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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1824, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725877

RESUMO

Water quality index (WQI) of Narora channel and health of endemic fish Bagarius bagarius and plant Eichhornia crassipes, district Bulandshahar, Uttar Pradesh, India were studied. Among the physicochemical properties of water, pH, D.O, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cd were above the recommended standards. These factors lead to high WQI (4124.83), indicating poor quality and not suitable for drinking and domestic usage. In fish tissues, the highest metal load was reported in the liver (58.29) and the lowest in the kidney (33.73). Heavy metals also cause a lowering of condition indices. As expected, decreased serum protein (- 63.41%) and liver glycogen (- 79.10%) were recorded in the exposed fish. However, blood glucose (47.22%) and serum glycogen (74.69%) showed elevation. In the plant, roots (21.50) contained the highest, and leaves (16.87) had the lowest heavy metal load. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) > 1, indicates hyperaccumulation of all metals. E. crassipes roots showed the highest translocation factor (TF) > 1 for Ni (1.57) and Zn (1.30). The high mobility factor (MF) reflected the suitability of E. crassipes for phytoextraction of Mn, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and Cu. Moreover, Bagarius sp. consumption could not pose any non-cancer risk. Although, lower cancer risk can be expected from Ni and Cr.


Assuntos
Eichhornia , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Eichhornia/química , Cádmio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas , Medição de Risco , Monitoramento Ambiental
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673760

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution related to non-ferrous metal smelting may pose a significant threat to human health. This study analyzed 58 surface soils collected from a representative non-ferrous metal smelting area to screen potentially hazardous heavy metals and evaluate their health risk in the studied area. The findings demonstrated that human activity had contributed to the pollution degrees of Cu, Cd, As, Zn, and Pb in the surrounding area of a non-ferrous metal smelting plant (NMSP). Cu, Cd, As, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Co pollution within the NMSP was serious. Combining the spatial distribution and Spearman correlations with principal component analysis (PCA), the primary sources of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in surrounding areas were related to non-ferrous metal smelting and transportation activities. High non-cancer (THI = 4.76) and cancer risks (TCR = 2.99 × 10-4) were found for adults in the NMSP. Moreover, heavy metals in the surrounding areas posed a potential cancer risk to children (TCR = 3.62 × 10-6) and adults (TCR = 1.27 × 10-5). The significant contributions of As, Pb, and Cd to health risks requires special attention. The construction of a heavy metal pollution management system will benefit from the current study for the non-ferrous metal smelting industry.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Solo , Cádmio , Chumbo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , China
3.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 120998, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603760

RESUMO

Mineral elements and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pollutants in livestock and poultry farms' wastewater are often sources of ecological and public health problems. To understand the heavy-metal pollution status and the characteristics of drug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in swine-farm wastewater in Shandong Province and to provide guidance for the rational use of mineral-element additives, common antibiotics, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on swine farms, 10 mineral elements were measured and E. coli isolated from wastewater and its resistance to 29 commonly used antibiotics and resistance genes was determined. Finally, phylogenetic and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analyses was performed on E. coli. The results showed serious pollution from iron and zinc, with a comprehensive pollution index of 708.94 and 3.13, respectively. It is worth noting that average iron levels in 75% (12/16) of the districts exceed allowable limits. Multidrug-resistant E. coli were found in every city of the province. The E. coli isolated from swine-farm wastewater were mainly resistant to tetracyclines (95.3%), chloramphenicol (77.8%), and sulfonamides (62.2%), while antibiotic resistance genes for quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, and ß-lactams were all more than 60%. The clonal complex 10 (CC10) was prevalent, and ST10 and ST48 were dominant in E. coli isolates. Multidrug-resistant E. coli were widely distributed, with mainly A genotypes. However, the mechanism of the effect of iron on antibiotic resistance needs more study in this area. Thus, further strengthening the prevention and control of iron and zinc pollution and standardizing the use of antibiotics and mineral element additives in the swine industry are necessary.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Metais Pesados , Animais , Suínos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Fazendas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Agricultura , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Sulfanilamida/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Ferro/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137745, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608883

RESUMO

Microplastics are plastic particles less than 5 mm in diameter and are widely present in water environments. Their unique surface structures can adsorb coexisting pollutants in the surrounding environment, such as antibiotics and metal ions, leading to compound pollution. The adsorption of ciprofloxacin on polyethylene microplastics under different environmental conditions (pH and salinity) was investigated. The Freundlich model fitted well at 25 °C, indicating that the adsorption of ciprofloxacin by polyethylene microplastics was multilayered, and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that the adsorption of ciprofloxacin by polyethylene microplastics was physical. The kinetic adsorption of ciprofloxacin on polyethylene microplastics followed a pseudo-second-order mode. Heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Cd2+, and Pb2+) affected the adsorption of ciprofloxacin by microplastics, which was related to the type and concentration of metal ions and the valence state of the ions. The acute toxicity of microplastics and the microplastic-ciprofloxacin-Cu2+ complex were evaluated using luminescent Photobacterium phosphoreum, demonstrating the polyethylene toxicity microplastic-ciprofloxacin-Cu2+ complex was mainly caused by Cu2+ and ciprofloxacin rather than microplastics. This study provides theoretical support for the environmental behavior and ecological effects of microplastics in aqueous environments.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microplásticos/química , Plásticos/química , Polietileno/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacina/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacina/análise , Adsorção , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/química , Íons
5.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677817

RESUMO

Heavy metals represent a large category of pollutants. Heavy metals are the focus of researchers around the world, mainly due to their harmful effects on plants. In this paper, the influence of copper, cadmium, manganese, nickel, zinc and lead, present in soil in different concentrations (below the permissible limit, the maximum permissible concentration and a concentration higher than the maximum permissible limit) on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was evaluated. For this purpose, the authors analyzed the variation of photosynthetic pigments, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity and the elemental content in the studied plants. The experimental results showed that the variation of the content of biologically active compounds, elemental content and the antioxidant activity in the plants grown in contaminated soil, compared to the control plants, depends on the type and concentration of the metal added to the soil. The biggest decrease was recorded for plants grown in soil treated with Ni I (-42.38%) for chlorophyll a, Zn II (-32.92%) for chlorophyll b, Ni I (-40.46%) for carotenoids, Pb I (-40.95%) for polyphenols and Cu III (-29.42%) for DPPH. On the other hand, the largest increase regarding the amount of biologically active compounds was registered for Mn I (88.24%) in the case of the chlorophyll a, Mn I (65.56%) for chlorophyll b, Pb I (116.03%) for carotenoids, Ni III (1351.23%) for polyphenols and Ni III (1149.35%) for DPPH.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Alface , Clorofila A , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo/química , Carotenoides , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(2): 72, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622498

RESUMO

Coal mine overburdens are generally highly acidic and contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Here, we studied the culturable fungal diversity associated with different coal overburden strata (OBS) of Assam, India, and assessed their heavy metal tolerance ability against five different heavy metals viz., As3+, Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, and Ni2+. Among 15 distinct coal OBS considered in this study which spans a depth of ~ 35 m from the ground surface, the isolation of fungi was successful only from 11 OBS samples and the colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were highly variable among the samples. A total of 66 fungal pure cultures were isolated which belong to 18 genera (17 known and 1 unknown) under 15 families and two divisions i.e., Ascomycota (89.4%) and Basidiomycota (10.6%). Acidiella bohemica was found relatively the most abundant species followed by Rhodotorula toruloides. A good number of fungal isolates was found tolerant to the test heavy metals at concentrations ≥ 1 mM. Findings of some multi-metallotolerant fungal isolates along with a tolerance up to 5 mM concentration of As3+, and up to 10 mM each of Cu2+, Cr6+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ were noteworthy in the present study that could be useful in the management of heavy metal pollution or stress. Cultivable fungal diversity of coal mine overburden strata of Tikak colliery, Margherita, Assam, India. It shows a photograph of the coal mining site as the background, front view of the fungal colonies in the upper section, and a graphical representation of heavy metal tolerance of the isolates at different concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in the lower section.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Cádmio , Carvão Mineral , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Fungos/genética , Solo
7.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 86(2-3): 74-85, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628475

RESUMO

Worldwide water quality has declined progressively due to continuous pollution of aquatic resources by agrochemicals in particular heavy metals. Fish genotoxicity biomarkers are vital to identify and complement chemical parameters for determining environmental risk of adverse effects. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the eco-genotoxicity attributed to water pollution over different stream sections of Brazilian rivers by using Cichlasoma paranaense (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a neotropical freshwater cichlid fish, as a biological model. Chemical analysis of water and sediments collected from different Brazilian rivers sites demonstrated contamination by metals. Cichlasoma paranaense were collected at a reference location (a permanent water preservation area), maintained in the lab under standard conditions (controlled temperature, lighting, daily feeding, and constant aeration) and exposed to environmental samples of water and sediments. Subsequently, micronucleus (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies were assessed in erythrocytes obtained from the caudal and gill regions. The highest concentrations of Cu were found in samples from river sites with forest fragmentation attributed to intensive agriculture practices. Similarly, exposure of fish to samples from agricultural areas induced significantly higher number of genotoxic effects. There was no marked difference between the tissues (tail and gill) regarding the observed frequencies of MN and NA. Thus C. paranaense fish served as a reliable model for detecting genotoxic effects, especially when water samples were collected near the discharge of agrochemicals. Evidence indicates that this method be considered for other global river sites which are also exposed to agrochemicals discharges containing Cu.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brasil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Dano ao DNA , Sedimentos Geológicos
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 247-255, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645929

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in the soil is a serious threat to crop growth and human health. Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight protein that is rich in cysteine, which can effectively alleviate the toxicity of heavy metals in plants. In this study, a novel metallothionein encoding gene, NtMT2F, was cloned from the Cd-hyperaccumulator tobacco and heterologously expressed in E. coli and A. thaliana to verify its biological function. Recombinant E. coli incubated with NtMT2F effectively resisted heavy metal stress, particularly Cd. The recombinant strain grew significantly faster and had a higher content of Cd than the control. Mutations in the C-terminal Cys residues of NtMT2F significantly reduced its ability to chelate heavy metals. The overexpression of NtMT2F significantly enhanced resistance to Cd toxicity in transgenic A. thaliana. The germination rate, root length, and fresh weight of transgenic plants under Cd stress were higher than those of the wild type (WT). The contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were lower than those of the WT. In addition, the activities of anti-peroxidase enzymes including glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD), were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. The results of this study indicate that NtMT2F significantly improved the tolerance of microorganisms and plants to Cd and could be an important candidate protein for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1546, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707609

RESUMO

East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW) is an important site for fish culture in sewage-fed areas, which are major receivers of pollutants and wastages from Kolkata. EKW is internationally important as the Ramsar site was declared on Aug 2002 with an area of 125 km2. EKW is a natural water body where wastewater-fed natural aquaculture has been practiced for more than 70 years. It is ecologically vulnerable due to the discharge of toxic waste through sewage canals from cities. Assessing the EKW to understand the inflow and load of the toxic metal (s) in fish, water, and sediments samples is essential. The field (samples collection from 13 sites) and lab (determination of toxic level of metals) based research were carried out to assess metal toxicity and health risk assessment in EKW. The levels of eighteen metals (18), namely Chromium, Vanadium, Cobalt, Manganese, Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Silver, Molybdenum, Arsenic, Selenium, Tin, Gallium, Germanium, Strontium, Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead, were determined using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in five fish tissues viz. muscle, liver, kidney, gill and brain, along with the water samples and soil sediments in 13 sampling sites. The bioaccumulation and concentration of metals in fish tissues, soil sediments, and water samples were well within the safe level concerning the recommendation of different national and international agencies except for a few metals in a few sampling sites like Cd, As, and Pb. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was also determined in the soil sediments, indicating moderate arsenic, selenium, and mercury contamination in a few sites. The contamination index in water was also determined in 13 sampling sites. The estimated daily intake (EDI), reference dose (RfD), target hazard quotient (THQ), slope factor and cancer risk of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb and Hg from fish muscle were determined. Based on the results of the present investigation, it is concluded that fish consumption in the East Kolkata Wetland (EKW) is safe. The effects of bioaccumulation of metals in muscle tissue were well within the safe level for consumption as recommended by WHO/FAO.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Selênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Cádmio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Arsênio/análise , Água/análise , Solo/química , Selênio/análise , Esgotos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Peixes , Medição de Risco , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 300, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642744

RESUMO

Morphological alterations of cells and tissues usually occur in biological organisms exposed to environmental contaminants, there by acting as a biomarker of environmental pollution, thus, making this study highly pertinent. The effect of industrial pollution on the qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters of hepatocytes (through histological analysis and cytomorphometry) was studied in two contrasting species of small mammals (Talpa europaea and Sylvaemus uralensis), taking into account the animal age (young and adult groups) and liver concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb). Studies were performed in the regions exposed to emissions from two currently operating copper smelters: Middle Ural Copper Smelter (Middle Urals, T. europaea catching area) and Karabash Copper Smelter (Southern Urals, S. uralensis catching area). Seven morphometric parameters of hepatocytes were measured, of which two key parameters were selected by the method of principal components-the cell packing density and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (N/C). It was found that cell packing density in T. europaea from the impact zone decreased relative to the background area in young animals. At the same time, the differences in this parameter between the age groups from the background zone were leveled in the impact area of catching. The N/C ratio in T. europaea hepatocytes showed no correlation with either animal age or site of capture (background or impact area). In S. uralensis, both parameters, even taking into account the age, were found to be insensitive to indicate an effect of industrial pollution. Dystrophic changes (tested through histological analysis) in the liver tissue were revealed in all animal groups, but their frequency did not depend on any of the factors (age, zone) as well as the level of accumulation of toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb). Morphometric parameters of hepatocytes have proved to be more reliable indicators of pollution, compared to the frequency of liver histopathology, due to lower subjectivity in their evaluation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Camundongos , Cobre/análise , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Mamíferos , Hepatócitos/química , Murinae , China , Medição de Risco , Solo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 250: 114479, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603484

RESUMO

The Dashan Region was a Se-rich region of China. In this study, 131 residents' human hair samples were collected. The concentrations of Se and toxic metals were analyzed, and the health risk was estimated using the concentration data. Cd and As concentrations were significantly higher than in East China. Se and most toxic metal concentrations increased with age (except for the aged people). Furthermore, gender and smoking habits might have a significant impact on toxic metals and Se levels. Multivariable statistics analysis revealed that Se and toxic metals primarily originate in the environment and are then transferred to the human body via the food chain. Dietary habits had an effect on the Se and As concentrations in hair, according to the results of stable isotope analysis. To assess detoxification ability, the Se/ toxic metal molar ratio was used as an indicator. The results demonstrated that the antagonistic effect of Se and Cd, As, Cr, and Hg (molar ratio > 1) could effectively protect residents in the study area from Cd and As pollution in daily life.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Selênio , Humanos , Idoso , Selênio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , China , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 250: 114494, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608569

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a common disease in the older population and represents a considerable disease burden worldwide. Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated associations between heavy metal exposure and dyslipidemia; few studies have investigated the effects of heavy metal mixture and interactions between metals on dyslipidemia. We recruited 1121 participants living in heavy metal-contaminated and control areas in northeast China from a cross-sectional survey (2017-2019). Urinary metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) and dyslipidemia biomarkers, namely triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, were measured. The generalized linear model (GLM) was used to explore the association of a single metal with dyslipidemia biomarkers. Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and multivariable linear regression were performed to explore the overall effect of metal mixture and the interaction between metals on dyslipidemia. Heavy metal mixture was positively associated with LDL-C, TC, and TG and negatively with HDL-C. In multivariable linear regression, Pb and Cd exhibited a synergistic association with LDL-C in the participants without hyperlipemia. Mn-Cd and Pb-Cr also showed a synergistic association with increasing the level of LDL-C in subjects without hyperlipemia. Cd-Cr showed an antagonistic association with HDL-C, respectively. Cr-Mn exhibited an antagonistic association with decreased HDL-C and TG levels. No significant interaction was noted among the three metals. Our study indicated that exposure to heavy metals is associated with dyslipidemia biomarkers and the presence of potential synergistic or antagonistic interactions between the heavy metals.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Cádmio/toxicidade , LDL-Colesterol , Teorema de Bayes , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Manganês , Cromo , Triglicerídeos , HDL-Colesterol , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , China
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 863: 161004, 2023 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543270

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination in raw materials has spread widely in the United States. The high increased number of recalls in consumer products and the lack of stricter regulations in the raw materials to be used in the jewelry industry have raised concerns among consumers. Studies in low-cost jewelry have shown the presence and high content of heavy metals; this environmental problem led to a child's death after swallowing a charm containing elevated levels of lead (Pb). Exposure to heavy metals, through inhalation, mouth, and skin contact, causes adverse health effects in children and adults. Exposure to lead affects mainly the nervous system and brain development; exposure to cadmium (Cd) causes damage to liver, kidneys, and lungs, and potentially leads to cancer; exposure to nickel (Ni) causes severe dermatitis. Thus, the importance and impact of studies of this nature cannot be overstated. As heavy metal contamination has increased in the United States, this research fills an important knowledge gap between previous studies conducted on low-cost jewelry and fine jewelry. In this study, conducted in the Paso del Norte region, one hundred and forty-three pieces of fine jewelry were evaluated for the presence of heavy metals using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Our study showed that 61 samples (42.7 %) exhibited the presence of Ni in the metal alloy, prevailing in jewelry pieces with lower percentage of gold. Eighteen samples showed the presence of Pb in gemstones, 11 pieces of these samples (7.7 % total) had <33.3 % gold (≤10 K); however, none of the samples showed the presence of Pb in the metal alloy. Further research is needed to evaluate the bioaccessibility of Pb in these gemstones, which may pose a potential health hazard to children and adults in the US Paso del Norte region and throughout the world.


Assuntos
Joias , Metais Pesados , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Chumbo , México , Jogos e Brinquedos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Cádmio/análise , Níquel , Ouro , Espectrometria por Raios X , Ligas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco
14.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 4): 114646, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332671

RESUMO

Microbial-assisted phytoremediation provides a green approach for remediation of metal contaminated soils. However, the impacts of mono and co-applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on soil biochemical properties and phytoavailability of toxic metals in contaminated mining soils have not yet been sufficiently examined. Consequently, here we studied the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (P), Lactobacillus acidophilus (A), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (R) applications alone and in combination on soil enzyme activities and bioavailability and uptake of Cd and Zn by mustard (Brassica juncea) in a smelter-contaminated soil under greenhouse conditions. Among the studied bacteria, P was the most tolerant to Cd-and-Zn contamination. As compared to control, R increased the fresh and dry weight of mustard plants by 53.5% and 63.2%, respectively. Co-application of P + A increased the chlorophyll content by 28.6%, as compared to control. Addition of LAB to soil increased the activity of soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and ß-D glucosidase increased by 1.86-fold (P + R), 1.80-fold (R) and 55.16% (P + R), respectively. Application of P + A + R enhanced catalase activity (19.3%) and superoxide dismutase activity (51.2%), while addition of A alone increased peroxidase activity (POD: 15.7%). Addition of P alone and together with A (P + A) enhanced Cd and Zn phytoextraction by mustard shoots up to 51.5% and 52.5%, respectively. We conclude that the single and/or co-application of LAB decreased soil pH, promoted plant growth, antioxidant and enzyme activities, and enhanced the phytoavailability of Cd and Zn in the studied contaminated soil. These findings might be an aid for enhancing the phytoremediation of Cd and Zn using LAB and mustard as a bioenergy crop, which may offer new ideas for field treatment of toxic metals contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Poluentes do Solo , Antioxidantes , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bioengenharia , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mostardeira , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zinco/análise , Zinco/toxicidade
15.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 75: 127106, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As is well known, the pollution in the aquatic environment in which fish grow has a direct impact on aquaculture practices. Pollution in aquatic systems because of multiple adverse effects on fish metabolic processes, especially the reproductive systems. AIM: The goal of this study was to assess the severity of pollution impact in two different hatcheries, Verinag hatchery, Site 1 (S1) and Panzath hatchery, Site 2 (S2) in Anantnag region, using histopathological, ultrastructural, oxidative stress, genotoxic, and hormonal analysis in rainbow trout gonad (ovary). M&M: Fish were collected between May 2018 and April 2019 from two locations, Verinag hatchery (S1) and Panzath hatchery (S2), which were affected by heavy metals. RESULTS: The histological and ultrastructural examination of rainbow trout ovaries from the Verinag hatchery (S1) revealed normal structure in growing oocytes in rainbow trout at various stages based on morphological features while the fish ovaries in the Panzath hatchery (S2) showed various deformities and irregularly shaped oocytes. The surfaces of some of these oocytes were wrinkled, rough, or distorted. Apoptotic studies revealed that the frequency of apoptotic cells collected from S2 water was significantly increased in ovarian cells (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were found to be increased in fish collected from S1 but decreased in fish collected from S2. In S2 caught fish, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were found to increase gradually, and the degree of heavy metal stress was positively correlated (p < 0.05). The comet assay was used to determine the induction of DNA damage in ovarian cells. The induction of DNA damage was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in S2 fish specimens compared to fish from S1. On comparing the DNA damage of the rainbow trout from the two sampling sites, it was revealed that the fish is much more sensitive to aquatic contaminants. Regarding steroid hormones, higher levels of progesterone and estrogen were reported in the fish samples collected from S1 as compared to S2 captured fish. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the comparative study of fish from two different sites viz. Verinag hatchery (S1) and Panzath hatchery (S2) revealed that S2 sampled fish suffered more heavy metal damage, including cellular deformities, apoptosis, oxidative damage, and altered steroid hormones.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Hormônios , Esteroides , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 75: 127103, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic toxicity is one of the major health issues throughout the world. Approximately 108 countries that account for more than 230 million people worldwide are at high risk of arsenic poisoning mainly through drinking water and diet. Chronic exposure to arsenic causes several pathophysiological end-points including skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, cancer, etc. In India, the population living in the lower Gangetic basin possesses a great risk of arsenicosis and other diseases. Scientists are trying to understand the gene-environmental interactions behind arsenic toxicity revealing the potential role of genetic variants of individuals. Few pieces of the literature showed that the population is not exposed to a mixture of metals. Hence, in this study, an attempt has been made to explore whether some other metals play a synergistic role in As-induced toxicity. METHODS: For this, an assessment of the level of heavy metals using ED-XRF in soil, vegetables from As-exposed areas along with quantification of the heavy metal concentration in human blood and hair of the As-exposed population were conducted. RESULTS: Results show the concentration of urinary arsenic is very high signifying the magnitude of the exposure. In addition to this, the levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) were found to be very high in soil and Fe, manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) in vegetables were exceeding the WHO/FAO recommended permissible limit. However, Fe and zinc (Zn) were predominantly high in whole blood and hair of the arsenic-exposed population when compared with the control population. CONCLUSION: It can be confirmed that the population from Murshidabad is exposed to As and other heavy metals through drinking water as well as food. Particularly for this population, Fe, Zn and rubidium (Rb) may play a synergistic role in arsenic-induced toxicity. However, further studies on the large population-based investigation are required to establish the chemistry of the metal toxicity.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Metais Pesados , Humanos , Arsênio/toxicidade , Índia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 223-233, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547223

RESUMO

Understanding the gene regulatory basis of plant response to heavy metals (HMs) is fundamental for the management of food safety and security. However, a comprehensive and comparative view of the plant responses to different HMs is still lacking. Here, we compared root transcriptomes in common bean under 9 HM treatments at 50 µM for three time points each. Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb caused most severe morphological and/or biochemical retardations. A total of 448 genes were found to be responsive to all nine HMs, which were mostly involved in photosynthesis, oxidization-reduction, and ion binding. Cd and Cu triggered the greatest number of unique differentially expressed genes (DEG)s, which were predominantly related to cellular transport/localization in the former and RNA binding in the latter. Short-term and prolonged HM treatments shaped very different DEG patterns. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified six co-expression modules showing exceptionally high transcripts abundance in specific HM × time scenarios. We experimentally verified the promoter activity of the gene GIP1 and the novel function of XTH23 under Cu/Cd stress. Collectively, the transcriptomic atlas provides valuable resources for better understanding the common and unique mechanisms of plant response to different HMs and offers a mass of candidate target genes/promoters for genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Phaseolus , Poluentes do Solo , Transcriptoma , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Engenharia Genética , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114395, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508783

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is still considered a global complementary or alternative medical system, but exogenous hazardous contaminants remain in TCM even after decocting. Besides, it is time-consuming to conduct a risk assessment of trace elements in TCMs with a non-automatic approach due to the wide variety of TCMs. Here, we present MRTCM, a cloud-computing infrastructure for automating the probabilistic risk assessment of metals and metalloids in TCM. MRTCM includes a consumption database and a pollutant database involving forty million rows of consumption data and fourteen types of TCM potentially toxic elements concentrations. The algorithm of probabilistic risk assessment was also packaged in MRTCM to assess the risks of eight elements with Monte Carlo simulation. The results demonstrated that 96.64% and 99.46% had no non-carcinogenic risk (hazard indices (HI) were < 1.0) for animal and herbal medicines consumers, respectively. After twenty years of exposure, less than 1% of the total carcinogenic risk (CRt) was > 10-4 for TCM consumers, indicating that they are at potential risk for carcinogenicity. Sensitivity analysis revealed that annual consumption and concentration were the main variables affecting the assessment results. Ultimately, a priority management list of TCMs was also generated, indicating that more attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risks of As, Mn, and Hg and the carcinogenic risks of As and Cr in Pheretima and Cr in Arcae Conch. In general, MRTCM could significantly enhance the efficiency of risk assessment in TCM and provide reasonable guidance for policymakers to optimize risk management.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Animais , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metaloides/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Medição de Risco , Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 161059, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565863

RESUMO

The probability of occupational exposure rises with the increasing production and biomedical application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Thus, the risk of co-exposure of nanomaterials with environmental pollutants is also increasing. Although many studies have focused on the combined toxicity of nanomaterials and pollutants, more attention has been paid to the toxicity of nanomaterials after adsorbing pollutants or the toxicity of nanomaterials and pollutants exposed simultaneously. Few studies have been conducted on the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials and environmental pollutants following sequential exposure. In this study, we employed THP-1 cells to investigate how pristine single walled CNTs (p-SWCNTs) and oxidized single walled CNTs (SWCNT-COOHs) pretreatments at a non-lethal dose of 10 µg/mL affect cell responses to metal ions (i. e., Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cr(VI)). We found that p-SWCNTs caused more significant damage to cell membrane integrity than SWCNT-COOHs, which led to higher metallothionein (MT) levels and increased transport of metal ions into cells. Pretreatment of p-SWCNTs in cells significantly increased the cytotoxicity of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cr(VI) by 2-4-fold, whereas SWCNT-COOHs pretreated cells showed no noteworthy changes in response to heavy metals, which were further confirmed by the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. These findings indicate that understanding the effects of the exposure sequence of engineered nanomaterials and environmental pollutants on their toxicity provides an excellent complement to combined toxicity evaluation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Nanotubos de Carbono , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Chumbo , Íons , Macrófagos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 541-551, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522084

RESUMO

A typical anthropogenically disturbed urban river polluted by a combination of conventional pollutants (nitrogen and phosphorus pollution) and heavy metals was investigated along a 238 km stretch. Changes in the bacterial community were evaluated using high-throughput sequencing, and the relationships between bacteria, heavy metals, and conventional pollutants were investigated. There was large spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial community along the river, and bacterial diversity in the upstream and midstream sections was much higher than in the downstream section. Heavy metals and conventional pollutants both exhibited close correlations with bacterial diversity and composition. For instance, potential fecal indicator bacteria, sewage indicator bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, such as Ruminococcus and Pseudomonas, were closely associated with Cu, Zn, and NH4+-N. Rather than conventional pollutants, heavy metals were the main driving factors of the microbial community characteristics. These results confirm that bacterial communities play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles. Therefore, heavy metals could be used as biomarkers of complex pollution to indicate the pollution status of riverine ecosystems and contribute to the restoration of habitats in anthropogenically disturbed urban rivers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Bactérias , China
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