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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2121037119, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512092

RESUMO

SignificanceArginine-vasopressin (AVP) acting on V1a receptors (Avpr1as) represents a key signaling mechanism in a brain circuit that increases the expression of social communication and aggression. We produced Syrian hamsters that completely lack Avpr1as (Avpr1a knockout [KO] hamsters) using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to more fully examine the role of Avpr1a in the expression of social behaviors. We confirmed the absence of Avpr1as in these hamsters by demonstrating 1) a complete lack of Avpr1a-specific receptor binding throughout the brain, 2) a behavioral insensitivity to centrally administered AVP, and 3) an absence of the well-known blood-pressure response produced by activating Avpr1as. Unexpectedly, however, Avpr1a KO hamsters displayed more social communication behavior and aggression toward same-sex conspecifics than did their wild-type (WT) littermates.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Receptores de Vasopressinas , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Arginina Vasopressina/genética , Cricetinae , Mesocricetus , Receptores de Vasopressinas/genética , Receptores de Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Comportamento Social
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2539, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534483

RESUMO

Extrapulmonary complications of different organ systems have been increasingly recognized in patients with severe or chronic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, limited information on the skeletal complications of COVID-19 is known, even though inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract have been known to perturb bone metabolism and cause pathological bone loss. In this study, we characterize the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on bone metabolism in an established golden Syrian hamster model for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 causes significant multifocal loss of bone trabeculae in the long bones and lumbar vertebrae of all infected hamsters. Moreover, we show that the bone loss is associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine dysregulation, as the circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines not only upregulate osteoclastic differentiation in bone tissues, but also trigger an amplified pro-inflammatory cascade in the skeletal tissues to augment their pro-osteoclastogenesis effect. Our findings suggest that pathological bone loss may be a neglected complication which warrants more extensive investigations during the long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients. The benefits of potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against pathological bone loss should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cell Rep ; 39(3): 110688, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421378

RESUMO

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant with a surprising number of spike mutations raises concerns about reduced sensitivity of this virus to antibody neutralization and subsequent vaccine breakthrough infections. Here, we infect Moderna mRNA-vaccinated or previously infected hamsters with the Omicron BA.1 variant. While the Moderna mRNA vaccine reduces viral loads in the respiratory tissues upon challenge with an early S-614G isolate, the vaccine efficacy is not as pronounced after infection with the Omicron variant. Previous infection with the early SARS-CoV-2 isolate prevents replication after rechallenge with either virus in the lungs of previously infected hamsters, but the Omicron variant replicates efficiently in nasal turbinate tissue. These results experimentally demonstrate in an animal model that the antigenic changes in the Omicron variant are responsible for vaccine breakthrough and re-infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mesocricetus , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas
4.
J Immunol Methods ; 505: 113275, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439529

RESUMO

Golden Syrian hamsters are increasingly used as a permissive animal model for SARS-CoV-2 virus studies, but the lack of immunological assays and other immunological reagents for hamsters limits its full potential. Herein, we developed an ELISA method to detect antibodies specific to peptides and proteins derived from SARS-CoV-2 virus in immunized golden Syrian hamsters. Under optimized conditions, this assay quantitates antibodies specific for individual viral peptides, peptide pools, and proteins. Hence, this ELISA method allows investigators to quantitatively assess humoral immune responses at the peptide and protein levels and has potential application in the development of peptide-based vaccines to be tested in hamsters.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mesocricetus , Peptídeos
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(18): e2123560119, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471909

RESUMO

SignificanceWe successfully identified the duper allele as a null mutation of Cryptochrome 1 in Syrian hamsters. Here, we have shown the use of fast homozygosity mapping as an effective approach to identify causal mutations in mammals, despite lacking chromosomal genome information. In the course of this work, we improved the draft Syrian hamster genome and generated datasets necessary to exploit Syrian hamsters as a modern genetic research model. The unique physiological features of Syrian hamsters make them a desirable model to investigate human diseases, including circadian disorders, cancer, heart function, metabolism, and infectious diseases (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criptocromos , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Cricetinae , Criptocromos/genética , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mesocricetus , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(4): 609-618, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283414

RESUMO

We previously conducted a study using HepG2 cells to compare the effect on the secreted apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (B-100/A-1) corresponding to the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL/HDL) among 13 types of trans-octadecenoic acid (t-18:1) positional isomers. The results revealed that trans-5-18:1 (t5) significantly increased B-100/A-1. In this study, 1% of t5 in the diet, corresponding to 2.08 energy%, was administrated golden Syrian hamsters for 4 weeks to reveal the effects on lipid profiles, including LDL/HDL, by comparing cis-9-octadecenoic acid (OA, oleic acid), trans-9-octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11-octadecenoic acid (VA), and trans-9,trans-12- octadecadienoic acid (TT). LDL/HDL was not significantly different among the groups. However, the cholesterol concentration of medium very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was significantly lower in the TT diet than in the OA and t5 diets. The cholesterol concentration of small VLDL was significantly lower in the TT diet than in the OA, t5, and EA diets. The cholesterol concentration of large LDL was significantly lower in the TT diet than in the t5 and EA diets. However, no significant difference was detected between the TT and OA diets. In contrast, the cholesterol concentration of very small HDL was significantly higher in the TT diet than in the t5 diet. These results would support that lipid metabolism is affected by the structure of TFA in animals. However, t5-18:1 did not significantly change any lipid profile compared to OA existing in nature, and the previous result from the cell experiment showing that t5 increased B-100/A-1 (LDL/HDL) was not confirmed in this animal experiment.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Lipoproteínas , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol , Cricetinae , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , Ácidos Esteáricos , Triglicerídeos
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1103-1114, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333692

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic. As immunity to endemic human coronaviruses (i.e. NL63 or OC43) wanes leading to re-infection, it was unknown if SARS-CoV-2 immunity would also decline permitting repeat infections. Recent case reports confirm previously infected individuals can become re-infected; however, re-infection may be due to heterogeneity in the initial infection or the host immune response, or may be the result of infection with a variant strain that escapes pre-existing immunity. To control these variables, we utilized the Syrian hamster model to evaluate the duration of immunity and susceptibility to re-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Hamsters were given a primary mock or SARS-CoV-2 infection (culture media or 105 TCID50 USA/WA1/2020 isolate, respectively). Mock and SARS-CoV-2 infected hamsters were then given a secondary SARS-CoV-2 infection at 1, 2, 4, or 6 months post-primary infection (n = 14/time point/group). After the primary SARS-CoV-2 infection, hamsters developed anti-spike protein IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies, and these antibodies were maintained for at least 6 months. Upon secondary SARS-CoV-2 challenge, previously SARS-CoV-2 infected animals were protected from weight loss, while all previously mock-infected animals became infected and lost weight. Importantly, despite having high titres of antibodies, one SARS-CoV-2 infected animal re-challenged at 4 months had a breakthrough infection with replicating virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract. These studies demonstrate immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is maintained for 6 months; however, protection may be incomplete and, even in the presence of high antibody titres, previously infected hosts may become re-infected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Cricetinae , Mesocricetus , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2
8.
mBio ; 13(2): e0370521, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229634

RESUMO

Combinations of direct-acting antivirals are needed to minimize drug resistance mutations and stably suppress replication of RNA viruses. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and testing of a number of drug regimens has led to conflicting results. Here, we show that cobicistat, which is an FDA-approved drug booster that blocks the activity of the drug-metabolizing proteins cytochrome P450-3As (CYP3As) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Two independent cell-to-cell membrane fusion assays showed that the antiviral effect of cobicistat is exerted through inhibition of spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. In line with this, incubation with low-micromolar concentrations of cobicistat decreased viral replication in three different cell lines including cells of lung and gut origin. When cobicistat was used in combination with remdesivir, a synergistic effect on the inhibition of viral replication was observed in cell lines and in a primary human colon organoid. This was consistent with the effects of cobicistat on two of its known targets, CYP3A4 and P-gp, the silencing of which boosted the in vitro antiviral activity of remdesivir in a cobicistat-like manner. When administered in vivo to Syrian hamsters at a high dose, cobicistat decreased viral load and mitigated clinical progression. These data highlight cobicistat as a therapeutic candidate for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection and as a potential building block of combination therapies for COVID-19. IMPORTANCE The lack of effective antiviral treatments against SARS-CoV-2 is a significant limitation in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Single-drug regimens have so far yielded limited results, indicating that combinations of antivirals might be required, as previously seen for other RNA viruses. Our work introduces the drug booster cobicistat, which is approved by the FDA and typically used to potentiate the effect of anti-HIV protease inhibitors, as a candidate inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Beyond its direct activity as an antiviral, we show that cobicistat can enhance the effect of remdesivir, which was one of the first drugs proposed for treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, the dual action of cobicistat as a direct antiviral and a drug booster can provide a new approach to design combination therapies and rescue the activity of compounds that are only partially effective in monotherapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite C Crônica , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cobicistat , Cricetinae , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Carga Viral
9.
Parasite ; 29: 15, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315766

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a common opportunistic pathogen, has been detected in humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. However, no information on the prevalence and molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in hamsters is available worldwide. In this study, fecal specimens were collected from 175 golden hamsters and 175 Siberian hamsters purchased from pet shops in three provinces of China. The average infection rate of E. bieneusi was 12.0% (42/350), with 14.9% (26/175) in pet golden hamsters and 9.1% (16/175) in pet Siberian hamsters. Four genotypes were identified in pet golden hamsters, including three known genotypes (D, Henan-II, and SHW5) and one novel genotype (named Ebph1). Five genotypes were found in pet Siberian hamsters, including one known genotype (D) and four novel genotypes (named Ebph2 to Ebph5). Genotypes D and Ebph2 were the dominant genotype in pet golden hamsters (23/26, 88.5%) and Siberian hamsters (9/16, 56.3%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E. bieneusi isolates clustered into two groups: Group 1 (D, Henan-II, SHW5, and Ebph1) and Group 3 (Ebph2 to Ebph5). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of E. bieneusi infection in golden hamsters and Siberian hamsters worldwide. The identification of four genotypes belonging to Group 1 of high zoonotic potential suggests that pet hamsters especially golden hamsters can be potential sources of human microsporidiosis.


Title: Première détection et génotypage d'Enterocytozoon bieneusi chez des hamsters dorés de compagnie (Mesocricetus auratus) et des hamsters sibériens (Phodopus sungorus) en Chine. Abstract: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, un agent pathogène opportuniste commun, a été détecté chez les humains et un large éventail d'animaux dans le monde. Cependant, aucune information sur la prévalence et la caractérisation moléculaire d'E. bieneusi chez les hamsters n'est disponible. Dans cette étude, des échantillons fécaux ont été prélevés sur 175 hamsters dorés et 175 hamsters sibériens achetés dans des animaleries de trois provinces de Chine. Le taux d'infection moyen d'E. bieneusi était de 12,0 % (42/350), avec 14,9 % (26/175) chez les hamsters dorés et 9,1 % (16/175) chez les hamsters sibériens. Quatre génotypes ont été identifiés chez les hamsters dorés, dont trois génotypes connus (D, Henan-II et SHW5) et un nouveau génotype (nommé Ebph1). Cinq génotypes ont été trouvés chez des hamsters sibériens, dont un génotype connu (D) et quatre nouveaux génotypes (nommés Ebph2 à Ebph5). Les génotypes D et Ebph2 étaient les génotypes dominants, respectivement chez les hamsters dorés (23/26, 88,5 %) et les hamsters sibériens (9/16, 56,3 %). L'analyse phylogénétique a montré que les isolats d'E. bieneusi se regroupaient en deux groupes : le groupe 1 (D, Henan-II, SHW5 et Ebph1) et le groupe 3 (Ebph2 à Ebph5). À notre connaissance, il s'agit du premier signalement d'infection par E. bieneusi chez des hamsters dorés et des hamsters de Sibérie dans le monde. L'identification de quatre génotypes appartenant au groupe 1, à fort potentiel zoonotique, suggère que les hamsters de compagnie, en particulier les hamsters dorés, peuvent être des sources potentielles de microsporidiose humaine.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Mesocricetus , Microsporidiose , Animais de Estimação , Phodopus , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Genótipo , Mesocricetus/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Phodopus/microbiologia , Filogenia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010181, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333914

RESUMO

Transmission efficiency is a critical factor determining the size of an outbreak of infectious disease. Indeed, the propensity of SARS-CoV-2 to transmit among humans precipitated and continues to sustain the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, the number of new cases among contacts is highly variable and underlying reasons for wide-ranging transmission outcomes remain unclear. Here, we evaluated viral spread in golden Syrian hamsters to define the impact of temporal and environmental conditions on the efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the air. Our data show that exposure periods as brief as one hour are sufficient to support robust transmission. However, the timing after infection is critical for transmission success, with the highest frequency of transmission to contacts occurring at times of peak viral load in the donor animals. Relative humidity and temperature had no detectable impact on transmission when exposures were carried out with optimal timing and high inoculation dose. However, contrary to expectation, trends observed with sub-optimal exposure timing and lower inoculation dose suggest improved transmission at high relative humidity or high temperature. In sum, among the conditions tested, our data reveal the timing of exposure to be the strongest determinant of SARS-CoV-2 transmission success and implicate viral load as an important driver of transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Cricetinae , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Pandemias , Carga Viral
11.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 77(5-6): 197-206, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286786

RESUMO

The aim is to establish a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) caused by feeding with high-fat, high-fructose, and high-cholesterol diet (HFFCD) in golden hamsters, and to investigate the characteristics of the NAFLD model and metabolite changes of liver tissue. Golden hamsters were fed HFFCD or control diets for six weeks. Body weight, abdominal fat index, and liver index was assessed, serum parameters, hepatic histology, and liver metabolites were examined. The results showed that body weight, abdominal fat, and liver index of hamsters were significantly increased in the model group, the level of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly increased in model group as well, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly decreased. In addition, lipid deposition in liver tissue formed fat vacuoles of different sizes. Metabonomics analysis of the liver showed that the metabolic pathways of sphingolipid, glycerophospholipids, and arginine biosynthesis were disordered in the NAFLD model. The modeling method is simple, short time, and uniform. It can simulate the early fatty liver caused by common dietary factors, and provides an ideal model for the study of the initial pathogenesis and therapeutic drugs for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colesterol , Cricetinae , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , Metabolômica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo
12.
mBio ; 13(2): e0329421, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297677

RESUMO

Defective interfering particles (DIs) contain a considerably smaller genome than the parental virus but retain replication competency. As DIs can directly or indirectly alter propagation kinetics of the parental virus, they offer a novel approach to antiviral therapy, capitalizing on knowledge from natural infection. However, efforts to translate in vitro inhibition to in vivo screening models remain limited. We investigated the efficacy of virus-like particles containing DI genomes (therapeutic infectious particles [TIPs]) in the Syrian hamster model of lethal Nipah virus (NiV) disease. We found that coadministering a high dose of TIPs intraperitoneally with virus challenge improved clinical course and reduced lethality. To mimic natural exposure, we also evaluated lower-dose TIP delivery and virus challenge intranasally, finding equally efficacious reduction in disease severity and overall lethality. Eliminating TIP replicative capacity decreased efficacy, suggesting protection via direct inhibition. These data provide evidence that TIP-mediated treatment can confer protection against disease and lethal outcome in a robust animal NiV model, supporting further development of TIP treatment for NiV and other high-consequence pathogens. IMPORTANCE Here, we demonstrate that treatment with defective interfering particles (DIs), a natural by-product of viral infection, can significantly improve the clinical course and outcome of viral disease. When present with their parental virus, DIs can directly or indirectly alter viral propagation kinetics and exert potent inhibitory properties in cell culture. We evaluated the efficacy of a selection of virus-like particles containing DI genomes (TIPs) delivered intranasally in a lethal hamster model of Nipah virus disease. We demonstrate significantly improved clinical outcomes, including reduction in both lethality and the appearance of clinical signs. This work provides key efficacy data in a robust model of Nipah virus disease to support further development of TIP-mediated treatment against high-consequence viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus , Vírus Nipah , Animais , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Mesocricetus , Vírion
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3890, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273234

RESUMO

The new outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected and caused the death of millions of people worldwide. Intensive efforts are underway around the world to establish effective treatments. Immunoglobulin from immunized animals or plasma from convalescent patients might constitute a specific treatment to guarantee the neutralization of the virus in the early stages of infection, especially in patients with risk factors and a high probability of progressing to severe disease. Worldwide, a few clinical trials using anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins from horses immunized with the entire spike protein or fragments of it in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 are underway. Here, we describe the development of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 equine F(ab')2 immunoglobulin using a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen that was purified and inactivated by radiation. Cell-based and preclinical assays showed that the F(ab')2 immunoglobulin successfully neutralizes the virus, is safe in animal models, and reduces the severity of the disease in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Cavalos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Mesocricetus/imunologia , Plasmaferese/veterinária , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia
14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 225, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273335

RESUMO

Late 2020, SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant emerged in United Kingdom and gradually replaced G614 strains initially involved in the global spread of the pandemic. In this study, we use a Syrian hamster model to compare a clinical strain of Alpha variant with an ancestral G614 strain. The Alpha variant succeed to infect animals and to induce a pathology that mimics COVID-19. However, both strains replicate to almost the same level and induced a comparable disease and immune response. A slight fitness advantage is noted for the G614 strain during competition and transmission experiments. These data do not corroborate the epidemiological situation observed during the first half of 2021 in humans nor reports that showed a more rapid replication of Alpha variant in human reconstituted bronchial epithelium. This study highlights the need to combine data from different laboratories using various animal models to decipher the biological properties of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pulmão/virologia , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Replicação Viral
15.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2047144, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289719

RESUMO

There remains an unmet need for globally deployable, low-cost therapeutics for the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Previously, we reported on the isolation and in vitro characterization of a potent single-domain nanobody, NIH-CoVnb-112, specific for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report on the molecular basis for the observed broad in vitro neutralization capability of NIH-CoVnb-112 against variant SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. The structure of NIH-CoVnb-112 bound to SARS-CoV-2 RBD reveals a large contact surface area overlapping the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding site, which is largely unencumbered by the common RBD mutations. In an in vivo pilot study, we demonstrate effective reductions in weight loss, viral burden, and lung pathology in a Syrian hamster model of COVID-19 following nebulized delivery of NIH-CoVnb-112. These findings support the further development of NIH-CoVnb-112 as a potential adjunct preventative therapeutic for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Abbreviations: ACE2 - angiotensin converting enzyme 2BSA - buried surface areaCDR - complementary determining regionRBD - receptor binding domainRBM - receptor-binding motifSARS-CoV-2 - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Ligação Proteica , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010340, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255100

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 attaches to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain entry into cells after which the spike protein is cleaved by the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to facilitate viral-host membrane fusion. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression profiles have been analyzed at the genomic, transcriptomic, and single-cell RNAseq levels. However, transcriptomic data and actual protein validation convey conflicting information regarding the distribution of the biologically relevant protein receptor in whole tissues. To describe the organ-level architecture of receptor expression, related to the ability of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 to mediate infectivity, we performed a volumetric analysis of whole Syrian hamster lung lobes. Lung tissue of infected and control animals was stained using antibodies against ACE2 and TMPRSS2, combined with SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein staining. This was followed by light-sheet microscopy imaging to visualize their expression and related infection patterns. The data demonstrate that infection is restricted to sites containing both ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the latter is expressed in the primary and secondary bronchi whereas ACE2 is predominantly observed in the bronchioles and alveoli. Conversely, infection completely overlaps where ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-localize in the tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Cricetinae , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110515, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263638

RESUMO

Human cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection have been documented throughout the pandemic, but are likely under-reported. In the current study, we use the Syrian hamster SARS-CoV-2 model to assess reinfection with homologous WA1 and heterologous B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.351 (Beta) SARS-CoV-2 variants over time. Upon primary infection with SARS-CoV-2 WA1, hamsters rapidly develop a strong and long-lasting humoral immune response. After reinfection with homologous and heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants, this immune response protects hamsters from clinical disease, virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, and acute lung pathology. However, reinfection leads to SARS-CoV-2 replication in the upper respiratory tract with the potential for virus shedding. Our findings indicate that reinfection results in restricted SARS-CoV-2 replication despite substantial levels of humoral immunity, denoting the potential for transmission through reinfected asymptomatic individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Cricetinae , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Nariz , Reinfecção
19.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337002

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant has evolved to become the dominant SARS-CoV-2 lineage with multiple sub-lineages and there are also reports of re-infections caused by this variant. We studied the disease characteristics induced by the Delta AY.1 variant and compared it with the Delta and B.1 variants in Syrian hamsters. We also assessed the potential of re-infection by these variants in Coronavirus disease 2019 recovered hamsters 3 months after initial infection. The variants produced disease characterized by high viral load in the respiratory tract and interstitial pneumonia. The Delta AY.1 variant produced mild disease in the hamster model and did not show any evidence of neutralization resistance due to the presence of the K417N mutation, as speculated. Re-infection with a high virus dose of the Delta and B.1 variants 3 months after B.1 variant infection resulted in reduced virus shedding, disease severity and increased neutralizing antibody levels in the re-infected hamsters. The reduction in viral load and lung disease after re-infection with the Delta AY.1 variant was not marked. Upper respiratory tract viral RNA loads remained similar after re-infection in all the groups. The present findings show that prior infection could not produce sterilizing immunity but that it can broaden the neutralizing response and reduce disease severity in case of reinfection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reinfecção , Animais , Cricetinae , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Traqueia
20.
Nature ; 603(7902): 700-705, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104835

RESUMO

The emergence of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is an urgent global health concern1. In this study, our statistical modelling suggests that Omicron has spread more rapidly than the Delta variant in several countries including South Africa. Cell culture experiments showed Omicron to be less fusogenic than Delta and than an ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2. Although the spike (S) protein of Delta is efficiently cleaved into two subunits, which facilitates cell-cell fusion2,3, the Omicron S protein was less efficiently cleaved compared to the S proteins of Delta and ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, in a hamster model, Omicron showed decreased lung infectivity and was less pathogenic compared to Delta and ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Our multiscale investigations reveal the virological characteristics of Omicron, including rapid growth in the human population, lower fusogenicity and attenuated pathogenicity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Fusão de Membrana , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Virulência , Replicação Viral
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