual nurses. Despite its importance, however, the rate of publication remains very low among nurses. At one large academic medical center, a baseline assessment of dissemination practices found a low publication rate. To address this, an evidence-based writing-for-publication program was designed to support professional dissemination of scholarly work. METHODS: A 12-week workshop was designed and writers were matched with a mentor. The workshop started with a four-hour kickoff session on the process of getting published, including choosing a journal, querying an editor, drafting a manuscript, and working with coauthors. Participants also began developing an outline for their manuscript. Drafts were due to the mentor every four weeks for editing and feedback. At the end of the 12 weeks a wrap-up session was held for participants to read each other's manuscripts and give peer feedback. OUTCOMES: As of this writing, five cohorts have completed the program, and 89 nurses participated. Twenty-nine manuscripts were completed and submitted to peer-reviewed journals; of these, 22 (76%) were accepted, four (14%) are still under review, and three (10%) were recommended for submission to a different journal. Among the 89 nurse participants, 84% reported being likely or very likely to write for publication again, and 96% reported improvement in their writing skills. CONCLUSIONS: Without more nurses acquiring the skills to engage in writing for publication, the body of advancing knowledge that drives clinical decision-making may wane as aging, experienced nurse authors leave the profession. To protect the future of nursing, a continuous commitment to developing nurse authors across all generations is necessary. Nursing leaders and health care organizations must commit to ensuring novice nurse authors are provided with the resources to engage in disseminating knowledge.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mentores , Revisão dos Cuidados de Saúde por Pares , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Nurs ; 120(8): 58-63, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732484

RESUMO

Nursing leaders continue to struggle with capacity issues in both clinical and academic settings-particularly those related to aging patient and nurse populations and the increasing complexity of health care in general. Programs and resources for formal mentoring have primarily focused on mid- and advanced-career RNs, but there is an imperative to develop methods of expertly mentoring "professionally younger" RNs across all settings and roles. In 2017, the American Nurses Association (ANA) conducted an extensive member needs assessment with more than 15,000 respondents. Three distinct career-stage categories were identified: early-career nurses, up-and-comers, and nursing leaders. The early-career nurses and up-and-comers listed "being mentored" among their top two member benefit requests. In response, the ANA launched a national virtual mentorship program in September 2018. The program aligned with criteria, recommendations, and charges from the American Nurses Credentialing Center's 2019 Magnet Recognition Program; the landmark 2010 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM), The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health; and a 2019 IOM consensus study, The Future of Nursing 2020-2030. This article provides a general overview of the program, including evaluation and modifications, and discusses implications of using the ANA's career-stage categories in virtual mentoring.


Assuntos
Enfermagem/tendências , American Nurses' Association , Previsões , Humanos , Liderança , Mentores , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Med ; 133(8): e448, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741455
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764768

RESUMO

National efforts to address the diversity dilemma in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) often emphasize increasing numbers of historically underrepresented (HU) students and faculty, but fall short in instituting concrete changes for inclusion and belonging. Therefore, increasing the pool of senior faculty who wish to become guides and advocates for emerging scientists from HU populations is an essential step toward creating new pathways for their career advancement. As a step toward achieving this goal, we created a novel eight-hour intervention on Culturally Aware Mentoring (CAM), a program of the National Research Mentoring Network (NRMN) targeted to faculty and administrators. A previous report of surveys at the end of the CAM sessions revealed substantial awareness and knowledge gains, with participants expressing intentions to use and implement new skills they had learned. In this paper, we provide the results of our thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with academic administrators and faculty, 18-24 months after participation in CAM. Interviews were designed to determine: 1) What changes in self-perceptions and interactions occurred as a result of participation in CAM? 2) What specific components of CAM are associated with changes in individual beliefs and practices? 3) How did participants actively make changes after the CAM workshop? 4) What barriers or challenges do participants encounter after the CAM intervention? The results demonstrate the lasting influences of CAM on participants' awareness of cultural differences, their assumptions about and approaches toward interactions with colleagues and students, and their efforts to change their behaviors to promote inclusive practices in their mentoring and teaching of HU students in STEM. Our findings provide evidence that CAM can be incorporated into existing mentor training programs designed to improve the confidence and capacity of senior research faculty mentors to make culturally-informed, scholar-centered decisions to more deliberately recognize and respond to cultural differences within their mentoring and collegial relationships.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Diversidade Cultural , Docentes , Tutoria , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Mentores , Grupo Associado , Ciência/educação , Ciência/organização & administração , Habilidades Sociais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Estados Unidos
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