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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(1): 18, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353826

RESUMO

Microalgae represent a promising but yet underexplored production platform for biotechnology. The vast majority of studies on recombinant protein expression in algae have been conducted in a single species, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, due to epigenetic silencing, transgene expression in Chlamydomonas is often inefficient. Here we have investigated parameters that govern efficient transgene expression in the red microalga Porphyridium purpureum. Porphyridium is unique in that the introduced transformation vectors are episomally maintained as autonomously replicating plasmids in the nucleus. We show that full codon optimization to the preferred codon usage in the Porphyridium genome confers superior transgene expression, not only at the level of protein accumulation, but also at the level of mRNA accumulation, indicating that high translation rates increase mRNA stability. Our optimized expression constructs resulted in YFP accumulation to unprecedented levels of up to 5% of the total soluble protein. We also designed expression cassettes that target foreign proteins to the secretory pathway and lead to efficient protein secretion into the culture medium, thus simplifying recombinant protein harvest and purification. Our study paves the way to the exploration of red microalgae as expression hosts in molecular farming for recombinant proteins and metabolites.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Microalgas , Porphyridium , Porphyridium/genética , Biotecnologia , Estabilidade de RNA , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Microalgas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 219, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372796

RESUMO

The microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata was isolated from the Nitelva River (Norway) and subsequently deposited in the collection of the Norwegian Institute of Water Research as "Selenastrum capricornutum Printz". This freshwater microalga, also known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, acquired much of its notoriety due to its high sensitivity to different chemical species, which makes it recommended by different international organizations for the assessment of ecotoxicity. However, outside this scope, R. subcapitata continues to be little explored. This review aims to shed light on a microalga that, despite its popularity, continues to be an "illustrious" unknown in many ways. Therefore, R. subcapitata taxonomy, phylogeny, shape, size/biovolume, cell ultra-structure, and reproduction are reviewed. The nutritional and cultural conditions, chronological aging, and maintenance and preservation of the alga are summarized and critically discussed. Applications of R. subcapitata, such as its use in aquatic toxicology (ecotoxicity assessment and elucidation of adverse toxic outcome pathways) are presented. Furthermore, the latest advances in the use of this alga in biotechnology, namely in the bioremediation of effluents and the production of value-added biomolecules and biofuels, are highlighted. To end, a perspective regarding the future exploitation of R. subcapitata potentialities, in a modern concept of biorefinery, is outlined. KEY POINTS: • An overview of alga phylogeny and physiology is critically reviewed. • Advances in alga nutrition, cultural conditions, and chronological aging are presented. • Its use in aquatic toxicology and biotechnology is highlighted.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Microalgas , Academias e Institutos , Biocombustíveis , Biotecnologia
3.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 32, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marine microalgae (phytoplankton) mediate almost half of the worldwide photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and therefore play a pivotal role in global carbon cycling, most prominently during massive phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton biomass consists of considerable proportions of polysaccharides, substantial parts of which are rapidly remineralized by heterotrophic bacteria. We analyzed the diversity, activity, and functional potential of such polysaccharide-degrading bacteria in different size fractions during a diverse spring phytoplankton bloom at Helgoland Roads (southern North Sea) at high temporal resolution using microscopic, physicochemical, biodiversity, metagenome, and metaproteome analyses. RESULTS: Prominent active 0.2-3 µm free-living clades comprised Aurantivirga, "Formosa", Cd. Prosiliicoccus, NS4, NS5, Amylibacter, Planktomarina, SAR11 Ia, SAR92, and SAR86, whereas BD1-7, Stappiaceae, Nitrincolaceae, Methylophagaceae, Sulfitobacter, NS9, Polaribacter, Lentimonas, CL500-3, Algibacter, and Glaciecola dominated 3-10 µm and > 10 µm particles. Particle-attached bacteria were more diverse and exhibited more dynamic adaptive shifts over time in terms of taxonomic composition and repertoires of encoded polysaccharide-targeting enzymes. In total, 305 species-level metagenome-assembled genomes were obtained, including 152 particle-attached bacteria, 100 of which were novel for the sampling site with 76 representing new species. Compared to free-living bacteria, they featured on average larger metagenome-assembled genomes with higher proportions of polysaccharide utilization loci. The latter were predicted to target a broader spectrum of polysaccharide substrates, ranging from readily soluble, simple structured storage polysaccharides (e.g., laminarin, α-glucans) to less soluble, complex structural, or secreted polysaccharides (e.g., xylans, cellulose, pectins). In particular, the potential to target poorly soluble or complex polysaccharides was more widespread among abundant and active particle-attached bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Particle-attached bacteria represented only 1% of all bloom-associated bacteria, yet our data suggest that many abundant active clades played a pivotal gatekeeping role in the solubilization and subsequent degradation of numerous important classes of algal glycans. The high diversity of polysaccharide niches among the most active particle-attached clades therefore is a determining factor for the proportion of algal polysaccharides that can be rapidly remineralized during generally short-lived phytoplankton bloom events. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae , Microalgas , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Eutrofização , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Flavobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170448, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301774

RESUMO

In the past decade, there has been a significant rise in sustainable biomass based biofuel production to address energy needs while mitigating environmental impacts. Traditionally, bioethanol was used for biofuel production, but concerns over food security and environmental preservation have led to growing interest in alternative sources such as neutral lipids from vegetable oil and microalgae for biodiesel production. This research paper evaluates the potential of various oleaginous plants and microalgae as feedstocks for biodiesel production, with a focus on their fatty acid composition and its impact on biodiesel properties. The study examines the fatty acid profiles of 43 different plant and microalgae species and employs various equations to estimate key physical properties of biodiesel. Additionally, the communication compares these properties to International Biodiesel Standards (EN 14214 and ASTM D6751-08) to assess the suitability of the derived biodiesel for commercial use. It is impossible to describe a single composition that is optimal in terms of all essential fuel properties due to the opposing effects of some structural features of the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). However, biodiesel should contain relatively low concentrations of both long chain saturated and polyunsaturated FAME to ensure adequate efficiency in terms of low temperature operability and oxidative stability. The results reveal significant variations in properties amongst different feedstocks, highlighting the importance of feedstock selection in biodiesel production. The study also establishes correlations between various fuel properties, providing valuable insights in to optimizing biodiesel production processes, which will be of great use to researchers, engineers, and stakeholders involved in biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microalgas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Biocombustíveis , Óleos de Plantas/química , Temperatura Baixa , Biomassa
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170841, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340841

RESUMO

The ecological effects of climate change and ocean acidification (OA) have been extensively studied. Various microalgae are ecologically important in the overall pelagic food web as key contributors to oceanic primary productivity. Additionally, no organism exists in isolation in a complex environment, and shifts in food quality may lead to indirect OA effects on consumers. This study aims to investigate the potential effects of OA on algal trophic composition and subsequent bivalve growth. Here, the growth and nutrient fractions of Chlorella sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Chaetocetos muelleri were used to synthesize and assess the impact of OA on primary productivity. Total protein content, total phenolic compounds, and amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) content were evaluated as nutritional indicators. The results demonstrated that the three microalgae responded positively to OA in the future environment, significantly enhancing growth performance and nutritional value as a food source. Additionally, certain macromolecular fractions found in consumers are closely linked to their dietary sources, such as phenylalanine, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C20:1n9, C18:0, and C18:3n. Our findings illustrate that OA affects a wide range of crucial primary producers in the oceans, which can disrupt nutrient delivery and have profound impacts on the entire marine ecosystem and human food health.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Humanos , Água do Mar/química , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Acidificação dos Oceanos , Oceanos e Mares , Frutos do Mar , Valor Nutritivo
6.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(3): 714-729, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358498

RESUMO

Global water scarcity increased the demand for clean water, leading to attention on microalgae-based biological treatment for wastewater due to economic feasibility and sustainable biomass applications. This study isolated indigenous microalga Coelastrella sp. KNUA068 from a wastewater treatment plant, observed its admissible growth rate in diluted cattle wastewater (DCW), and used it for wastewater treatment analysis. The microalga showed high growth rates in indoor and outdoor cultivation with 100% DCW. In addition, the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal rates of the microalga were 69.97 and 60.35%, respectively, in indoor cultivation, and 50.63 and 67.20%, respectively, in outdoor cultivation. Carotenoid content analysis revealed lutein as the highest productivity carotenoid, and zeaxanthin production was higher in outdoor cultivation. The biomass exhibited suitable biodiesel quality with a cetane number of 50.8 for high-quality biodiesel production. Coelastrella sp. KNUA068 demonstrates potential for bioenergy feedstock, carotenoid production, and wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Microalgas , Animais , Bovinos , Águas Residuárias , Amônia , Carotenoides , Nitrogênio
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339002

RESUMO

The ever-increasing applications of metabarcoding analyses for environmental samples demand a well-designed assessment of the stability of DNA and RNA contained in cells that are deposited or buried in marine sediments. We thus conducted a qPCR quantification of the DNA and RNA in the vegetative cells of three microalgae entrapped in facsimile marine sediments and found that >90% of DNA and up to 99% of RNA for all microalgal species were degraded within 60 days at 4 °C. A further examination of the potential interference of the relic DNA of the vegetative cells with resting cyst detection in sediments was performed via a metabarcoding analysis in artificial marine sediments spiked with the vegetative cells of two Kareniaceae dinoflagellates and the resting cysts of another three dinoflagellates. The results demonstrated a dramatic decrease in the relative abundances of the two Kareniaceae dinoflagellates in 120 days, while those of the three resting cysts increased dramatically. Together, our results suggest that a positive detection of microalgae via metabarcoding analysis in DNA or RNA extracted from marine sediments strongly indicates the presence of intact or viable cysts or spores due to the rapid decay of relic DNA/RNA. This study provides a solid basis for the data interpretation of metabarcoding surveys, particularly in resting cyst detection.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Microalgas , Microalgas/genética , DNA , Dinoflagelados/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , RNA/genética , Estabilidade de RNA , Sedimentos Geológicos
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(3): 103, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358529

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) like Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg, among others, play a role in several environmental problems. The marine environment is polluted by several contaminants, such as HMs. A variety of physico-chemical methods usually available for sanitation HMs remediation suffer from either limitation. Bioremediation is a promising way of dealing with HMs pollution. Microbes have the ability with various potencies to resist HMs tension. The current review discusses the main sources and influences of HMs, the role of marine microorganisms in HMs bioremediation, as well as the microbial mechanisms for HMs detoxification and transformation. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the bioremediation technologies that are currently available for the removal of HMs ions from industrial and urban effluent by aquatic organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and microalgae, particularly those that are isolated from marine areas. The primary goals are to outline various studies and offer helpful information about the most important aspects of the bioelimination techniques. The biotreatment practices have been primarily divided into three techniques based on this topic. They are biosorption, bioaccumulation, bioleaching, and biotransformation. This article gives the brief view on the research studies about bioremediation of HMs using marine microorganisms. The current review also deals with the critical issues and recent studies based on the HMs biodetoxification using aquatic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microalgas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Indústrias
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2725, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302601

RESUMO

Microalgal lipids are precursors to the production of biodiesel, as well as a source of valuable dietary components in the biotechnological industries. So, this study aimed to assess the effects of nutritional (nitrogen, and phosphorus) starvations and salinity stress (NaCl) on the biomass, lipid content, fatty acids profile, and predicted biodiesel properties of green microalga Monoraphidium braunii. The results showed that biomass, biomass productivity, and photosynthetic pigment contents (Chl. a, b, and carotenoids) of M. braunii were markedly decreased by nitrogen and phosphorus depletion and recorded the maximum values in cultures treated with full of N and P concentrations (control, 100%). These parameters were considerably increased at the low salinity level (up to 150 mM NaCl), while an increasing salinity level (up to 250 mM NaCl) reduces the biomass, its productivity, and pigment contents. Nutritional limitations and salt stress (NaCl) resulted in significantly enhanced accumulation of lipid and productivity of M. braunii, which represented more than twofold of the control. Furthermore, these conditions have enhanced the profile of fatty acid and biodiesel quality-related parameters. The current study exposed strategies to improve M. braunii lipid productivity for biodiesel production on a small scale in vitro in terms of fuel quality under low nutrients and salinity stress.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Nutrientes , Salinidade , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Estresse Salino
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2809, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307932

RESUMO

Microalgae species are of economic importance regarded as "green gold" being rich in bioactive compounds. Spirulina and Chlorella are the most popular microalgal species and are marketed as healthy food supplements. At the same time, Amphora holds potential as a source of healthy lipids and essential fatty acids. Yet, there are considerable variations in their reported chemical composition, and less is known about their compositional differences. A multiplexed metabolomic approach was adopted for the quality control (QC) of Spirulina supplements and to compare its constitutive metabolome to Chlorella and Amphora. The adopted protocol comprised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS/MS), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis) for mapping their primary and secondary metabolome. Interestingly, UPLC-HRMS/MS analysis delineated the abundance of fatty acids in Amphora versus glycolipids enrichment in Spirulina, and porphyrins were the main pigments identified in Spirulina, with scarce occurrence in Chlorella. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis of GC-MS data set revealed palmitic acid, 3-mannobiose, and glyceryl-glycoside as being most enriched in Spirulina, versus sucrose and leucine in Chlorella and Amphora, respectively. Despite being of low discriminatory potential, UV/Vis OPLS-DA modeling showed that Spirulina was distinguished with the UV absorbances of carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments, as indicated by its OPLS-DA derived S-plot. Our study provides a QC approach for the analysis of the microalgal species and poses alternative spectral and compositional markers for their discrimination.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Spirulina , Chlorella/química , Spirulina/química , Quimiometria , Suplementos Nutricionais
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2764, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308017

RESUMO

Aquatic biota are threatened by climate warming as well as other anthropogenic stressors such as eutrophication by phosphates and nitrate. However, it remains unclear how nitrate exposure can alter the resilience of microalgae to climate warming, particularly heatwaves. To get a better understanding of these processes, we investigated the effect of elevated temperature and nitrate pollution on growth, metabolites (sugar and protein), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), and antioxidant accumulation (polyphenols, proline) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The experiment involved a 3 × 3 factorial design, where microalgae were exposed to one of three nitrate levels (5, 50, or 200 mg L-1 NO3-l) at 20 °C for 2 weeks. Subsequently, two heatwave scenarios were imposed: a short and moderate heatwave at 24 °C for 2 weeks, and a long and intense heatwave with an additional 2 weeks at 26 °C. A positive synergistic effect of heatwaves and nitrate on growth and metabolites was observed, but this also led to increased oxidative stress. In the short and moderate heatwave, oxidative damage was controlled by increased antioxidant levels. The high growth, metabolites, and antioxidants combined with low oxidative stress during the short and moderate heatwaves in moderate nitrate (50 mg L-1) led to a sustainable increased food availability to grazers. On the other hand, long and intense heatwaves in high nitrate conditions caused unsustainable growth due to increased oxidative stress and relatively low antioxidant (proline) levels, increasing the risk for massive algal die-offs.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Microalgas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Nitratos/farmacologia , Microalgas/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1042, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310127

RESUMO

Chronic diabetic wounds are at lifelong risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers owing to severe hypoxia, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), a complex inflammatory microenvironment, and the potential for bacterial infection. Here we develop a programmed treatment strategy employing live Haematococcus (HEA). By modulating light intensity, HEA can be programmed to perform a variety of functions, such as antibacterial activity, oxygen supply, ROS scavenging, and immune regulation, suggesting its potential for use in programmed therapy. Under high light intensity (658 nm, 0.5 W/cm2), green HEA (GHEA) with efficient photothermal conversion mediate wound surface disinfection. By decreasing the light intensity (658 nm, 0.1 W/cm2), the photosynthetic system of GHEA can continuously produce oxygen, effectively resolving the problems of hypoxia and promoting vascular regeneration. Continuous light irradiation induces astaxanthin (AST) accumulation in HEA cells, resulting in a gradual transformation from a green to red hue (RHEA). RHEA effectively scavenges excess ROS, enhances the expression of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, and directs polarization to M2 macrophages by secreting AST vesicles via exosomes. The living HEA hydrogel can sterilize and enhance cell proliferation and migration and promote neoangiogenesis, which could improve infected diabetic wound healing in female mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Microalgas , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hipóxia , Oxigênio , Cicatrização , Hidrogéis
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 259(Pt 1): 129147, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181921

RESUMO

A composite of chitosan biopolymer with microalgae and commercial carbon-doped titanium dioxide (kronos) was modified by grafting an aromatic aldehyde (salicylaldehyde) in a hydrothermal process for the removal of brilliant green (BG) dye. The resulting Schiff's base Chitosan-Microalgae-TiO2 kronos/Salicylaldehyde (CsMaTk/S) material was characterised using various analytical methods (conclusive of physical properties using BET surface analysis method, elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS and point of zero charge). Box Behnken Design was utilised for the optimisation of the three input variables, i.e., adsorbent dose, pH of the media and contact time. The optimum conditions appointed by the optimisation process were further affirmed by the desirability test and employed in the equilibrium studies in batch mode and the results exhibited a better fit towards the pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 957.0 mg/g. Furthermore, the reusability study displayed the adsorptive performance of CsMaTk/S remains effective throughout five adsorption cycles. The possible interactions between the dye molecules and the surface of the adsorbent were derived based on the analyses performed and the electrostatic attractions, H-bonding, Yoshida-H bonding, π-π and n-π interactions are concluded to be the responsible forces in this adsorption process.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Microalgas , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carbono , Quitosana/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Aldeídos , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170325, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278265

RESUMO

Algae plays a key role in carbon capture and utilization (CCU) as it can capture and use the atmospheric CO2 for conversion of value-added products. Concentrated CO2 is common in flue gas and provides opportunities for algae cultivation. The drawbacks are mass transfer limitation, poor CO2 dissolution, and challenges to reach optimal levels for algal growth at given flue gas levels. Bicarbonate is flexible to be used as carbon source and owns the potential to enhance the efficiency of biological carbon fixation by algae. The requirements of algae strains are more stringent. To improve the industrial scale-up of CCU, system optimization is of great importance. More novel algal strains that can grow rapidly under harsh environment and provide valuable bio-products should be developed for large-scale production. Algae-driven CCU is promising for achieving carbon-neutrality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Microalgas , Bicarbonatos , Carbono , Plantas , Ciclo do Carbono , Biomassa
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170423, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281644

RESUMO

This study reports a facile technique to synthesize and tune the cationic polymer, poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (PAPTAC), in terms of molecular weight and surface change for harvesting three microalgae species (Scenedesmus sp., P.purpureum, and C. vulgaris). The PAPTAC polymer was synthesised by UV-induced free-radical polymerisation. Polymer tuning was demonstrated by regulating the monomer concentration (60 to 360 mg/mL) and UV power (36 and 60 W) for polymerisation. The obtained PAPTAC polymer was evaluated for harvesting three different microalgae species and compared to a commercially available polymer. The highest flocculation efficiency for Scenedesmus sp. and P. purpureum was observed at a dosage of 25 mg-polymer/g of dry biomass by using PAPTAC-90, resulting in higher flocculation efficiency than the commercial polymer. Results in this study show evidence of effective neutralisation of the negative charge surface of microalgae cells by the produced cationic PAPTAC polymer and polymer bridging for effective flocculation. The obtained PAPTAC polymer was less effective for harvesting C. vulgaris, possibly due to other factors such as cell morphology and composition of extracellular polymeric substances of at the cell membrane that may also influence harvesting performance.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Polímeros/metabolismo , Cátions/metabolismo , Floculação , Biomassa
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170460, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286284

RESUMO

The occurrence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is characterized by low concentration and pseudo-persistence. However, the toxic effects and mechanisms of SMX, especially for low concentration and long-term exposure, are still not clear. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of SMX on carbon fixation-related biological processes of Chlorella pyrenoidosa at population, physiological-biochemical, and transcriptional levels. Results showed that 1-1000 µg/L SMX significantly inhibited the dry weight and carbon fixation rate of C. pyrenoidosa during 21 d. The upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) demonstrated that SMX posed oxidative damage to C. pyrenoidosa. SMX inhibited the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), and consequently stimulated the activity of Rubisco. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that SMX concentration was positively correlated with Rubisco and CAT while exposure time was negatively correlated with CA. Transcriptional analysis showed that the synthesis of chlorophyll-a was stabilized by regulating the diversion of protoporphyrin IX and the chlorophyll cycle. Meanwhile, multiple CO2 compensation mechanisms, including photorespiratory, C4-like CO2 compensation and purine metabolism pathways were triggered in response to the CO2 requirements of Rubisco. This study provides a scientific basis for the comprehensive assessment of the ecological risk of SMX.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Sulfametoxazol/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
17.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(2): 195-209, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226988

RESUMO

Microalgae are the most propitious feedstock for biofuel production due to their lipid and fatty acid content. Microalgae cultivation shares many features with bioreactors, such as thermal and pH regulation, feeding procedures, and mixing to enhance heat and mass transfers. Aeration and stirring speeds are important parameters to reduce the costs of producing microalgae. In this study, three different photobioreactor types (stirred tank, airlift, bubble column) were characterized and compared for microalgae production. Hydrodynamics, mass transfer, and power consumption were determined for various aeration rates (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 L/min), and stirring speeds (100, 200 rpm), and Chlorella sorokiniana growth performance was compared under the conditions that provided the highest volumetric mass transfer and the lowest mixing time. Photo-bioreactor homogenization was good as indicated by low mixing times (< 10 s). Bubble column had the highest volumetric mass transfer due to its sparger design. Gas holdup and volumetric mass transfer coefficient were found to increase with the air flow rate and stirring speed. For stirred tank, bubble column, and airlift photobioreactors, maximum specific growth rates of C. sorokiniana were 0.053, 0.061, 0.057 h-1, and biomass productivities were 0.064, 0.097, 0.072 gdw/L.day, respectively. Under the conditions tested, growth was limited by the volumetric mass transfer in the airlift and stirred tank and bubble column was the best option for producing microalgae. These findings pave way for more extensive use of these systems in producing microalgae and provide a basis to compare photobioreactors of different designs.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Fotobiorreatores , Hidrodinâmica , Biomassa
18.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(2): 181-193, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231212

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the association of the blue-green microalga Arthrospira maxima (Spirulina), which is known for its CO2 fixation, biomass, and high-value metabolite production, with the microalga growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under the stressful composition of biogas. The results demonstrated that A. maxima co-cultured with A. brasilense under the high CO2 (25%) and methane (CH4; 75%) concentrations of biogas recorded a CO2 fixation rate of 0.24 ± 0.03 g L-1 days-1, thereby attaining a biomass production of 1.8 ± 0.03 g L-1. Similarly, the biochemical composition quality of this microalga enhanced the attainment of higher contents of carbohydrates, proteins, and phycocyanin than cultured alone. However, metabolites other than tryptophan (Trp) and indole-3-acetic acid could have supported this beneficial interaction. Overall, the results demonstrate that this prokaryotic consortium of A. maxima-A. brasilense established a synergic association under biogas, which represents a sustainable strategy to improve the bio-refinery capacity of this microalga and increase the usefulness of A. brasilense in multiple economic sectors.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense , Microalgas , Spirulina , Spirulina/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Microalgas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolismo
19.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(2): 275-287, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286864

RESUMO

Microalgae are considered a promising source for obtaining natural compounds with strong antioxidant activity. Despite the great progress made in this field, there is still need for further studies applying simple and cost-effective modifications to reveal their full potential and enhance antioxidant properties. Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris are some of the most common cells studied for this purpose. In this study, it was aimed to develop a bioprocess for the enhancement of antioxidant properties of these two microalgae by evaluating the effect of different culture conditions. With this aim, the impacts of light intensity/reactive oxygen species and nitrogen sources/reactive oxygen species were evaluated for the A. platensis and C. vulgaris cells, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potential of A. platensis was found to be correlated with the phycocyanin and total phenolic content of cells, and 80 µmol photons m-2 s-1 light intensity induced antioxidant activity in a two-step cultivation mode. For C. vulgaris cells, maximum antioxidant activities of 68.10 ± 1.51% and 75.68 ± 0.66% were obtained in cultures with NH4Cl (0.016% (w/v)) for DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. The applied oxidative stress factors exhibited different effects on the antioxidant activities of the cells because of their cellular morphologies and changing mechanisms of reactive oxygen species. These outcomes show the potential of applied modifications on cells and suggest a promising route to enhance antioxidant activities of microalgae for further research.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Spirulina , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Ficocianina
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 395: 130381, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281545

RESUMO

Biogas production via anaerobic digestion is highly attractive for microalgae. The technology of microalgae cultivation has profound impacts on biogas production system as it is the most energy-consuming process. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic benefits of different cultivation systems has yet to be sufficiently conducted. Here, life-cycle and economic assessments of open raceway ponds, photobioreactors and biofilm systems were investigated. Results showed greenhouse gas emissions of all systems were positive because more than two-thirds of carbon in fuel gas was lost and the fixed carbon in product gas and solid fertilizer was less than the emitted carbon during energy input. Particularly, biofilm system achieved the least greenhouse gas emissions (9.3 g CO2-eq/MJ), net energy ratio (0.7) and levelized cost of energy (0.9 $/kWh), indicating the optimum cultivation system. Open raceway ponds and photobioreactors failed to achieve positive benefits because of low harvesting efficiency and biomass concentration.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Microalgas , Biocombustíveis/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Biomassa , Biofilmes , Carbono
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