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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Assuntos
Plantas/toxicidade , Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Alimentos/toxicidade
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248946, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364502

RESUMO

Environmental pollutants may often alter the genetic components of natural populations. In this study, heavy metals and genetic diversity in land snail (Achatina achatina) from three populations of south-western Nigeria were investigated, using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing technology respectively. Metal analysis revealed that the snails accumulated lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in high concentrations in two of the three states, while cadmium (Cd) was the least detected. Editing and alignment of the sequences of all snail accessions generated a range of 384bp to 419 bp. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) in all 18 accessions was low at only 16%. The query coverage (QC) ranged between 96% and 100%, with 14 (77.8%) of the 18 accessions showing 100% identity. Pairwise comparison of the accessions studied also showed a high genetic similarity. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) generated two main clusters. Cluster I was unique and contain one sample (AaOy06) while the other cluster are very closely related and can be further sub-divided into sub-clusters. The similarity index of between the clusters is 0.5357. The close similarity among the accessions may be due to the geographical proximity of the three states. The uniqueness of accession AaOy06 in comparison to other accessions might be due to the negative influence of heavy metal, particularly lead. The determination of evolutionary relationships among snail populations may be useful towards the breeding efforts of the species in Nigeria.


Os poluentes ambientais podem frequentemente alterar os componentes genéticos das populações naturais. Neste estudo, metais pesados e diversidade genética em caramujos terrestres (Achatina achatina) de três populações do sudoeste da Nigéria foram investigados, usando a tecnologia de espectrometria de absorção atômica e sequenciamento de DNA, respectivamente. A análise dos metais revelou que os caramujos acumularam chumbo (Pb) e níquel (Ni) em altas concentrações em dois dos três estados, enquanto o cádmio (Cd) foi o menos detectado. A edição e o alinhamento das sequências de todos os acessos de caramujos geraram uma faixa de 384pb a 419pb. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) em todos os 18 acessos foi baixa em apenas 16%. A cobertura da consulta (QC) variou entre 96% e 100%, com 14 (77,8%) dos 18 acessos apresentando 100% de identidade. A comparação pareada dos acessos estudados também mostrou alta similaridade genética. O método de grupo de pares não ponderados com média aritmética (UPGMA) gerou dois clusters principais. O cluster I era único e contém uma amostra (AaOy06), enquanto o outro cluster está intimamente relacionado e pode ser subdividido em subclusters. O índice de similaridade entre os clusters é 0,5357. A grande semelhança entre os acessos pode ser devido à proximidade geográfica dos três estados. A singularidade do acesso AaOy06 em comparação com outros acessos pode ser devido à influência negativa de metais pesados, particularmente chumbo. A determinação das relações evolutivas entre as populações de caramujos pode ser útil para os esforços de reprodução da espécie na Nigéria.


Assuntos
Animais , Caramujos , Variação Genética , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Ambientais
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2559: 231-242, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180636

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells are an important component of the immune system that plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Identification of distinct regulatory T cell subsets is essential to understand their function. Mass cytometry or CyTOF is a technology that enables the simultaneous measurement of up to 50 markers in single cells by using antibodies tagged with heavy metals, which are then detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This chapter describes a mass cytometry approach for phenotypic characterization of regulatory T cells and determination of their master transcription factor Foxp3.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
4.
Food Chem ; 398: 133866, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964561

RESUMO

Seaweeds are a rich source of nutritional and functional compounds, but they also accumulate heavy metals. Here, the chemical composition (crude protein, total lipids, Nitrogen Free Extract and fiber) and the presence of minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se) and unwanted elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al) were determined in eleven seaweeds from Chile. Depending on the species, a good contribution to the Recommended Dietary Allowance for K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Se was observed, and low Na/K ratios (<1.0) as well. The health risk assessment indicated low hazard due to intake of seaweed meal. The mean values of As, Hg, and Pb were below the maximum limits set for food supplements and feed ingredients. The seaweeds studied have a suitable chemical composition for their uses as food and feed ingredients, although Cd levels should be monitoring especially in brown seaweeds.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Alga Marinha , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chile , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Alga Marinha/química
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129843, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113351

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is the most widely distributed heavy metal pollutant in soil and has significant negative effects on crop yields and human health. Rhizobia can enhance soybean growth in the presence of heavy metals, and the legume-rhizobia symbiosis has been used to promote heavy-metal phytoremediation, but much remains to be learned about the molecular networks that underlie these effects. Here, we demonstrated that soybean root growth was strongly suppressed after seven days of Cd exposure but that the presence of rhizobia largely eliminated this effect, even prior to nodule development. Moreover, rhizobia did not appear to promote root growth by limiting plant Cd uptake: seedlings with and without rhizobia had similar root Cd concentrations. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for m6A RNA methylation in the response of rice and barley to Cd stress. We therefore performed transcriptome-wide m6A methylation profiling to investigate changes in the soybean RNA methylome in response to Cd with and without rhizobia. Here, we provide some of the first data on transcriptome-wide m6a RNA methylation patterns in soybean; m6A modifications were concentrated at the 3' UTR of transcripts and showed a positive relationship with transcript abundance. Transcriptome-wide m6A RNA methylation peaks increased in the presence of Cd, and the integration of m6A methylome and transcriptome results enabled us to identify 154 genes whose transcripts were both differentially methylated and differentially expressed in response to Cd stress. Annotation results suggested that these genes were associated with Ca2+ homeostasis, ROS pathways, polyamine metabolism, MAPK signaling, hormones, and biotic stress responses. There were 176 differentially methylated and expressed transcripts under Cd stress in the presence of rhizobia. In contrast to the Cd-only gene set, they were also enriched in genes related to auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinosteroids, as well as abiotic stress tolerance. They contained fewer genes related to Ca2+ homeostasis and also included candidates with known functions in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. These findings offer new insights into how rhizobia promote soybean root growth under Cd stress; they provide candidate genes for research on plant heavy metal responses and for the use of legumes in phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fabaceae , Metais Pesados , Rhizobium , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Brassinosteroides , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poliaminas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Solo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129866, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063711

RESUMO

Microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP) has shed new light on solving the problem of in situ stabilization of heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge before land disposal. In this study, we examined whether MICP treatment can be integrated into a sewage sludge anaerobic digestion-land application process. Our results showed that MICP treatment not only prevented the transfer of ionic-state Cd from the sludge to the supernatant (98.46 % immobilization efficiency) but also reduced the soluble exchangeable Pb and Cd fractions by up to 100 % and 48.54 % and increased the residual fractions by 22.54 % and 81.77 %, respectively. In addition, the analysis of the stability of HMs in MICP-treated sludge revealed maximum reductions of 100 % and 89.56 % for TCLP-extractable Pb and Cd, respectively. Three-dimensional fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses confirmed the excellent performance of the ureolytic bacteria Sporosarcina ureilytica ML-2 in the sludge system. High-throughput sequencing showed that the relative abundance of Sporosarcina sp. reached 53.18 % in MICP-treated sludge, and the urease metabolism functional genes unit increased by a maximum of 239.3 %. The MICP technology may be a feasible method for permanently stabilizing HMs in sewage sludge before land disposal.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Sporosarcina , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/química , Esgotos/química , Sporosarcina/metabolismo , Urease/metabolismo
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129862, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084460

RESUMO

This study reports the simultaneous oxidation of As(III) and reduction of the Cr(VI) strain Ensifer adhaerens M8 screened from soils around abandoned gold tailings contaminated with highly complex metals (loids). Physiological, biochemical, and genomic techniques were used to explore the mechanism. The strain M8 could simultaneously oxidize 1 mM As(III) and reduce 45.3 % 0.1 mM Cr(VI) in 16 h, and the Cr(VI) reduction rate was increased by 5.8 % compared with the addition of Cr(VI) alone. Cellular debris was the main site of M8 arsenic oxidation. Chromium reduction was dominated by the reduction of extracellular hexavalent chromium (23.80-35.67 %). The genome of M8 included one chromosome and four plasmids, and a comparison of the genomes showed that M8 had two more plasmids than strains of the same genus, which may be related to strong environmental adaptations. M8 had 10 heavy metal resistance genes (HMRs), and plasmid D had a complete cluster of arsenic resistance-oxidation-transport genes (arsOHBCCR-aioSR-aioBA-cytCmoeA-phoBBU-PstBACS-phnCDEE). The genes involved in Cr(VI) detoxification include DNA repair (RecG, ruvABC, and UvrD), Cr(VI) transport (chrA, TonB, and CysAPTW) and Cr(VI) reduction. In summary, this study provides a molecular basis for As (III) and Cr (VI) remediation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Arsênio/química , Cromo/química , Genômica , Ouro , Oxirredução , Rhizobiaceae , Solo
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129897, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084469

RESUMO

The co-existence of antibiotics and heavy metals in soil with manure application poses high risk to both environment and human health, and thus effective remediation methods are in urgent need. This study investigated the synergistic effects of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) on antibiotic resistance and arsenic (As) in co-contaminated paddy soils. EKR treatments in soil amended with pig manure (EKR-PD) showed better remediation efficiency compared with that without pig manure. In detail, the content of available As and the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) decreased by 25.2 %-41.4 % and 9.5 %-21.1 % after 7-d remediation, respectively, due to a relatively higher current density for EKR-PD. The role of the electric field contributed to 33.9 % of antibiotic degradation. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) with ribosomal-protection and enzymatic-deactivation types were easier to remove, with the removal ratio of 37.8 %-41.6 % in EKR-PD. Brevundimonas was the most significantly different species during remediation. Bacillus and Clostridium_ sensu_stricto_1 were potential host bacteria of ARGs in the electric field. Membrane transport might be an effective strategy for microorganisms to respond to the stress of both electric field and co-contaminated environments. This study supports the potential role of EKR in the co-contamination of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance under manure application.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Esterco/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129889, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087533

RESUMO

Detection of heavy metal ions has drawn significant attention in environmental and food area due to their threats to the human health and ecosystem. Colorimetry is one of the most frequently-used methods for the detection of heavy metal ions owing to its simplicity, easy operation and rapid on-site detection. The development of chromogenic materials and their sensing mechanisms are the key research direction in the area of colorimetric method. Since each chromogenic material has their unique optical and chemical properties, they have totally different colorimetric sensing mechanisms. This review focuses on the chromogenic materials and their sensing strategies for the colorimetric detection of heavy metal ions. We divide the chromogenic materials into three types, including organic materials, inorganic materials, and other materials. As for each type of chromogenic material, we discuss their detailed sensing strategies, sensing performance, and real sample applications. Moreover, current challenges and perspectives related to the colorimetry of heavy metal ions are also discussed in this review. The aim of this review is to help readers to better understand the principles of colorimetric methods for heavy metal ions and push the development of rapid detection of heavy metal ions.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Metais Pesados , Colorimetria/métodos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Íons , Metais Pesados/química
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129863, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088880

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) from smelters pose severe challenges to the environmental soil quality of surrounding farmlands, and threaten human health through the food chain. This study explored the environmental effects of smelting activities on farmland soil, and additionally assessed the enrichment, transfer and health risk of HMs in soil-wheat systems. Multiple characterization results were combined to demonstrate that HMs from smelter waste were transferred to the surrounding soil. It was determined that the enrichment of HMs in soil-wheat systems is mainly controlled by the total HM concentration and pH in soil. Furthermore, the priority pollutant in soil-wheat systems was found to be Cd, and Cd affected the transfer of Cu, Mn and Pb from soil to wheat roots. Interestingly, the -OH stretching, C-H stretching, N-H amide and C-O bending were involved in detoxifying HMs in wheat. The mean values of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks by consuming wheat grain were 9.1, 1.4E-02 (adults) and 11.3, 3.3E-03 (children), respectively, indicating a noteworthy health risk. This study highlighted the critical issues arising from Pb/Zn smelting activities on agricultural soils. Notwithstanding, to ensure food security, the affected regions could opt to follow up on the type of crops grown.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Amidas , Cádmio/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/química , Zinco
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129904, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096061

RESUMO

As an important subtopic within phytoremediation, hyperaccumulators have garnered significant attention due to their ability of super-enriching heavy metals. Identifying the factors that affecting phytoextraction efficiency has important application value in guiding the efficient remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. However, it is challenging to identify the critical factors that affect the phytoextraction of heavy metals in soil-hyperaccumulator ecosystems because the current projections on phytoremediation extrapolations are rudimentary at best using simple linear models. Here, machine learning (ML) approaches were used to predict the important factors that affecting phytoextraction efficiency of hyperaccumulators. ML analysis was based on 173 data points with consideration of soil properties, experimental conditions, plant families, low-molecular-weight organic acids from plants, plant genes, and heavy metal properties. Heavy metal properties, especially the metal ion radius, were the most important factors that affect heavy metal accumulation in shoots, and the plant family was the most important factor that affect the bioconcentration factor, metal extraction ratio, and remediation time. Furthermore, the Crassulaceae family had the highest potential as hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation, which was related to the expression of genes encoding heavy metal transporting ATPase (HMA), Metallothioneins (MTL), and natural resistance associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), and also the secretion of malate and threonine. New insights into the effects of plant characteristics, experimental conditions, soil characteristics, and heavy metal properties on phytoextraction efficiency from ML model interpretation could guide the efficient phytoremediation by identifying the best hyperaccumulators and resolving its efficient remediation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Aprendizado de Máquina , Malatos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129891, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103763

RESUMO

Ecological risks can vary dramatically depending on abiotic factors, such as soil properties and the background values of elements. This study developed a framework for an integrated risk assessment system to derive soil quality criteria (SQC) for heavy metals (HMs) applicable to different soil types and to assess ecological risks at a multi-regional scale. Through the construction of normalization and species sensitivity distribution models, 248 SQC values for Cd, Pb, Zn, As, Cu, Cr, Sb, and Ni in 31 Chinese provinces were derived. These SQC considered the soil types and background values of the elements and effectively reduced the uncertainty caused by spatial heterogeneity. Using the derived SQC values, the qualitative and quantitative ecological risks of HMs in the terrestrial environment of China were comprehensively assessed using a three-level ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach. Compared to traditional ERA methods, the new methodology reached a more quantitative conclusion. The mean overall probabilities of ecological risk in China were 2.42 % (Cd), 2.82 % (Pb), 12.17 % (Zn), 14.89 % (As), 10.42 % (Cu), 32.20 %(Cr), and 8.88 % (Ni). The new framework could be useful for the ERA of various soil types.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129883, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108495

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are two of the most common elements found in contaminated sites. The behavior of specific metals in the soil may be affected by other metals because of the competition for adsorption sites. In this study, adsorption experiments after chemical extraction, multi-surface models, and advanced spectroscopy technology were jointly used to explain the adsorption mechanism of Cd and Pb and to determine the contribution of each component in the competitive system. The results show that pH is the key factor in determining the contribution of soil components to metal adsorption. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the dominant adsorbent for both Cd and Pb. Clay minerals play an adsorption role at low pH, whereas Fe/Al oxides adsorb metals primarily in the high pH range. Further, the competitive effect of Pb on Cd occurred primarily on SOM rather than on clay minerals. When the Pb concentration increased from 0 to 500 mg/L, the adsorption of Cd on SOM decreased by 132.0 mg/kg, whereas it decreased only by 1.9 mg/kg on clay minerals. Therefore, the competitive effect of Pb on Cd cannot be ignored in soils with high organic matter content.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Cádmio/química , Argila , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais , Óxidos/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 187-197, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182129

RESUMO

The temporal and spatial characteristics of urban river bacterial communities help us understand the feedback mechanism of bacteria to changes in the aquatic environment. The Fuhe River plays an important role in determining the water ecological environment of Baiyangdian Lake. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to study the microbial distribution characteristics in the Fuhe River in different seasons. The results showed that some environmental factors of the surface water (ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)) were different on the spatial and temporal scales. Moreover, there were no seasonal differences in the contents of TN, TP, total organic carbon (TOC), or heavy metals in the sediments. The distributions of Cyanobacteria, Actinomycetes and Firmicutes in the water and Actinomycetes and Planctomycetes in the sediments differed significantly among seasons (P < 0.05). There were significant spatial differences in bacteria in the surface water, with the highest abundance of Proteobacteria recorded in the river along with the highest nutrient concentration, while the abundance of Bacteroidetes was higher in the upstream than the downstream. Microbial communities in the water were most sensitive to temperature (T) and the TP concentration (P < 0.01). Moreover, differences in the bacterial community were better explained by the content of heavy metals in the sediments than by the chemical characteristics. A PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis showed that the effect of high summer temperatures on the enzyme action led to an increase in the abundances of the metabolic-related genes of the river microorganisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Amônia/análise , Bactérias/genética , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água/análise
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 268-280, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182136

RESUMO

Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been developed in recent years to treat heavy metals, e.g. hexavalent chromium Cr6+ pollution, which damages the surrounding ecosystem and threaten human health. This kind of MOF is stable and convenient to prepare, but has the disadvantage of low adsorption capacity, limiting its wide application. To this end, a novel formic acid and amino modified MOFs were prepared, referred to as Form-UiO-66-NH2. Due to the modification of formic acid, its specific surface area, pore size, and crystal size were effectively expanded, and the adsorption capacity of Cr6+ was significantly enhanced. Under optimal conditions, Form-UiO-66-NH2 exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity (338.98 mg/g), ∼10 times higher than that reported for unmodified Zr-based MOFs and most other adsorbents. An in-depth study on the photoelectronic properties and pH confirmed that the adsorption mechanism of Form-UiO-66-NH2 to Cr6+ was electrostatic adsorption. After modification, the improvement of Cr6+ adsorption capacity by Form-UiO-66-NH2 was attributed to the expansion of its specific surface area and the increase in its surface charge. The present study revealed an important finding that Form-UiO-66-NH2 elucidated selective adsorption to Cr6+ in mixed wastewater containing toxic heavy metal ions and common nonmetallic water quality factors. This research provided a new acid and amino functionalization perspective for improving the adsorption capacity of Zr-based MOF adsorbents while simultaneously demonstrating their pertinence to target contaminant adsorption.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Ecossistema , Formiatos , Humanos , Íons , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Ácidos Ftálicos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 319-329, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182142

RESUMO

Experiments were performed to explore the impact of sulfur nanoparticles (SNPs) on growth, Cu accumulation, and physiological and biochemical responses of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) inoculated with 5 mg/L Cu-amended MS medium supplemented with or without 300 mg/L SNPs exposure. Cu exerted severe phytotoxicity and inhibited plant growth. SNPs application enhanced the shoot height, root length, and dry weight of shoot and root by 34.6%, 282%, 41.7% and 37.1%, respectively, over Cu treatment alone, while the shoot and root Cu contents and Cu-induced lipid perodixation as the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in shoots and roots were decreased by 37.6%, 35%, 28.4% and 26.8%. Further, the increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities caused by Cu stress were mitigated in shoots (10.9%-37.1%) and roots (14.6%-35.3%) with SNPs addition. SNPs also positively counteracted the negative effects on shoot K, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Zn and Fe contents and root K, Ca, Mg and Mn contents from Cu exposure alone, and significantly promoted the nutrients accumulation in plant. Additionally, in comparison with common bulk sulfur particles (BSPs) and sulfate, SNPs showed more positive effects on promoting growth in shoots (6.7% and 19.5%) and roots (10.9% and 15.1%), as well as lowering the shoot Cu content (40.1% and 43.3%) under Cu stress. Thus, SNPs application has potential to be a green and sustainable technology for increasing plant productivity and reducing accumulation of toxic metals in heavy metal polluted soils.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Metais Pesados , Nanopartículas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Malondialdeído , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidases , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Sulfatos , Enxofre , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 462-471, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182154

RESUMO

Plasmids play a critical role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), however, a systematical understanding of ARGs originated from plasmids in swine production is currently lacking. Herein, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to determine the prevalence of ten ARGs and the class1 integron gene intI1 of plasmid source in swine manure from 44 farms in Sichuan, Hubei and Hebei provinces, China. All assayed ARGs were observed in plasmid DNA samples, and the average absolute abundance of aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaNDM, blaCTX-M, optrA, ermB, floR, mcr-1, qnrS, tetM, sul1 and intI1 were 7.09, 2.90, 4.67, 6.62, 7.55, 7.14, 4.08, 4.85, 7.16, 7.11 and 8.07 of 10 log copies/gram, respectively. IntI1 showed a high correlation (r > 0.8, P < 0.01) with the abundance of aac(6')-Ib-cr and sul1 in swine manure. Moreover, the farm scale (i.e., herd population) and geographical location were not found to be critical factors influencing the absolute abundance of ARGs of plasmid DNA in swine farms. However, the concentrations of florfenicol, Cu, Zn, Fe, total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK) demonstrated a significant correlation with the abundance of several ARGs. Particularly, Cu and Zn had high correlations with optrA and blaCTX-M, respectively. Our results demonstrated that antibiotics, heavy metals and environmental nutrients are likely jointly contributing to the long-term persistence of ARGs in swine production. This study provides insights into the abundance and influencing factors of ARGs from swine manure, which is of significance for assessing and reducing the public health risks in livestock production.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , DNA , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fósforo , Potássio , Suínos
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 823-834, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182186

RESUMO

Electrocoagulation (EC) has been widely used to treat the heavy metal wastewater in industry. A novel process of sinusoidal alternating current electrocoagulation (SACC) is adopted to remove Ni2+ in wastewater in this study. The morphology of precipitates and the distribution of the main functional iron configurations were investigated. Ferron timed complex spectroscopy can identify the monomeric iron configurations [Fe(a)], oligomeric iron configurations [Fe(b)] and polymeric iron configurations [Fe(c)]. The optimal operating conditions of SACC process were determined through single-factor experiments. The maximum Ni2+ removal efficiency [Re(Ni2+)] was achieved under the conditions of pH0=7, current density (j) = 7 A/m2, electrolysis time (t) = 25 min, c0(Ni2+) = 100 mg/L. At pH=7, the proportion of Fe(b) and Fe(c) in the system was 50.4 at.% and 23.1 at.%, respectively. In the SACC process, Fe(b) and Fe(c) are the main iron configurations in solution, while Fe(c) are the vast majority of the iron configurations in the direct current electrocoagulation (DCC) process. Re(Ni2+) is 99.56% for SACC and 98.75% for DCC under the same optimum conditions, respectively. The precipitates produced by SACC have a high proportion of Fe(b) configurations with spherical α-FeOOH and γ-FeOOH structures which contain abundant hydroxyl groups. Moreover, it is demonstrated that Fe(b) has better adsorption capacity than Fe(c) through adsorption experiments of methyl orange (MO) dye. Fe(a) configurations in the homogeneous solution had no effect on the removal of nickel.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/química , Níquel , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 875-891, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182190

RESUMO

Street dust is one of the most important carriers of heavy metals (HMs) originating from natural and anthropogenic sources. The main purpose of the work was to identify which of Fe-bearing phases bind HMs in street dust. Magnetic parameters of the Fe-bearing components, mainly magnetically strong iron oxides, are used to assess the level of HM pollution. Chemical sequential extraction combined with magnetic methods (magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, remanent magnetization) allowed determining the metal-bearing fractions and identifying the iron forms that are mostly associated with traffic-related HMs. The use of Mössbauer spectrometry (MS) supplemented by magnetic methods (thermomagnetic curves and psarameters of hysteresis loops) enabled precise identification and characterization of iron-containing minerals. The classification of HMs into five chemical fractions differing in mobility and bioaccessibility revealed that iron is most abundant (over 95%) in the residual fraction followed by the reducible fraction. HMs were present in reducible fraction in the following order: Pb>Zn>Mn>Cr>Ni>Fe>Cu, while they bound to the residual fraction in the following order: Fe>Ni>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu>Zn. The signature of the anthropogenic origin of street dust is the presence of strongly nonstoichiometric and defected grains of magnetite and their porous surface. Magnetite also occurs as an admixture with maghemite, and with a significant proportion of hematite. A distinctive feature of street dust is the presence of metallic iron and iron carbides. Magnetic methods are efficient in the screening test to determine the level of HM pollution, while MS helps to identify the iron-bearing minerals through the detection of iron.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Fracionamento Químico , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico , Ferro/análise , Chumbo/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Metais Pesados/análise , Óxidos/análise , Medição de Risco , Análise Espectral
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 89-97, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182191

RESUMO

In situ and simultaneous remediation of a variety of pollutants in sediments remains a challenge. In this study, we report that the combination of electrocoagulation (EC) and electrooxidation (EO) is efficient in the immobilization of phosphorus and heavy metals and in the oxidation of ammonium and toxic organic matter. The integrated mixed metal oxide (MMO)/Fe anode system allowed the facile removal of ammonium and phosphorus in the overlying water (99% of 10 mg/L NH4+-N and 95% of 10 mg/L P disappeared in 15 and 30 min, respectively). Compared with the controls of the single Fe anode and single MMO anode systems, the dual MMO/Fe anode system significantly improved the removal of phenanthrene and promoted the transition of Pb and Cu from the mobile species to the immobile species. The concentrations of Pb and Cu in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extracts were reduced by 99% and 97% after an 8 hr operation. Further tests with four real polluted samples indicated that substantial proportions of acid-soluble fraction Pb and Cu were reduced (30%-31% for Pb and 16%-23% for Cu), and the amounts of total organic carbon and NH4+-N decreased by 56%-71% and 32%-63%, respectively. It was proposed that the in situ electrogenerated Fe(II) at the Fe anode and the active oxygen/chlorine species at the MMO anode are conducive to outstanding performance in the co-treatment of multiple pollutants. The results suggest that the EC/EO method is a powerful technology for the in situ remediation of sediments contaminated with different pollutants.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Fenantrenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono , Cloro , Eletrocoagulação , Compostos Ferrosos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Óxidos , Fósforo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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