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1.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 51(6): e13862, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621769

RESUMO

Metformin, a well-established anti-diabetic drug, is also used in managing various other metabolic disorders including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). There are evidences to show that metformin improves endometrial functions in PCOS women. However, fewer studies have explored the direct effects of metformin on endometrium. Previous in vitro studies have shown that therapeutic serum concentrations of metformin enhance endometrial epithelial cell proliferation. The present study was undertaken to investigate in vivo effects of metformin on endometrial proliferation in a rat model of thin endometrium. Toward this, a rat model of thin endometrium was developed. Metformin (0.1% or 1% w/v) was administrated orally for 15 days in rats with thin endometrium. Oral metformin administration for three consecutive estrous cycles (15 days) in the thin endometrium rat model led to an increase in endometrial thickness compared to sham endometrium. Histological analysis showed a significant increase in the number of endometrial glands (P < 0.05), stromal cells (P < 0.01) and blood vessels (P < 0.01) in metformin-treated (n = 10 in each group) uterine horns compared to sham (saline-treated) uterine horns in rats. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and vascular epithelial growth factor was found to be upregulated on treatment with 1% metformin-treated group (n = 7). However, pregnancy outcomes in the rats treated with metformin remained unaltered despite the restoration of endometrial thickness. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that metformin ameliorates endometrial thickness in a rat model of thin endometrium by increasing endometrial proliferation and angiogenesis, without restoration of embryo implantation.


Assuntos
Metformina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Endométrio/patologia , Útero/metabolismo , Implantação do Embrião , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8247, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589438

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate Piperine (PP) loaded chitosan lipid nanoparticles (PP-CLNPs) to evaluate its biological activity alone or in combination with the antidiabetic drug Metformin (MET) in the management of cognitive deficit in diabetic rats. Piperine was successfully loaded on CLNPs prepared using chitosan, stearic acid, Tween 80 and Tripolyphosphate (TPP) at different concentrations. The developed CLNPs exhibited high entrapment efficiency that ranged from 85.12 to 97.41%, a particle size in the range of 59.56-414 nm and a negatively charged zeta potential values (- 20.1 to - 43.9 mV). In vitro release study revealed enhanced PP release from CLNPs compared to that from free PP suspensions for up to 24 h. In vivo studies revealed that treatment with the optimized PP-CLNPs formulation (F2) exerted a cognitive enhancing effect and ameliorated the oxidative stress associated with diabetes. PP-CLNPs acted as an effective bio-enhancer which increased the potency of metformin in protecting brain tissue from diabetes-induced neuroinflammation and memory deterioration. These results suggested that CLNPs could be a promising drug delivery system for encapsulating PP and thus can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the management of high-risk diabetic cognitive impairment conditions.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis , Quitosana , Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Lipossomos , Metformina , Nanopartículas , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Tamanho da Partícula , Portadores de Fármacos
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 133, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592489

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been associated with severe clinical outcomes, which may include neurological manifestations, especially in newborns with intrauterine infection. However, licensed vaccines and specific antiviral agents are not yet available. Therefore, a safe and low-cost therapy is required, especially for pregnant women. In this regard, metformin, an FDA-approved drug used to treat gestational diabetes, has previously exhibited an anti-ZIKA effect in vitro in HUVEC cells by activating AMPK. In this study, we evaluated metformin treatment during ZIKV infection in vitro in a JEG3-permissive trophoblast cell line. Our results demonstrate that metformin affects viral replication and protein synthesis and reverses cytoskeletal changes promoted by ZIKV infection. In addition, it reduces lipid droplet formation, which is associated with lipogenic activation of infection. Taken together, our results indicate that metformin has potential as an antiviral agent against ZIKV infection in vitro in trophoblast cells.


Assuntos
Metformina , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Trofoblastos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611893

RESUMO

Metformin (MET), an antidiabetic drug, is emerging as a promising anticancer agent. This study was initiated to investigate the antitumor effects and potential molecular targets of MET in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC) as a model of breast cancer (BC) and to explore the potential of zein nanoparticles (ZNs) as a carrier for improving the anticancer effect of MET. ZNs were fabricated through ethanol injection followed by probe sonication method. The optimum ZN formulation (ZN8) was spherical and contained 5 mg zein and 30 mg sodium deoxycholate with a small particle size and high entrapment efficiency percentage and zeta potential. A stability study showed that ZN8 was stable for up to three months. In vitro release profiles proved the sustained effect of ZN8 compared to the MET solution. Treatment of SEC-bearing mice with ZN8 produced a more pronounced anticancer effect which was mediated by upregulation of P53 and miRNA-543 as well as downregulation of NF-κB and miRNA-191-5p gene expression. Furthermore, ZN8 produced a marked elevation in pAMPK and caspase-3 levels as well as a significant decrease in cyclin D1, COX-2, and PGE2 levels. The acquired findings verified the potency of MET-loaded ZNs as a treatment approach for BC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Metformina , MicroRNAs , Nanopartículas , Zeína , Animais , Camundongos , Metformina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Polímeros
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612893

RESUMO

Cancer continues to pose a significant global health challenge, as evidenced by the increasing incidence rates and high mortality rates, despite the advancements made in chemotherapy. The emergence of chemoresistance further complicates the effectiveness of treatment. However, there is growing interest in the potential of metformin, a commonly prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as an adjuvant chemotherapy agent in cancer treatment. Although the precise mechanism of action of metformin in cancer therapy is not fully understood, it has been found to have pleiotropic effects, including the modulation of metabolic pathways, reduction in inflammation, and the regulation of cellular proliferation. This comprehensive review examines the anticancer properties of metformin, drawing insights from various studies conducted in vitro and in vivo, as well as from clinical trials and observational research. This review discusses the mechanisms of action involving both insulin-dependent and independent pathways, shedding light on the potential of metformin as a therapeutic agent for different types of cancer. Despite promising findings, there are challenges that need to be addressed, such as conflicting outcomes in clinical trials, considerations regarding dosing, and the development of resistance. These challenges highlight the importance of further research to fully harness the therapeutic potential of metformin in cancer treatment. The aims of this review are to provide a contemporary understanding of the role of metformin in cancer therapy and identify areas for future exploration in the pursuit of effective anticancer strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Hiperplasia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 428-436, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of metformin for regulating tumor-stromal cell cross-talk in breast cancer. METHODS: Tumor associated fibroblasts (CAFs) co-cultured with breast cancer cells were treated with metformin, and the changes in expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), p-AMPK, stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the CAFs were detected using ELISA, RT-qPCR or Western blotting; Transwell assay was used to evaluate the invasiveness of the tumor cells and its changes following treatment with exogenous SDF-1, IL-8 and TGF-ß1. The effects of HIF-1α shRNA or overexpression plasmid, AMPK shRNA, and treatment with OG (a proline hydroxylase inhibitor) or 2-OXO (a proline hydroxylase activator) were examined on p-AMPK, HIF-1α, SDF-1 and IL-8 expressions and invasiveness of the CAFs. RESULTS: Metformin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of p-AMPK, SDF-1 and IL-8 (P<0.05) and decreased HIF-1α expression (P<0.05) without affecting AMPK expression level (P>0.05) in the CAFs. The invasion ability of metformintreated breast cancer cells was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Exogenous SDF-1 and IL-8, HIF-1α overexpression, and OGinduced upregulation of HIF-1α all significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of metformin on breast cancer cell invasion (P<0.05) and HIF-1α, SDF-1 and IL-8 expressions in CAFs (P<0.05). Transfection with HIF-1α shRNA or treatment with 2-OXO significantly decreased the invasiveness of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). P-AMPK knockdown significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of metformin on HIF-1α expression in CAFs and on invasion of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). Treatment with TGF-ß1 partially decreased the inhibitory effect of metformin on HIF-1α expression in CAFs and invasiveness of the breast cancer cells (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Metformin suppresses HIF-1α expression in CAFs to block tumor-stromal cross talk in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Metformina , Humanos , Feminino , Metformina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos
7.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 437-446, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of metformin against PM2.5-induced functional impairment of placental trophoblasts and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sixteen pregnant Kunming mice were randomly assigned into two groups (n=8) for intratracheal instillation of PBS or PM2.5 suspension at 1.5, 7.5, and 12.5 days of gestation. The pregnancy outcome of the mice was observed, and placental zonal structure and vascular density of the labyrinth area were examined with HE staining, followed by detection of ferroptosis-related indexes in the placenta. In cultured human trophoblasts (HTR8/SVneo cells), the effects of PM2.5 exposure and treatment with metformin on cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation ability were evaluated using CCK8 assay, EDU staining, wound healing assay, Transwell experiment, and tube formation experiment; the cellular expressions of ferroptosis-related proteins were analyzed using ELISA and Western blotting. RESULTS: M2.5 exposure of the mice during pregnancy resulted in significantly decreased weight and number of the fetuses and increased fetal mortality with a reduced placental weight (all P<0.001). PM2.5 exposure also caused obvious impairment of the placental structure and trophoblast ferroptosis. In cultured HTR8/SVneo cells, PM2.5 significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of the cells by causing ferroptosis. Metformin treatment obviously attenuated PM2.5-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of the cells, and effectively reversed PM2.5-induced ferroptosis in the trophoblasts as shown by significantly increased intracellular GSH level and SOD activity, reduced MDA and Fe2+ levels, and upregulated GPX4 and SLC7A11 protein expression (P<0.05 or 0.01). CONCLUSION: PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and ferroptosis and functional impairment of placental trophoblasts in mice, and metformin can effectively alleviate PM2.5-induced trophoblast impairment.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Metformina , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Camundongos , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Placenta/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Trofoblastos , Movimento Celular , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(4)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining cytotoxic chemotherapy or novel anticancer drugs with T-cell modulators holds great promise in treating advanced cancers. However, the response varies depending on the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Therefore, there is a clear need for pharmacologically tractable models of the TIME to dissect its influence on mono- and combination treatment response at the individual level. METHODS: Here we establish a patient-derived explant culture (PDEC) model of breast cancer, which retains the immune contexture of the primary tumor, recapitulating cytokine profiles and CD8+T cell cytotoxic activity. RESULTS: We explored the immunomodulatory action of a synthetic lethal BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax+metformin drug combination ex vivo, discovering metformin cannot overcome the lymphocyte-depleting action of venetoclax. Instead, metformin promotes dendritic cell maturation through inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, increasing their capacity to co-stimulate CD4+T cells and thus facilitating antitumor immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results establish PDECs as a feasible model to identify immunomodulatory functions of anticancer drugs in the context of patient-specific TIME.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Metformina , Sulfonamidas , Humanos , Feminino , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Cancer Med ; 13(7): e7021, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a deadly form of cancer that exhibits extensive intercellular communication which contributed to chemoradiotherapy resistance. Recent evidence suggests that arrange of key proteins are involved in lung cancer progression, including gap junction proteins (GJPs). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we examined the expression patterns of GJPs in NSCLC, uncovering that both gap junction protein, beta 2 (GJB2) and gap junction protein, beta 2 (GJB3) are increased in LUAD and LUSC. We observed a correlation between the upregulation of GJB2, GJB3 in clinical samples and a worse prognosis in patients with NSCLC. By examining the mechanics, we additionally discovered that nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 1 (NFE2L1) had the capability to enhance the expression of connexin26 and connexin 31 in the NSCLC cell line A549. In addition, the use of metformin was discovered to cause significant downregulation of gap junction protein, betas (GJBs) by limiting the presence of NFE2L1 in the cytoplasm. CONCLUSION: This emphasizes the potential of targeting GJBs as a viable treatment approach for NSCLC patients receiving metformin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Metformina , Humanos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Conexinas/genética , Conexinas/metabolismo , Conexinas/uso terapêutico , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Fator 1 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
10.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 81, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senescent astrocytes play crucial roles in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Metformin, a drug widely used for treating diabetes, exerts longevity effects and neuroprotective activities. However, its effect on astrocyte senescence in PD remains to be defined. METHODS: Long culture-induced replicative senescence model and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium/α-synuclein aggregate-induced premature senescence model, and a mouse model of PD were used to investigate the effect of metformin on astrocyte senescence in vivo and in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometric analyses were performed to evaluate the mitochondrial function. We stereotactically injected AAV carrying GFAP-promoter-cGAS-shRNA to mouse substantia nigra pars compacta regions to specifically reduce astrocytic cGAS expression to clarify the potential molecular mechanism by which metformin inhibited the astrocyte senescence in PD. RESULTS: We showed that metformin inhibited the astrocyte senescence in vitro and in PD mice. Mechanistically, metformin normalized mitochondrial function to reduce mitochondrial DNA release through mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), leading to inactivation of cGAS-STING, which delayed astrocyte senescence and prevented neurodegeneration. Mfn2 overexpression in astrocytes reversed the inhibitory role of metformin in cGAS-STING activation and astrocyte senescence. More importantly, metformin ameliorated dopamine neuron injury and behavioral deficits in mice by reducing the accumulation of senescent astrocytes via inhibition of astrocytic cGAS activation. Deletion of astrocytic cGAS abolished the suppressive effects of metformin on astrocyte senescence and neurodegeneration. CONCLUSIONS: This work reveals that metformin delays astrocyte senescence via inhibiting astrocytic Mfn2-cGAS activation and suggest that metformin is a promising therapeutic agent for age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Metformina , Doença de Parkinson , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/farmacologia
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130962, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503370

RESUMO

Combining a Sodium-Glucose-Cotransporter-2-inhibitor (SGLT2i) with metformin is recommended for managing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have cardio-renal complications. Our study aimed to investigate the metabolic effects of SGLT2i and metformin, both individually and synergistically. We treated leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice with these drugs for two weeks and conducted metabolite profiling, identifying 861 metabolites across kidney, liver, muscle, fat, and plasma. Using linear regression and mixed-effects models, we identified two SGLT2i-specific metabolites, X-12465 and 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HBA), a ketone body, across all examined tissues. The levels of 3HBA were significantly higher under SGLT2i monotherapy compared to controls and were attenuated when combined with metformin. We observed similar modulatory effects on metabolites involved in protein catabolism (e.g., branched-chain amino acids) and gluconeogenesis. Moreover, combination therapy significantly raised pipecolate levels, which may enhance mTOR1 activity, while modulating GSK3, a common target of SGLT2i and 3HBA inhibition. The combination therapy also led to significant reductions in body weight and lactate levels, contrasted with monotherapies. Our findings advocate for the combined approach to better manage muscle loss, and the risks of DKA and lactic acidosis, presenting a more effective strategy for T2D treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Ácido Láctico/uso terapêutico , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
12.
Georgian Med News ; (346): 144-146, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501639

RESUMO

Metformin is an important agent in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment. Osteoblast express osteoprotegerin (OPG) which has integral effects on bone metabolism nexus. This cross-sectional research sought to identify the impact of metformin therapy on serum level osteoblast express osteoprotegerin and prolactin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: 30 patients with PCOS and 30 controls. The current study revealed that prolactin levels were increased in PCOS group compared to control group which is highly significant. While after treatment with metformin prolactin level was reduced significantly in than before treatment. Osteoprotegerin concentrations were considerably dropped in the PCOS group contrasted with the control group. Conversely, serum osteoprotegerin in metformin-treated group were higher compared to PCOS group. Osteoblast express osteoprotegerin level increased after 3 months of treatment with metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.


Assuntos
Metformina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Prolactina , Osteoprotegerina , Estudos Transversais , Hipoglicemiantes
13.
J Clin Invest ; 134(6)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488006

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a devastating brain tumor with a need for novel therapies. So far, monotherapies have failed to prolong survival for these patients, and combinatorial strategies have often shown severe, dose-limiting toxicities. In this issue of the JCI, Duchatel, Jackson, and colleagues address this challenge by introducing a drug combination that mitigates side effects and overcomes resistance. After identifying the PI3K/mTOR pathway as a therapeutic vulnerability, they treated DIPG-bearing mice with paxalisib and saw responses but also observed hyperglycemia as a severe side effect. Combining paxalisib with metformin mitigated this toxicity, but also upregulated protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. To tackle this mechanism of resistance, the authors added the PKC inhibitor enzastaurin to their drug combination and showed that this triple therapy led to improved survival. This approach paves the way for improved outcomes for patients with DIPG and other brain tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico , Glioma , Metformina , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Glioma/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos
14.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488837

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) is a common and inevitable factor leading to poor prognosis in various liver diseases, making the outcomes of current treatments in clinic unsatisfactory. Metformin has been demonstrated to be beneficial to alleviate HIRI in recent studies, however, the underpinning mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found metformin mitigates HIRI-induced ferroptosis through reshaped gut microbiota in mice, which was confirmed by the results of fecal microbiota transplantation treatment but showed the elimination of the beneficial effects when gut bacteria were depleted using antibiotics. Detailedly, through 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing, we identified that the metformin-reshaped microbiota was characterized by the increase of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing bacteria. This increase was further confirmed by the elevation of GABA synthesis key enzymes, glutamic acid decarboxylase and putrescine aminotransferase, in gut microbes of metformin-treated mice and healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the benefit of GABA against HIRI-induced ferroptosis was demonstrated in GABA-treated mice. Collectively, our data indicate that metformin can mitigate HIRI-induced ferroptosis by reshaped gut microbiota, with GABA identified as a key metabolite.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metformina , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Metformina/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Isquemia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298127, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian Cancer (OC) stands as the most lethal gynecological malignancy, presenting an urgent clinical challenge in the quest to improve response rates. One approach to address this challenge is through drug repurposing, exemplified by the investigation of metabolic-modulating drugs such as Metformin (MTF) and Simvastatin (SIM). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms contributing to the potential synergistic anti-cancer effects between MTF and SIM on ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: We assessed the effects of the combination on the proliferation and viability of two cell lines OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3. IC50 concentrations of MTF and SIM were determined using a proliferation assay, followed by subtoxic concentrations to explore the potential synergistic effects on the viability of both cell lines. Transcriptomic analysis was conducted on OVCAR-3 treated cells, and the findings were validated by assessing the expression levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) through real-time PCR in both cell lines SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity analysis guided the selection of treatment concentrations as such MTF 10 mM and SIM 5 µM. The combined treatment of MTF and SIM demonstrated a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and viability in both cell lines. In OVCAR-3, exclusive identification of 507 DEGs was seen in the combination arm. Upregulation of FOXO3, RhoA, and TNFα, along with downregulation of PIK3R1, SKP2, and ATP6V1D levels, was observed in OVCAR-3 treated cells. Real-time PCR validation confirmed the consistency of expression levels for the mentioned DEGs. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly supports the presence of synergy between MTF and SIM in OC cells. The combination's effect is associated with the dysregulation of genes in the key regulators AMPK and mTOR alongside other interconnected pathways.


Assuntos
Metformina , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300009, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451994

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of common antidiabetic drugs on BMD by two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). The single nucleotide polymorphisms that were strongly associated with insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone and gliclazide were extracted as instrumental variables (IVs) for MR analysis. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary MR method to assess the causal effect of antidiabetic drugs on BMD, and other MR methods, including Weighted median, MR Egger and Weighted mode, were used for complementary analysis. Reliability and stability were assessed by the leave-one-out test. In the present work, IVW estimation of the causal effect of insulin on heel BMD demonstrated that there was a null effect of insulin on heel BMD (ß = 0.765; se = 0.971; P = 0.430), while metformin treatment had a positive effect on heel BMD (ß = 1.414; se = 0.460; P = 2.118*10-3). The causal relationship between rosiglitazone and heel BMD analysed by IVW suggested that there was a null effect of rosiglitazone on heel BMD (ß = -0.526; se = 1.744; P = 0.763), but the causal effect of gliclazide on heel BMD evaluated by IVW demonstrated that there was a positive effect of gliclazide on heel BMD (ß = 2.671; se = 1.340; P = 0.046). In summary, the present work showed that metformin and gliclazide have a role in reducing BMD loss in patients with diabetes and are recommended for BMD loss prevention in diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Gliclazida , Metformina , Humanos , Densidade Óssea/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gliclazida/farmacologia , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Insulina Regular Humana , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rosiglitazona
17.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(2): e3967, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480622

RESUMO

A drug interaction is a condition in which two or more drugs are taken at the same time. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a significant contributor to polypharmacy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed in combination with metformin or DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin) or a combined dose of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitor to treat gastritis in diabetic patients. This review article mainly focused on evaluating the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between PPIs (i.e. esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) with metformin and PPIs with DPP-4 inhibitors. The findings demonstrated the existence of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs between the aforementioned PPIs with metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors, which could impact the biological activities (i.e., hypoglycemia) of these drugs. Moreover, this review suggested that esomeprazole could be the best drug in the PPI group to be prescribed simultaneously with metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors, as most of the antidiabetic drugs of this study did not show any interaction with esomeprazole. The findings of this study also revealed that both antidiabetic drugs and PPIs could have positive interactions as PPIs have the potential to lessen the gastrointestinal side effects of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors. To achieve the greatest therapeutic impact with the fewest side effects, careful dose control of these drugs is required. So, more extensive research on both human and animal subjects are needed to ascertain the veracity of this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Metformina , Animais , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacocinética , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Esomeprazol/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Interações Medicamentosas
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e16817, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515460

RESUMO

Background: Antibody-based platforms (i.e., ADC) have emerged as one of the most encouraging tools for the cancer resistance caused by cancer stem cells (CSCs) enrichment. Our study might provide a promising therapeutic direction against drug resistance and serve as a potential precursor platform for screening ADC. Methods: The cell migration, invasion, drug resistance, and self-renewal were assessed by the cell invasion and migration assay, wound healing assay, CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and sphere formation assay, respectively. The expression profiles of CSCs (ALDH+ and CD44+) subpopulations were screened by flow cytometry. The western blot and cell immunofluorescence assay were used to evaluate pathway-related protein expression in both anti-ENO1 antibody, MET combined with DPP/CTX-treated CSCs. Results: In the present study, western blot and flow cytometry verified that anti-ENO1 antibody target the CD44+ subpopulation by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway, while metformin might target the ALDH+ subpopulation through activation of the AMPK pathway and thus reverse drug resistance to varying degrees. Subsequently, in vitro investigation indicated that anti-ENO1 antibody, metformin combined with cisplatin/cetuximab could simultaneously target ALDH+ and CD44+ subpopulations. The combination also inhibited the CSCs proliferation, migration, invasion, and sphere formation; which may result in overcoming the drug resistance. Then, molecular mechanism exploration verified that the anti-ENO1 antibody, metformin combined with cisplatin/cetuximab inhibited the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Conclusions: The study preliminarily revealed anti-ENO1 antibody combined with metformin could overcome drug resistance against CSCs by inhibiting the Wnt//ß-catenin pathway and might serve as a potential precursor platform for screening ADC. More importantly, it is reasonably believed that antibody-based drug combination therapy might function as an encouraging tool for oncotherapy.


Assuntos
Metformina , Metformina/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 708: 149778, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507867

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of lean diabetes has prompted the generation of animal models that mimic metabolic disease in humans. This study aimed to determine the optimum streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) dosage ratio to elicit lean diabetic features in a rat model. It also used a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) urinary metabolomics approach to identify the metabolic effect of metformin treatment on this novel rat model. Three different STZ-NA dosage regimens (by body weight: Group A: 110 mg/kg NA and 45 mg/kg STZ; Group B: 180 mg/kg NA and 65 mg/kg STZ and Group C: 120 mg/kg NA and 60 mg/kg STZ) were administered to Sprague-Dawley rats along with oral metformin. Group A diabetic rats (A-DC) showed favorable serum biochemical analyses and a more positive response toward oral metformin administration relative to the other STZ-NA dosage ratio groups. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that glucose, citrate, pyruvate, hippurate, and methylnicotinamide differentiating the OPLS-DA of A-MTF rats (Group A diabetic rats treated with metformin) and A-DC model rats. Subsequent metabolic pathway analyses revealed that metformin treatment was associated with improvement in dysfunctions caused by STZ-NA induction, including carbohydrate metabolism, cofactor metabolism, and vitamin and amino acid metabolism. In conclusion, our results identify the best STZ-NA dosage ratio for a rat model to exhibit lean type 2 diabetic features with optimum sensitivity to metformin treatment. The data presented here could be informative to improve our understanding of non-obese diabetes in humans through the identification of possible activated metabolic pathways in the STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats model.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Metformina , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Niacinamida/efeitos adversos , Estreptozocina , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(4): 190, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519821

RESUMO

Owing to the extensive prevalence of resistant bacteria to numerous antibiotic classes, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a well-known hazard to world health. As an alternate approach in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery, repurposing the available medications which are also called antibiotic resistance breakers has been pursued for the treatment of infections with antimicrobial resistance pathogens. In this study, we used Haloperidol, Metformin and Hydroxychloroquine as repurposing drugs in in vitro (Antibacterial Antibiotic Sensitivity Test and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration-MIC) and in vivo (Shigellosis in Swiss albino mice) tests in combination with traditional antibiotics (Oxytetracycline, Erythromycin, Doxycycline, Gentamicin, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, and Penicillin) against a group of AMR resistance bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella boydii). After observing the results of the conducted in vitro experiments we studied the effects of the above non antibiotic drugs in combination with the said antibiotics. As an repurposing adjuvant antibiotic drug, Metformin exhibited noteworthy activity in almost all in vitro, in vivo and in silico tests (Zone of inhibition for 30 to 43 mm for E.coli in combination with Doxycycline; MIC value decreased 50 µM to 0.781 µM with Doxycycline on S. boydii).In rodents Doxycycline and Metformin showed prominent against Shigellosis in White blood cell count (6.47 ± 0.152 thousand/mm3) and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (10.5 ± 1.73 mm/hr). Our findings indicated that Metformin and Doxycycline combination has a crucial impact on Shigellosis. The molecular docking study was performed targeting the Acriflavine resistance protein B (AcrB) (PDB ID: 4CDI) and MexA protein (PDB ID: 6IOK) protein with Metformin (met8) drug which showed the highest binding energy with - 6.4 kcal/mol and - 5.5 kcal/mol respectively. Further, molecular dynamics simulation revealed that the docked complexes were relatively stable during the 100 ns simulation period. This study suggest Metformin and other experimented drugs can be used as adjuvants boost up antibiosis but further study is needed to find out the safety and efficacy of this non-antibiotic drug as potent antibiotic adjuvant.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Metformina , Animais , Camundongos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Bactérias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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