Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.981
Filtrar
1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 190, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622130

RESUMO

Drug addiction represents a multifaceted and recurrent brain disorder that possesses the capability to create persistent and ineradicable pathological memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown a therapeutic potential for neuropsychological disorders, while the precise stimulation targets and therapeutic parameters for addiction remain deficient. Among the crucial brain regions implicated in drug addiction, the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has been found to exert an essential role in the manifestation of addiction memory. Thus, we investigated the effects of DRN DBS in the treatment of addiction and whether it might produce side effects by a series of behavioral assessments, including methamphetamine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behaviors, food-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), open field test and elevated plus-maze test, and examined brain activity and connectivity after DBS of DRN. We found that high-frequency DBS of the DRN significantly lowered the CPP scores and the number of active-nosepokes in the methamphetamine-primed CPP test and the self-administration model. Moreover, both high-frequency and sham DBS group rats were able to establish significant food-induced place preference, and no significant difference was observed in the open field test and in the elevated plus-maze test between the two groups. Immunofluorescence staining and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that high-frequency DBS of the DRN could alter the activity and functional connectivity of brain regions related to addiction. These results indicate that high-frequency DBS of the DRN effectively inhibits methamphetamine priming-induced relapse and seeking behaviors in rats and provides a new target for the treatment of drug addiction.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Metanfetamina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ratos , Animais , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Comportamento de Procura de Droga/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612852

RESUMO

Salinity is an environmental stress that severely impacts rice grain yield and quality. However, limited information is available on the molecular mechanism by which salinity reduces grain quality. In this study, we investigated the milling, appearance, eating and cooking, and nutritional quality among three japonica rice cultivars grown either under moderate salinity with an electrical conductivity of 4 dS/m or under non-saline conditions in a paddy field in Dongying, Shandong, China. Moderate salinity affected rice appearance quality predominantly by increasing chalkiness rate and chalkiness degree and affected rice eating and cooking and nutritional quality predominantly by decreasing amylose content and increasing protein content. We compared the expression levels of genes determining grain chalkiness, amylose content, and protein content in developing seeds (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days after flowering) of plants grown under saline or non-saline conditions. The chalkiness-related gene Chalk5 was up-regulated and WHITE-CORE RATE 1 was repressed. The genes Nuclear factor Y and Wx, which determine amylose content, were downregulated, while protein-content-associated genes OsAAP6 and OsGluA2 were upregulated by salinity in the developing seeds. These findings suggest some target genes that may be utilized to improve the grain quality under salinity stress conditions via gene-pyramiding breeding approaches.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Oryza , Oryza/genética , Amilose , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Salino , Sementes/genética , Carbonato de Cálcio , Grão Comestível/genética
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 74, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, stimulant use has increased among persons who use opioids in the rural U.S., leading to high rates of overdose and death. We sought to understand motivations and contexts for stimulant use among persons who use opioids in a large, geographically diverse sample of persons who use drugs (PWUD) in the rural settings. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with PWUD at 8 U.S. sites spanning 10 states and 65 counties. Content areas included general substance use, injection drug use, changes in drug use, and harm reduction practices. We used an iterative open-coding process to comprehensively itemize and categorize content shared by participants related to concurrent use. RESULTS: We interviewed 349 PWUD (64% male, mean age 36). Of those discussing current use of stimulants in the context of opioid use (n = 137, 39%), the stimulant most used was methamphetamine (78%) followed by cocaine/crack (26%). Motivations for co-use included: 1) change in drug markets and cost considerations; 2) recreational goals, e.g., seeking stronger effects after heightened opioid tolerance; 3) practical goals, such as a desire to balance or alleviate the effects of the other drug, including the use of stimulants to avoid/reverse opioid overdose, and/or control symptoms of opioid withdrawal; and 4) functional goals, such as being simultaneously energized and pain-free in order to remain productive for employment. CONCLUSION: In a rural U.S. cohort of PWUD, use of both stimulants and opioids was highly prevalent. Reasons for dual use found in the rural context compared to urban studies included changes in drug availability, functional/productivity goals, and the use of methamphetamine to offset opioid overdose. Education efforts and harm reduction services and treatment, such as access to naloxone, fentanyl test strips, and accessible drug treatment for combined opioid and stimulant use, are urgently needed in the rural U.S. to reduce overdose and other adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Overdose de Drogas , Metanfetamina , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Motivação , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia
4.
J Addict Nurs ; 35(1): E2-E14, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear which individual or combined strategies are most beneficial for methamphetamine use disorders (MUDs). We compared the effects of aerobic exercise, attentional bias modification, and combined intervention on male patients with MUD. METHOD: One hundred male patients with MUD were randomly assigned to combined intervention, aerobic exercise, attentional bias modification, or control groups (25 patients per group). The 8-week intervention protocol included three 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercises per week. Primary outcomes included high- and low-frequency heart rate variability, executive function, and cardiorespiratory fitness measured by customized software, computerized tests, and the Harvard step test, respectively. Secondary outcomes included psychiatric symptoms, drug craving, training acceptability, and persistence. RESULTS: Participant characteristics were matched between groups at baseline. Executive function, heart rate variability, cardiorespiratory fitness, drug craving, and most psychiatric symptoms had significant time-group interactions at posttest (p < .05, η2 = .08-.28). Compared with the attentional bias modification and control groups, the combined intervention and aerobic exercise groups improved significantly in executive function, heart rate variability, cardiorespiratory fitness, and most secondary outcomes. In addition, high-frequency heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory fitness in the aerobic exercise group were significantly higher than those in the combined intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Combination strategies showed comparable efficacy to aerobic exercise alone in improving executive function, psychiatric symptoms, and drug craving and significantly exceeded other conditions. For heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory fitness, aerobic exercise alone was the most effective. For acceptability and persistence, combination strategies were preferred over single-domain training and health education intervention.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia
5.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 36(2): 1-5, Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231795

RESUMO

Objetivos. La prevalencia del uso de drogas de abuso es difícil de establecer en mujeres, debido a los estigmas asociados a ello. El objetivo principal fue analizar las posibles diferencias de las intoxicaciones agudas (IA) según el sexo en una muestra de pacientes atendidos en dos servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH). El objetivo secundario fue identificar las variables asociadas a las intoxicaciones graves, definidas de forma arbitraria como las que requerían una atención intensiva médica de más de 12 horas y posterior ingreso hospitalario. Métodos. Estudio retrospectivo en dos SUH que incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos por IA por drogas de abuso, en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de julio 2020 y el 31 de julio 2023. Se recogieron variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1.032 pacientes, un 18,5% (191) mujeres. La edad media fue de 35 (DE 10) años, con elevada prevalencia de enfermedad mental aguda (32,2%) e infección por VIH (35,7%). El principal motivo de consumo fue lúdico (90,9%). Las principales drogas de abuso fueron cocaína, alcohol y metanfetaminas. El análisis multivariado mostró que únicamente la edad (OR: 1,03, IC 95%: 1,01-1,05, p = 0,003), el VIH (OR: 2,10, IC 95%: 1,29-3,41, p = 0,003), el consumo de benzodiacepinas (OR: 3,48, IC 95%: 2,14-5,66, p < 0,0001), y la ideación autolítica (OR: 1,82, IC 95%: 1,25-3,79, p = 0,004), se asociaron a gravedad de la intoxicación. Conclusiones. Las IA por drogas de abuso en mujeres presentan algunas diferencias en relación a las de los hombres, ya que son más jóvenes y asocian consumo de alcohol con mayor frecuencia. Las campañas de prevención y políticas sanitarias sobre el uso de sustancias deberían tener en cuenta las diferencias en el consumo según el sexo para adaptarlas a la población a las que vayan dirigidas. (AU)


Background. The prevalence of street drug abuse is difficult to establish in women because of stigma associated withthe practice. The main objective of this study was to analyze possible differences between men and women in a sample of patients attended for emergencies due to acute poisonings. The secondary aim was to identify variables associated with severe poisonings defined arbitrarily as requiring intensive care for more than 12 hours after hospital admission. Methods. Retrospective study in 2 hospital EDs. We included patients over the age of 18 years attended for street drug poisonings between July 1, 2020, and July 31, 2023. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory variables were analyzed. Results. A total of 1032 patients were studied; 191 (18.5%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 35 years, and the prevalences of acute mental illness and HIV infection were high at 32.2% and 35.7%, respectively. Drug use was recreational in most cases (90.9%). Cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamines were the substances most often used. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with the seriousness of poisoning were age, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = .003); HIV (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.29-3.41; P = .003); use of benzodiazepines (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.14-5.66; P < .0001); and suicidal ideations (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.25-3.79; P = .004). Conclusions. Differences in poisoning characteristics in women were found, probably related to the younger ages of men in the sample and their higher frequency of alcohol consumption. Public health policies and campaigns to prevent drug abuse should take gender differences into consideration in order to adapt messages to the target populations. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Intoxicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Transtornos Mentais , HIV , Cocaína , Etanol , Metanfetamina , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Addict Biol ; 29(3): e13382, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488467

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psycho-stimulant that induces addictive behaviour by stimulating increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion transport ATPases (SERCA or ATP2A) is a calcium ion (Ca2+) pump in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. SERCA2b is a SERCA subtype mainly distributed in the central nervous system. This study used conditioned place preference (CPP), a translational drug reward model, to observe the effects of SERCA and SERCA2b on METH-CPP in mice. Result suggested that the activity of SERCA was significantly decreased in NAc after METH-CPP. Intraperitoneal SERCA agonist CDN1163 injection or bilateral CDN1163 microinjection in the NAc inhibited METH-CPP formation. SERCA2b overexpression by the Adeno-associated virus can reduce the DA release of NAc and inhibit METH-CPP formation. Although microinjection of SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin in the bilateral NAc did not significantly aggravate METH-CPP, interference with SERCA2b expression in NAc by adeno-associated virus increased DA release and promoted METH-CPP formation. METH reduced the SERCA ability to transport Ca2+ into the ER in SHSY5Y cells in vitro, which was reversed by CDN1163. This study revealed that METH dysregulates intracellular calcium balance by downregulating SERCA2b function, increasing DA release in NAc and inducing METH-CPP formation. Drugs that target SERCA2b may have the potential to treat METH addiction.


Assuntos
Benzamidas , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Metanfetamina , Camundongos , Animais , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Metanfetamina/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens , Cálcio/metabolismo , Aminoquinolinas/metabolismo , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo
7.
Addict Biol ; 29(3): e13383, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488760

RESUMO

Repeated abuse of methamphetamine (METH) can cause dependence, repeated relapse of psychotic symptoms, compulsive drug-seeking behaviour, and various neurological symptoms. These long-term biological changes may be associated with epigenetic mechanisms; however, the association between METH use and epigenetic mechanisms has been poorly investigated. Thus, we performed an epigenome-wide association study of METH dependence using genomic DNA extracted from the blood samples of 24 patients with METH dependence and 24 normal controls. All participants were of Japanese descent. We tested the association between METH dependence and DNA methylation using linear regression analysis. We found epigenome-wide significant associations at four CpG sites, one of which occurred in the CNOT1 gene and another in the PUM1 gene. We especially noted the CNOT1 and PUM1 genes as well as several other genes that indicated some degree of association with METH dependence. Among the relatively enriched Gene Ontology terms, we were interested in terms of mRNA metabolism, respirasome, and excitatory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity. Among the relatively enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways, we noted pathways of several neurological diseases. Our results indicate that genetic changes akin to those in other psychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders may also occur via epigenetic mechanisms in patients with METH dependence.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Epigenoma/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 41: 103579, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447413

RESUMO

In stimulant use and addiction, conflict control processes are crucial for regulating substance use and sustaining abstinence, which can be particularly challenging in social-affective situations. Users of methamphetamine (METH, "Ice") and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") both experience impulse control deficits, but display different social-affective and addictive profiles. We thus aimed to compare the effects of chronic use of the substituted amphetamines METH and MDMA on conflict control processes in different social-affective contexts (i.e., anger and happiness) and investigate their underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. For this purpose, chronic but recently abstinent users of METH (n = 38) and MDMA (n = 42), as well as amphetamine-naïve healthy controls (n = 83) performed an emotional face-word Stroop paradigm, while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Instead of substance-specific differences, both MDMA and METH users showed smaller behavioral effects of cognitive-emotional conflict processing (independently of emotional valence) and selective deficits in emotional processing of anger content. Both effects were underpinned by stronger P3 ERP modulations suggesting that users of substituted amphetamines employ altered stimulus-response mapping and decision-making. Given that these processes are modulated by noradrenaline and that both MDMA and METH use may be associated with noradrenergic dysfunctions, the noradrenaline system may underlie the observed substance-related similarities. Better understanding the functional relevance of this currently still under-researched neurotransmitter and its functional changes in chronic users of substituted amphetamines is thus an important avenue for future research.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Anfetaminas , Norepinefrina
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 969: 176466, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431243

RESUMO

The chronic use of the novel synthetic cathinone mexedrone, like other psychoactive drugs, can be considered addictive, with a high potential for abuse and the ability to cause psychological dependence in certain users. However, little is known about the neurobehavioral effects of mexedrone in association with its potential for abuse. We investigated the abuse potential for mexedrone abuse through multiple behavioral tests. In addition, serotonin transporter (SERT) levels were measured in the synaptosome of the dorsal striatum, and serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured in the dorsal striatum of acute mexedreone (50 mg/kg)-treated mice. To clarify the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the locomotor response of mexedrone, the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) was administered prior to the acute injection of mexedrone in the locomotor activity experiment in mice. Mexedrone (10-50 mg/kg) produced a significant place preference in mice and mexedrone (0.1-0.5 mg/kg/infusion) maintained self-administration behavior in rats in a dose-dependent manner. In the drug discrimination experiment, mexedrone (5.6-32 mg/kg) was fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rats. Mexedrone increased locomotor activity, and these effects were reversed by pretreatment with M100907. Acute mexedrone significantly increased c-Fos expression in the dorsal striatum and decreased SERT levels in the synaptosome of the dorsal striatum of mice, resulting in an elevation of 5-HT levels. Taken together, our results provide the possibility that mexedrone has abuse potential, which might be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of the serotonergic system in the dorsal striatum.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Fluorbenzenos , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Piperidinas , Catinona Sintética , Ratos , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serotonina/metabolismo , Cocaína/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
10.
Adv Pharmacol ; 99: 217-250, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467482

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and central nervous system (CNS) dopamine transmission have been extensively studied. However, our understanding of how METH influences neuroimmune communication and innate and adaptive immunity is still developing. Recent studies have shed light on the bidirectional communication between the CNS and the peripheral immune system. They have established a link between CNS dopamine levels, dopamine neuronal activity, and peripheral immunity. Akin to dopamine neurons in the CNS, a majority of peripheral immune cells also express DAT, implying that in addition to their effect in the CNS, DAT ligands such as methamphetamine may have a role in modulating peripheral immunity. For example, by directly influencing DAT-expressing peripheral immune cells and thus peripheral immunity, METH can trigger a feed-forward cascade that impacts the bidirectional communication between the CNS and peripheral immune system. In this review, we aim to discuss the current understanding of how METH modulates both innate and adaptive immunity and identify areas where knowledge gaps exist. These gaps will then be considered in guiding future research directions.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Dopamina , Metanfetamina/farmacologia
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 357: 111990, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518566

RESUMO

In order to investigate the influences of hair dyeing on the distribution shapes of drugs in hair, different hair dyeing processes ("semi-permanent coloring without bleaching" and "permanent coloring with bleaching") were performed in vitro on black hair specimens collected from two subjects (Asians) who took a single dose of zolpidem (ZP, 10 mg of ZP tartrate) or methoxyphenamine (MOP, 50 mg of MOP hydrochloride). Under the following three different dyeing conditions, (1) semi-permanent coloring, (2) permanent coloring (once), (3) permanent coloring (twice), drug distributions in single hair specimens were investigated using a 2-mm segmental analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Distribution shapes of drugs changed significantly only under the permanent coloring (twice) condition, resulting in reduced peak concentration and extended distribution width. There was, however, no significant difference in the amounts of drugs in hair between non-treated and dyed specimens, suggesting the drugs hardly leaked out of hair or were only slightly degraded during dyeing. In addition, while assuming contact with aqueous environment such as daily hair washing after dyeing, dyed hair specimens were individually immersed in ultrapure water for 20 hours, then the outflow of drugs in ultrapure water as well as the distribution shapes of drugs remaining in hair were determined. The drug outflow after permanent coloring (once and twice) was significantly larger than those after semi-permanent coloring, and the outflow ratios, [outflow]/([outflow] + [amount remaining in hair]), ranged over 9.8-24% (n = 3) for ZP and 68-71% (n = 3) for MOP after permanent coloring (once), and 54-72% (n = 3) for ZP and 86-91% (n = 3) for MOP after permanent coloring (twice). The distribution shapes of drugs after 20 h of immersion tended to flatten as outflow ratios increased, resulting in no change in the shapes after semi-permanent coloring, and complete collapse of their shapes after permanent coloring (twice). Thus, the present results indicated that hair dyeing involving bleaching and subsequent contact with aqueous environment after dyeing could significantly influence distribution shapes of drugs in hair.


Assuntos
Cabelo , Metanfetamina/análogos & derivados , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Humanos , Zolpidem/análise , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Cabelo/química , Água/análise
12.
Neurosci Lett ; 827: 137740, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521402

RESUMO

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are typically synthesized in clandestine laboratories in an attempt to chemically modify already federally regulated drugs in an effort to circumvent the law. Drugs derived from a phenethylamine pharmacophore, such as 4-chloroamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), reliably induce thermogenesis and serotonergic deficits in the striatum and hippocampus of rodents. 4-methylamphetamine (4-MA), a relative newcomer to the NPS scene, was originally investigated in the mid-1900 s as a potential anorexigenic agent. With its phenethylamine pharmacophore, 4-MA was hypothesized to produce similar toxicological alterations as its chemical analogs. In the present study, three doses (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg, ip.) of 4-MA were administered to rats twice daily for two days. Core temperature data were calculated and analyzed as temperature area under the curve (TAUC). On the second day of dosing, a hypothermic response to 4-MA (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) was noted between 0.5 and 2.0 h post-treatment. Only the highest dose of 4-MA decreased body weight on the second day of treatment and maintained this reduction in weight for seven days after treatment ceased. None of the doses of 4-MA evaluated significantly altered serotonin levels in the hippocampus or striatum seven days after final treatment. The present findings demonstrate that the 4-methyl substitution to amphetamine generates a pharmacological and toxicological profile that differs from other similar phenethylamine analogs.


Assuntos
Anfetaminas , Drogas Desenhadas , Metanfetamina , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Ratos , Animais , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacologia , Temperatura , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia , Anfetamina/farmacologia , Hipocampo , Serotoninérgicos/farmacologia , Serotoninérgicos/análise
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 243: 116076, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430614

RESUMO

Recently we published in this journal an enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its major phase-1 metabolites, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) in human plasma, sweat, oral fluid and urine. Since we did not achieve simultaneous enantioseparation of all 4 compounds with a single chiral column, two amylose-based chiral columns were used alternatively. Further optimization of the mobile phase in the present study enabled baseline separation of all four pairs of enantiomers on a single Lux AMP column. In addition, by optimization of the column dimension and applied flow-rate it became possible to complete the separation within 6 minutes. These new methods were applied to the analysis of human plasma, oral fluid and urine. While results on the concentration of MDMA and its metabolites in various biological fluids were reported in our recent publication, in the present study an attempt was made to hydrolyze glucuronides in urine samples by using alternatively, hydrochloric acid or glucuronidase and to evaluate the effect of hydrolysis on the concentration and enantiomeric distribution of hydroxy metabolites of MDMA such as HMA and HMMA.


Assuntos
3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Lactatos , Metanfetamina , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Humanos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Estereoisomerismo , 3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/urina
14.
Behav Brain Res ; 465: 114959, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494128

RESUMO

Microstates have been proposed as topographical maps representing large-scale resting-state networks and have recently been suggested as markers for methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). However, it is unknown whether and how they change after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) intervention. This study included a comprehensive subject population to investigate the effect of rTMS on MUD microstates. 34 patients with MUD underwent a 4-week randomized, double-blind rTMS intervention (active=17, sham=17). Two resting-state EEG recordings and VAS evaluations were conducted before and after the intervention period. Additionally, 17 healthy individuals were included as baseline controls. The modified k-means clustering method was used to calculate four microstates (MS-A∼MS-D) of EEG, and the FC network was also analyzed. The differences in microstate indicators between groups and within groups were compared. The durations of MS-A and MS-B microstates in patients with MUD were significantly lower than that in HC but showed significant improvements after rTMS intervention. Changes in microstate indicators were found to be significantly correlated with changes in craving level. Furthermore, selective modulation of the resting-state network by rTMS was observed in the FC network. The findings indicate that changes in microstates in patients with MUD are associated with craving level improvement following rTMS, suggesting they may serve as valuable evaluation markers.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Fissura
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(7): e033667, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use has emerged as a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of methamphetamine use with cardioembolic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted at our medical center between 2019 and 2022. All patients were screened for methamphetamine use and cardiomyopathy, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%. Among 938 consecutive patients, 46 (4.9%) were identified as using methamphetamine. Compared with the nonmethamphetamine group (n=892), the methamphetamine group was significantly younger (52.8±9.6 versus 69.7±15.2 years; P<0.001), included more men (78.3% versus 52.8%; P<0.001), and had a significantly higher rate of cardiomyopathy (30.4% versus 14.0%; P<0.01). They were also less likely to have a history of atrial fibrillation (8.7% versus 33.4%; P<0.01) or hyperlipidemia (28.3% versus 51.7%; P<0.01). Compared with patients with cardiomyopathy without methamphetamine use, the patients with cardiomyopathy with methamphetamine use had significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (26.0±9.59% versus 32.47±9.52%; P<0.01) but better functional outcome at 3 months, likely attributable to significantly younger age and fewer comorbidities. In the logistic regression model of clinical variables, methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy was found to be significantly associated with cardioembolic stroke (odds ratio, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.04-3.06]; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that methamphetamine use is significantly associated with cardiomyopathy and cardioembolic stroke in young adults.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Cardiomiopatias , AVC Embólico , AVC Isquêmico , Metanfetamina , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Volume Sistólico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Ther ; 31(2): e141-e154, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After becoming notorious for its use as a party drug in the 1980s, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methampetamine (MDMA), also known by its street names "molly" and "ecstasy," has emerged as a powerful treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: There are extensive data about the risk profile of MDMA. However, the literature is significantly biased. Animal models demonstrating neurotoxic or adverse effects used doses well beyond the range that would be expected in humans (up to 40 mg/kg in rats compared with roughly 1-2 mg/kg in humans). Furthermore, human samples often comprise recreational users who took other substances in addition to MDMA, in uncontrolled settings. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: Phase III clinical trials led by the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) have shown that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy has an effect size of d = 0.7-0.91, up to 2-3 times higher than the effect sizes of existing antidepressant treatments. 67%-71% of patients who undergo MDMA-assisted psychotherapy no longer meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD within 18 weeks. We also describe other promising applications of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treating alcohol use disorder, social anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. LIMITATIONS: Thus far, almost all clinical trials on MDMA have been sponsored by a single organization, MAPS. More work is needed to determine whether MDMA-assisted therapy is more effective than existing nonpharmacological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Phase III trials suggest that MDMA is superior to antidepressant medications for treating PTSD. Now that MAPS has officially requested the Food and Drug Administration to approve MDMA as a treatment for PTSD, legal MDMA-assisted therapy may become available as soon as 2024.


Assuntos
Alucinógenos , Metanfetamina , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Metanfetamina/uso terapêutico , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/uso terapêutico , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicoterapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
Altern Lab Anim ; 52(2): 94-106, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445454

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (Meth) is a highly addictive stimulant. Its potential neurotoxic effects are mediated through various mechanisms, including oxidative stress and the initiation of the apoptotic process. Thymoquinone (TQ), obtained from Nigella sativa seed oil, has extensive antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of TQ against Meth-induced toxicity by using an in vitro model based on nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. Cell differentiation was assessed by detecting the presence of a neuronal marker with flow cytometry. The effects of Meth exposure were evaluated in the in vitro neuronal cell-based model via the determination of cell viability (in an MTT assay) and apoptosis (by annexin/propidium iodide staining). The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and dopamine, were also determined. The model was used to determine the protective effects of 0.5, 1 and 2 µM TQ against Meth-induced toxicity (at 1 mM). The results showed that TQ reduced Meth-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through the inhibition of ROS generation and apoptosis, and by helping to maintain GSH and dopamine levels. Thus, the impact of TQ treatment on Meth-induced neurotoxicity could warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas , Metanfetamina , Ratos , Animais , Células PC12 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Dopamina/farmacologia , Apoptose , Glutationa/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 923, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose crisis is one of the worst public health crises ever to face the US and emerging evidence suggests its effects are compounded by the presence of drug adulterants. Here we report our efforts to characterize the adulterants present within the local fentanyl supply of San Diego County, obtained from undifferentiated drug samples seized by local law enforcement over the calendar year 2021. METHODS: Thirty-two participating local law enforcement agencies across San Diego submitted 4838 unknown individual illicit drug samples (total of 312 kg) to the San Diego County Sheriff's Department Regional Crime Laboratory for identification. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of these samples via FTIR and GC-MS identified methamphetamine (38.7%), fentanyl (20.8%), diacetylmorphine (heroin) (10.2%), codeine (5.8%) and alprazolam (4.3%) as the most common illicit substances and the presence of 52 unique adulterants. The most common adulterants included 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAAP) (10.9%), mannitol (9%), acetaminophen (8.5%), methamphetamine (4.2%), diacetylmorphine (heroin) (3.6%), tramadol (1.9%), and xylazine (1.7%). Several additional pharmacologically active adulterants and contaminants of interest were also identified. CONCLUSION: This analysis is vital for public health use and harm reduction efforts at the level of the individual consumer. Continued direct surveillance of the drug supply is necessary for the detection of potentially harmful adulterants that may pose serious threats to the public.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Drogas Ilícitas , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Fentanila/análise , Heroína , Aplicação da Lei , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Analgésicos Opioides
19.
Se Pu ; 42(3): 245-255, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503701

RESUMO

Dried blood spot (DBS) technology is a simple and convenient method for collecting, transporting, and storing blood samples on filter paper, and has numerous applications in the clinical, research, and public health settings. This technique is gaining popularity in the field of forensic science because it facilitates the rapid analysis of prohibited drugs in blood samples and offers significant advantages in toxicology scenarios such as drinking-driving screening, drug abuse detection, and doping detection. However, the lack of a standardized system and the fact that its stability and reliability have not been thoroughly researched and demonstrated limit its application in judicial practice in China. DBS samples can be prepared, stored, and analyzed in various ways, all of which may significantly affect the results. In this study, we developed a method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) that focuses on the preparation, pretreatment, analysis, and storage of DBS samples. A thorough investigation was conducted to examine the optimal preparation conditions, including the blood spot matrix, drying technique, and preprocessing parameters, such as the solvent and extraction method. Moreover, the analytical conditions, such as the mobile phase system and elution gradient, were established to facilitate the quantitative detection of methamphetamine, lidocaine, ketamine, fentanyl, and diazepam in both DBS and whole-blood samples. The impact of storage conditions, such as the temperature, humidity, and sealing, on the analytical results of the DBS and whole-blood samples was also examined. The results showed a strong linear relationship for lidocaine and fentanyl within the range of 0.5-100 ng/mL. Similarly, methamphetamine, ketamine, and diazepam exhibited good linearity within the range of 2-100 ng/mL. The coefficients of determination (r2) ranged from 0.9983 to 0.9997, and the limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 ng/mL, indicating a high degree of correlation and sensitivity. Stability tests demonstrated that the five target substances remained stable in the DBS for 60 days, with the measured contents deviating from the nominal values by 15%. Moreover, the measurement results of the DBS samples were highly similar to those of the whole-blood samples, with mean percentage differences of 4.44%, 3.50%, 7.66%, 5.10%, and 5.25% for fentanyl, diazepam, ketamine, lidocaine, and methamphetamine, respectively. Throughout the 60-day storage period, the maintenance of temperatures of -20 and 4 ℃, as well as sealing and dry storage, was not necessary. Room temperature was the most practical storage environment for the DBS samples. The results for each target showed very small concentration differences between the whole-blood and DBS samples, indicating that the DBS samples were suitable for drug and poison analysis in blood. Furthermore, the DBSs exhibited high quantitative consistency with the whole-blood samples, rendering them suitable matrices for preserving blood samples. Because DBS samples are easy to handle and store, they can realize the lightweight preservation of blood samples and provide a novel solution for the analysis and preservation of blood samples in public security practice. We recommend conducting comprehensive validations before utilizing DBS for analysis, particularly in terms of quantification, to ensure the judicial reliability of the results.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Metanfetamina , Venenos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Toxicologia Forense , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Fentanila , Diazepam , Lidocaína
20.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 57, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-use of methamphetamine (MA) and opioids (pharmaceutical pills, heroin and fentanyls) has increased in the United States and is represented in rising mortality. Although coinciding with the import of low cost, high potency and purity methamphetamine, the relationship between supply and demand in propelling this polydrug use is not well understood. We consider the influence of macro changes in supply on the uptake of opioid and methamphetamine co-use by injection at the level of individual drug and injection initiation in West Virginia, a state which leads the US in drug overdose mortality. METHOD: We recruited n = 30 people for semi-structured interviews who self-reported injecting heroin/fentanyl and using methamphetamine by any route at a West Virginia syringe service program and through snowball sampling. Interviews were recorded and transcripts analyzed using a thematic approach. Ethnographic observation was also conducted and recorded in fieldnotes. Sequence of substance and mode of use initiation and use trajectories for opioids and stimulants were charted for each participant. RESULTS: A clear pattern of individual drug initiation emerged that matched each successive supply wave of the US overdose epidemic: 25 participants had initiated opioid use with pills, followed by heroin, often mixed with/replaced by fentanyl, and subsequently added methamphetamine use. For participants, the supply and consumption of opioid analgesics had set in motion a series of steps leading to the addition of stimulant injection to existing opioid injecting repertoires. Unlike other studies that have found a birth cohort effect in patterns of initiation, participants showed the same sequence across age groups. Considerations of economy, availability, dependence, tolerance and the erosion of taboos that marked transitions from opioid pills to heroin injection influenced these subsequent trajectories in novel ways. The form, timing and extent of opioid and stimulant consumption was influenced by four stages of the changing drug supply, which in turn reflected back on demand. CONCLUSION: Transformations in the social meaning and supply of methamphetamine enabled these transitions while other desired, non-injectable drugs were difficult to obtain. We discuss policy implications of injectable drugs' market dominance at this location and possible interventions.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides , Heroína , Fentanila , West Virginia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...