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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150095, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509829

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been regarded as emerging environmental contaminants. The profile of resistome (collection of all ARGs) in drinking water and its fate during drinking water treatment remain unclear. This study applied metagenomic assembly combined with network analysis to decipher the profile, mobility, host, and pathogenicity of resistomes in two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), each applying conventional treatment and advanced treatment of ozonation followed by biological activated carbon filtration. In source waters and effluents of each treatment process collected from both DWTPs, 215 ARGs belonging to 20 types were detected with total concentration ranging from 6.30 ± 1.83 to 5.20 ± 0.26 × 104 copies/mL. Both the conventional and advanced DWTPs were revealed to effectively reduce the concentration of total ARGs, with the average removal efficiency of 3.61-log10 and 2.21-log10, respectively. Multiple statistical analyses (including network analysis) indicated drinking water resistome correlated tightly with mobile gene elements (MGEs) and bacterial community, with the latter acting as the premier driver of resistome alteration in DWTPs. Further analysis of ARG-carrying contigs (ACCs) assembled from drinking water metagenomes (i) tracked down potential bacterial hosts of ARGs (e.g., Proteobacteria phylum as the major pool of resistome), (ii) provided co-localization information of ARGs and MGEs (e.g., MacB-E7196 plasmid1), and (iii) identified ARG-carrying human pathogens (e.g., Enterococcus faecium and Ralstonia pickettii). This work firstly determined the concentration, mobility incidence, and pathogenicity incidence of DWTP resistomes, based on which the actual health risk regarding antibiotic resistance could be quantitatively assessed in further study, providing a useful direction for decision-making concerning the risk control of ARGs in DWTPs.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Metagenoma , Antibacterianos/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Metagenômica , Virulência
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 505, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycan-related genes play a fundamental role in various processes for energy acquisition and homeostasis maintenance while adapting to the environment in which the organism exists; however, their role in the microbiome in the environment is unclear. METHODS: Sequence alignment was performed between known glycan-related genes and complete genomes of microorganisms, and optimal parameters for identifying glycan-related genes were determined based on the alignments. Using the constructed scheme (> 90% of identity and > 25 aa of alignment length), glycan-related genes in various environments were identified from 198 different metagenome data. RESULTS: As a result, we identified 86.73 million glycan-related genes from the metagenome data. Among the 12 environments classified in this study, the percentage of glycan-related genes was high in the human-associated environment, suggesting that these environments utilize glycan metabolism better than other environments. On the other hand, the relative abundances of both glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases surprisingly had a coverage of over 80% in all the environments. These glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were classified into two groups of (1) general enzyme families identified in various environments and (2) specific enzymes found only in certain environments. The general enzyme families were mostly from genes involved in monosaccharide metabolism, and most of the specific enzymes were polysaccharide degrading enzymes. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that environmental microorganisms could change the composition of their glycan-related genes to adapt the processes involved in acquiring energy from glycans in their environments. Our functional glyco-metagenomics approach has made it possible to clarify the relationship between the environment and genes from the perspective of carbohydrates, and the existence of glycan-related genes that exist specifically in the environment.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Polissacarídeos
4.
5.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 10 25.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693512

RESUMO

Genomic methods have had a major impact in clinical microbiology in the last decades. Microbial genomes are relatively small and therefore easier to characterise than human genomes. In both bacteriology and in virology, genomic methods have largely been used for molecular epidemiology, but also for molecular resistance testing of microorganisms. Targeted sequencing of predefined or isolated microorganisms was initially a dominant method but has gradually been supplemented with metagenomic diagnostics. Metagenomics aims at mapping all microorganisms - pathogenic as well as apathogenic - in a sample without determining in advance which agent(s) the analysis is targeting. Finally, there is also an increasing interest in mapping the significance of the microbiome, i.e. normal flora, both in health and disease.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(21-22): 8343-8358, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648062

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a lethal cancer with aggressive and invasive characteristics. By the time it is diagnosed, patients already have tumors extended to other organs and show extremely low survival rates. The gut microbiome is known to be associated with many diseases and its imbalance affects the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we established an orthotopic, patient-derived xenograft model to identify how the gut microbiome is linked to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Using the 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing, we revealed that the levels of Alistipes onderdonkii and Roseburia hominis decreased in the gut microbiome of the PDAC model. To explore the crosstalk between the two bacteria and PDAC cells, we collected the supernatant of the bacteria or cancer cell culture medium and treated it in a cross manner. While the cancer cell medium did not affect bacterial growth, we observed that the A. onderdonkii medium suppressed the growth of the pancreatic primary cancer cells. Using the bromodeoxyuridine/7-amino-actinomycin D (BrdU/7-AAD) staining assay, we confirmed that the A. onderdonkii medium inhibited the proliferation of the pancreatic primary cancer cells. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis revealed that the A. onderdonkii medium induced unique transcriptomic alterations in the PDAC cells, compared to the normal pancreatic cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the reduction in the A. onderdonkii in the gut microbiome provides a proliferation advantage to the pancreatic cancer cells. KEY POINTS: • Metagenome analysis of pancreatic cancer model reveals A. onderdonkii downregulation. • A. onderdonkii culture supernatant suppressed the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. • RNA seq data reveals typical gene expression changes induced by A. onderdonkii.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Bacteroidetes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Clostridiales , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metagenoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética
7.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633370

RESUMO

A variety of biological sequence classification tasks, such as species classification, gene function classification and viral host classification, are expected processes in many metagenomic data analyses. Since metagenomic data contain a large number of novel species and genes, high-performing classification algorithms are needed in many studies. Biologists often encounter challenges in finding suitable sequence classification and annotation tools for a specific task and are often not able to construct a corresponding algorithm on their own because of a lack of the necessary mathematical and computational knowledge. Deep learning techniques have recently become a popular topic and show strong advantages in many classification tasks. To date, many highly packaged deep learning packages, which make it possible for biologists to construct deep learning frameworks according to their own needs without in-depth knowledge of the algorithm details, have been developed. In this tutorial, we provide a guideline for constructing an easy-to-use deep learning framework for sequence classification without the need for sufficient mathematical knowledge or programming skills. All the code is optimized in a virtual machine so that users can directly run the code using their own data.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
8.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 197, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental calculus (mineralised dental plaque) preserves many types of microfossils and biomolecules, including microbial and host DNA, and ancient calculus are thus an important source of information regarding our ancestral human oral microbiome. In this study, we taxonomically characterised the dental calculus microbiome from 20 ancient human skeletal remains originating from Trentino-South Tyrol, Italy, dating from the Neolithic (6000-3500 BCE) to the Early Middle Ages (400-1000 CE). RESULTS: We found a high abundance of the archaeal genus Methanobrevibacter in the calculus. However, only a fraction of the sequences showed high similarity to Methanobrevibacter oralis, the only described Methanobrevibacter species in the human oral microbiome so far. To further investigate the diversity of this genus, we used de novo metagenome assembly to reconstruct 11 Methanobrevibacter genomes from the ancient calculus samples. Besides the presence of M. oralis in one of the samples, our phylogenetic analysis revealed two hitherto uncharacterised and unnamed oral Methanobrevibacter species that are prevalent in ancient calculus samples sampled from a broad range of geographical locations and time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown the potential of using de novo metagenomic assembly on ancient samples to explore microbial diversity and evolution. Our study suggests that there has been a possible shift in the human oral microbiome member Methanobrevibacter over the last millennia. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Archaea , Metagenoma , Archaea/genética , Cálculos Dentários , Humanos , Methanobrevibacter/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia
9.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 199, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities in both natural and applied settings reliably carry out myriads of functions, yet how stable these taxonomically diverse assemblages can be and what causes them to transition between states remains poorly understood. We studied monthly activated sludge (AS) samples collected over 9 years from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant to answer how complex AS communities evolve in the long term and how the community functions change when there is a disturbance in operational parameters. RESULTS: Here, we show that a microbial community in activated sludge (AS) system fluctuated around a stable average for 3 years but was then abruptly pushed into an alternative stable state by a simple transient disturbance (bleaching). While the taxonomic composition rapidly turned into a new state following the disturbance, the metabolic profile of the community and system performance remained remarkably stable. A total of 920 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), representing approximately 70% of the community in the studied AS ecosystem, were recovered from the 97 monthly AS metagenomes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed an increased ability to aggregate in the cohorts of MAGs with correlated dynamics that are dominant after the bleaching event. Fine-scale analysis of dynamics also revealed cohorts that dominated during different periods and showed successional dynamics on seasonal and longer time scales due to temperature fluctuation and gradual changes in mean residence time in the reactor, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights that communities can assume different stable states under highly similar environmental conditions and that a specific disturbance threshold may lead to a rapid shift in community composition. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 752664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621696

RESUMO

Background: Streptococcus species are predominant members of the oral microbiota in both health and diseased conditions. The purpose of the present study was to explore if different ecological characteristics, such as oxygen availability and presence of periodontitis, associates with transcriptional activity of predominant members of genus Streptococcus. We tested the hypothesis that genetically closely related Streptococcus species express different transcriptional activities in samples collected from environments with critically different ecological conditions determined by site and inflammatory status. Methods: Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data was retrieved from 66 oral samples, subgingival plaque (n=22), tongue scrapings (n=22) and stimulated saliva (n=22) collected from patients with periodontitis (n=11) and orally healthy individuals (n=11). Species-specific transcriptional activity was computed as Log2(RNA/DNA), and transcriptional activity of predominant Streptococcus species was compared between multiple samples collected from different sites in the same individual, and between individuals with different oral health status. Results: The predominant Streptococcus species were identified with a site-specific colonization pattern of the tongue and the subgingival plaque. A total of 11, 4 and 2 pathways expressed by S. parasanguinis, S. infantis and S. salivarius, respectively, were recorded with significantly higher transcriptional activity in saliva than in tongue biofilm in healthy individuals. In addition, 18 pathways, including pathways involved in synthesis of peptidoglycan, amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis and purine nucleotide biosynthesis expressed by S. parasanguinis and 3 pathways expressed by S. salivarius were identified with significantly less transcriptional activity in patients with periodontitis. Conclusion: Data from the present study significantly demonstrates the association of site-specific ecological conditions and presence of periodontitis with transcriptional activity of the predominant Streptococcus species of the oral microbiota. In particular, pathways expressed by S. parasanguinis being involved in peptidoglycan, amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and purine nucleotide biosynthesis were identified to be significantly associated with oral site and/or inflammation status.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Saliva , Streptococcus/genética
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 713, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion in horses leads to economic and welfare losses to the equine industry. Most cases of equine abortions are sporadic, and the cause is often unknown. This study aimed to detect potential abortigenic pathogens in equine abortion cases in Australia using metagenomic deep sequencing methods. RESULTS: After sequencing and analysis, a total of 68 and 86 phyla were detected in the material originating from 49 equine abortion samples and 8 samples from normal deliveries, respectively. Most phyla were present in both groups, with the exception of Chlamydiae that were only present in abortion samples. Around 2886 genera were present in the abortion samples and samples from normal deliveries at a cut off value of 0.001% of relative abundance. Significant differences in species diversity between aborted and normal tissues was observed. Several potential abortigenic pathogens were identified at a high level of relative abundance in a number of the abortion cases, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pantoea agglomerans, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Chlamydia psittaci. CONCLUSIONS: This work revealed the presence of several potentially abortigenic pathogens in aborted specimens. No novel potential abortigenic agents were detected. The ability to screen samples for multiple pathogens that may not have been specifically targeted broadens the frontiers of diagnostic potential. The future use of metagenomic approaches for diagnostic purposes is likely to be facilitated by further improvements in deep sequencing technologies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Metagenômica , Acinetobacter , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Feto , Cavalos , Metagenoma , Gravidez
12.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 202, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obtaining high-quality (HQ) reference genomes from microbial communities is crucial for understanding the phylogeny and function of uncultured microbes in complex microbial ecosystems. Despite improvements in bioinformatic approaches to generate curated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), existing metagenome binners obtain population consensus genomes but they are nowhere comparable to genomes sequenced from isolates in terms of strain level resolution. Here, we present a framework for the integration of single-cell genomics and metagenomics, referred to as single-cell (sc) metagenomics, to reconstruct strain-resolved genomes from microbial communities at once. RESULTS: Our sc-metagenomics integration framework, termed SMAGLinker, uses single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) generated using microfluidic technology as binning guides and integrates them with metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to recover improved draft genomes. We compared sc-metagenomics with the metagenomics-alone approach using conventional metagenome binners. The sc-metagenomics approach showed precise contig binning and higher recovery rates (>97%) of rRNA and plasmids than conventional metagenomics in genome reconstruction from the cell mock community. In human microbiota samples, sc-metagenomics recovered the largest number of genomes with a total of 103 gut microbial genomes (21 HQ, with 65 showing >90% completeness) and 45 skin microbial genomes (10 HQ, with 40 showing >90% completeness), respectively. Conventional metagenomics recovered one Staphylococcus hominis genome, whereas sc-metagenomics recovered two S. hominis genomes from identical skin microbiota sample. Single-cell sequencing revealed that these S. hominis genomes were derived from two distinct strains harboring specifically different plasmids. We found that all conventional S. hominis MAGs had a substantial lack or excess of genome sequences and contamination from other Staphylococcus species (S. epidermidis). CONCLUSIONS: SMAGLinker enabled us to obtain strain-resolved genomes in the mock community and human microbiota samples by assigning metagenomic sequences correctly and covering both highly conserved genes such as rRNA genes and unique extrachromosomal elements, including plasmids. SMAGLinker will provide HQ genomes that are difficult to obtain using metagenomics alone and will facilitate the understanding of microbial ecosystems by elucidating detailed metabolic pathways and horizontal gene transfer networks. SMAGLinker is available at https://github.com/kojiari/smaglinker . Video abstract.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Genoma Microbiano , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia
13.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 205, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-read sequencing has shown its tremendous potential to address genome assembly challenges, e.g., achieving the first telomere-to-telomere assembly of a gapless human chromosome. However, many issues remain unresolved when leveraging error-prone long reads to characterize high-complexity metagenomes, for instance, complete/high-quality genome reconstruction from highly complex systems. RESULTS: Here, we developed an iterative haplotype-resolved hierarchical clustering-based hybrid assembly (HCBHA) approach that capitalizes on a hybrid (error-prone long reads and high-accuracy short reads) sequencing strategy to reconstruct (near-) complete genomes from highly complex metagenomes. Using the HCBHA approach, we first phase short and long reads from the highly complex metagenomic dataset into different candidate bacterial haplotypes, then perform hybrid assembly of each bacterial genome individually. We reconstructed 557 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) with an average N50 of 574 Kb from a deeply sequenced, highly complex activated sludge (AS) metagenome. These high-contiguity MAGs contained 14 closed genomes and 111 high-quality (HQ) MAGs including full-length rRNA operons, which accounted for 61.1% of the microbial community. Leveraging the near-complete genomes, we also profiled the metabolic potential of the AS microbiome and identified 2153 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoded within the recovered AS MAGs. CONCLUSION: Our results established the feasibility of an iterative haplotype-resolved HCBHA approach to reconstruct (near-) complete genomes from highly complex ecosystems, providing new insights into "complete metagenomics". The retrieved high-contiguity MAGs illustrated that various biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were harbored in the AS microbiome. The high diversity of BGCs highlights the potential to discover new natural products biosynthesized by the AS microbial community, aside from the traditional function (e.g., organic carbon and nitrogen removal) in wastewater treatment. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Microbiota/genética
14.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696436

RESUMO

According to various estimates, only a small percentage of existing viruses have been discovered, naturally much less being represented in the genomic databases. High-throughput sequencing technologies develop rapidly, empowering large-scale screening of various biological samples for the presence of pathogen-associated nucleotide sequences, but many organisms are yet to be attributed specific loci for identification. This problem particularly impedes viral screening, due to vast heterogeneity in viral genomes. In this paper, we present a new bioinformatic pipeline, VirIdAl, for detecting and identifying viral pathogens in sequencing data. We also demonstrate the utility of the new software by applying it to viral screening of the feces of bats collected in the Moscow region, which revealed a significant variety of viruses associated with bats, insects, plants, and protozoa. The presence of alpha and beta coronavirus reads, including the MERS-like bat virus, deserves a special mention, as it once again indicates that bats are indeed reservoirs for many viral pathogens. In addition, it was shown that alignment-based methods were unable to identify the taxon for a large proportion of reads, and we additionally applied other approaches, showing that they can further reveal the presence of viral agents in sequencing data. However, the incompleteness of viral databases remains a significant problem in the studies of viral diversity, and therefore necessitates the use of combined approaches, including those based on machine learning methods.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fezes/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica/métodos , Moscou , Phycodnaviridae/classificação , Phycodnaviridae/genética , Phycodnaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(12): 2163-2174, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668097

RESUMO

Members of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' are among the most abundant microorganisms in the highly diverse microbiome of the sponge mesohyl. Genomic and phylogenetic characteristics of this proposed phylum are barely known. In this study, we analyzed metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) obtained from the coral reef excavating sponge Thoosa mismalolli from the Mexican Pacific Ocean. Two MAGs were extracted and analyzed together with 32 MAGs and single-amplified genomes (SAGs) obtained from NCBI. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 139 single-copy genes (SCG) showed two clades. Clade A (23 genomes) represented 67.7% of the total of the genomes, while clade B (11 genomes) comprised 32.3% of the genomes. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) showed values between 66 and 99% for the genomes of the proposed phylum, and the pangenome of genomes revealed a total of 37,234 genes that included 1722 core gene. The number of genes used in the phylogenetic analysis increased from 28 (previous studies) to 139 (this study), which allowed a better resolution of the phylogeny of the proposed phylum. The results supported the two previously described classes, 'Candidatus Entoporibacteria' and 'Candidatus Pelagiporibacteria', and the genomes SB0101 and SB0202 obtained in this study belong to two new species of the class 'Candidatus Entoporibacteria'. This is the first comparative study that includes MAGs from a non-sponge host (Porites lutea) to elucidate the taxonomy of the poorly known Candidatus phylum in a polyphasic approach. Finally, our study also contributes to the sponge microbiome project by reporting the first MAGs of the proposed phylum 'Candidatus Poribacteria' isolated from the excavating sponge T. mismalolli.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Genômica , Metagenoma , Filogenia
16.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e22011, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695305

RESUMO

Patterns of diurnal activity differ substantially between individuals, with early risers and late sleepers being examples of opposite chronotypes. Growing evidence suggests that the late chronotype significantly impacts the risk of developing mood disorders, obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Despite the vast potential of utilizing chronotype information for precision medicine, those factors that shape chronotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether the various chronotypes are associated with different gut microbiome compositions. Using metagenomic sequencing analysis, we established a distinct signature associated with chronotype based on two bacterial genera, Alistipes (elevated in "larks") and Lachnospira (elevated in "owls"). We identified three metabolic pathways associated with the early chronotype, and linked distinct dietary patterns with different chronotypes. Our work demonstrates an association between the gut microbiome and chronotype and may represent the first step towards developing dietary interventions aimed at ameliorating the deleterious health correlates of the late chronotype.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(6): 1452-1463, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559079

RESUMO

The effect of light has raised attention on wastewater treatment. However, little research has concentrated on the influences of light on activated sludge. In this study, the influences of light on the performance, quorum sensing (QS) and metagenomic characteristics of anoxic/oxic reactors were investigated. The reactor without light (AO1) showed higher total nitrogen (TN) removal (79.15 ± 1.69%) than the reactor with light (AO2) (74.54 ± 1.30%), and significant differences were observed. It was observed that light facilitated the production of protein-like and tryptophan-like substances by employing parallel factor analysis for extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), resulting in more EPS production in AO2, indicating light was beneficial to EPS production. The concentrations of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) were various in the two reactors, so the AHLs-mediated QS behaviors in both reactors were also different. These results revealed that light significantly influenced nitrogen removal, EPS, and QS. Metagenomic analysis based on Tax4Fun demonstrated that light reduced the denitrification, stimulated the polysaccharide and protein biosynthesis pathways and down-regulated the AHLs synthesis pathway, resulting in lower TN removal, more EPS production, and lower AHLs concentrations. Based on the above, the likely mechanism was proposed for the influences of light on the reactor.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Percepção de Quorum , Acil-Butirolactonas , Reatores Biológicos , Metagenoma , Esgotos
18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544124

RESUMO

Oceanicaulis alexandrii strain NP7 is a marine bacterium which belongs to the Hyphomonadaceae family and was isolated from sediments highly contaminated with metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released for decades by industrial activities in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea). Here, we report the partial genome sequence and annotation of O. alexandrii strain NP7 that contains a chromosome of 2,954,327 bp and encodes for 2914 predicted coding sequences (CDSs) and 44 RNA-encoding genes. Although the presence of some CDSs for genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes (e.g., alkB) have already been described in the literature associated with the Oceanicaulis, this is the first time that more than 100 genes involved in metal detoxification processes and hydrocarbon degradation are reported belonging to this genus. The presence of a heterogeneous set of genes involved in stress response, hydrocarbon degradation, heavy metal resistance, and detoxification suggests a possible role for O. alexandrii NP7 in the bioremediation of these highly contaminated marine sediments.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Metagenoma , Alphaproteobacteria , Biodegradação Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo
19.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 192, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) that have been widely used for their health-promoting effects. However, little is known about overall flavonoid metabolism and the interactive effects between flavonoids and the gut microbiota. The flavonoid-rich bamboo and the giant panda provide an ideal system to bridge this gap. RESULTS: Here, integrating metabolomic and metagenomic approaches, and in vitro culture experiment, we identified 97 flavonoids in bamboo and most of them have not been identified previously; the utilization of more than 70% flavonoid monomers was attributed to gut microbiota; the variation of flavonoid in bamboo leaves and shoots shaped the seasonal microbial fluctuation. The greater the flavonoid content in the diet was, the lower microbial diversity and virulence factor, but the more cellulose-degrading species. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an unprecedented landscape of beneficial PSMs in a non-model mammal and reveals that PSMs remodel the gut microbiota conferring host adaptation to diet transition in an ecological context, providing a novel insight into host-microbe interaction. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ursidae , Animais , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma , Metagenômica
20.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105209, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563611

RESUMO

People living with HIV have a high incidence of cardiovascular and neurological diseases as comorbid disorders that are commonly linked to inflammation. While microbial translocation can augment inflammation during HIV infection, functional microbiome shifts that may increase pro-inflammatory responses have not been fully characterized. In addition, defining HIV-induced microbiome changes has been complicated by high variability among individuals. Here we conducted functional annotation of previously-published 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of 305 HIV positive and 249 negative individuals, with adjustment for geographic region, sex, sexual behavior, and age. Metagenome profiles were inferred from these individuals' 16S data. HIV infection was associated with impaired microbial vitamin B synthesis; around half of the gene families in thiamine and folate biosynthesis pathways were significantly less abundant in the HIV positive group than the negative control. These results are consistent with the high prevalence of thiamine and folate deficiencies in HIV infections. These HIV-induced microbiota shifts have the potential to influence cardiovascular and neurocognitive diseases, given the documented associations between B-vitamin deficiencies, inflammation, and these diseases. We also observed that most essential amino acid biosynthesis pathways were downregulated in the microbiome of HIV-infected individuals. Microbial vitamin B and amino acid synthesis pathways were not significantly recovered by antiretroviral treatment when we compared 262 ART positive and 184 ART negative individuals. Our meta-analysis provides a new outlook for understanding vitamin B and amino acid deficiencies in HIV patients, suggesting that interventions for reversing HIV-induced microbiome shifts may aid in lessening the burdens of HIV comorbidities.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV , Ácido Fólico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Metagenoma , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tiamina
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