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1.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677778

RESUMO

Microalgae such as Spirulina platensis have recently attracted the interest of the pharmaceutical, nutritional and food industries due to their high levels of proteins and bioactive compounds. In this study, we investigated the use of refractance window (RW) drying as an alternative technology for processing the microalga Spirulina biomass aiming at its dehydration. In addition, we also analyzed the effects of operating variables (i.e., time and temperature) on the quality of the final product, expressed by the content of bioactive compounds (i.e., total phenolics, total flavonoids, and phycocyanin). The results showed that RW drying can generate a dehydrated product with a moisture content lower than 10.0%, minimal visual changes, and reduced process time. The content of bioactive compounds after RW drying was found to be satisfactory, with some of them close to those observed in the fresh microalga. The best results for total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) content were obtained at temperatures of around 70 °C and processing times around 4.5 h. The phycocyanin content was negatively influenced by higher temperatures (higher than 80 °C) and high exposing drying times (higher than 4.5 h) due to its thermosensibility properties. The use of refractance window drying proved to be an interesting methodology for the processing and conservation of Spirulina platensis, as well as an important alternative to the industrial processing of this biomass.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Spirulina , Spirulina/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Ficocianina , Biomassa , Flavonoides , Fenóis
2.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137712, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592830

RESUMO

Microalgal biofilm is a popular platform for algal production, nutrient removal and carbon capture; however, it suffers from significant biofilm exfoliation under shear force exposure. Hence, a biologically-safe coating made up of algal extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was utilized to secure the biofilm cell retention and cell loading on commercial microporous membrane (polyvinylidene fluoride), making the surfaces more hydrophobic (contact angle increase up to 12°). Results demonstrated that initial cell adhesion of three marine microalgae (Amphora coffeaeformis, Cylindrotheca fusiformis and Navicula incerta) was enhanced by at least 1.3 times higher than that of pristine control within only seven days with minimized biofilm exfoliation issue due to uniform distribution of sticky transparent exopolymer particles. Bounded extracellular polysaccharide gathered was approximately 23% higher on EPS-coated membranes to improve the biofilm's hydraulic resistance, whereas bounded extracellular protein would only be substantially elevated after the attached cells re-accommodate themselves onto the EPS pre-coating of themselves. In accounting the rises of hydrophobic protein content, biofilm was believed to be more stabilized, presumably via hydrophobic interactions. EPS biocoating would generate a groundswell of interest for bioprocess intensifications though there are lots of inherent technical and molecular challenges to be further investigated in future.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais
3.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 120987, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592883

RESUMO

The contamination of the aquatic environment with microplastics has become a global environmental concern. Microplastic particles can be shredded to form smaller nanoplastics, and knowledge on their impacts on phytoplankton, especially freshwater microalgae, is still limited. To investigate this issue, the microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda was exposed to polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) of five concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L). The growth; the contents of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD); the chlorophyll content; and concentrations of soluble protein and soluble polysaccharide were accordingly measured. The results showed that the microalgal density increased with the increase of the polystyrene nanoplastic concentrations, and the physiological features of alga were enhanced after the stimulation of nanoplastics. Furthermore, a high concentration (200 mg/L) of nanoplastics increased the contents of chlorophyll, soluble protein, and polysaccharide (P < 0.05). The antioxidant enzyme activities of Scenedesmus quadricauda were significantly activated by nanoplastics. Lastly, we propose three possible algal recovery mechanisms in response to nanoplastics in which Scenedesmus quadricauda was tolerant with PS-NPs by cell wall thickening, internalization, and aggregation. The results of this study contribute to understanding of the ecological risks of nanoplastics on freshwater microalgae.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poliestirenos/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 370: 128535, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587770

RESUMO

The functional interaction between microorganisms is key in symbiotic microalga-bacteria systems; however, evaluations of fungi and pathogenic microorganisms are not clear. In this study, the roles of three groups (i.e., microalgae-activated sludge (MAS), Microalgae, and activated sludge) in pollutant removal and biomass recovery were comparatively studied. The data implied that microalgal assimilation and bacterial heterotrophic degradation were the major approaches for degradation of nutrients and organic matter, respectively. According to 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequencing, the relative abundance of Rhodotorula increased remarkably, favoring nutrient exchange between the microalgae and bacteria. The abundances of two types of pathogenic genes (human pathogens and animal parasites) were reduced in the MAS system. The oleic acid content in the MAS system (51.2 mg/g) was 1.7 times higher than that in the Microalgae system. The results can provide a basis for practical application and resource utilization of symbiotic microalgae-bacteria systems.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Microbiota , Humanos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Microalgas/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Microbiota/genética
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 1144-1156, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599031

RESUMO

Conventional phototrophic cultivation for microalgae production suffers from low and unstable biomass productivity due to limited and unreliable light transmission outdoors. Alternatively, the use of a renewable lignocellulose-derived carbon source, cellulosic hydrolysate, offers a cost-effective and sustainable pathway to cultivate microalgae heterotrophically with high algal growth rate and terminal density. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of cellulosic hydrolysate-mediated heterotrophic cultivation (Cel-HC) for microalgae production by performing economic and environmental comparisons with phototrophic cultivation through techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment. We estimate a minimum selling price (MSP) of 4722 USD/t for producing high-purity microalgae through Cel-HC considering annual biomass productivity of 300 t (dry weight), which is competitive with the conventional phototrophic raceway pond system. Revenues from the lignocellulose-derived co-products, xylose and fulvic acid fertilizer, could further reduce the MSP to 2976 USD/t, highlighting the advantages of simultaneously producing high-value products and biofuels in an integrated biorefinery scheme. Further, Cel-HC exhibits lower environmental impacts, such as cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, than phototrophic systems, revealing its potential to reduce the carbon intensity of algae-derived commodities. Our results demonstrate the economic and environmental competitiveness of heterotrophic microalgae production based on renewable bio-feedstock of lignocellulose.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 370: 128574, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603749

RESUMO

In this study, the microalgae-bacteria symbiosis (ABS) system by co-culturing Chlorella sorokiniana with activated sludge was constructed for pollutants removal, and the according interaction mechanism was investigated. The results showed that the ABS system could almost completely remove ammonia nitrogen, and the removal efficiency of total nitrogen and total phosphorus could accordingly reach up to 65.3 % and 42.6 %. Brevundimonas greatly promoted microalgal biomass growth (maximum chlorophyll-a concentration of 9.4 mg/L), and microalgae contributed to the increase in the abundance of Dokdonella and Thermomonas in ABS system, thus facilitating nitrogen removal. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory indicated a repulsive potential barrier of 561.7 KT, while tryptophan-like proteins and tyrosine-like proteins were key extracellular polymeric substances for the formation of flocs by microalgae and activated sludge. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of interaction mechanism between microalgae and activated sludge for the removal of contaminants from wastewater.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Esgotos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Simbiose , Nutrientes , Bactérias , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Biomassa
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(2-3): 971-983, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622426

RESUMO

Microalgae are promising feedstock for renewable fuels. The accumulation of oils in microalgae can be enhanced by nanoparticle exposure. However, the nanoparticles employed in previous studies are mostly non-biodegradable, which hinders nanoparticles developing as promising approach for biofuel production. We recently reported the engineered resin nanoparticles (iBCA-NPs), which were found to be biodegradable in this study. When the cells of green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were exposed to the iBCA-NPs for 1 h, the cellular triacyclglycerols (TAG) and starch contents increased by 520% and 60% than that in the control. The TAG production improved by 1.8-fold compared to the control without compromised starch production. Additionally, the content of total fatty acids increased by 1.3-fold than that in control. Furthermore, we found that the iBCA-NPs addition resulted in increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and upregulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The relative expressions of the key genes involved in TAG and starch biosynthesis were also upregulated. Overall, our results showed that short exposure of the iBCA-NPs dramatically enhances TAG and starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas, which probably resulted from prompt upregulated expression of the key genes in lipid and starch metabolic pathways that were triggered by over-accumulated ROS. This study reported a useful approach to enhance energy-rich reserve accumulation in microalgae. KEY POINTS: 1. The first attempt to increase oil and starch in microalgae by biodegradable NPs. 2. The biodegradability of iBCA-NPs by the BOD test was more than 50% after 28 days. 3. The iBCA-NPs induce more energy reserves than that of previously reported NPs.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Chlamydomonas , Microalgas , Nanopartículas , Chlamydomonas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo
8.
Microb Cell Fact ; 22(1): 12, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647076

RESUMO

Microalgae are considered a suitable production platform for high-value lipids and oleochemicals. Several species including Nannochloropsis oceanica produce large amounts of essential [Formula: see text]-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) which are integral components of food and feed and have been associated with health-promoting effects. N. oceanica can further accumulate high contents of non-polar lipids with chemical properties that render them a potential replacement for plant oils such as palm oil. However, biomass and lipid productivities obtained with microalgae need to be improved to reach commercial feasibility. Genetic engineering can improve biomass and lipid productivities, for instance by increasing carbon flux to lipids. Here, we report the overexpression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) in N. oceanica during favorable growth conditions as a strategy to increase non-polar lipid content. Transformants overproducing either an endogenous (NoGPAT) or a heterologous (Acutodesmus obliquus GPAT) GPAT enzyme targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum had up to 42% and 51% increased non-polar lipid contents, respectively, compared to the wild type. Biomass productivities of transformant strains were not substantially impaired, resulting in lipid productivities that were increased by up to 37% and 42% for NoGPAT and AoGPAT transformants, respectively. When exposed to nutrient stress, transformants and wild type had similar lipid contents, suggesting that GPAT enzyme exerts strong flux control on lipid synthesis in N. oceanica under favorable growth conditions. NoGPAT transformants further accumulated PUFAs in non-polar lipids, reaching a total of 6.8% PUFAs per biomass, an increase of 24% relative to the wild type. Overall, our results indicate that GPAT is an interesting target for engineering of lipid metabolism in microalgae, in order to improve non-polar lipid and PUFAs accumulation in microalgae.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Estramenópilas , Glicerol/metabolismo , Óleos/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Glicerol-3-Fosfato O-Aciltransferase/genética , Glicerol-3-Fosfato O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/genética , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Fosfatos/metabolismo
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 110(2): 43, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652010

RESUMO

The continuous discharge of antibiotics into the environment poses a serious threat to the ecological environment and human health. In this study, photocatalysis and microalgae were combined to study the removal of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) and its photodegradation intermediates in water. The results showed that after photocatalytic treatment, the removal rate of TCH reached 80%, but the mineralization rate was only 17.7%. While Chlorella sp. alone had poor tolerance to high concentrations of TCH, the combined treatment of photocatalysis and microalgae completely removed TCH and increased the mineralization efficiency to 35.0%. Increased cell density was observed, indicating that TCH and the intermediates produced in the photocatalysis process could be utilized by algae for growth. Meanwhile, TCH degradation pathways were proposed based on Liquid Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer analysis, and the toxicity of intermediates detected was predicted using ECOSAR software, which showed that the type and quantity of highly toxic intermediates decreased significantly after subsequent algal treatment. The results demonstrate that photocatalysis and microalgae combined treatment is an efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of antibiotics in water.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Humanos , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Tetraciclina/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Água
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674853

RESUMO

The differential effects of UV-B on the inhibition or activation of protective mechanisms to maintain cells photosynthetically active were investigated in native microalgae. Four strains were used, including two Chlorella sorokiniana strains, F4 and LG1, isolated from a Mediterranean inland swamp and a recycled cigarette butt's substrate, respectively, and two isolates from an Ecuadorian highland lake related to Pectinodesmus pectinatus (PEC) and Ettlia pseudoalveolaris (ETI). Monocultures were exposed to acute UV-B (1.7 W m-2) over 18 h under controlled conditions. UV-B-untreated microalgae were used as the control. Comparative physiological responses, including photosynthetic pigments, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and chlorophyll a fluorescence, were evaluated at specific time points. Results showed that UV-B significantly compromised all the physiological parameters in F4, thereby resulting in the most UV-B-sensitive strain. Contrarily, UV-B exposure did not lead to changes in the PEC physiological traits, resulting in the best UV-B-resistant strain. This could be attributed to the acclimation to high light habitat, where maintaining a constitutive phenotype (at the photosynthetic level) is strategically advantageous. Differently, LG1 and ETI at 12 h of UV-B exposure showed different UV-B responses, which is probably related to acclimation, where in LG1, the pigments were recovered, and the antioxidants were still functioning, while in ETI, the accumulation of pigments and antioxidants was increased to avoid further photodamage. Consequently, the prolonged exposure in LG1 and ETI resulted in species-specific metabolic regulation (e.g., non-enzymatic antioxidants) in order to constrain full photoinhibition under acute UV-B.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Microalgas/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Equador , Fotossíntese , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 160988, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535475

RESUMO

In order to investigate light penetration and flashing light frequency for microalgal cell-CO2 bubble culture system in a raceway pond, user-defined function for CO2 mass transfer and bubble scattering models coupled with discrete ordinates radiation model were adopted to clarify simultaneous effects of microalgal cell absorption and CO2 bubble scattering. Light intensity along the microalgal suspension depth attenuated more rapidly with increased biomass concentration, decreased bubble generation diameter, increased CO2 gas content and incident light intensity. Ratio of light zone decreased from 81.13 % to 20.00 % when biomass concentration increased from 0 to 0.4 g/L because of light absorption and shading effects of microalgae. When bubble generation diameter increased from 0.1 to 1.6 mm, ratio of light zone increased from 37.95 % to 42.64 %, while microalgal flashing light cycle first decreased to a valley of 1.81 s at 0.8 mm and then increased. Local light intensity in the upper layers was more enhanced due to lots of CO2 bubbles gathering and reflecting more light with decreased bubble diameter and increased gas content. Light attenuated more rapidly in microalgal suspension with decreased bubble generation diameter and increased CO2 gas content because of increased bubble diffraction coefficient and contact area. When initial CO2 volume fraction increased from 0.02 to 0.2, flashing light frequency of microalgal cells decreased from 0.55 to 0.29 Hz and light zone time ratio φ decreased from 36.90 % to 18.40 %. At a biomass concentration of 0.1 g/L and a bubble flow rate of 0.1 m/s, the maximum light penetration and microalgal growth rate was achieved when bubble diameter, incident light intensity and gas content were optimally at 0.8 mm, 200 W/m2 and 0.02, respectively. This work provides data support and theoretical guidance for photobioreactor design and optimization of light energy utilization.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Microalgas , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Lagoas , Fotobiorreatores , Luz , Biomassa
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 369: 128457, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503094

RESUMO

Demand and consumption of fossil fuels is increasing daily, and oil reserves are depleting. Technological developments are required towards developing sustainable renewable energy sources and microalgae are emerging as a potential candidate for various application-driven research. Molecular understanding attained through omics and system biology approach empowering researchers to modify various metabolic pathways of microalgal system for efficient extraction of biofuel and important biomolecules. This review furnish insight into different "advanced approaches" like optogenetics, systems biology and multi-omics for enhanced production of FAS (Fatty Acid Synthesis) and lipids in microalgae and their associated challenges. These new approaches would be helpful in the path of developing microalgae inspired technological platforms for optobiorefinery, which could be explored as source material to produce biofuels and other valuable bio-compounds on a large scale.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Biomassa
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(2-3): 591-607, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527478

RESUMO

Microalgal biomass is a promising feedstock for biofuels, feed/food, and biomaterials. However, while production and commercialization of single-product commodities are still not economically viable, obtaining multiple products in a biomass biorefinery faces several techno-economic challenges. The aim of this study was to identify a suitable source of hydrolytic enzymes for algal biomass saccharification. Screening of twenty-six fungal isolates for secreted enzymes activity on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass resulted in the identification of Aspergillus niger IB-34 as a candidate strain. Solid-state fermentation on wheat bran produced the most active enzyme preparations. From sixty-five proteins identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD034998) from A. niger IB-34, the majority corresponded to predicted secreted proteins belonging to the Gene Ontology categories of catalytic activity/hydrolase activity on glycosyl and O-glycosyl compounds. Skimmed biomass of biotechnologically relevant strains towards the production of commodities, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus obliquus, was fully saccharified after a mild pretreatment at 80 °C for 10 min, at a high biomass load of 10% (w/v). The soluble liquid stream, after skimming and saccharification of biomass of both strains, was further converted into ethanol by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a theoretical maximum efficiency, in a separated saccharification and fermentation assays. The resulting insoluble protein, after biomass skimming with an organic solvent and enzymatic saccharification, was highly digestible in an in vitro digestion assay. Proof of concept is presented for an enzyme-assisted biomass biorefinery recovering 81% of the main biomass fractions in a likely suitable form for the conversion of lipids and carbohydrates into biofuels and proteins into feed/food. KEY POINTS: • Twenty-six fungal extracts were analyzed for saccharification of microalgal biomass. • Skimmed biomass was fully enzymatically saccharified and fermented into ethanol. • Up to 81% recovery of biomass fractions suitable for biofuels and feed/food.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Chlorella/metabolismo , Biomassa , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/análise , Bioprospecção , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 370: 128538, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581231

RESUMO

Alternative protein sources for the reduction/replacement of fish meal in aqua-feeds are in urgent demand. Microalgae are considered sustainable protein sources for aquaculture due to their high-quality proteins with a complete profile of essential amino acids. This study examined the heterotrophic production of proteins from Chlorella sorokiniana SU-9. Culture parameters for maximal biomass and protein production are as follows: glucose - 10 g/L glucose, sodium nitrate - 1.5 g/L, and iron - 46 µM iron in BG-11 medium. Under optimal conditions, biomass content, protein content and protein productivity of SU-9 reached 4.14 ± 0.20 g/L, 403 ± 33 mg/g and 382 ± 36 mg/L/d, respectively. The protein profile of Chlorella sorokiniana SU-9 is comparable to fishmeal and soybean meal. The essential amino acids arginine, lysine and cysteine, along with glutamine and glutamate, were high. The production cost of SU-9 can be significantly reduced under heterotrophic cultivation conditions, making it a potential protein substitute in aquafeed.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Animais , Chlorella/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Biomassa , Processos Heterotróficos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 161047, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565885

RESUMO

Co-culture of microalgae-activated sludge has the potential to purify wastewater while reduce energy demand from aeration. In this work, a mechanically stirred membrane photobioreactor (stirred-MPBR) was used to evaluate the impact of the biomass retention time (BRT) on the treatment performance and membrane fouling. Results showed that stirred-MPBR was affected by BRT during treating domestic wastewater at a flux of 16.5 L m-2 h-1. The highest productivity was attained at BRT 7d (102 mg L-1 d-1), followed by BRT 10d (86 mg L-1 d-1), BRT 5d (85 mg L-1 d-1), and BRT 3d (83 mg L-1 d-1). Statistical analysis results showed that BRT 7d had a higher COD removal rate than BRT 10d, however, there is no difference in total nitrogen removal rate. The highest TP removal occurred when the biomass operated at BRT as short as 3d. Reduced BRTs caused a change in the microalgae-activated sludge biomass fraction that encouraged nitrification activity while simultaneously contributing to a higher fouling rate. The bound protein concentrations dropped from 31.35 mg L-1 (BRT 10d) to 10.67 mg L-1 (BRT 3d), while soluble polysaccharides increased from 0.99 to 1.82 mg L-1, respectively. The concentrations of extracellular polymeric substance fractions were significantly altered, which decreased the mean floc size and contributed to the escalating fouling propensity. At the optimum BRT of 7d, the stirred-MPBR showed sufficient access to light and nutrients exchange for mutualistic interactions between the microalgae and activated sludge.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Fotobiorreatores , Esgotos , Biomassa , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Microalgas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise
16.
Mar Drugs ; 20(12)2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547928

RESUMO

The unicellular green microalga Dunaliella is a potential source of a wide range of nutritionally important compounds applicable to the food industry. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dunaliella salina dried biomass on the growth and adherence of 10 strains of Lactobacillus, Lacticaseibacillus, and Bifidobacterium. The immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects of D. salina on human peripheral mononuclear cells and simulated intestinal epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29 were evaluated. Furthermore, the hypocholesterolemic effects of the microalgae on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet were analyzed. The addition of D. salina biomass had a positive effect on the growth of nine out of 10 probiotics and promoted the adherence of three bifidobacteria strains to human cell lines. The antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of D. salina were concentration-dependent. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) were significantly increased following Dunaliella stimulation at the lowest concentration (0.5% w/v). Eight week supplementation of D. salina to the diet of hypercholesteromic rats significantly decreased the serum concentrations of LDL-C, VLDL, IDL-B, and IDL-C. D. salina is not cytotoxic in intestinal cell models; it promotes adherence of selected bifidobacteria, it affords immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects, and its addition to diets may help decrease atherosclerosis risk factors.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Microalgas , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Biomassa , Microalgas/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499473

RESUMO

UVB radiation is known to trigger the block of DNA replication and transcription by forming cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which results in severe skin damage. CPD photolyase, a kind of DNA repair enzyme, can efficiently repair CPDs that are absent in humans and mice. Although exogenous CPD photolyases have beneficial effects on skin diseases, the mechanisms of CPD photolyases on the skin remain unknown. Here, this study prepared CPD photolyase nanoliposomes (CPDNL) from Antarctic Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-L, which thrives in harsh, high-UVB conditions, and evaluated their protective mechanisms against UVB-induced damage in mice. CPDNL were optimized using response surface methodology, characterized by a mean particle size of 105.5 nm, with an encapsulation efficiency of 63.3%. Topical application of CPDNL prevented UVB-induced erythema, epidermal thickness, and wrinkles in mice. CPDNL mitigated UVB-induced DNA damage by significantly decreasing the CPD concentration. CPDNL exhibited antioxidant properties as they reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde. Through activation of the NF-κB pathway, CPDNL reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2. Furthermore, CPDNL suppressed the MAPK signaling activation by downregulating the mRNA and protein expression of ERK, JNK, and p38 as well as AP-1. The MMP-1 and MMP-2 expressions were also remarkably decreased, which inhibited the collagen degradation. Therefore, we concluded that CPDNL exerted DNA repair, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-wrinkle properties as well as collagen protection via regulation of the NF-κB/MAPK/MMP signaling pathways in UVB-induced mice, demonstrating that Antarctic CPD photolyases have the potential for skincare products against UVB and photoaging.


Assuntos
Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase , Microalgas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase/genética , Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Microalgas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22601, 2022 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585479

RESUMO

Lutein is a naturally potent antioxidant carotenoid synthesized in green microalgae with a potent ability to prevent different human chronic conditions. To date, there are no reports of the immune-stimulating effect of pure lutein isolated from Scenedesmus obliquus. Thus, we isolated the natural lutein from S. obliquus and evaluated its effectiveness as an immunostimulant against cyclophosphamide-induced brain injury. We purified all-E-(3R, 3'R, 6'R)-Lutein from S. obliquus using prep-HPLC and characterized it by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. We assigned rats randomly to four experimental groups: the Control group got a vehicle for lutein dimethyl sulfoxide for ten successive days. The Cyclophosphamide group received a single i.p injection of Cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). Lutein groups received 50 and 100 (mg/kg) of lutein one time per day for ten successive days after the cyclophosphamide dose. Lutein administration reduced brain contents of Macrophage inflammatory protein2 (MIP2), cytokine-induced- neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), and Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Besides, it lowered the contents of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and interleukin 18 (IL-18), associated with low content of NLR pyrin domain protein 3 (NLRP3) and consequently caspase-1 compared to the cyclophosphamide group. In the histomorphometric analysis, lutein groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg) showed mild histopathological alterations as they significantly reduced nuclear pyknosis numbers by 65% and 69% respectively, compared to the cyclophosphamide group. This is the first study that showed the immunomodulatory roles of lutein against cyclophosphamide-induced brain injury via decreasing neuroinflammation, chemokines recruitment, and neuron degeneration with the modulation of immune markers. Hence, lutein can be an effective immunomodulator against inflammation-related immune disorders.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Luteína/farmacologia , Luteína/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557985

RESUMO

Microalgae are photosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms that are widely used in the industry as cell factories to produce valuable substances, such as fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), sterols (sitosterol), recombinant therapeutic proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin), and pigments (ß-carotene, astaxanthin, lutein). Phenolic compounds and carotenoids, including those extracted from microalgae, possess beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, and direct health-promoting effects, which may alleviate oxidative stress and age-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases or diabetes. The production of valuable microalgal metabolites can be modified by using abiotic stressors, such as light, salinity, nutrient availability, and xenobiotics (for instance, phytohormones).


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Microalgas , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Luteína/metabolismo
20.
Photosynth Res ; 154(3): 303-328, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434418

RESUMO

Microalgae cultivation utilizes the energy of sunlight to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) for producing renewable energy feedstock. The commercial success of the biological fixation of carbon in a consistent manner depends upon the availability of a robust microalgae strain. In the present work, we report the identification of a novel marine Nannochloris sp. through multiparametric photosynthetic evaluation. Detailed photobiological analysis of this strain has revealed a smaller functional antenna, faster relaxation kinetics of non-photochemical quenching, and a high photosynthetic rate with increasing light and temperatures. Furthermore, laboratory scale growth assessment demonstrated a broad range halotolerance of 10-70 parts per thousand (PPT) and high-temperature tolerance up to 45 °C. Such traits led to the translation of biomass productivity potential from the laboratory scale (0.2-3.0 L) to the outdoor 50,000 L raceway pond scale (500-m2) without any pond crashes. The current investigation revealed outdoor single-day peak areal biomass productivity of 43 g m-2 d-1 in summer with an annual (March 2019-February 2020) average productivity of 20 g m-2 d-1 in seawater. From a sustainability perspective, this is the first report of successful round-the-year (> 347 days) multi-season (summer, monsoon, and winter) outdoor cultivation of Nannochloris sp. in broad seawater salinity (1-57 PPT), wide temperature ranges (15-40 °C), and in fluctuating light conditions. Concurrently, outdoor cultivation of this strain demonstrated conducive fatty acid distribution, including increased unsaturated fatty acids in winter. This inherent characteristic might play a role in protecting photosynthesis machinery at low temperatures and in high light stress. Altogether, our marine Nannochloris sp. showed tremendous potential for commercial scale cultivation to produce biofuels, food ingredients, and a sustainable source for vegetarian protein.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Microalgas , Biomassa , Lagoas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis
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