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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149729, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454135

RESUMO

Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in agroecosystems has increased recently, especially in northern China, which poses serious risks to crop safety and human health via food chain. Wheat grains can accumulate high levels of Pb even when wheat is planted in soils with low levels of Pb. However, the influence of atmospheric deposition on the accumulation and distribution of Pb in wheat grain is still unclear. A field survey was conducted in three districts (A: a district with industrial and traffic pollution; B: a district with traffic pollution; and C: an unpolluted district) in Hebei Province, North China. The grain of wheat cultivated in district A accumulated more Pb from soil and atmospheric deposition than those in other districts, and the bran from district A contained 3.50 and 2.04 times more Pb than those from districts B and C, respectively. The Pb distribution pattern in wheat grain detected by laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was characterized by accumulation mostly in the pericarp and seed coat rather than in the crease, embryo and endosperm. Furthermore, Pb isotopic data showed that airborne Pb was the major source (>50%) of Pb in wheat grain. Interestingly, average contributions of Pb from atmospheric deposition to white flour (78.22%) were higher than its contributions to bran (56.27%). In addition, wheat flag leaves were exposed to PbSO4 at the booting stage, and much greater Pb accumulation (0.33-0.48 mg/kg) was observed in exposed wheat grain than in the control (P < 0.05), PbSO4 constituted most (82.80-100%) of the Pb in the wheat grain. In summary, the results confirmed the efficient foliar Pb uptake and transfer from atmospheric deposition into wheat grain. It would be a new sight for understanding the contribution of airborne Pb to Pb accumulation in wheat grains.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo , Espectrometria de Massas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149865, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455271

RESUMO

The heavy metal accumulation in the Tibet Plateau (TP) poses a serious ecologic risk to the health of human and the other biota. Given the TP far away from the large anthropogenic emission sources, the rapid development of traffic activities during last several decades possibly leads to the elevated heavy metal concentration in the roadside soils. Therefore, we comprehensively assessed the heavy metal distribution in the 0-5 cm and 15-20 cm depth soils located at 5 m, 50 m, and 100 m distance to the edge of two major roads among the different vegetation covers and climatic conditions in the TP to verify this hypothesis. Results show that most of heavy metal concentrations in soils of different distance to the major road display an insignificant difference. The Nemero Synthesis indexes which represent the risk of pollution for these regions almost range 1 to 2 (low pollution risk), except 12.7 (extreme pollution risk) at one site. These indicate the limited impacts from the traffic activities for the whole region, but at some specific sites with the elevated traffic pollution. The forest cover at the altitude of 3700-4100 m has the highest mercury accumulation due to the vegetation and climatic factors induced the higher atmospheric depositions and stronger complexation with the organic matters. The statistical analysis finally suggests the geogenic weathering processes, climate, terrain and vegetation play an important role in shaping heavy metal distribution along the roadside of the TP.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tibet , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149839, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455276

RESUMO

Elevated human exposure to metals and metalloids (metal(loid)s) may lead to acute sickness and pose a severe threat to human health. The human body is exposed to metal(loid)s principally through food, water, supplements, and (occasionally) air. There are inherent background levels of many metal(loid)s in regional soils as a consequence of geological sources. Baseline levels coupled with anthropogenic sources such as regional application of biosolids may lead to increased levels of certain metal(loid)s in soil, leading to potential transfer to water sources and potential uptake by plants. The latter could potentially transfer into the feed-to-food chain, viz. grazing animals, and bio-transfer to food products resulting in human exposure. This study addresses health concerns due to excessive intake of metal(loid)s by conducting a traditional review of peer-reviewed journals between 2015 and 2019, secondary references and relevant websites. The review identified the most researched metal(loid)s as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Hg, Mn, Fe in the environment. The potential uptake of metal(loid)s by plants (phytoavailability) is a function of the mobility/retainability of metal(loid)s in the soil, influenced by soil geochemistry. The most critical parameters (including soil pH, soil organic matter, clay content, cation exchange capacity, the capability of decomposition of organic matter by microbes, redox potential, ionic strength) influencing metal(loid)s in soil are reviewed and used as a foundation to build a framework model for ranking metal(loid)s of concern. A robust quantitative risk assessment model is recommended for evaluating risk from individual metal(loid)s based on health-based indices (Daily Dietary Index (DDI), No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL), and Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL)). This research proposes a risk assessment framework for potentially harmful metal(loid)s in the environment and highlights where regulation and intervention may be required.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Irlanda , Metais Pesados/análise , Fatores de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149788, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461479

RESUMO

In Mexico, millions of tons of mining wastes are deposited in the open pit. Their content in potentially toxic elements (PTE) represents an environmental risk. In the tailings, pioneer plant communities are established, associated with a determined diversity of fungi; plants, and fungi are fundamental in the natural rehabilitation of mining wastes. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the natural establishment of two plant species on the microbial activity, on the composition of the fungal community, and on the mitigation of the effect of PTE in a contaminated mine tailing. In a tailing, we selected three sites: one non-vegetated; one vegetated by Reseda luteola, and one vegetated by Asphodelus fistulosus. In the substrates, we conducted a physical and chemical characterization; we evaluated the enzymatic activity, the mineralization of the carbon, and the concentration of PTE. We also determined the fungal diversity in the substrates and in the interior of the roots, and estimated the accumulation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and PTE in plant tissues. The tailings had a high percentage of sand; the non-vegetated site presented the highest electric conductivity, and the plant cover reduced the concentration of PTE in the substrates. Plants increased the carbon content in tailings. The enzymatic activities of ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, and the mineralization of carbon were highest at the site vegetated with A. fistulosus. Both plant species accumulated PTE in their tissues and exhibited potential in the phytoremediation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu). Fungal diversity was more elevated at the vegetated sites than in the bare substrate. Ascomycota prevailed in the substrates; the substrates and the plants shared some fungal taxa, but other taxa were specific. The plant coverage and the rhizosphere promoted the natural attenuation and a rehabilitation of the extreme conditions of the mining wastes, modulated by the plant species.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Micobioma , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149899, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464792

RESUMO

A mass of tailings left by mineral exploitation have caused serious environmental pollution. Although many studies have shown that soil microorganisms have the potential to remediate environmental pollution, the interaction mechanism between microorganisms and the surrounding environment of tailings is still unclear. In this study, 15 samples around pyrite mine tailing were collected to explore the ecological effects of environmental factors on bacterial community. The results showed that most of the samples were acidic and contaminated by multiple metals. Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) migrated and accumulated to into downstream farmlands while chromium (Cr) was the opposite. Proteobacteria, Chloroflex and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla. Soil pH, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), available potassium (AK), available phosphorus (AP), the bacteria abundance and diversity all gradually increased with the increase of the distance from the tailing. Invertase, acid phosphatase, total organic carbon (TOC), pH, TP and Cr were the main influencing factors to cause the variation of bacterial community. This work could help us to further understand the changes in soil microbial communities around pollution sources.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150111, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525698

RESUMO

Two scenarios were selected to simulate the situation before the closure of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 1996 (Scenario 1) and after the completion of the Three Gorges Project in 2010 (Scenario 2). A modified polar co-ordinated segmented quantification method was proposed to quantify the heavy metal footprint excursion in Scenarios 1 and 2 and further evaluate their influence on the six sensitive targets in the Yangtze Estuary. Scenario 3 was utilised to analyse the negative effects of the footprint range on the spatio-temporal overlap of the Chinese sturgeon juveniles arriving in the estuarine reserve, set in the TGD-altered biological rhythm. Each scenario comprises four simulation sites from March to September, including three major urban sewage outlets, named Bailonggang (BLG), Zhuyuan (ZY), Shidongkou (SDK), and the upstream pollution source, represented by Xuliujing (XLJ). The results showed that the increased discharge in the dry season moved the post-TGD footprint further away from Chongming Island. Additionally, the outward side footprint was formed during the flood season, when the average discharge was lower than that during the pre-TGD period, being 'pushed' to the northwest by the monsoon and Taiwan warm current, resulting in a narrowing of the overall extent. The TGD positively impacted the XLJ and BLG simulation sites, given their shrinking footprint range and the decreasing trajectories of intruding sensitive targets in Scenario 2, in contrast to SDK and ZY.


Assuntos
Estuários , Metais Pesados , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Estações do Ano
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150135, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525728

RESUMO

Carbonation treatment (CT) by alkaline fly ash (FA) affects the stability of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). This study investigated the leachability and environmental risk of six PTEs contained in FA during natural and accelerated carbonation (NC, AC) using two typical leaching scenarios with distilled water (DW) and acetic acid (AA). The leaching of Pb/Cu/Cr/Ni in solidified/stabilized FA decreased due to CT in DW leaching, but the leaching of Pb/Zn/Cu/Cd increased due to CT in AA leaching. The leaching of the six PTEs (especially Pb/Cd) in AA leaching was significantly higher than that in DW leaching. CT was a promoting factor to increase the environmental risk level of PTEs in FA leachate, especially in AA leaching with H+ input. In the early stage of NC, under DW leaching tests, the environmental risk level of PTEs in FA leachate can be weakened due to the formation of carbonate minerals in the FA matrix. However, excessive NC increases the environmental risk of leached PTEs due to the decalcification of carbonate minerals. Both NC and AC increased the potential environmental risk of PTEs contained in the carbonated FA matrix. The nucleation and dissolution of carbonate minerals were interdependent with the immobilization and leaching of PTEs, which played a dominant role in the CT and leaching tests respectively. They jointly affected the occurrence behavior of PTEs in the FA matrix in CT tests and the leachability of PTEs in leaching tests. This study demonstrates that it is more scientific to evaluate the leachability of PTEs in carbonated FA according to the actual disposal scenarios.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carbono , Carbonatos , Cinza de Carvão , Incineração , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149883, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525753

RESUMO

Mining has been described as an important source of contaminants to the coastal zone worldwide, which is greatly intensified in the case of tailing dam ruptures. This study assessed the environmental quality of the marine coastal area impacted by a mining disaster (Fundão Mine dam collapse on 05 November 2015, Southeast Brazil) by applying a geochemical multi-index and physical approach over 18 months (from October 2018 to March 2020). Nutrients, metal(oid)s and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were integrated by quality indexes: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CWQI) and the Pollution Load Index (PLI) for water quality; Sediment Quality Guideline Quotients (SQG-q metal(oid)s and SQG-q PAHs) for sediment quality. Three scenarios regarding river discharge and wave-heights (Hs) were considered: 2018/2019-wet, 2019-dry, 2019/2020-wet. An Environmental Risk Assessment framework was built to describe the overall environmental quality in regards to water and sediment quality indexes as well as physical conditions. Here we show that the worsening of environmental quality is highly associated with the decrease of water quality by metal(oid)s (total forms of As and Ni; dissolved forms of Co and Fe) during the 2019-dry scenario when river discharge was at the lowest and the highest Hs occurred. Resuspension of fine sediment and suspended Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide nanoparticles by waves seem to be the main processes for releasing metal(oid)s into the water column. CWQI and PLI showed marginal and polluted conditions for water quality, respectively, and SQG-q for metals and PAHs indicated moderate impact in the sediment during the 2019-dry period. Toxicity to pelagic and benthic fauna is expected to occur in those conditions. Recovery of environmental quality occurred during the 2019/2020-wet scenario, which could be explained by alongshore and offshore transport of sediment and the dilution of aqueous metal(oid)s by intense river discharge on the continental shelf.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Férricos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149866, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525768

RESUMO

Heavy metal (HM) soil pollution has become an increasingly serious problem with the development of industries. Application of biochar in HMs remediation from contaminated environment has attracted considerable research attention during the past decade. Although the mechanism of HMs passivation with biochar has been investigated, effects and mechanisms of interaction among soil-indigenous microbes and novel carbon matrix composites for HMs adsorption and passivation are still unclear. Four different biochar-loaded aerogels, namely, BNCA-1-600, BNCA-1-900, BNCA-2-600, and BNCA-2-900, were synthesized in this study. Adsorption capacity of four kinds of synthetic materials and two types of contrast biochars (BC600 and BC900) to HMs in aqueous solution, passivation capacity of HMs in soil, and effects on soil organic matter and microbial community were explored. Results showed that BNCA-2-900 exhibits excellent adsorption property and a maximum removal capacity of 205.07 mg·g-1 at 25 °C for Pb(II), 105.56 mg·g-1 for Cd(II), and 137.89 mg·g-1 for Zn(II). Leaching concentration of HMs in contaminated soil can meet the national standard of China (GB/T 5085.3-2007) within 120 days. Results of this study confirmed that the additive BNCA-2-900 and coexistence of indigenous microorganisms can effectively reduce bioavailability of HMs. Another potential mechanism may be to remove the passivation of HMs by porous structure and surface functional groups as well as improve the content of organic matter and microbial abundance. The research results may provide a novel perceptive for the development of functional materials and strategies for eco-friendly and sustainable multiple HMs remediation in contaminated soil and water by using a combination of carbon matrix composites and soil-indigenous microorganisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Nanopartículas , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149871, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525770

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in coastal zone is a global environment problem concerning the international society. As an eco-friendly and economical method, phytoremediation is a promising strategy for improving heavy metal pollution in coastal soil. In order to alleviate the ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in Jinzhou Bay, a typical and important heavy industrial area in China, three local wetland plants (Scirpus validus, Typha orientalis and Phragmites australis) were selected and planted in the field. The plants showed strong tolerance of high concentrations of heavy metals. Stressed by the heavy metals, the root weight of S. validus and P. australis increased 114.74% and 49.91%, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Hg) accumulated in the plant roots were 4-60 times higher than that in plant shoots. The SEM analysis found that abundant heavy metals were adhered to the root surface closely. Bioconcentration factor of heavy metals on the plant roots were 0.08-0.89 (except Cr, Ni), while the translocation factor from roots to above ground of plants were 0.02-0.27. Furthermore, the wetland plants improved the regional ecological environment quality. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rhizosphere soil decreased significantly. Compared with the bulk soil, the potential ecological risk index in the rhizosphere soil reduced 26.51%-69.14%. Moreover, the microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil increased significantly, and the abundances of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes also increased in rhizosphere soil. Pearson correlations indicated that Hg, As, Ni and Cr were negatively correlated with Proteobacteria (p < 0.05), and Cu was significantly negative correlated with Bacteroidetes (p < 0.05). The results support that using suitable local plants is a promising approach for repairing heavy metal contaminated costal soil, not only because it can improve the regional ecological environment quality, but also because it can enhance the landscape value of coastal zone.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Áreas Alagadas
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149868, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481163

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanisms and potential risks of river eco-remediation, river water, sediment, and biofilms in remediation facilities were sampled from a 2-year full scale eco-remediation site in an urban river in southeastern China. The samples from both remediated and adjacent control areas were analyzed for chemical properties and functional microbial community structures. The eco-remediation significantly changed the community structures in the river and introduced much more diverse functional microorganisms in facility biofilms. Corresponding to effective reduction of organics and ammonium in river water, some labile-organics-degrading and ammonia-oxidizing gene families showed higher abundances in river water of remediated area than control area, and were obviously more abundant in facility biofilms than in river water and sediment. The eco-remediation facilities showed obvious absorption of N, P, and heavy metals (Mn, CrVI, Fe, Al, As, Co), contributing to nutrients and metals removal from river water. The eco-remediation also increased transparency and sedimentation of some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), which probably associated with colloids breakdown. Various metal-resistance microorganisms showed different abundances between facility biofilms and sediment, in accordance with relative metals. Most detected pathogens were not significantly affected by eco-remediation. However, our measurements in sediment and facilities showed heavy metals accumulation and development of some pathogens and several antibiotic-resistance pathogens, alerting us to investigate and control these potential risks to ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149874, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492491

RESUMO

The treatment of sewage sludge (SS) is an environmental problem worldwide. In recent years, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of SS for hydrochar (HC) has attracted extensive attention. This study preliminarily explored the microwave-assisted HTC of SS for the first time. Increasing the reaction temperature (150-250 °C) and reaction time (0-120 min) resulted in a decrease in the HC yield, and it gradually increased with the rising solid-liquid ratio (0.03-0.25 g/mL). Compared with raw SS, the HC products possessed higher aromaticity, carbonization degree, porosity, and polarity, and lower content of soluble nutrients (N/P/K) and leachable heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni), indicating a lower risk of nutrient and heavy metal loss. Attention should be paid to the total contents of Zn and Cd in HC exceeded the permitted value for use in cultivated land with edible crops. The use of CaO as a catalyst improved the yield of HC, made the HC and process water (PW) weakly alkaline, and further passivated the heavy metals in the HC. In the case of H3PO4, although the conversion of SS was enhanced (lower content of volatile organic matter in HC), the contents of soluble nutrients (N/P/K) in HC/PW increased, and the migration of Zn and Cd into process water was enhanced. The HCs obtained in this study had poor combustion properties, but higher ignition temperatures than raw SS. PW must be properly treated or recycled because it still contained high contents of organic matter and nutrients. This fundamental study provides basic insights into the microwave-assisted HTC of SS.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Esgotos , Carbono , Micro-Ondas , Temperatura , Água
13.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131678, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346324

RESUMO

The establishment of vegetation cover is an important strategy to reduce wind and water erosion at metal smelting waste slag sites. However, the mobility of heavy metals in waste slag-vegetation-leachate systems after the application of revegetation strategies is still unclear. Large microcosm experiments were conducted for revegetation of waste slag for 98 d using combined amendments, i.e., phosphate rock and an organic waste coming from the anaerobic digestion of pig manure (named as biogas residue), and by single- and co-planted perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Trifolium repens (T. repens). The results showed that the application of biogas residue slightly increased the concentrations of Zn and Cd in the leachates; however, the establishment of plants could avoid the excessive leaching of heavy metals coming from the biogas residue. The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, and Cd slightly increased, but Pb bioavailability significantly decreased regardless of single- or co-planting patterns. Additionally, the bioavailability of Cu, Zn, and Cd in the waste slag revegetated with perennial ryegrass was lower than that in T. repens under the single-planting pattern. The change in the heavy metals bioavailability under different revegetation strategies was mainly due to the root-induced change in the pH and speciation of heavy metals in the waste slag. The application of biogas residue and phosphate rock tends to the immobilization of Pb. Heavy metals mainly accumulated in the underground parts of the two herbs, and the heavy metal contents in the underground parts of perennial ryegrass were higher than those in T. repens regardless of single- or co-planting patterns. The heavy metals accumulated in T. repens were lower than those in perennial ryegrass in the single-planting pattern. The bioaccumulation and transportation factors of the two herbs were extremely low. Thus, the two herbs are potential candidates for phytostabilization of zinc smelting waste slag sites.


Assuntos
Lolium , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos , Zinco/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131600, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346334

RESUMO

Mixed industrial wastewaters are often highly contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Treating these mixed wastewaters requires many stagewise unit operations. Our work investigates using an electrochemical oxidation-in-situ coagulation (ECO-IC) process as a pre-treatment step toward the efficient treatment of real mixed industrial wastewater rich with heavy metals and organic contaminants. The process degraded organic contaminants in the wastewater via anodic electrochemical oxidation. Simultaneously, heavy metals were precipitated in the solution by coagulants (iron hydroxides) formed in-situ by cathode-generated hydroxyl ions reacting with the significant amounts of dissolved iron in the wastewater. IrO2-RuO2 mixed metal oxide anodes were identified as the best electrodes for organic compound degradation demonstrating 97% degradation of methyl orange (MO) as a model compound within 15 min. These anodes were used to treat real industrial wastewater produced from the industrial cleaning of train tanker cars transporting industrial solvents. The electrochemical treatment experiments resulted in a treated solution with a lower heavy metal content, achieving 96% reduction in Fe and 30% reduction in As content. Only moderate decreases in organic content were observed up to a maximum of 13% reduction in total organic carbon after 1 h of treatment. Electrochemical treatment of the mixed industrial wastewater produced greater effective diameter of the suspended particles and distinct sediment, liquid, and suspended foam phases that could be easily separated for further treatment. ECO-IC shows promise as an efficient and chemical-free method to coagulate heavy metals in real industrial wastewaters and could be an effective pre-treatment in their separation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Eletrodos , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxirredução , Óxidos , Águas Residuárias
16.
Food Chem ; 367: 130670, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359008

RESUMO

Seven species of forest mushrooms from different regions of Poland (edible: Imleria badia, Cantharellus cibarius, Xerocomus subtomentosus, Suillus luteus and inedible by humans but being food for animals: Paxillus involutus, Tylopilus felleus and Russula emetica) were analyzed for radioisotope activity (Cs-137, K-40, Bi-214 and Pb-210) as well as concentrations of heavy metals (aluminum, chromium, cadmium, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, copper, nickel and mercury). The activity of radioisotopes was measured with a gamma spectrometer, while the concentrations of heavy metals were examined by microwave plasma - atomic emission spectrometry. The obtained results of the analyses were compared with the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority concerning the consumption of the determined heavy metals and the European standards concerning the content of radioisotopes in food. The obtained results proved that the consumption of mushrooms may result in a significant exceeding of the consumption limits of cadmium, copper and Cs-137.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Metais Pesados , Basidiomycota , Cádmio , Radioisótopos de Césio , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise
17.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113856, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626948

RESUMO

The conventional sintering process of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is always energy intensive. The process forms a cracked structure because of the difficulty in forming the liquid phase to enhance the mass transfer process. Therefore, exploring a new disposal method to simultaneously decrease the sintering temperature and improve the mechanical and heavy metal leaching properties of sintered samples is necessary. In this study, a pressure-assisted sintering treatment was introduced to dispose fly ash by varying the chemical composition and mechanical pressure at relatively low temperatures (300-500 °C). The results revealed that the compressive strength of treated samples increased with the CaO/SiO2 molar ratio increasing from 0.5 to 1.0, and a maximum value of 238.28 ± 8.50 MPa was obtained. The heavy metal leaching concentration results demonstrated a low risk of contamination in the treated samples. Microstructure analyses suggested that the densification process was enhanced with increased mechanical pressure, and the formed calcium silicates and aluminosilicates positively affected the compressive strength. Moreover, smaller crystal lattices were observed during aggregation formation, suggesting the restraint of anomalous crystal growth, which accelerated the densification process and increased the compressive strength. Moreover, the mass transfer process during the pressure-assisted sintering process was enhanced compared with the conventional thermal process, which was reflected by the transformation of elements from homogeneous to heterogeneous distribution. Therefore, the improved mechanical properties and leaching behavior of heavy metals were attributed to the densified microstructure, formation of new minerals, and enhanced driving force during the pressure-assisted sintering process. These findings suggest that pressure-assisted sintering is a promising method for maximizing the reutilization and minimizing the energy consumption simultaneously to dispose fly ash.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carbono , Cinza de Carvão , Incineração , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado , Dióxido de Silício , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
18.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113908, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626949

RESUMO

The direct discharge of significant amounts of polluted water into water bodies causes adverse ecological and human health effects. This severe deterioration in water quality creates significant challenges to meet the growing demand for clean water. Therefore, the world urgently needs environmentally friendly advanced technology to overcome this global crisis. In this regard, nanofiber-based membrane filtration is a promising technique in wastewater remediation because of their huge surface area, extremely porous structure, amenable pore size/pore size distribution, variety of material choices, and flexibility to modification with other functional materials. However, despite their unique properties, fouling, poor mechanical properties, shrinkage, and deformation are major drawbacks of nanofiber membranes for treating wastewater. This review presents a comprehensive overview of nanofiber membranes' fabrication and function in water purification applications as well as providing novel approaches to overcoming/alleviating the mentioned disadvantages. The review first presents nanofiber membrane preparation methods, focusing on electrospinning as a versatile and viable technique alongside discussing the parameters controlling nanofiber morphology. Afterward, the functionalization of nanofiber membranes by combining them with other nanomaterials, such as metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks, and biomolecules, were demonstrated and discussed. In addition, nanofiber membranes functionalized with microorganisms were highlighted. Finally, we introduced and discussed in detail the most relevant and recent advances in nanofiber applications in wastewater treatment in the context of removing different pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, nutrients, radioactive elements, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products, dyes, and pesticides). Moreover, the promising antimicrobial ability of nanofiber membranes in removing microorganisms from wastewater has been fully underscored. We believe this comprehensive review could provide researchers with preliminary data and guide both researchers and producers engaged in the nanofiber membrane industry, letting them focus on the research gaps in wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Nanofibras , Nanotubos de Carbono , Purificação da Água , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
19.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113880, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638042

RESUMO

The dairy industry produces vast quantities of dairy processing sludge (DPS), which can be processed further to develop second generation products such as struvite, biochars and ashes (collectively known as STRUBIAS). These bio-based fertilizers have heterogeneous nutrient and metal contents, resulting in a range of possible application rates. To avoid nutrient losses to water or bioaccumulation of metals in soil or crops, it is important that rates applied to land are safe and adhere to the maximum legal application rates similar to inorganic fertilizers. This study collected and analysed nutrient and metal content of all major DPS (n = 84) and DPS-derived STRUBIAS products (n = 10), and created an application calculator in MS Excel™ to provide guidance on maximum legal application rates for ryegrass and spring wheat across plant available phosphorus (P) deficient soil to P-excess soil. The sample analysis showed that raw DPS and DPS-derived STRUBIAS have high P contents ranging from 10.1 to 122 g kg-1. Nitrogen (N) in DPS was high, whereas N concentrations decreased in thermo-chemical STRUBIAS products (chars and ash) due to the high temperatures used in their formation. The heavy metal content of DPS and DPS-derived STRUBIAS was significantly lower than the EU imposed limits. Using the calculator, application rates of DPS and DPS-derived STRUBIAS materials (dry weight) ranged from 0 to 4.0 tonnes ha-1 y-1 for ryegrass and 0-4.5 tonnes ha-1 y-1 for spring wheat. The estimated heavy metal ingestion to soil annually by the application of the DPS and DPS-derived STRUBIAS products was lower than the EU guideline on soil metal accumulation. The calculator is adaptable for any bio-based fertilizer, soil and crop type, and future work should continue to characterise and incorporate new DPS and DPS-derived STRUBIAS products into the database presented in this paper. In addition, safe application rates pertaining to other regulated pollutants or emerging contaminants that may be identified in these products should be included. The fertilizer replacement value of these products, taken from long-term field studies, should be factored into application rates.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Metais Pesados , Fertilizantes/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Fósforo , Esgotos , Solo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149867, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469861

RESUMO

The present study performed geochemical fractioning of major and minor elements in a cross-shelf gradient of the Abrolhos Bank, where the largest and most diverse coral reefs in the South Atlantic are concentrated. The fractioning was performed using sequential extractions to determine the degree of availability and toxicity of the elements. The mobility pattern of the elements investigated were in the following order: Ca > Mn > Pb > Cr > Zn > Fe > V > Cu > Ba>Al > Ni > Ti. For elements, such as (Ti, Ni, Al, Ba, Cu, V, Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb), the highest concentrations were in the residual phase at some sampling sites. As established by Environment Canada (Threshold Effect Level - TEL and Probable Effect Level - PEL), Ba, Cr, and Ni produced values higher than the limits, associated with higher concentrations of other elements. In addition, significant proportions of these elements were found in mobile phases in the same sites. Thus, more rigorous measures are critical to avoid alarming levels of chronic environmental pollution inside and outside protected areas of the region. To enhance the sustainability of the region, more effective enforcement is crucial to prevent anthropic contamination that may threaten its biodiversity. The results provide the baseline for future studies regarding the potential impacts of the breach of the tailings dam in the region of Mariana, Minas Gerais.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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