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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10684, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724636

RESUMO

Pollution by heavy metals (HMs) has become a global problem for agriculture and the environment. In this study, the effects of pristine biochar and biochar modified with manganese dioxide (BC@MnO2) and zinc oxide (BC@ZnO) nanoparticles on the immobilization and bioavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni in soil under ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivation were investigated. The results of SEM-EDX, FTIR, and XRD showed that ZnO and MnO2 nanoparticles were successfully loaded onto biochar. The results showed that BC, BC@MnO2 and BC@ZnO treatments significantly increased shoots and roots dry weight of ryegrass compared to the control. The maximum dry weight of root and shoot (1.365 g pot-1 and 4.163 g pot-1, respectively) was reached at 1% BC@MnO2. The HMs uptake by ryegrass roots and shoots decreased significantly after addition of amendments. The lowest Pb, Cd, Zn and Ni uptake in the plant shoot (13.176, 24.92, 32.407, and 53.88 µg pot-1, respectively) was obtained in the 1% BC@MnO2 treatment. Modified biochar was more successful in reducing HMs uptake by ryegrass and improving plant growth than pristine biochar and can therefore be used as an efficient and cost effective amendment for the remediation of HMs contaminated soils. The lowest HMs translocation (TF) and bioconcentration factors were related to the 1% BC@MnO2 treatment. Therefore, BC@MnO2 was the most successful treatment for HMs immobilization in soil. Also, a comparison of the TF values of plant showed that ryegrass had a good ability to accumulate all studied HMs in its roots, and it is a suitable plant for HMs phytostabilization.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Lolium , Compostos de Manganês , Metais Pesados , Óxidos , Poluentes do Solo , Óxido de Zinco , Lolium/metabolismo , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Óxidos/química , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química , Compostos de Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Solo/química
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 202, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743315

RESUMO

Currently, heavy metal-resistant (HMR) marine actinomycetes have attracted much attention worldwide due to their unique capabilities. In this study, 27 marine-derived actinomycetes were isolated from coastal beaches in the Arabian Gulf of Al-Jubail in Saudi Arabia and screened for resistance to 100 mg/L of the heavy metals Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Pb2+, and Ni2+ using different assay techniques. Six isolates were selected as HMRs, of which two isolates, JJB5 and JJB11, exhibited the highest maximum tolerance concentrations (200- > 300 mg/L). Both isolates were the highest among six-HMR screened for their biodegradation potential of plastics low-density polyethylene, polystyrene, and polyvinyl chloride, recording the highest weight loss (15 ± 1.22 - 65 ± 1.2%) in their thin films. They also showed the highest biodegradability of the pesticides acetamiprid, chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexane, indoxacarb and lindane, indicating promising removal capacities (95.70-100%) for acetamiprid and indoxacarb using HPLC analysis. Additionally, the cell-free filtrate (CFF) of both isolates displayed the highest antimicrobial activity among the six-HMR screened against a variety of microbial test strains, recording the highest inhibition zone diameters (13.76 ± 0.66 - 26.0 ± 1.13 mm). GC‒MS analyses of the ethyl acetate extract of their CFFs revealed the presence of diverse chemical compounds with a multitude of remarkable biological activities. Based on their spore morphology and wall-chemotype, they were assigned to the nocardioform-actinomycetes. Furthermore, their phenotypic characteristics, together with 16S rRNA gene sequencing (OR121525-OR121526), revealed them as Nocardia harenae JJB5 and Amycolatopsis marina JJB11. Our results suggest that marine HMR actinomycetes are promising candidates for various biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nocardia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nocardia/isolamento & purificação , Nocardia/genética , Nocardia/metabolismo , Arábia Saudita , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/classificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 193, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709343

RESUMO

The rapid industrial revolution significantly increased heavy metal pollution, becoming a major global environmental concern. This pollution is considered as one of the most harmful and toxic threats to all environmental components (air, soil, water, animals, and plants until reaching to human). Therefore, scientists try to find a promising and eco-friendly technique to solve this problem i.e., bacterial bioremediation. Various heavy metal resistance mechanisms were reported. Omics technologies can significantly improve our understanding of heavy metal resistant bacteria and their communities. They are a potent tool for investigating the adaptation processes of microbes in severe conditions. These omics methods provide unique benefits for investigating metabolic alterations, microbial diversity, and mechanisms of resistance of individual strains or communities to harsh conditions. Starting with genome sequencing which provides us with complete and comprehensive insight into the resistance mechanism of heavy metal resistant bacteria. Moreover, genome sequencing facilitates the opportunities to identify specific metal resistance genes, operons, and regulatory elements in the genomes of individual bacteria, understand the genetic mechanisms and variations responsible for heavy metal resistance within and between bacterial species in addition to the transcriptome, proteome that obtain the real expressed genes. Moreover, at the community level, metagenome, meta transcriptome and meta proteome participate in understanding the microbial interactive network potentially novel metabolic pathways, enzymes and gene species can all be found using these methods. This review presents the state of the art and anticipated developments in the use of omics technologies in the investigation of microbes used for heavy metal bioremediation.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Bacteriano , Proteômica , Transcriptoma , Metagenômica , Metagenoma , Genômica , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 191, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702442

RESUMO

Seed endophytes played a crucial role on host plants stress tolerance and heavy metal (HM) accumulation. Dysphania ambrosioides is a hyperaccumulator and showed strong tolerance and extraordinary accumulation capacities of multiple HMs. However, little is known about its seed endophytes response to field HM-contamination, and its role on host plants HM tolerance and accumulation. In this study, the seed endophytic community of D. ambrosioides from HM-contaminated area (H) and non-contaminated area (N) were investigated by both culture-dependent and independent methods. Moreover, Cd tolerance and the plant growth promoting (PGP) traits of dominant endophytes from site H and N were evaluated. The results showed that in both studies, HM-contamination reduced the diversity and richness of endophytic community and changed the most dominant endophyte, but increased resistant species abundance. By functional trait assessments, a great number of dominant endophytes displayed multiple PGP traits and Cd tolerance. Interestingly, soil HM-contamination significantly increased the percentage of Cd tolerance isolates of Agrobacterium and Epicoccum, but significantly decreased the ration of Agrobacterium with the siderophore production ability. However, the other PGP traits of isolates from site H and N showed no significant difference. Therefore, it was suggested that D. ambrosioides might improve its HM tolerance and accumulation through harboring more HM-resistant endophytes rather than PGP endophytes, but to prove this, more work need to be conducted in the future.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Endófitos , Metais Pesados , Sementes , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 357, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among different adsorbents, natural and inorganic compounds such as diatomite are important and advantageous in terms of high efficiency and cost-effectiveness, and function in stabilizing heavy metals in the environment. Calendula officinalis, a plant known as a high accumulator of heavy metals, was cultivated in soil treated with varying concentrations of modified diatomite to demonstrate the efficiency of modified diatomite in stabilizating of heavy metals in soils, RESULTS: The modification of diatomite aimed to enhance Calendula officinalis adsorptive properties, particularly towards heavy metals such as lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Nickle (Ni), and Copper (Cu), common contaminants in industrial soils. The experimental design included both control and treated soil samples, with assessments at regular intervals. Modified diatomite significantly decreased the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in contaminated soils except Zn, evidenced by decreased DTPA extractable heavy metals in soil and also heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues. Using 10% modified diatomite decreased 91% Pb and Cu, 78% Cr, and 79% Ni concentration of plants compared to the control treatment. The highest concentration of Zn in plant tissue was observed in 2.5% modified diatomite treatment. Remarkably, the application of modified diatomite also appeared to improve the nutrient profile of the soil, leading to enhanced uptake of key nutrients like phosphorus (P) 1.18%, and potassium (K) 79.6% in shoots and 82.3% in roots in Calendula officinalis. Consequently, treated plants exhibited improved growth characteristics, including shoots and roots height of 16.98% and 12.8% respectively, and shoots fresh and dry weight of 48.5% and 50.2% respectively., compared to those in untreated, contaminated soil. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest promising implications for using such amendments in ecological restoration and sustainable agriculture, particularly in areas impacted by industrial pollution.


Assuntos
Calendula , Terra de Diatomáceas , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Terra de Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Calendula/metabolismo , Calendula/química , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 502, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700594

RESUMO

Water pollution is an inextricable problem that stems from natural and human-related factors. Unfortunately, with rapid industrialization, the problem has escalated to alarming levels. The pollutants that contribute to water pollution include heavy metals (HMs), chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and other industrial byproducts. Numerous methods are used for treating HMs in wastewater, like ion exchange, membrane filtration, chemical precipitation, adsorption, and electrochemical treatment. But the remediation through the plant, i.e., phytoremediation is the most sustainable approach to remove the contaminants from wastewater. Aquatic plants illustrate the capacity to absorb excess pollutants including organic and inorganic compounds, HMs, and pharmaceutical residues present in agricultural, residential, and industrial discharges. The extensive exploitation of these hyperaccumulator plants can be attributed to their abundance, invasive mechanisms, potential for bioaccumulation, and biomass production. Post-phytoremediation, plant biomass can be toxic to both water bodies and soil. Therefore, the circular bioeconomy approach can be applied to reuse and repurpose the toxic plant biomass into different circular bioeconomy byproducts such as biochar, biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel is essential. In this regard, the current review highlights the potential strategies for the phytoremediation of HMs in wastewater and various strategies to efficiently reuse metal-enriched biomass material and produce commercially valuable products. The implementation of circular bioeconomy practices can help overcome significant obstacles and build a new platform for an eco-friendlier lifestyle.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 541, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735978

RESUMO

Metal pollution in water, soil, and vegetation is an emerging environmental issue. Therefore, this study investigated the abundance of heavy metals (HMs) within roots and shoots of native plant species i.e., Bromus pectinatus, Cynodon dactylon, Poa annua, Euphorbia heliscopa, Anagallis arvensis, and Stellaria media grown in the adjoining area of municipal wastewater channels of a Pakistani city of Abbottabad. HMs concentrations (mg L-1) in municipal wastewater were: chromium (Cr) (0.55) > nickel (Ni) (0.09) > lead (Pb) (0.07) > cadmium (Cd) (0.03). Accumulation of HMs in both roots and shoots of plant species varied as B. pectinatus > C. dactylon > P. annua > E. heliscopa > A. arvensis > S. media. Irrespective of the plant species, roots exhibited higher concentrations of HMs than shoots. Higher amount of Cr (131.70 mg kg-1) was detected in the roots of B. pectinatus and the lowest amount (81 mg kg-1) in A. arvensis, Highest Cd concentration was found in the shoot of B. pectinatus and the lowest in the E. heliscopa. The highest concentration of Ni was found in the roots of S. media (37.40 mg kg-1) and the shoot of C. dactylon (15.70 mg kg-1) whereas the lowest Ni concentration was achieved in the roots of A. arvensis (12.10 mg kg-1) and the shoot of E. heliscopa (5.90 mg kg-1). The concentration of HMs in individual plant species was less than 1000 mg kg-1. Considering the higher values (> 1) of biological concentration factor (BCF), biological accumulation co-efficient (BAC), and translocation factor (TF), B. pectinatus and S. media species showed greater potential for HMs accumulation than other species. Therefore, these plants might be helpful for the remediation of HM-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Raízes de Plantas , Poluentes do Solo , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Paquistão , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 357: 141933, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615953

RESUMO

In this comprehensive study, highlights emerging environmentally friendly methods to eliminating hazardous heavy metals from contaminated water, with an emphasis on bioremediation and biosorption. Breakthroughs, such as the combination of biological remediation and nanotechnology to improve the elimination of metals effectiveness and the use of genetically modified microbes for targeted pollutant breakdown. Developing biosorption materials made from agricultural waste and biochar, this indicates interesting areas for future research and emphasizes the necessity of sustainable practices in tackling heavy metal contamination in water systems. There seems to be a surge in enthusiasm for the utilization of biological remediation and biosorption methods as sustainable and viable options for eliminating heavy metals from contaminated water in the past couple of decades. The present review intends to offer an in-depth review of the latest understanding and advances in the discipline of biological remediation methods like bioaccumulation, biofiltration, bio-slurping, and bio-venting. Biosorption is specifically explained and includes waste biomass as biosorbent with the removal mechanisms and the hindrances caused in the process are detailed. Advances in biosorption like microbes as biosorbents and the mechanism involved in it. Additionally, novel enhancement techniques like immobilization, genetic modification, and ultrasound-assisted treatment in microbial sorbent are clarified. However, the review extended with analyzing the future advances in the overall biological methods and consequences of heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal/química
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 543, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642191

RESUMO

Heavy metal stress is a major problem in present scenario and the consequences are well known. The agroecosystems are heavily affected by the heavy metal stress and the question arises on the sustainability of the agricultural products. Heavy metals inhibit the process to influence the reactive oxygen species production. When abundantly present copper metal ion has toxic effects which is mitigated by the exogenous application of Si. The role of silicon is to enhance physical parameters as well as gas exchange parameters. Si is likely to increase antioxidant enzymes in response to copper stress which can relocate toxic metals at subcellular level and remove heavy metals from the cell. Silicon regulates phytohormones when excess copper is present. Rate of photosynthesis and mineral absorption is increased in response to metal stress. Silicon manages enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities to balance metal stress condition. Cu transport by the plasma membrane is controlled by a family of proteins called copper transporter present at cell surface. Plants maintain balance in absorption, use and storage for proper copper ion homeostasis. Copper chaperones play vital role in copper ion movement within cells. Prior to that metallochaperones control Cu levels. The genes responsible in copper stress mitigation are discovered in various plant species and their function are decoded. However, detailed molecular mechanism is yet to be studied. This review discusses about the crucial mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of copper stress, the role of copper binding proteins in copper homeostasis. Moreover, it also provides a brief information on the genes, their function and regulation of their expression in relevance to Cu abundance in different plant species which will be beneficial for further understanding of the role of silicon in stabilization of copper stress.


Assuntos
Cobre , Metais Pesados , Cobre/metabolismo , Silício/farmacologia , Silício/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 928: 172290, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599391

RESUMO

The contamination of wetlands by heavy metals, exacerbated by agricultural activities, presents a threat to both organisms and humans. Heavy metals may undergo trophic transfer through the food web. However, the methods for quantifying the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer processes of heavy metals based on the food web remains unclear. In this study, we employed stable isotope technology to construct a quantitative oriental white stork's typical food web model under a more accurate scaled Δ15N framework. On this basis, the concentrations for heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb) were analyzed, we innovatively visualized the trophic transfer process of heavy metals across 13 nodes and 45 links and quantified the transfer flux based on the diet proportions and heavy metal concentrations of species, taking into account biomagnification effects and potential risks. Our findings revealed that as for Cu and Pb, the transfer flux level was consistent with diet proportion across most links. While Hg and Zn transfer flux level exceeded the corresponding diet proportion in the majority of links. In summary, Hg exhibited a significant biomagnification, whereas Cu, Zn, Pb experienced biodilution. The fish dietary health risk assessment for fish consumers showed that Hg, Pb posed certain risks. This research marks a significant step forward in the quantitative assessment of multi-link networks involving heavy metals within the food web.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cadeia Alimentar , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , China , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Água Doce , Peixes/metabolismo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134370, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688214

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) offer a promising solution for mitigating heavy metals (HMs) stress in crops, yet the mechanisms underlying the way they operate in the soil-plant system are not fully understood. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis with 2037 observations to quantitatively evaluate the effects and determinants of PGPB inoculation on crop growth and HMs accumulation in contaminated soils. We found that inoculation increased shoot and root biomass of all five crops (rice, maize, wheat, soybean, and sorghum) and decreased metal accumulation in rice and wheat shoots together with wheat roots. Key factors driving inoculation efficiency included soil organic matter (SOM) and the addition of exogenous fertilizers (N, P, and K). The phylum Proteobacteria was identified as the keystone taxa in effectively alleviating HMs stress in crops. More antioxidant enzyme activity, photosynthetic pigment, and nutrient absorption were induced by it. Overall, using PGPB inoculation improved the growth performance of all five crops, significantly increasing crop biomass in shoots, roots, and grains by 33 %, 35 %, and 20 %, respectively, while concurrently significantly decreasing heavy metal accumulation by 16 %, 9 %, and 37 %, respectively. These results are vital to grasping the benefits of PGPB and its future application in enhancing crop resistance to HMs.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Metais Pesados , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
12.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 59(6): 315-332, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676363

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) are widely used in various industries. High concentrations of HMs can be severely toxic to plants, animals and humans. Microorganism-based bioremediation has shown significant potential in degrading and detoxifying specific HM contaminants. In this study, we cultivated a range of bacterial strains in liquid and solid nutrient medium containing different concentrations of different HMs to select and analyze bacteria capable of transforming HMs. The bacterial strains most resistant to selected HMs and exhibiting the ability to remove HMs from contaminated soils were identified. Then, the bacterial species capable of utilizing HMs in soil model experiments were selected, and their ability to transform HMs was evaluated. This study has also generated preliminary findings on the use of plants for further removal of HMs from soil after microbial bioremediation. Alcaligenes faecalis, Delftia tsuruhatensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. were selected for their ability to grow in and utilize HM ions at the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and two times the MPC. Lysinibacillus fusiformis (local microflora) can be used as a universal biotransformation tool for many HM ions. Brevibacillus parabrevis has potential for the removal of lead ions, and Brevibacillus reuszeri and Bacillus safensis have potential for the removal of arsenic ions from the environment. The bacterial species have been selected for bioremediation to remove heavy metal ions from the environment.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação , Metais Pesados , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Stenotrophomonas/metabolismo , Delftia/metabolismo , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolismo
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 175, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647735

RESUMO

The demand for environment-friendly cleanup techniques has arisen due to an increase in environmental pollutants. Fungi is the most prevalent and effective class of heavy metal-resistant microorganisms with the ability to leach metals. The objective of the present study was to isolate the fungi from the agricultural soil of Kashmir valley, investigate their multi-metal tolerance to heavy metals and evaluate the metal uptake capacities of the resistant fungi. The fungi were isolated and identified on the basis of morphological and molecular approach (ITS1 and ITS4). The tolerance limits of the isolated fungal strains to various doses of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) was evaluated. Five fungal strains, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Aspergillus fischeri, Epicoccum mackenziei were isolated from the soil samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the study of metal resistance of Aspergillus fischeri and Epicoccum mackenziei. Among the identified fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum were found to be most tolerant with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 600 ppm against Cu and Cr respectively. Results indicated removal of considerable amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. The highest metal uptake of 8.31 mg/g was found in Fusarium verticillioides for Zn. Surprisingly, these fungal strains demonstrated resistance to metal concentrations above the levels that are universally acceptable for polluted soils, and hence prove to be appealing contenders for use as bioremediation agents for cleaning up heavy metal-polluted environments.


Assuntos
Fungos , Fusarium , Metais Pesados , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Solo/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297844, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578758

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate the influence of zeolite usage and stocking densities on various parameters, including ammonia removal from water, accumulation of heavy metals in fish organs, water quality, growth performance, feed efficiency, muscle composition, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) over a 90-day duration. A total of 2400 D. labrax with an initial weight of 9.83 ± 2.02 g and initial length of 9.37 ± 0.32 cm were distributed among 24 tanks. The research involved six distinct treatment groups, with two different zeolite levels (0 and 15 ppt) and three stocking density levels (50, 100, and 150 fish/m3), each replicated four times. The results of the research demonstrate a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) in water quality measures with the introduction of zeolite. The successful implementation of this amendment mitigated the adverse effects of fish density on water quality parameters. Higher stocking density negatively impacted European sea bass growth, feed utilization, and hemato-biochemical indicators. Zeolite use effectively alleviated these adverse effects, particularly on performance, feed utilization, hematological, and biochemical parameters. The study's results indicate that the utilization of zeolite has shown to be efficacious in mitigating the accumulation of heavy metals in both water and fish organs, while concurrently augmenting fish attributes. However, the increase in density led to a significant decrease in the accumulation of heavy metals in both water and fish organs. The present study highlights the capacity of natural zeolites to mitigate the negative consequences associated with water quality concerns. The efficiency of these zeolites in limiting the accessibility of heavy metals in polluted water is shown, hence minimizing their accumulation in fish organs. In addition, the improvement of fish performance has the capacity to have a beneficial influence on both the well-being and efficiency of fish in aquaculture. Additional research is essential to fully understand the complex molecular pathways involved in utilizing natural zeolite under different fish densities.


Assuntos
Bass , Metais Pesados , Zeolitas , Animais , Bass/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo
15.
Environ Pollut ; 349: 123881, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580063

RESUMO

Microalgae and macrophytes are commonly used as human and animal food supplements. We examined the cultivation of the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and the duckweed Lemna minor in thermal waters under batch and sequencing batch conditions and we characterized the produced biomass for the presence of essential nutrients as well as for heavy metals and radioisotope content. The highest specific growth rate for the microalgae was observed when 5 or 15 mg/L N were supplemented while the optimal conditions for Lemna minor were observed in the co-presence of 5 mg/L N and 1.7 mg/L P. Lemna minor presented higher concentrations of proteins and lipids comparing to the studied microalgae. Both organisms contained high amounts of lutein (up to 1378 mg/kg for Lemna minor) and chlorophyll (up to 1518 mg/kg for Lemna minor) while ß-carotene and tocopherols were found at lower concentrations, not exceeding a few tens of mg/kg. The heavy metal content varied between the two species. Lemna minor accumulated more Cd, Cu, K, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn whereas Al, Ca and Mg were higher in Chlorella sorokiniana. Both organisms could be a significant source of essential metals but the occasional exceedance of the statutory levels of toxic metals in food products raises concern for potential risk to either humans or animals. Application of gamma-spectroscopy to quantify the effective dose to humans from 228Ra, 226Ra and 40K showed that Chlorella sorokiniana was well under the radiological limits while the collected mass of Lemna minor was too small for radiological measurements with confidence.


Assuntos
Araceae , Biomassa , Chlorella , Metais Pesados , Microalgas , Radioisótopos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlorella/metabolismo , Araceae/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 349: 123927, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582184

RESUMO

The recovery phase of mangrove seedlings in coastal wetland ecosystems can be negatively affected by exposure to external pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the impact of microplastics (MPs) influx, specifically polystyrene (PS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), on the growth of Aegiceras corniculatum seedlings and their accumulation of heavy metals (HMs). PS and PMMA significantly increased HMs accumulation (up to 21.0-548%), particularly in the roots of seedlings, compared to the control treatment (CK). Additionally, elevated activities of malondialdehyde and catalase enzymes were observed in the leaves of seedlings, while peroxidase enzyme activity decreased. Topological analysis of the root sediment microbiota coexistence network revealed that the modularization data increased from 0.69 (CK treatment) to 1.07 (PS treatment) and 5.11 (PMMA treatment) under the combined stress of MPs and HMs. This suggests that the introduction of MPs intensifies microbial modularization. The primary cause of increased HMs accumulation in plants is the MPs input, which influences the secretion of organic acids by plants and facilitates the shift of HMs in sediment to bioavailable states. Furthermore, changes in microbial clustering may also contribute to the elevated HMs accumulation in plants. This study provides valuable insights into the effects of external pollutants on mangrove seedlings and offers new perspectives for the preservation and restoration of mangrove coastal wetlands.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microplásticos , Plântula , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Primulaceae/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
17.
Environ Pollut ; 349: 123951, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604305

RESUMO

Phosphorus is one of the important factors to successfully establish the microalgal-bacterial symbiosis (MABS) system. The migration and transformation of phosphorus can occur in various ways, and the effects of phosphate on the MABS system facing environmental impacts like heavy metal stress are often ignored. This study investigated the roles of phosphate on the response of the MABS system to zinc ion (Zn2+). The results showed that the pollutant removal effect in the MABS system was significantly reduced, and microbial growth and activity were inhibited with the presence of Zn2+. When phosphate and Zn2+ coexisted, the inhibition effects of pollutants removal and microbial growth rate were mitigated compared to that of only with the presence of Zn2+, with the increasing rates of 28.3% for total nitrogen removal, 48.9% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 78.3% for chlorophyll-a concentration, and 13.3% for volatile suspended solids concentration. When phosphate was subsequently supplemented in the MABS system after adding Zn2+, both pollutants removal efficiency and microbial growth and activity were not recovered. Thus, the inhibition effect of Zn2+ on the MABS system was irreversible. Further analysis showed that Zn2+ preferentially combined with phosphate could form chemical precipitate, which reduced the fixation of MABS system for Zn2+ through extracellular adsorption and intracellular uptake. Under Zn2+ stress, the succession of microbial communities occurred, and Parachlorella was more tolerant to Zn2+. This study revealed the comprehensive response mechanism of the co-effects of phosphate and Zn2+ on the MABS system, and provided some insights for the MABS system treating wastewater containing heavy metals, as well as migration and transformation of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microalgas , Fosfatos , Simbiose , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 202: 116374, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663344

RESUMO

A comparative assessment of heavy metal accumulation potential in four distinct marine benthic bioindicators: the bivalve Perna perna, the sponge Callyspongia fibrosa, the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla, and the gastropod Purpura bufo were conducted. These organisms were collected from the same location, and the concentration of ten heavy metals was analyzed in water, sediment and various body parts of the organisms. The bioaccumulation potential was evaluated using the bio-water accumulation factor and bio-sediment accumulation factor. There was significant variation in the bioaccumulation potential of each organism with respect to different metals. The sponge proved to be a reliable indicator of Cd with a highest concentration of 2.60 µg/g. Sea urchin accumulated high concentrations of Cr (16.98 µg/g) and Pb (4.80 µg/g), whereas Cu was predominant (21.05 µg/g) in gastropod, followed by bivalve (17.67 µg/g). The concentration of metals in hard parts was found to be lower than in the tissues.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gastrópodes , Metais Pesados , Poríferos , Ouriços-do-Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Poríferos/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(19): 28671-28694, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561536

RESUMO

The research aimed to determine the influence of endophytic fungi on tolerance, growth and phytoremediation ability of Prosopis juliflora in heavy metal-polluted landfill soil. A consortium of 13 fungal isolates as well as Prosopis juliflora Sw. DC was used to decontaminate heavy metal-polluted landfill soil. Enhanced plant growth (biomass and root and shoot lengths) and production of carotenoids, chlorophyll and amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-leucine that are known to enhance growth were found in the treated P. juliflora. Better accumulations of heavy metals were observed in fungi-treated P. juliflora over the untreated one. An upregulated activity of peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase was recorded in fungi-treated P. juliflora. Additionally, other metabolites, such as glutathione, 3,5,7,2',5'-pentahydroxyflavone, 5,2'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxyflavone, and small peptides, which include Lys Gln Ile, Ser Arg Ala, Asp Arg Gly, Arg Ser Ser, His His Arg, Arg Thr Glu, Thr Arg Asp and Ser Pro Arg, were also detected. These provide defence supports to P. juliflora against toxic metals. Inoculating the plant with the fungi improved its growth, metal accumulation as well as tolerance against heavy metal toxicity. Such a combination can be used as an effective strategy for the bioremediation of metal-polluted soil.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Prosopis , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Prosopis/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Solo/química
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