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1.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 28(6): 838-51, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25437143

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular changes that occur in the hamster testicular interstitium in two very different physiological situations involving testicular involution: ageing and exposure to a short photoperiod. The animals were divided into an 'age group' with three subgroups - young, adult and old animals - and a 'regressed group' with animals subjected to a short photoperiod. The testicular interstitium was characterised by light and electron microscopy. Interstitial cells were studied histochemically with regard to their proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL+) and testosterone synthetic activity. We identified two types of Leydig cell: Type A cells showed a normal morphology, while Type B cells appeared necrotic. With ageing, pericyte proliferation decreased but there was no variation in the index of TUNEL-positive Leydig cells. In the regressed group, pericyte proliferation was greater and TUNEL-positive cells were not observed in the interstitium. The testicular interstitium suffered few ultrastructural changes during ageing and necrotic Leydig cells were observed. In contrast, an ultrastructural involution of Leydig cells with no necrosis was observed in the regressed group. In conclusion, the testicular interstitium of Mesocricetus auratus showed different cellular changes in the two groups (age and regressed), probably due to the irreversible nature of ageing and the reversible character of changes induced by short photoperiod.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Apoptose , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pericitos/citologia , Fotoperíodo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/ultraestrutura , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Mesocricetus/fisiologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Necrose , Pericitos/imunologia , Pericitos/metabolismo , Pericitos/ultraestrutura , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Espermatócitos/citologia , Espermatócitos/imunologia , Espermatócitos/metabolismo , Espermatócitos/ultraestrutura , Testículo/imunologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/ultraestrutura
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 112: 1-5, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129708

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of dietary wheat bran arabinoxylans (AXs) on cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed the experimental diets containing AXs or oat ß-glucan at a dose of 5 g/kg for 30 days. As the results, the AXs lowered plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and increased excretions of total lipids, cholesterol and bile acids, as well as oat ß-glucan. The AXs reduced the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and increased the activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in liver. Moreover, the AXs increased propionate and the total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations. These results indicated that dietary AXs reduced the plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1, and increasing colonic SCFAs in hamsters.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Mesocricetus/metabolismo , Xilanos/farmacologia , Animais , Avena/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Molecular , Viscosidade , Xilanos/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
3.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 391(1-2): 1-9, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24791736

RESUMO

The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3ßHsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3ßHsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Mesocricetus/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/metabolismo , 3-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , 3-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesocricetus/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Septinas/genética , Septinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 33(8): 1716-9, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21742415

RESUMO

Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators with a life expectancy of approximately 2 years. Previous investigations showed a hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein during hibernation and aging and raised hopes that Syrian hamsters might represent a useful animal model to study pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Brain and spinal cord transversal sections of 190 hamsters 1-36 months of age were investigated using histology and immunohistochemistry to detect neurofibrillary tangles and/or diffuse as well as neuritic plaques. Summarized, amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles, and diffuse as well as neuritic plaques were absent indicating that the Syrian golden hamster does not develop changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease even at advanced age and does not represent an appropriate animal model for this disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Animais , Cricetinae , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Neuroscience ; 169(1): 236-45, 2010 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20417693

RESUMO

This study was focused on determining the possible role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on play fighting in juvenile golden hamsters. As no specific neural sites have been proposed, we looked for changes in CRH innervations at the peak of play-fighting activity on postnatal day 35 (P-35) from a week before on P-28. We noted that the increase in play-fighting activity between these two dates was associated with a 100% increase of the density of CRH fibers within the lateral septum. We, then, tested the possible role of CRH receptors on play fighting within the lateral septum through microinjections of alpha-helical CRH, a CRH receptor antagonist (either 0, 30, or 300 ng), directly into the area. The treatments inhibited play-fighting attacks and pins as well as reduced the duration of time that the resident hamsters spent in contact with the intruders, though locomotor activity remained unaffected. The possible source of CRH release in the lateral septum was addressed by quantification of CRH neurons also labeled with a marker of cellular activity, c-Fos, after consummation of play fighting. CRH neurons in the horizontal part of the diagonal band, an area reciprocally connected with the lateral septum, showed a 75% increase in double labeling with c-Fos as compared to controls. Together, these data show that CRH receptors in the lateral septum have a general role on play fighting, not just facilitating its consummation, but also likely enhancing appetitive aspects as well. In addition, this effect is associated with enhanced CRH availability in the area and enhanced neuronal activity within interconnected areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Agonístico/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Mesocricetus/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Masculino , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microinjeções , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Neurônios/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/análise , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Dev Neurobiol ; 68(14): 1517-26, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18792070

RESUMO

Hippocampal function, including spatial cognition and stress responses, matures during adolescence. In addition, hippocampal neuron structure is modified by gonadal steroid hormones, which increase dramatically at this time. This study investigated pubertal changes in dendritic complexity of dentate gyrus neurons. Dendrites, spines, and cell bodies of Golgi-impregnated neurons from the granule cell layer were traced in pre-, mid-, and late-pubertal male Syrian hamsters (21, 35, and 49 days of age). Sholl analysis determined the number of intersections and total dendritic length contained in concentric spheres set at 25-microm increments from the soma. Spine densities were quantified separately in proximal and distal segments of a subset of neurons used for the Sholl analysis. We found that the structure of neurons in the lower, but not upper, blade of the dentate gyrus changed during adolescence. The lower, infrapyramidal blade showed pruning of dendrites close to the cell body and increases in distal dendritic spine densities across adolescence. These data demonstrate that dentate gyrus neurons undergo substantial structural remodeling during adolescence and that patterns of maturation are region specific. Furthermore, these changes in dendrite structure, which alter the electrophysiological properties of granule cells, are likely related to the adolescent development of hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions such as learning and memory, as well as hippocampus-mediated stress responsivity.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/citologia , Giro Denteado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/citologia , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Tamanho Celular , Cricetinae , Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coloração pela Prata/métodos
7.
J Neurobiol ; 66(6): 578-90, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16555234

RESUMO

The medial amygdala (Me), a brain region essential for mating behavior, changes in size during puberty. In pre-, mid-, and late pubertal (21, 35, and 49 days of age) male Syrian hamsters, we examined neuronal structure in Me and protein levels of spinophilin and synaptophysin in the amygdaloid complex for evidence of synaptic plasticity coincident with behavioral and physiological development. Body weight, testes weight, and testosterone levels increased during puberty. Mounting behavior, including ectopic, nonintromittive, and intromittive mounts, also increased. Neuronal structure in the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) was assessed in Golgi-impregnated neurons. Pruning occurred during puberty in the number of dendrites emanating from the cell body and in terminal dendritic spine densities. Approximately half of all MePD neurons analyzed had an axon emanating from a dendrite rather than the cell body. However, prepubertal males were more likely to have the axon emanating from a higher order dendritic segment (secondary or tertiary) than were mid- and late pubertal males. Finally, protein levels in the amygdaloid complex varied with pubertal age. Spinophilin decreased, while synaptophysin and GAPDH protein levels increased. These results suggest that puberty is a period of dramatic synaptic plasticity in Me. Specifically, pruning of dendrites and spines, in combination with axonal changes, is likely to modify the afferent influences and electrophysiological properties of Me neurons. Because the Me is an integral component of a social behavior neural network, these changes may be related not only to sexual behavior, but also to other behaviors that mature during puberty, including aggressive, risk-taking, fear-related, and parental behaviors.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Dendritos/metabolismo , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/ultraestrutura , Animais , Forma Celular/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Dendritos/ultraestrutura , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Coloração pela Prata , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testosterona/sangue , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
8.
J Comp Neurol ; 494(6): 887-902, 2006 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16385487

RESUMO

The development of the corpus callosum (CC) and the anterior commissure (CA) is well known in a wide variety of species. No study, however, has described the development of the commissure of the superior colliculus (CSC) from embryonic state to adulthood in mammals. In this study, by using the lipophylic tracer DiI, we investigated the ontogeny of this mesencephalic commissure in the hamster at various ages. The development of axonal terminals, growth cone morphologies, and axons branching were described for the superior colliculus (SC) contralateral to the tracer injection. The first CSC axons cross the midline at embryonic day 11 (E-11) and grow further into the intermediate layers of the contralateral SC between E-12 and E-14. There is little axon growth therein between E-14 and the day of birth (P-0). Growth cones at the tip of these axons adopt complex morphologies at E-12 and progressively simplify until P-0. Pioneer axons are clearly visible between E-14 and P-1. These are followed by other axons progressively more numerous between P-0 and P-5. Axons do not show any branching until P-2. Between P-3 and P-9, the axons progressively arborize in the intermediate layers. Some axons reach the superficial layers at P-5, and they become more numerous around P-11, and only a few axons remain therein by P-21. Myelinated axons appear at P11 and are very dense at P-21. Our results indicate that the CSC follows developmental schemes similar to those of the CC and the AC but that initial axon midline crossing occurs earlier.


Assuntos
Mesocricetus , Colículos Superiores , Animais , Carbocianinas/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Embrião de Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Colículos Superiores/anatomia & histologia , Colículos Superiores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 15(4): 355-63, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12622834

RESUMO

Anatomical and physiological studies have suggested that the pineal gland of neonatal mammals has a photoreceptive capacity. Using the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as our model, we applied biochemical approaches to look for a functional photopigment within the pineal during early development. Immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to localize and quantify opsin, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify photopigment chromophore (11-cis and all-trans retinaldehyde) in the developing eye and pineal. For HPLC analysis, retinaldehydes were converted to their corresponding retinoid oximes. Eluted retinoids were identified by comparison with standard vitamin A1 retinoid oxime isomers on the basis of relative elution sequence and characteristic absorbance spectra. Both immunocytochemistry and ELISA suggested an increase in the opsin content of the pineal during the first week of life. In the eye, 11-cis retinaldehyde was first detected between days 3 and 5 after birth. In three separate extractions, and using a considerable excess of pineal tissue, we failed to identify chromophore within the pineal during the first week of postnatal development. The appearance of 11-cis retinaldehyde within the eye between postnatal days 3-5 is consistent with the hypothesis that retinol isomerase activity is coordinated with outer segment development. The failure to identify chromophore within the neonatal pineal suggests that this gland lacks a functional opsin-based photopigment. These data contradict physiological evidence suggesting that the neonatal pineal of mammals contains photoreceptors.


Assuntos
Olho/citologia , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/química , Glândula Pineal/citologia , Retinaldeído/análise , Opsinas de Bastonetes/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cricetinae , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Olho/química , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesocricetus/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Células Fotorreceptoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândula Pineal/química , Glândula Pineal/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 14(11): 861-8, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12421339

RESUMO

In the Syrian hamster, the role of noradrenaline in the regulation of melatonin synthesis is less clear than in the rat. During pineal ontogenesis in the rat, noradrenaline is the major transmitter involved in the onset of melatonin synthesis and melatonin rhythm. We analysed the involvement of noradrenaline in the ontogenesis of melatonin synthesis in the Syrian hamster and compared it with that of the rat. We followed the developmental profile of melatonin content in parallel with those of mRNA expression and activity of AA-NAT, the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme. In addition, we tested the effect of noradrenergic drugs at early steps of pineal ontogenesis. In the Syrian hamster, the night-time Aa-nat mRNA, first detected 3 days after birth, increases progressively up to a maximum reached at 30 days of age and then decreases significantly towards adulthood. The daytime level of Aa-nat mRNA remains always low. A significant day/night rhythm appears 10 days after birth, is maximal (200-fold nocturnal increase) 30 days after birth and decreases slowly towards adulthood. Ontogenesis of the AA-NAT activity rhythm is similar, although with a much lower amplitude of day/night variations (four-fold). The developmental pattern of melatonin content is similar to that of AA-NAT and could be correlated with the appearance of sympathetic innervation in the pineal gland. However, neither alpha- nor beta-adrenergic antagonists inhibit the night-time Aa-nat mRNA transcription in the 9-day-old Syrian hamster, in contrast to what is observed in the adult. For comparison, the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol inhibits Aa-nat gene expression in 2-day-old rat. These results show that both species are different in the regulation of the appearance of melatonin synthesis and that Syrian hamster is peculiar from birth in term of noradrenaline involvement in the activation of melatonin synthesis.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Mesocricetus/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/enzimologia , Ratos/embriologia , Ratos/metabolismo , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Ritmo Circadiano , Cricetinae , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Masculino , Melatonina/metabolismo , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
11.
Ital J Anat Embryol ; 107(1): 15-27, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12043917

RESUMO

Ponderal, morphometric and morphological assessments were used to study the Syrian golden hamster pancreas development during the first 70 days of postnatal life. The body mass increased 41.74 times in a single growth phase and a mean duplication time calculated by linear equation y = 1.76 x - 1.87 (r2 = 0.95), was 13.4 days. The pancreatic mass increased 44.60 times in two growth phases, the first from 2 to 21 days and the second from 28 to 70 days of age. The exponential equation obtained by regression analysis for these periods, were: y = 5.21. e (0.1810.x) (r2 = 0.95) and y = 156.64. e(0.0094.x (r2 = 0.72), respectively, and the calculated duplication times were: 3.8 and 73.7 days, respectively. This marked pancreatic growth was due to the increase in all theirs morphological compartments, especially of the acini. An inverse relationship was observed in the volume density evolution between the acini and the stroma, with a 2.30 times increase in the fraction of pancreatic volume occupied by the acini and a 0.26 times reduction in the connective tissue spaces during studied period. The volume density of pancreatic islets increased 4.47 times from 21 to 35 days of age. The morphological analysis showed a significant increase in the height and width of the acinar cells and in the size of the acini especially from 14 to 21 days of age, a relative reduction in the stromal volume, an increase in the size of the pancreatic islets and the end of parenchymal cell maturation and lobar and lobular organization, so glandular maturity was obtained.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Tamanho Celular/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Glândulas Exócrinas/citologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Exócrinas/fisiologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Pâncreas/fisiologia
12.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 37(1): 93-101, 2002 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11990363

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the nutritional quality of genetically modified sweetpotato (genotype PI318846-3) on growth, lipid metabolism, and protein metabolism of hamsters. Three different diets made with transgenic and nontransgenic sweetpotato protein flour including a control diet with casein were fed to male Golden Syrian hamsters for 28 days. The protein efficiency ratio (1.35 +/- 0.01) of the transgenic sweetpotato protein diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the nontransgenic sweetpotato and control diets. Plasma albumin and plasma total protein concentrations of hamsters fed the sweetpotato diets were significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The casein diet (control) produced hypercholesterolemia in hamsters, whereas sweetpotato diets maintained lower plasma and liver total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in hamsters. Sweetpotatoes contain less amount of protein to maintain the normal animal growth; however, transgenic sweetpotato has good quality protein that supported the growth of hamsters better than nontransgenic sweetpotato.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ipomoea batatas/química , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Albuminas/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cricetinae , Proteínas na Dieta/normas , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
J Comp Neurol ; 446(4): 342-8, 2002 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11954033

RESUMO

The histochemical method was used to investigate the postnatal development of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) -positive neurons in retinas of the golden hamster. NADPH-d-positive neurons were discernible in the retina at postnatal day (P)1. From P4 onward to adulthood, when the retina acquired its laminated characteristics, NADPH-d- positive neurons were observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Results showed that NADPH-d-positive neurons in INL and GCL followed different time courses and patterns in their development. NADPH-d-positive neurons in INL underwent a sharp increase from P4 to P8 (3.6-fold), followed by a decrease to 46% of the maximum at P12. This value was maintained relatively constant to the adult level. The mean diameters of NADPH-d-positive neurons in INL, which were smaller than those in the GCL for all ages, increased from P8 to P12 and from P20 to adulthood. As for neurons in the GCL, the increase in cell number was not so apparent for the earlier postnatal days until P20; thereafter, an obvious increase to the adult level was observed. The mean diameters of the NADPH-d-positive cell bodies in the GCL increased with age, except for P16-P20, during which time there was a slight and insignificant decrease. The tendency of changes in cell density was basically similar to that of the total number for both the INL and the GCL. Between P12 and P20, the density distribution map of the NADPH-d-positive neurons underwent dramatic changes: The highest density shifted from the upper central retina at the earlier postnatal days to the lower central retina in the adult. The two waves of increase in NADPH-d-positive neurons coincide with the process of axonal elongation and synaptogenesis and the acquisition of visual function and experience. It is suggested that these NADPH-d-positive neurons are related to these two developmental events.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , NADPH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neurônios Nitrérgicos/enzimologia , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Celular/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Dendritos/enzimologia , Dendritos/ultraestrutura , Mesocricetus/metabolismo , Neurônios Nitrérgicos/citologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Retina/citologia , Retina/enzimologia
14.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 31(6): 331-8, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12693751

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to analyse allometrically the growth of the Syrian golden hamster pancreas during days 2 to 70 of postnatal development. Body and pancreatic mass were determined, followed by stereological determination of the absolute volume of each morphological compartment of the pancreas. The marked pancreatic growth, by 4360%, was due to an increase in the absolute volume of all morphological compartments, mainly the acini which showed an increase of 10 431%. Bivariate allometric analysis of pancreatic mass and morphological compartmental volume in relation to body mass gain showed: (1) a biphasic pattern for pancreatic mass, acinar volume, excretory duct volume and stromal volume, with the first phase being observed from 2 to 21 days of age and the second from 21 to 70 days of age, with allometry coefficients of 1.537-0.513, 1.770-0.543, 1.651-0.506 and 0.967-0.258, respectively, and (2) a monophasic pattern from 2 to 70 days for intercalated duct volume and islet volume, with allometry coefficients of 0.913 and 1.727, respectively. These results show that during the growth of the pancreas in relation to that of the body some structures - acini and excretory ducts - follow the growth pattern of the organ, while others - intercalated ducts and islets - show a different pattern. This may be related to the genetic growth characteristics of each compartment itself or to some relationship between compartments during some stage of the ontogenetic development of this organ.


Assuntos
Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pâncreas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ductos Pancreáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cricetinae , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
15.
Behav Genet ; 31(4): 383-91, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11720124

RESUMO

The single gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster-apart from its effect on the circadian organization of locomotor activity--has a pronounced influence on body weight. In this study we investigate the impact of maternal and pup genotypes at the tau-locus on the growth rate of pups. Homozygous tau mutant hamsters (circadian period of 20 hours) had lower growth rates and adult body weights than wild-type hamsters, whereas heterozygous tau mutants (circadian period of 22 hours) were intermediate. In addition, heterozygous pups from heterozygous dams grew heavier than those from wild-type and homozygous dams. The effect of maternal genotype was further evaluated in a cross-foster design, where wild-type and homozygous mutant pups were fostered at birth to either wild-type or homozygous mutant dams. At all ages, the maternal tau genotype had a negative effect on body weight, whereas the pup tau genotype had a positive effect during the preweaning period and a negative effect afterward.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Crescimento/genética , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cricetinae , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Masculino , Mesocricetus/genética
16.
Ann Anat ; 183(4): 383-8, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11508366

RESUMO

The presence of cartilage in the pulmonary valve has been reported in birds, but not in mammals. We describe here the occurrence of cartilaginous tissue in the pulmonary valves of 40 (11.4%) of 351 Syrian hamsters examined using histological, histochemical and/or immunohistochemical techniques. The cartilaginous deposits were located along the fibrous attachments of the valve leaflets to the wall of the pulmonary artery trunk. Our findings indicate that the proximal attachments of the leaflets to their respective sinuses, and especially that of the ventral leaflet, are the most prone valvular regions to develop cartilaginous foci. Nonetheless, the possible function of these foci remains an open question. Formation of cartilage in the pulmonary valve starts within the first month of life, that is during the period in which the valve reaches histological maturation. The earliest evidence of chondrogenesis is the presence of small groups of cells embedded in a type II collagen-positive extracellular matrix. These groups of cells, which can appear as early as one day after birth, increase moderately in size and differentiate into hyaline cartilaginous tissue. The precursors of the cartilaginous cells are presumed to be neural crest-derived elements. However, the factor or factors involved in the differentiation of these precursors into chondrocytes are still unknown. In this regard, our observations cast doubt on the hypothesis that the formation of cardiac cartilages is primarily due to locally intense mechanical stimulation.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/anatomia & histologia , Cartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesocricetus/anatomia & histologia , Valva Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Valva Pulmonar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cartilagem/citologia , Colágeno/análise , Cricetinae , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Reprod Fertil ; 118(2): 327-30, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10864796

RESUMO

The role of the circadian clock in the reproductive development of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus was examined in wild type and circadian tau mutant hamsters reared from birth to 26 weeks of age under constant dim red light. Testis diameter and body weights were determined at weekly intervals in male hamsters from 4 weeks of age. In both genotypes, testicular development, subsequent regression and recrudescence exhibited a similar time course. The age at which animals displayed reproductive photosensitivity, as exhibited by testicular regression, was unrelated to circadian genotype (mean +/- SEM: 54 +/- 3 days for wild type and 59 +/- 5 days for tau mutants). In contrast, our studies revealed a significant impact of the mutation on somatic growth, such that tau mutants weighed 18% less than wild types at the end of the experiment. Our study reveals that the juvenile onset of reproductive photoperiodism in Syrian hamsters is not timed by the circadian system.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas tau/genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cricetinae , Escuridão , Genótipo , Masculino , Mesocricetus/genética , Mesocricetus/fisiologia , Mutação , Testículo/fisiologia
18.
Ciênc. cult. (Säo Paulo) ; 52(1): 31-40, jan.-fev. 2000. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-264430

RESUMO

Maternal care is very important for infant development, mainly for altricial species such as rodents. This study was carried out in order to analyze the differences between the maternal behavior and infant development in two species of rodents regarded as gregarious and solitary. Thus, the behavior of 40 lactating females (20 golden hamster and 20 albino rat mother, or GH and AR) and their litters was recorded from the 1st to the 35th day after partirition. On the 4th day, litters were culled to 4 pups (all males or all females) and animals were grouped as follows: Groups I and II (litters consisting of all-male or all-female GH pups) and Groups III and IV (litters consisting of all-male or all-female AR pups). It was noted that GH mother spent a higher mean time in bodily interactions with pups and nest-building activity. All mothers axhibited higher pup retrievals and licked their pups more frequnatly around the 15th day, but GH mother exhibited a higher mean number of pup retrievals and licked their pups less frequantly. The emergence of pup self-licking around the 15th day coincided with the abrupt decrease in the maternal licking in both GH and mother. GH gained body mass more rapidly and their mothers lost a significant amount of body weight during the lactation, in contrast to the body weight gain by AR mother during the same period: On the 20th day, GH and AR mother exhibited 88.6 percent and 110.8 percent of their body mass, respectively, suggesting that the rearing costs are higher for GH mothers. We concluded that the behavior of animals may be explained in accordance with the differences in their habitats (desert or savanna), level of gregariousness, and also the characteristics of pup development.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Cricetinae , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos Endogâmicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Período Pós-Parto
19.
J Pineal Res ; 25(4): 193-200, 1998 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9885988

RESUMO

The reproductive response of both intact adult and juvenile Turkish hamsters has been thoroughly studied and shown to be similar, unlike the golden hamster where juveniles remain aphotoperiodic until approximately 8 weeks of age. Unstudied to date, however, is the role of the pineal and its hormone melatonin in generating the testicular response to photoperiod in juvenile Turkish hamsters. Therefore, in this study we examined the reproductive response of prepubertal male Turkish hamsters, subjected to four different photoperiods (8L:16D, 16L:8D, 20L:4D, and 24L:0D) with altered pineal gland function. At 15 days of age, long-day-born (16L:8D) hamsters were either pinealectomized, received melatonin implants, or remained untreated. Testes sizes were measured every 2 weeks. Testicular growth occurred only in untreated and beeswax implanted groups in 16L:8D. Exposure to other photoperiods inhibited testicular development in untreated and beeswax implanted animals. Removal of the pineal gland, masking of the daily melatonin rhythm with constant release subcutaneous melatonin implants, or eliminating the daily rhythm of melatonin by continuous light exposure resulted in inhibition of gonadal development. These results demonstrate that juvenile Turkish hamsters respond similarly to adults on all photoperiods and under all conditions of pineal function tested.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotoperíodo , Glândula Pineal/fisiologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cricetinae , Implantes de Medicamento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Glândula Pineal/cirurgia , Maturidade Sexual , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 156(3 Pt 1): 959-67, 1997 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9310020

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maturation on crossbridge properties and myosin isoform composition in hamster diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm strips were obtained at postnatal Days 1 and 8 and in adults (10 to 12 wk). Peak isometric tension and maximum unloaded shortening velocity (Vmax) increased with age (p < 0.001). The single crossbridge force (pi), the total number of crossbridges normalized per cross-sectional area (m x 10(9)/mm2), the turnover rate of myosin ATPase (kcat), and peak mechanical efficiency (Effmax) were calculated from Huxley's equations. The value of m increased significantly from birth to adulthood (p < 0.001), with no changes in pi or Effmax; kcat increased significantly only after the first week postpartum. There was a strong linear relationship between peak isometric tension and m (p < 0.001). Conversely, changes in Vmax were not related to kcat. Myosin electrophoresis showed that neonatal bands and slow myosin isoforms (S) were present at birth. The number of fast adult myosin isoforms increased progressively from birth to adulthood, whereas S increased during the first week postpartum. In conclusion, development changes in diaphragm muscle force and myosin isoform composition were associated with changes in crossbridge number and kinetics, with no changes in the average force per crossbridge or in mechanical efficiency.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diafragma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesocricetus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Miosinas/química , Fatores Etários , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cricetinae , Diafragma/enzimologia , Eletroforese , Contração Isométrica , Modelos Lineares , Miosinas/análise
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