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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130770, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399181

RESUMO

Amino acids and sulfonic acid derivatives (Taurine-Tau; Hypotaurine-HypTau; Homotaurine-HTau) of 26 different species of commercial macroalgae, microalgae and 10 algae-enriched food products from the market were quantified in a single chromatographic run. Tau and analogues were predominantly distributed in red species followed by green and brown species. Palmaria palmata, Gracilaria longissima and Porphyra sp. were the species with the highest content of Tau and total sulfonic acid derivatives (TAD). Notwithstanding, relatively high concentrations of HTau were found in green algae Ulva lactuca and G. vermicullophyla as well as in the brown algae Undaria pinnatifida. HTau and HypTau were found at lower concentrations than Tau in all species, except in Ulva lactuca. The samples with the highest protein content were the green species Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis, and Afanizomenon-flos aquae, followed by the red algae Gracilaria longissima and Gracilaria vermicullophyla. Samples of pasta formulated with algae ingredients contained the highest levels of sulfonic acid derivatives, evidencing that these products can provide levels of TAD comparable to those found in foods of animal origin. This study provides, for the first time, quantitative information regarding the distribution of sulfonic acid derivatives and total amino acids in multiple algae species as well as the nutritional impact of the inclusion of algae ingredients in commercial food matrices.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Rodófitas , Alga Marinha , Aminoácidos , Animais , Alimentos Fortificados , Taurina/análogos & derivados
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149765, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454141

RESUMO

There is a growing global recognition that microalgae-based biofuel are environment-friendly and economically feasible options because they incur several advantages over traditional fossil fuels. Also, the microalgae can be manipulated for extraction of value-added compounds such as lipids (triacylglycerols), carbohydrates, polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, pigments, antioxidants, various antimicrobial compounds, etc. Recently, there is an increasing focus on the co-cultivation practices of microalgae with other microorganisms to enhance biomass and lipid productivity. In a co-cultivation strategy, microalgae grow symbiotically with other heterotrophic microbes such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, and other algae/microalgae. They exchange nutrients and metabolites; this helps to increase the productivity, therefore facilitating the commercialization of microalgal-based fuel. Co-cultivation also facilitates biomass harvesting and waste valorization, thereby help to build an algal biorefinery platform for bioenergy production along with multivariate high value bioproducts and simultaneous waste bioremediation. This article comprehensively reviews various microalgae cultivation practices utilizing co-culture approaches with other algae, fungi, bacteria, and yeast. The review mainly focuses on the impact of several binary culture strategies on biomass and lipid yield. The advantages and challenges associated with the procedure along with their respective cultivation modes have also been presented and discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Técnicas de Cocultura
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131656, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325255

RESUMO

The utilization of microalgae in treating wastewater has been an emerging topic focussed on finding an economically sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to treating wastewater. Over the last several years, different types of con microalgae and bacteria consortia have been experimented with to explore their potential in effectively treating wastewater from different sources. The basic features considered while determining efficiency is their capacity to remove nutrients including nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and heavy metals like arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu). This paper reviews the efficiency of microalgae as an approach to treating wastewater from different sources and compares conventional and microalgae-based treatment systems. The paper also discusses the characteristics of wastewater, conventional methods of wastewater treatment that have been used so far, and the technological mechanisms for removing nutrients and heavy metals from contaminated water. Microalgae can successfully eliminate the suspended nutrients and have been reported to successfully remove N, P, and heavy metals by up to 99.6 %, 100 %, and 13%-100 % from different types of wastewater. However, although a microalgae-based wastewater treatment system offers some benefits, it also presents some challenges as outlined in the last section of this paper. Performance in eliminating nutrients from wastewater is affected by different parameters such as temperature, biomass productivity, osmotic ability, pH, O2 concentration. Therefore, the conducting of pilot-scale studies and exploration of the complexities of contaminants under complex environmental conditions is recommended.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biomassa , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Águas Residuárias
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149988, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525699

RESUMO

Microalgae such Chlorella vulgaris can effectively absorb nitrate and phosphate from contaminated water. This work characterized nitrate and phosphate removal from simulated agricultural runoff using C. vulgaris. Statistically designed experiments were used to model the following responses: (1) algal growth; (2) nitrate removal; (3) phosphate removal; (4) protein in the algal biomass; (5) chlorophyll content of the biomass; (6) the biomass phenolics content; and (7) the free radical scavenging antioxidant activity of the biomass. These response were modelled for the following key experimental factors: initial nitrate concentration in the simulated runoff (1080-3240 mg L-1, as NaNO3), initial phosphate concentration (20-60 mg L-1, as K2HPO4), photoperiod (8-24 h of light/day) and culture duration (5-15 days). The validated models were used to identify the factor levels to maximize the various responses. Nitrate removal was maximized at 85.6% when initial nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2322 mg L-1 and 38 mg L-1 (N:P atom ratio ≈ 125:1), respectively, with a 17.2 h daily photoperiod in a 13-day culture. Phosphate removal was maximized at 95% when the initial nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 1402 mg L-1 and 56.7 mg L-1 (N:P ≈ 51:1), respectively, with a 15.7 h daily photoperiod in a 14.7-day culture. At least ~14 h of a daily photoperiod and a ~11-day culture period were required to maximize all the studied responses. C. vulgaris is edible and may be used as animal feed. Nutritional aspects of the biomass were characterized. Biomass with more than 24% protein could be produced. Under the best conditions, the chlorophyll (potential food colorants) content of the biomass was 8.5% and the maximum level of total phenolics (antioxidants) in the biomass was nearly 13 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biomassa , Nitratos , Fosfatos , Águas Residuárias , Água
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149800, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525752

RESUMO

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food producing industries globally, providing ~50% of fish for human consumption. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture presents a range of challenges including balancing environmental impact that can be influenced by variations in climatic conditions. Monitoring of physicochemical parameters is traditionally used to evaluate aquaculture output quality; however, this approach does not indicate the cumulative ecotoxicological effects on receiving waters. Specifically, this case study investigated the relationship between measuring traditional physicochemical parameters and the health of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in order to evaluate the potential ecotoxicological effects of freshwater aquaculture on the receiving aquatic ecosystem in the Irish midlands. This constituted the first 2-year longitudinal study conducted in 2018 and 2019 that reports on the efficacy of using algae as a natural bioindicator to monitor and assess freshwater aquaculture wastewater from a traditional flow-through fish farm producing Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis); monitoring was compared over a same six-month period in the same location each year. Findings demonstrated significant differences between the two monitoring periods when using P. subcapitata for assessing the quality of aquaculture intake (P = 0.030) and output (P = 0.039). No stimulatory effects were observed during 2019 unlike >50% rates experienced the previous year. These observations coincided with changes in climatic conditions whereby the 2018 period experienced extended levels of drought; whereas non-drought conditions were observed during 2019. Findings suggest that reliance upon traditional monitoring techniques may not provide sufficient robustness or versatility to address emerging issues, such as extremes in climate variance, which may influence the future intensive sustainability of freshwater aquaculture. This research supports the complementary use of P. subcapitata as a rapid and simple early-warning bioindicator for measuring aquaculture output quality on receiving aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Percas , Animais , Aquicultura , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Águas Residuárias
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149755, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525767

RESUMO

Derived from their great capacity of adaptation, microalgae have several industrial applications, including pigment production for nutraceutical sector. However, the scarcity of studies on the diversity and life histories from several environments, highlight the need for more research on new species and habitats. Based on this, the present study assessed the microalgal diversity in water bodies of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Asturias (Spain). A total of 14 strains were successfully isolated and scaled up in liquid monocultures. They were identified through a combination of morphologic features with molecular assignation by DNA barcoding via the 18S and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genes. The results of the genetic procedures (BLAST assignments and the 18S and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genealogies) showed that 10 of the 14 assayed isolates were identified at the species level. The available genetic data were not sufficient for species classifications of the remaining isolates. It is possible that some might be new species not previously studied or described. Indeed, a new species, Coelastrella cogersae, was proposed in this study. Moreover, 3 of the 14 isolates (including the newly proposed species) exhibited caretogenic activity under specific conditions during the culture. These results are a great step forward in both the screening of lesser-known environments and the discovery of new sources of bioactive compounds. The study could be of great value to the nutraceutical industries and markets.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Carotenoides , Microalgas/genética , Filogenia , Resíduos Sólidos , Espanha , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150547, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582877

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to attenuate the ecotoxicity of various environmental pollutants, but research on its own toxic effects in aquatic ecosystems has been very limited. Herein, the toxic effects of humic acid (HA), a represent DOM typically found in natural waters, on the freshwater alga Scenedesmus capricornus were investigated. As result, HA exerted a double-dose effect on the growth of Scenedesmus capricornus. At HA concentrations below 2.0 mgC/L, the growth of Scenedesmus capricornus was slightly promoted, as was the synthesis of chlorophyll and macromolecules in the algae. Moreover, S. capricornus can maintain its growth by secreting fulvic acid as a nutrient carbon source. However, the growth of Scenedesmus capricornus was significantly inhibited when HA was beyond 2.0 mgC/L. The main mechanisms of humic acid's toxicity were membrane damage and oxidative stress. Particularly, when the oxidative stress exceeds the algae's carrying capacity, the synthesis of EPS is greatly inhibited and HA damage results. Taken together, DOM may have both positive and negative effects on aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150504, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583072

RESUMO

The results of a global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of a microalgae model applied to a Membrane Photobioreactor (MPBR) pilot plant were assessed. The main goals of this study were: (I) to identify the sensitivity factors of the model through the Morris screening method, i.e. the most influential factors; (II) to calibrate the influential factors online or offline; and (III) to assess the model's uncertainty. Four experimental periods were evaluated, which encompassed a wide range of environmental and operational conditions. Eleven influential factors (e.g. maximum specific growth rate, light intensity and maximum temperature) were identified in the model from a set of 34 kinetic parameters (input factors). These influential factors were preferably calibrated offline and alternatively online. Offline/online calibration provided a unique set of model factor values that were used to match the model results with experimental data for the four experimental periods. A dynamic optimization of these influential factors was conducted, resulting in an enhanced set of values for each period. Model uncertainty was assessed using the uncertainty bands and three uncertainty indices: p-factor, r-factor and ARIL. Uncertainty was dependent on both the number of influential factors identified in each period and the model output analyzed (i.e. biomass, ammonium and phosphate concentration). The uncertainty results revealed a need to apply offline calibration methods to improve model performance.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Biomassa , Fotobiorreatores , Incerteza , Águas Residuárias
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150040, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798717

RESUMO

This work assesses the capacity of a microalgae-based system to remove three highly to medium polar pesticides typically found in freshwater: acetamiprid, bentazone, and propanil. Degradation of the pesticides was firstly studied individually at batch lab-scale reactors and abiotic and heated-killed controls were employed to clarify their removal pathways. At lab-scale, propanil and acetamiprid were completely removed after 7 days whereas bentazone was not removed. Four and two transformation products (TPs) were generated in the biodegradation process for acetamiprid and propanil, respectively. Then, the simultaneous removal of the pesticides was assessed in an outdoor pilot photobioreactor, operated with a hydraulic residence time of 8 days. During the steady-state, high removal efficiencies were observed for propanil (99%) and acetamiprid (71%). The results from batch experiments suggest that removal is mainly caused by algal-mediated biodegradation. Acetamiprid TPs raised throughout the operational time in the photobioreactor, while no propanil TP was detected at the pilot-scale. This suggests complete mineralization of propanil or residual formation of its TPs at concentrations below the analytical method detection limit. Aiming at biomass valorization, diverse microalgae harvesting methods were investigated for biomass concentration, and the effect of residual pesticides on the biogas yield was determined by biochemical methane potential tests. Anaerobic digestion was not inhibited by the pesticides as verified by the digestion performance. The results highlight the potential of microalgae-based systems to couple nutrient removal, biomass production, micropollutant biodegradation, and biofuel production.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Praguicidas , Biomassa , Fotobiorreatores , Águas Residuárias , Água
10.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113783, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592662

RESUMO

Microalgae-based wastewater treatment (and biomass production) is an environmentally benign and energetically efficient technique as compared to traditional practices. The present study is focused on optimization of the major treatment variables such as temperature, light-dark cycle (LD), and nitrogen (N)-to-phosphate (P) ratio (N/P) for the elimination of N and P from tertiary municipal wastewater utilizing Chlorella kessleri microalgae species. In this regard, a hybrid support vector regression (SVR) technique integrated with the crow search algorithm has been applied as a novel modeling/optimization tool. The SVR models were formulated using the experimental data, which were furnished according to the response surface methodology with Box-Behnken Design. Various statistical indicators, including mean absolute percentage error, Taylor diagram, and fractional bias, confirmed the superior performance of SVR models as compared to the response surface methodology (RSM) and generalized linear model (GLM). Finally, the best SVR model was hybridized with the crow search algorithm for single/multi-objective optimizations to acquire the global optimal treatment conditions for maximum N and P removal efficiencies. The best-operating conditions were found to be 29.3°C, 24/0 h/h of LD, and 6:1 of N/P, with N and P elimination efficiencies of 99.97 and 93.48%, respectively. The optimized values were further confirmed by new experimental data.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Corvos , Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Algoritmos , Animais , Biomassa , Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias
11.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113865, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597951

RESUMO

Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) has attracted widespread attention because of its ability to absorb, enrich, and degrade typical endocrine-disrupting antibiotics (such as levofloxacin) in aquaculture wastewater. However, microplastic pollution in wastewater, which is becoming an increasingly severe problem, will exert a toxic effect on aquatic organisms (such as C. vulgaris and other microalgae). Polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs), which are commonly found in freshwater aquaculture wastewater, are the most harmful. Therefore, clarifying the effects of PS-MPs on the ability of C. vulgaris to degrade typical endocrine-disrupting antibiotics in freshwater aquaculture wastewater and determining the mechanism of the effect are particularly important. The results of this study showed that under the stress of PS-MPs, the growth of C. vulgaris was significantly inhibited; the EPS-polysaccharide content per algal cell, EPS adsorption, intracellular enrichment and degradation of levofloxacin, total CYP450 content, and total CYP450 activity all decreased; and the relative expression of key genes related to the metabolic activity of algal cells, such as psbA, psaB, and rbcL, was generally downregulated. PS-MPs mainly affected the removal of a typical endocrine-disrupting antibiotic by C. vulgaris by altering adsorption, enrichment, and enzyme degradation. The results provide a reference for research on the impact of microplastic pollution on the treatment of freshwater aquaculture wastewater.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aquicultura , Água Doce , Levofloxacino , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113871, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619589

RESUMO

Membrane photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (MPMFC) utilizes O2, NO3- and NO2- as cathodic electron acceptors, enabling simultaneous treatment of nitrogen, CO2 and organic carbon in the cathode compartment. In this work, development of a novel cathodic process with in situ nitritation via microalgal photosynthesis during the light period is reported for achieving shortcut nitrogen removal (SNR) from ammonium-rich wastewater. Moreover, a tubular low-cost ceramic membrane was used to separate and recycle the microalgal-bacterial biomass to the cathode compartment during the continuous operation. The influence of NH4+ concentration and ratio of chemical oxygen demand to total nitrogen on the MPMFC performance was examined. Denitritation under dark and anoxic conditions occurred due to denitrifying bacteria (DNB) subsequent to nitritation under light and aerobic conditions by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the consortia. Final concentrations of NH4+ and NO2- in the effluent of 0.10 mg NH4+-L-1 and 0.02 mg NO2--L-1, respectively, were obtained using MPMFC which resulted in a nitrogen removal efficiency of 99 ± 0.5%. The maximum electricity production achieved using the MPMFC was 56 ± 0.1 mA. This study demonstrated that combining microalgal photosynthesis, nitritation and denitritation in the cathode compartment of MPMFC is advantageous for avoiding the cost due to external aeration and organic carbon source necessary for ammonium removal as well as utilization of NO2- or NO3- as an electron acceptor.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Microalgas , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Fotossíntese , Águas Residuárias/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131870, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403898

RESUMO

With the rapid economy development and population surge, the water resources available for direct use on the earth have been in shortage. Therefore, water pollution remediation inevitably becomes the focus of global attention. Aside from their capacity to fix and effectively control the emission of carbon dioxide thus achieve negative carbon emission, microalgae and its products modified by genetic engineering and other technologies also have a broad prospect in sewage treatment such as efficiently removing all kinds of pollutants in water and producing high-quality biofuels after use. Therefore, research on these organisms has gradually deepened in recent years. This paper summarizes the bioremediation mechanism of heavy metal ions in water by using microalgae and their modified products. The relevant research progresses since 2015 are critically reviewed and discussed. Challenges and prospects are also put forward for their industrial implementation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microalgas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biocombustíveis , Metais Pesados/análise , Água
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131929, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463260

RESUMO

Sustainable sewage treatment plants (STPs) have been intensively investigated in search for low-cost, environmental-friendly options. Anaerobic-aerobic treatment solutions, as upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors followed by high rate algal ponds (HRAP) have already proved to be efficient for pollutants and micropollutants removal, as well as for energy recovery from the co-digestion of raw sewage and microalgal biomass. Since microalgae cells have complex structures that make them resistant to anaerobic digestion, pre-treatment techniques may be applied to improve microalgal biomass solubilisation and methane yield. Among the thermal pre-treatments, the use of solar energy for biomass solubilisation has yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the performance of a solar thermal microalgal biomass pre-treatment prior to the anaerobic co-digestion with raw sewage, comparing a UASB reactor feed only raw sewage and other UASB reactor feed with raw sewage and pre-treated microalgal biomass. The results showed that, the solar pre-treatment step reached an organic matter solubilisation of 32% (COD). Furthermore, the methane yield was increased by 45% (from 81 to 117 NL CH4 kg-1 COD), after the anaerobic co-digestion with pre-treated microalgae as compared to the mono-digestion of raw sewage, indicating significant difference between the evaluated UASB reactors. The energy assessment showed a positive energy balance, as the total energy produced was twice the energy consumed in the system.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Digestão , Metano , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150070, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525689

RESUMO

To suffice the escalating global energy demand, microalgae are deemed as high potential surrogate feedstocks for liquid fuels. The major encumbrance for the commercialization of microalgae cultivation is due to the high costs of nutrients such as carbon, phosphorous, and nitrogen. Meanwhile, the organic-rich anaerobic digestate which is difficult to be purified by conventional techniques is appropriate to be used as a low-cost nutrient source for the economic viability and sustainability of microalgae production. This option is also beneficial in terms of reutilize the organic fraction of solid waste instead of discarded as zero-value waste. Anaerobic digestate is the side product of biogas production during anaerobic digestion process, where optimum nutrients are needed to satisfy the physiological needs to grow microalgae. Besides, the turbidity, competing biological contaminants, ammonia and metal toxicity of the digestate are also potentially contributing to the inhibition of microalgae growth. Thus, this review is aimed to explicate the feasibility of utilizing the anaerobic digestate to cultivate microalgae by evaluating their potential challenges and solutions. The proposed potential solutions (digestate dilution and pre-treatment, microalgae strain selection, extra organics addition, nitrification and desulfurization) corresponding to the state-of-the-art challenges are applicable as future directions of the research.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Nutrientes , Fósforo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150082, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525774

RESUMO

The microalgal-bacterial symbiotic (MBS) system shows great advantages in the synchronous implementation of wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. To enhance the understanding of different MBS systems, this review summarizes reported MBS systems and proposes three patterns according to the living state of microalgae and bacteria. They are free microalgal-bacterial (FMB) system, attached microalgal-bacterial (AMB) system and bioflocculated microalgal-bacterial (BMB) system. Compared with the other two patterns, BMB system shows the advantages of microalgal biomass harvesting and application. To further understand the microalgal-bacterial partnerships in the bioflocculation of BMB system, this review discusses bioflocs characteristics, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties and production, and the effect of microalgae/bacteria ratio and microalgal strains on the formation of bioflocculation. Microalgal biomass production and application are important for BMB system development in the future. Food processing wastewater characterized by high biodegradability and low toxicity should be conducive for microalgal cultivation. In addition, exogenous addition of functional bacteria for nutrient removal and bioflocculation formation would be a crucial research direction to facilitate the large-scale application of BMB system.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Bactérias , Biomassa , Simbiose , Águas Residuárias
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149878, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508933

RESUMO

The removal of 18 bisphenols at wastewater relevant concentrations (µg L-1 range) was investigated and compared between Chlorella vulgaris cultures with pH adjusted to 6.8 and pH non-adjusted cultures where pH raised to above 10. Bisphenols with a high partition coefficient (log P > 6) partitioned to biomass soon after spiking, whereas bisphenols with a low partition coefficient (log P < 4) remained largely in the aqueous phase. Hydrophobic bisphenols and BPF isomers were removed to a large degree in pH adjusted conditions, while BPS and BPAF were the most recalcitrant. The overall average removal after 13 days was similar in both experiments, with 72 ± 2% and 73 ± 5% removed in pH non-adjusted and pH adjusted series, respectively. The removal correlated with chlorophyll a concentration for most bisphenols meaning that algae played a crucial role in their removal, while culture pH also governed the removal of some compounds.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Clorofila A , Águas Residuárias/análise
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 125994, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757283

RESUMO

This work was the first time to establish the desired approach with two heterotrophic Chlorella species for ammonium sulfate (AS)-rich rare earth elements (REEs) wastewater treatment by heterotrophic cultivation. The results showed that these two Chlorella species treated by 6 g/L CaCO3 performed the best ability to remove NH4+-N and SO42- of REEs wastewater. Moreover, the established process performed similar features in REEs wastewater treatment by replacing CaCO3 with eggshell powder (ESP) and oyster shell powder (OSP) enriched in CaCO3. Furthermore, microalgae treated by ESP/OSP in a 10-L fermenter showed 837.39 mg/(L·d) NH4+-N and 1,820 mg/(L·d) SO42- removal rates. The developed kinetic models could be well fitted to the experimental data obtained by the 10-L fermenter. Taken together, the established process mediated with two Chlorella species and ESP/OSP by heterotrophic cultivation was the great potential for AS-rich REEs wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Sulfato de Amônio , Biomassa , Carbonato de Cálcio , Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias
19.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132275, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582932

RESUMO

In this work, suspended and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in alginate was utilized as a biocatalyst to interact with different concentrations of tofu wastewater for microalgae microbial fuel cell (MMFC) application. Operating conditions are one of the factors that impact the MMFC's performance, thus they must be optimized. The response surface approach was used to optimize operating conditions, which involved CCD-randomized by five levels of two variables. With an average voltage of 0.13 V, power density of 13.94 mW·m-2, and current density of 102.20 mA·m-2, bioelectricity output produced more suspended yeast than immobilized yeast. The average voltage of MMFC with immobilized yeast was 0.123 V, the power density was 11.25 mW·m-2, and the current density was 91.82 mA·m-2. Immobilized yeast, on the other hand, led in faster stabilization of the resulted electrical output. When compared to suspension yeast, immobilized yeast removed more COD. The best conditions were reached with a yeast concentration of 10.89% w/v and a wastewater concentration of 56.94%, resulting in a power density and COD removal of 11.25 mW·m-2 and 31.82%, respectively. The effect of yeast and wastewater concentrations on power density and COD removal revealed that the model was well supported by experimental results.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Microalgas , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Águas Residuárias
20.
Food Chem ; 372: 131151, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601422

RESUMO

Chloropycean microalgae are looked up as a prospective alternate source for the production of xanthophyll carotenoid lutein. Despite, the market significance and multitude of nutraceutical applications of lutein commercial production from microalgae still remains a challenge due to the prohibitive downstream cost. This necessitates innovative less energy intensive, high lutein yielding green processes. The present work presents a comprehensive study on the rapid green microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of lutein from marine chlorophycean microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (NIOT-2). The process parameters of microwave assisted alkali pre-treatment like exposure time (ET), alkali concentration (AC) and solid (biomass): liquid (aqueous Potassium hydroxide-KOH) ratio (S: L ratio) were optimized using single factor and response surface method (RSM) experiments. The optimized conditions for microwave assisted alkali pre-treatment (ET:1.47 min; AC: 8.16 M KOH and S:L ratio of 36.8:1 (mg/mL) augmented the lutein yield (20.69 ± 1.2 mg/g) 3.26 fold when compared to conventional extraction (6.35 ± 0.44 mg/g). Lutein extracted using optimized MAE conditions was purified and characterized. Visualization of the MAE extracted algal biomass using Scanning electron microscope confirmed the effective cell disruption. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of microwave assisted alkali treated biomass (83.85%) revealed a significantly higher crystallinity index when compared to untreated control (17.28%). MAE pre-treatment can thus be propounded as a suitable process for lutein extraction from marine microalgae due to its amalgamated rapidity, homogenous heating, less energy intensiveness and high extraction yield.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Biomassa , Luteína , Micro-Ondas , Estudos Prospectivos
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