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1.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 111, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568247

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution threatens plant growth and development as well as ecological stability. Here, we synthesize current research on the interplay between plants and their microbial symbionts under heavy metal stress, highlighting the mechanisms employed by microbes to enhance plant tolerance and resilience. Several key strategies such as bioavailability alteration, chelation, detoxification, induced systemic tolerance, horizontal gene transfer, and methylation and demethylation, are examined, alongside the genetic and molecular basis governing these plant-microbe interactions. However, the complexity of plant-microbe interactions, coupled with our limited understanding of the associated mechanisms, presents challenges in their practical application. Thus, this review underscores the necessity of a more detailed understanding of how plants and microbes interact and the importance of using a combined approach from different scientific fields to maximize the benefits of these microbial processes. By advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe synergies in the metabolism of heavy metals, we can develop more effective bioremediation strategies to combat the contamination of soil by heavy metals.


Assuntos
Interações Ervas-Drogas , Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Solo
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8023, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580805

RESUMO

Toxic metals are vital risk factors affecting serum ion balance; however, the effect of their co-exposure on serum ions and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. We assessed the correlations of single metal and mixed metals with serum ion levels, and the mediating effects of mineralocorticoids by investigating toxic metal concentrations in the blood, as well as the levels of representative mineralocorticoids, such as deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and serum ions in 471 participants from the Dongdagou-Xinglong cohort. In the single-exposure model, sodium and chloride levels were positively correlated with arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and lead levels and negatively correlated with zinc levels, whereas potassium and iron levels and the anion gap were positively correlated with zinc levels and negatively correlated with selenium, cadmium and lead levels (all P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained in the mixed exposure models considering all metals, and the major contributions of cadmium, lead, arsenic, and selenium were highlighted. Significant dose-response relationships were detected between levels of serum DOC and toxic metals and serum ions. Mediation analysis showed that serum DOC partially mediated the relationship of metals (especially mixed metals) with serum iron and anion gap by 8.3% and 8.6%, respectively. These findings suggest that single and mixed metal exposure interferes with the homeostasis of serum mineralocorticoids, which is also related to altered serum ion levels. Furthermore, serum DOC may remarkably affect toxic metal-related serum ion disturbances, providing clues for further study of health risks associated with these toxic metals.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Selênio , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Análise de Mediação , Mineralocorticoides , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Zinco , Ferro , Íons , China , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
3.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 149, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578493

RESUMO

There is limited evidence linking exposure to heavy metals, especially mixed metals, to stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This study aimed to explore the relationship between multiple metals exposure and SUI in women. The data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2020. In the study, a total of 13 metals were analyzed in blood and urine. In addition, 5155 adult women were included, of whom 2123 (41.2%) suffered from SUI. The logistic regression model and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were conducted to assess the association of single metal exposure with SUI risk. The Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and weighted quantile sum (WQS) were used to estimate the combined effect of multiple metals exposure on SUI. First, we observed that blood Pb, Hg and urinary Pb, Cd were positively related to SUI risk, whereas urinary W was inversely related by multivariate logistic regression (all p-FDR < 0.05). Additionally, a significant non-linear relationship between blood Hg and SUI risk was observed by RCS analysis. In the co-exposure models, WQS model showed that exposure to metal mixtures in blood [OR (95%CI) = 1.18 (1.06, 1.31)] and urine [OR (95%CI) = 1.18 (1.03, 1.34)] was positively associated with SUI risk, which was consistent with the results of BKMR model. A potential interaction was identified between Hg and Cd in urine. Hg and Cd were the main contributors to the combined effects. In summary, our study indicates that exposure to heavy metal mixtures may increase SUI risk in women.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Teorema de Bayes , Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/induzido quimicamente , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/epidemiologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 33(3): 239-252, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573560

RESUMO

Despite the prevalence of discharge of large volumes of heavy-metal-bearing seawater from coal-fired power plants into adjacent seas, studies on the associated ecological risks remain limited. This study continuously monitored concentrations of seven heavy metals (i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in surface seawater near the outfall of a coal-fired power plant in Qingdao, China over three years. The results showed average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn of 2.63, 0.33, 2.97, 4.63, 0.008, 0.85, and 25.00 µg/L, respectively. Given the lack of data on metal toxicity to local species, this study investigated species composition and biomass near discharge outfalls and constructed species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves with biological flora characteristics. Hazardous concentrations for 5% of species (HC5) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn derived from SSDs constructed from chronic toxicity data for native species were 3.23, 2.22, 0.06, 2.83, 0.66, 4.70, and 11.07 µg/L, respectively. This study further assessed ecological risk of heavy metals by applying the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Joint Probability Curve (JPC) based on long-term heavy metal exposure data and chronic toxicity data for local species. The results revealed acceptable levels of ecological risk for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, but unacceptable levels for Cr, Cu, and Zn. The order of studied heavy metals in terms of ecological risk was Cr > Cu ≈ Zn > As > Cd ≈ Pb > Hg. The results of this study can guide the assessment of ecological risk at heavy metal contaminated sites characterized by relatively low heavy metal concentrations and high discharge volumes, such as receiving waters of coal-fired power plant effluents.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cádmio , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Água do Mar , Medição de Risco , Centrais Elétricas , China , Carvão Mineral , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8366, 2024 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600294

RESUMO

Understanding heavy metals in rivers is crucial, as their presence and distribution impact water quality, ecosystem health, and human well-being. This study examined the presence and levels of nine heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 16 surface water samples along the Chao Phraya River, identifying Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cr as predominant metals. Although average concentrations in both rainy and dry seasons generally adhered to WHO guidelines, Mn exceeded these limits yet remained within Thailand's acceptable standards. Seasonal variations were observed in the Chao Phraya River, and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis established significant associations between season and concentrations of heavy metals. The water quality index (WQI) demonstrated varied water quality statuses at each sampling point along the Chao Phraya River, indicating poor conditions during the rainy season, further deteriorating to very poor conditions in the dry season. The hazard potential index (HPI) was employed to assess heavy metal contamination, revealing that during the dry season in the estuary area, the HPI value exceeded the critical threshold index, indicating the presence of heavy metal pollution in the water and unsuitable for consumption. Using the species sensitivity distribution model, an ecological risk assessment ranked the heavy metals' HC5 values as Pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > Hg > Cd > Ni, identifying nickel as the most detrimental and lead as the least toxic. Despite Cr and Zn showing a moderate risk, and Cu and Ni posing a high risk to aquatic organisms, the main contributors to ecological risk were identified as Cu, Ni, and Zn, suggesting a significant potential ecological risk in the Chao Phraya River's surface water. The results of this study provide fundamental insights that can direct future actions in preventing and managing heavy metal pollution in the river ecosystem.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecossistema , Rios , Tailândia , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Medição de Risco , China
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 136, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598029

RESUMO

Copper resistance in phytopathogens is a major challenge to crop production globally and is known to be driven by excessive use of copper-based pesticides. However, recent studies have shown co-selection of multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria exposed to heavy metal and xenobiotics, which may impact the epidemiology of plant, animal, and human diseases. In this study, multi-resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics were evaluated in local Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and co-isolated Xanthomonas melonis (Xmel) strains from infected crucifer plants in Trinidad. Resistance to cobalt, cadmium, zinc, copper, and arsenic (V) was observed in both Xanthomonas species up to 25 mM. Heavy metal resistance (HMR) genes were found on a small plasmid-derived locus with ~ 90% similarity to a Stenotrophomonas spp. chromosomal locus and a X. perforans pLH3.1 plasmid. The co-occurrence of mobile elements in these regions implies their organization on a composite transposon-like structure. HMR genes in Xcc strains showed the lowest similarity to references, and the cus and ars operons appear to be unique among Xanthomonads. Overall, the similarity of HMR genes to Stenotrophomonas sp. chromosomal genomes suggest their origin in this genus or a related organism and subsequent spread through lateral gene transfer events. Further resistome characterization revealed the presence of small multidrug resistance (SMR), multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps, and bla (Xcc) genes for broad biocide resistance in both species. Concurrently, resistance to antibiotics (streptomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin) up to 1000 µg/mL was confirmed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Metais Pesados , Animais , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Ampicilina , Cloranfenicol
7.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611844

RESUMO

Pyrene derivatives are regularly proposed for use in biochemistry as dyes due to their photochemical characteristics. Their antibacterial properties are, however, much less well understood. New complexes based on 4-[(E)-2-(1-pyrenyl)vinyl]pyridine (PyPe) have been synthesized with metal ions that are known to possess antimicrobial properties, such as zinc(II), cadmium(II), and mercury(II). The metal ion salts, free ligand, combinations thereof, and the coordination compounds themselves were tested for their antibacterial properties through microdilution assays. We found that the ligand is able to modulate the antibacterial properties of transition metal ions, depending on the complex stability, the distance between the ligand and the metal ions, and the metal ions themselves. The coordination by the ligand weakened the antibacterial properties of heavy metal ions (Cd(II), Hg(II), Bi(III)), allowing the bacteria to survive higher concentrations thereof. Mixing the ligand and the metal ion salts without forming the complex beforehand enhanced the antibacterial properties of the cations. Being non-cytotoxic itself, the ligand therefore balances the biological consequences of heavy metal ions between toxicity and therapeutic weapons, depending on its use as a coordinating ligand or simple adjuvant.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Ligantes , Sais , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Íons , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Alcenos , Polímeros , Piridinas
8.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 99, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494540

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In this manuscript, authors reviewed and explore the information on beneficial role of phytohormones to mitigate adverse effects of heavy metals toxicity in plants. Global farming systems are seriously threatened by heavy metals (HMs) toxicity, which can result in decreased crop yields, impaired food safety, and negative environmental effects. A rise in curiosity has been shown recently in creating sustainable methods to reduce HMs toxicity in plants and improve agricultural productivity. To accomplish this, phytohormones, which play a crucial role in controlling plant development and adaptations to stress, have emerged as intriguing possibilities. With a particular focus on environmentally friendly farming methods, the current review provides an overview of phytohormone-mediated strategies for reducing HMs toxicity in plants. Several physiological and biochemical activities, including metal uptake, translocation, detoxification, and stress tolerance, are mediated by phytohormones, such as melatonin, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonates. The current review offers thorough explanations of the ways in which phytohormones respond to HMs to help plants detoxify and strengthen their resilience to metal stress. It is crucial to explore the potential uses of phytohormones as long-term solutions for reducing the harmful effects of HMs in plants. These include accelerating phytoextraction, decreasing metal redistribution to edible plant portions, increasing plant tolerance to HMs by hormonal manipulation, and boosting metal sequestration in roots. These methods seek to increase plant resistance to HMs stress while supporting environmentally friendly agricultural output. In conclusion, phytohormones present potential ways to reduce the toxicity of HMs in plants, thus promoting sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico , Citocininas , Giberelinas , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
9.
Toxicology ; 503: 153771, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452865

RESUMO

Lead (Pb2+) is a hazardous heavy metal that is pervasive in the human environment as a result of anthropogenic activity, and poses serious health risks, particularly in children. Due to its innumerable unique physical and chemical properties, it has various applications; therefore, it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead may cause oxidative stress, and accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress influences the pathophysiology of lead poisoning, also called plumbism. The immune system is continually exposed to various environmental pathogens and xenobiotics, including heavy metals such as lead, and appears to be one of the most vulnerable targets. After being exposed to lead, cells are subjected to oxidative stress as a result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. When the generation and consumption of ROS are out of equilibrium, various cell structures, particularly phospholipids are disrupted leading to lipid peroxidation. Various inflammatory signalling pathways are activated as a consequence, along with reduced disease resistance, inflammation, autoimmunity, sensitization and disruption of the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems. Lead negatively affects the metabolism of cytokines, including the interleukins IL-2, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-4, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN), as well as the expression and functioning of inflammatory enzymes such as cyclooxygenases. However, the cause of toxicity depends on the kind of lead, dosage, route of entry, exposure period, age, host and genetic predisposition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Metais Pesados , Criança , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 103, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502356

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Methylglyoxal and glyoxalase function a significant role in plant response to heavy metal stress. We update and discuss the most recent developments of methylglyoxal and glyoxalase in regulating plant response to heavy metal stress. Methylglyoxal (MG), a by-product of several metabolic processes, is created by both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. It plays an important role in plant growth and development, signal transduction, and response to heavy metal stress (HMS). Changes in MG content and glyoxalase (GLY) activity under HMS imply that they may be potential biomarkers of plant stress resistance. In this review, we summarize recent advances in research on the mechanisms of MG and GLY in the regulation of plant responses to HMS. It has been discovered that appropriate concentrations of MG assist plants in maintaining a balance between growth and development and survival defense, therefore shielding them from heavy metal harm. MG and GLY regulate plant physiological processes by remodeling cellular redox homeostasis, regulating stomatal movement, and crosstalking with other signaling molecules (including abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, jasmonic acid, cytokinin, salicylic acid, melatonin, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, and nitric oxide). We also discuss the involvement of MG and GLY in the regulation of plant responses to HMS at the transcriptional, translational, and metabolic levels. Lastly, considering the current state of research, we present a perspective on the future direction of MG research to elucidate the MG anti-stress mechanism and offer a theoretical foundation and useful advice for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated environments in the future.


Assuntos
Lactoilglutationa Liase , Metais Pesados , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 221, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539080

RESUMO

Most vegetable crops are severely affected by the uptake of heavy metals from the soil. Heavy metals in vegetable bodies generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that unbalance the antioxidant defense system. This study was initiated to determine the physiological and biochemical characteristics of spinach plants grown on soil contaminated with heavy metals and responding to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus aerius were isolated from soil contaminated with heavy metals. Heavy metal contamination led to a significant reduction in seed germination, seedling biomass, protein, and total nitrogen content of spinach plants grown in contaminated soils compared to control soils. In contrast, a significant increase in the content of metallothioneins and antioxidant enzymes was observed. Plants inoculated with B. cereus and B. aerius significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by heavy metals by improving seed germination (%), seedling growth, nitrogen, and protein content. The content of metallothioneins and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were reduced in spinach plants grown from seeds inoculated with bacterial strains. In addition, plants inoculated with, B. cereus and B. aerius showed greater stomata opening than plants grown on soil contaminated with heavy metals, whose stomata were almost closed. These results suggested that both bacterial strains enhanced plant growth by reducing oxidative stress caused by metals.


Assuntos
Loratadina/análogos & derivados , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Spinacia oleracea , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Solo/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542366

RESUMO

The ongoing anthropogenic pollution of the biosphere with As, Cd, Hg and Pb will inevitably result in an increased influx of their corresponding toxic metal(loid) species into the bloodstream of human populations, including children and pregnant women. To delineate whether the measurable concentrations of these inorganic pollutants in the bloodstream are tolerable or implicated in the onset of environmental diseases urgently requires new insight into their dynamic bioinorganic chemistry in the bloodstream-organ system. Owing to the human exposure to multiple toxic metal(loid) species, the mechanism of chronic toxicity of each of these needs to be integrated into a framework to better define the underlying exposure-disease relationship. Accordingly, this review highlights some recent advances into the bioinorganic chemistry of the Cd2+, Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ in blood plasma, red blood cells and target organs and provides a first glimpse of their emerging mechanisms of chronic toxicity. Although many important knowledge gaps remain, it is essential to design experiments with the intent of refining these mechanisms to eventually establish a framework that may allow us to causally link the cumulative exposure of human populations to multiple toxic metal(loid) species with environmental diseases of unknown etiology that do not appear to have a genetic origin. Thus, researchers from a variety of scientific disciplines need to contribute to this interdisciplinary effort to rationally address this public health threat which may require the implementation of stronger regulatory requirements to improve planetary and human health, which are fundamentally intertwined.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cádmio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Poluição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , China
13.
Planta ; 259(5): 103, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551683

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Heavy metal pollution caused by human activities is a serious threat to the environment and human health. Plants have evolved sophisticated defence systems to deal with heavy metal stress, with proteins and enzymes serving as critical intercepting agents for heavy metal toxicity reduction. Proteomics continues to be effective in identifying markers associated with stress response and metabolic processes. This review explores the complex interactions between heavy metal pollution and plant physiology, with an emphasis on proteomic and biotechnological perspectives. Over the last century, accelerated industrialization, agriculture activities, energy production, and urbanization have established a constant need for natural resources, resulting in environmental degradation. The widespread buildup of heavy metals in ecosystems as a result of human activity is especially concerning. Although some heavy metals are required by organisms in trace amounts, high concentrations pose serious risks to the ecosystem and human health. As immobile organisms, plants are directly exposed to heavy metal contamination, prompting the development of robust defence mechanisms. Proteomics has been used to understand how plants react to heavy metal stress. The development of proteomic techniques offers promising opportunities to improve plant tolerance to toxicity from heavy metals. Additionally, there is substantial scope for phytoremediation, a sustainable method that uses plants to extract, sequester, or eliminate contaminants in the context of changes in protein expression and total protein behaviour. Changes in proteins and enzymatic activities have been highlighted to illuminate the complex effects of heavy metal pollution on plant metabolism, and how proteomic research has revealed the plant's ability to mitigate heavy metal toxicity by intercepting vital nutrients, organic substances, and/or microorganisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Ecossistema , Biodegradação Ambiental , Proteômica , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2311127121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507447

RESUMO

Microbiota comprise the bulk of life's diversity, yet we know little about how populations of microbes accumulate adaptive diversity across natural landscapes. Adaptation to stressful soil conditions in plants provides seminal examples of adaptation in response to natural selection via allelic substitution. For microbes symbiotic with plants however, horizontal gene transfer allows for adaptation via gene gain and loss, which could generate fundamentally different evolutionary dynamics. We use comparative genomics and genetics to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to physiologically stressful serpentine soils in rhizobial bacteria in western North American grasslands. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the presence of a locus of major effect, the nre operon, is necessary and sufficient to confer adaptation to nickel, a heavy metal enriched to toxic levels in serpentine soil, and a major axis of environmental soil chemistry variation. We find discordance between inferred evolutionary histories of the core genome and nreAXY genes, which often reside in putative genomic islands. This suggests that the evolutionary history of this adaptive variant is marked by frequent losses, and/or gains via horizontal acquisition across divergent rhizobium clades. However, different nre alleles confer distinct levels of nickel resistance, suggesting allelic substitution could also play a role in rhizobium adaptation to serpentine soil. These results illustrate that the interplay between evolution via gene gain and loss and evolution via allelic substitution may underlie adaptation in wild soil microbiota. Both processes are important to consider for understanding adaptive diversity in microbes and improving stress-adapted microbial inocula for human use.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Rhizobium , Humanos , Rhizobium/genética , Níquel , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Genômica , Solo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171700, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490408

RESUMO

The speciation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of the newly deposited atmospheric heavy metals in the soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) system were investigated by a fully factorial atmospheric exposure experiment using soils exposed to 0.8-year and 1.8-year atmospheric depositions. The results shown that the newly deposited metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) primarily accumulated in the topsoil (0-6 cm) and were present as the highly bioavailable speciation. They can migrate further to increase the concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Pb in soil solution of the deeper layer (at 10 cm) by 12 %-436 %. Earthworms tended to preferentially accumulate the newly deposited metals, which contributed 10 %-61 % of Cu, Cd, and Pb in earthworms. Further, for the unpolluted and moderately polluted soils, the newly deposited metals induced the significant oxidative stress in earthworms, resulting in significant increases in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px). No significant differences were observed in the levels of heavy metals in soil solutions, bioaccumulation, and enzyme activities in earthworms exposed to 0.8-year and 1.8-year depositions, indicating the bioavailability of atmospheric metals deposited into soils was rapidly decreased with time. This study highlights the high bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals to earthworm from the new atmospheric deposition during the earthworm growing period.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Cádmio , Solo , Bioacumulação , Chumbo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7552, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555404

RESUMO

Asbestos is widely used in construction, manufacturing, and other common industrial fields. Human activities such as mining, processing, and transportation can release heavy metals from asbestos into the surrounding soil environment, posing a health hazard to the mining area's environment and its surrounding residents. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of ecological and human health damage caused by asbestos pollution, as well as the primary contributors to the contamination, by examining a large asbestos mine and the surrounding soil in China. The level of heavy metal pollution in soil and sources were analyzed using methods such as the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), potential ecological risk index (RI), and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. A Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk model was employed to assess the health risks of heavy metals in the study area's soil to human beings. The results showed that the concentrations of As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Ni in the soil were 1.74, 0.13, 13.31, 0.33, and 33.37 times higher than the local soil background values, respectively. The Igeo assessment indicated significant accumulation effects for Ni, Cr, and As. The RI evaluation revealed extremely high comprehensive ecological risks (RI ≥ 444) in the vicinity of the waste residue heap and beneficiation area, with Ni exhibiting strong individual potential ecological risk (Eir ≥ 320). The soil health risk assessment demonstrated that As and Cr posed carcinogenic risks to adults, with mean carcinogenic indices (CR) of 1.56E - 05 and 4.14E - 06, respectively. As, Cr, and Cd posed carcinogenic risks to children, with mean CRs of 1.08E - 04, 1.61E - 05, and 2.68E - 06, respectively. Cr also posed certain non-carcinogenic risks to both adults and children. The PMF model identified asbestos contamination as the primary source of heavy metals in the soil surrounding the asbestos mining area, contributing to 79.0%. According to this study, it is recommended that management exercise oversight and regulation over the concentrations of Ni, Cr, Cd, and As in the soil adjacent to asbestos mines, establish a designated control zone to restrict population activities, and locate residential zones at a safe distance from the asbestos mine production zone.


Assuntos
Amianto , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Solo/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Amianto/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , China , Medição de Risco
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133951, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492385

RESUMO

Unlike terrestrial angiosperm plants, the freshwater aquatic angiosperm duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) grows directly in water and has distinct responses to heavy-metal stress. Plantlets accumulate metabolites, including lipids and carbohydrates, under heavy-metal stress, but how they balance metabolite levels is unclear, and the gene networks that mediate heavy-metal stress responses remain unknown. Here, we show that heavy-metal stress induced by flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater reduces chlorophyll contents, inhibits growth, reduces membrane lipid biosynthesis, and stimulates membrane lipid degradation in S. polyrhiza, leading to triacylglycerol and carbohydrate accumulation. In FGD wastewater-treated plantlets, the degraded products of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, primarily polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:3), were incorporated into triacylglycerols. Genes involved in early fatty acid biosynthesis, ß-oxidation, and lipid degradation were upregulated while genes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis were downregulated by treatment. The transcription factor gene WRINKLED3 (SpWRI3) was upregulated in FGD wastewater-treated plantlets, and its ectopic expression increased tolerance to FGD wastewater in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced glutathione and lower malondialdehyde contents under stress, suggesting that SpWRI3 functions in S. polyrhiza tolerance of FGD wastewater-induced heavy-metal stress. These results provide a basis for improving heavy metal-stress tolerance in plants for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Araceae , Metais Pesados , Águas Residuárias , Arabidopsis/genética , Lipidômica , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Araceae/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(4): 391, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517570

RESUMO

Although bats are responsible for many ecosystem services on which humans depend, they are frequently exposed to multiple anthropogenic stressors. Heavy metal (HM) exposure is an emerging threat of great significance to bats, yet the toxicity threshold for most metallic elements remains unknown. The greatest diversity of bats worldwide is in the Neotropical region, where ecotoxicological studies are scarce. Thus, this review provides a current overview of the knowledge available on HMs contamination of Neotropical bats. Analysis of the results of 17 articles published between 2000 and 2023 documented a trend of increasing interest in the topic, although it is incipient and in few countries. Of the 226 species known for the Neotropics, 95 have been investigated for metal concentrations. Seven different matrices were used to assess concentrations of heavy metals in tissues, with fur being the subject of eight studies, highlighting the search for non-invasive analysis. Twenty-one HMs were detected in bats, with mercury being the most common. The highest concentrations of this HM were detected in insectivorous/omnivorous bats, highlighting its magnification in this trophic guild compared to frugivorous bats. Copper, lead, and cadmium did not differ significantly among the other trophic guilds. This review shows that there is knowledge about concentrations of heavy metals in several Neotropical species, but knowledge about the impact of these concentrations on bat health is limited, which highlights the need for research to determine critical concentrations that cause damage to bat health, and that guide conservation actions for their populations, as well as environmental monitoring actions for these pollutants.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Metais Pesados , Animais , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134085, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522197

RESUMO

Composite pollution by microplastics and heavy metals poses a potential threat to the soilplant system and has received increasing attention. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have good application potential for the remediation of combined microplastic and heavy metal pollution, but few related studies exist. The present study employed a pot experiment to investigate the effects of inoculation with the PGPB Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 on sorghum growth and Cd accumulation under conditions of combined cadmium (Cd) and polyethylene (PE) pollution. Cd+PE composite contamination led to a significant reduction in sorghum length and biomass due to increased toxicity. Inoculation with Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 alleviated the stress caused by Cd+PE complex pollution, and the dry weight of sorghum increased by 25.7% to 46.1% aboveground and by 12.3% to 45.3% belowground. Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 inoculation increased the Cd content and accumulation in sorghum and improved the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd. The inoculation treatment effectively alleviated the nutrient stress caused by the reduction in soil mineral nutrients due to Cd+PE composite pollution. The composition of the soil bacterial communities was also affected by the Cd, Cd+PE and bacterial inoculation treatments, which affected the diversity of the soil bacterial communities. Network analyses indicated that bacterial inoculation regulated the interaction of rhizospheric microorganisms and increased the stability of soil bacterial communities. The Mantel test showed that the changes in the soil bacterial community and function due to inoculation with Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 were important factors influencing sorghum growth and Cd remediation efficiency. The results of this study will provide new evidence for the research on joint plantmicrobe remediation of heavy metal and microplastic composite pollution.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Sorghum , Cádmio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plásticos , Polietileno , Solo , Rizosfera , Microplásticos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Enterobacter , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Pathol Res Pract ; 256: 155260, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493726

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the lungs due to the uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells. Heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, are metallic elements characterized by their high atomic weights and densities. Anthropogenic activities, such as industrial operations and pollution, have the potential to discharge heavy metals into the environment, hence presenting hazards to ecosystems and human well-being. The TGF-ß signalling pathways have a crucial function in controlling several cellular processes, with the ability to both prevent and promote tumor growth. TGF-ß regulates cellular responses by interacting in both canonical and non-canonical signalling pathways. Research employing both in vitro and in vivo models has shown that heavy metals may trigger TGF-ß signalling via complex molecular pathways. Experiments conducted in a controlled laboratory environment show that heavy metals like cadmium and arsenic may directly bind to TGF-ß receptors, leading to alterations in their structure that enable the receptor to be phosphorylated. Activation of this route sets in motion subsequent signalling cascades, most notably the canonical Smad pathway. The development of lung cancer has been linked to heavy metals, which are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. To grasp the underlying processes, it is necessary to comprehend their molecular effect on TGF-ß pathways. With a particular emphasis on its consequences for lung cancer, this abstract delves into the complex connection between exposure to heavy metals and the stimulation of TGF-ß signalling.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Cádmio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Arsênio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo
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