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1.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114362, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729724

RESUMO

As food safety continues to gain prominence, phycocyanin (PC) is increasingly favored by consumers as a natural blue pigment, which is extracted from microalgae and serves the dual function of promoting health and providing coloration. Spirulina-derived PC demonstrates exceptional stability within temperature ranges below 45 °C and under pH conditions between 5.5 and 6.0. However, its application is limited in scenarios involving high-temperature processing due to its sensitivity to heat and light. This comprehensive review provides insights into the efficient production of PC from microalgae, covers the metabolic engineering of microalgae to increase PC yields and discusses various strategies for enhancing its stability in food applications. In addition to the most widely used Spirulina, some red algae and Thermosynechococcus can serve as good source of PC. The genetic and metabolic manipulation of microalgae strains has shown promise in increasing PC yield and improving its quality. Delivery systems including nanoparticles, hydrogels, emulsions, and microcapsules offer a promising solution to protect and extend the shelf life of PC in food products, ensuring its vibrant color and health-promoting properties are preserved. This review highlights the importance of metabolic engineering, multi-omics applications, and innovative delivery systems in unlocking the full potential of this natural blue pigment in the realm of food applications, provides a complete overview of the entire process from production to commercialization of PC, including the extraction and purification.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Ficocianina , Microalgas/metabolismo , Spirulina/química , Spirulina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica
2.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(3): e13272, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692845

RESUMO

Native microbial consortia have been proposed for biological wastewater treatment, but their diversity and function remain poorly understood. This study investigated three native microalgae-bacteria consortia collected from the Amazon, Highlands, and Galapagos regions of Ecuador to assess their metagenomes and wastewater remediation potential. The consortia were evaluated for 12 days under light (LC) and continuous dark conditions (CDC) to measure their capacity for nutrient and organic matter removal from synthetic wastewater (SWW). Overall, all three consortia demonstrated higher nutrient removal efficiencies under LC than CDC, with the Amazon and Galapagos consortia outperforming the Highlands consortium in nutrient removal capabilities. Despite differences in α- and ß-diversity, microbial species diversity within and between consortia did not directly correlate with their nutrient removal capabilities. However, all three consortia were enriched with core taxonomic groups associated with wastewater remediation activities. Our analyses further revealed higher abundances for nutrient removing microorganisms in the Amazon and Galapagos consortia compared with the Highland consortium. Finally, this study also uncovered the contribution of novel microbial groups that enhance wastewater bioremediation processes. These groups have not previously been reported as part of the core microbial groups commonly found in wastewater communities, thereby highlighting the potential of investigating microbial consortia isolated from ecosystems of megadiverse countries like Ecuador.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Metagenômica , Consórcios Microbianos , Águas Residuárias , Equador , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microalgas/classificação , Microalgas/metabolismo , Purificação da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metagenoma
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 189, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702568

RESUMO

Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are indispensable in contemporary technologies, influencing various aspects of our daily lives and environmental solutions. The escalating demand for REEs has led to increased exploitation, resulting in the generation of diverse REE-bearing solid and liquid wastes. Recognizing the potential of these wastes as secondary sources of REEs, researchers are exploring microbial solutions for their recovery. This mini review provides insights into the utilization of microorganisms, with a particular focus on microalgae, for recovering REEs from sources such as ores, electronic waste, and industrial effluents. The review outlines the principles and distinctions of bioleaching, biosorption, and bioaccumulation, offering a comparative analysis of their potential and limitations. Specific examples of microorganisms demonstrating efficacy in REE recovery are highlighted, accompanied by successful methods, including advanced techniques for enhancing microbial strains to achieve higher REE recovery. Moreover, the review explores the environmental implications of bio-recovery, discussing the potential of these methods to mitigate REE pollution. By emphasizing microalgae as promising biotechnological candidates for REE recovery, this mini review not only presents current advances but also illuminates prospects in sustainable REE resource management and environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Terras Raras , Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Metais Terras Raras/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Biotecnologia/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Bioacumulação
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130701, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621609

RESUMO

Microalgae, owing to their efficacy and eco-friendliness, have emerged as a promising solution for mitigating the toxicity of Bisphenol A (BPA), a hazardous environmental pollutant. This current study was focused on the degradation of BPA by Coelastrella sp. M60 at various concentrations (10-50 mg/L). Further, the metabolic profiling of Coelastrella sp. M60 was performed using GC-MS analysis, and the results were revealed that BPA exposure modulated the metabolites profile with the presence of intermediates of BPA. In addition, highest lipid (43%) and pigment content (40%) at 20 and 10 mg/L of BPA respectively exposed to Coelastrella sp. M60 was achieved and enhanced fatty acid methyl esters recovery was facilitated by Cuprous oxide nanoparticles synthesised using Spatoglossum asperum. Thus, this study persuades thepotential of Coelastrella sp. M60 for BPA degradation and suggesting new avenues to remove the emerging contaminants in polluted water bodies and targeted metabolite expression in microalgae.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metabolômica , Fenóis , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130708, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636878

RESUMO

In this study, the biochemical response of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to varying concentrations of inorganic selenium (Se) was investigated. It was observed that, when combined with fulvic acid, P. tricornutum exhibited enhanced uptake and biotransformation of inorganic Se, as well as increased microalgal lipid biosynthesis. Notably, when subjected to moderate (5 and 10 mg/L) and high (20 and 40 mg/L) concentrations of selenite under fulvic acid treatment, there was a discernible redirection of carbon flux towards lipogenesis and protein biosynthesis from carbohydrates. In addition, the key parameters of microalgae-based biofuels aligned with the necessary criteria outlined in biofuel regulations. Furthermore, the Se removal capabilities of P. tricornutum, assisted by fulvic acid, were coupled with the accumulation of substantial amounts of organic Se, specifically SeCys. These findings present a viable and successful approach to establish a microalgae-based system for Se uptake and biotransformation.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos , Biocombustíveis , Biotransformação , Diatomáceas , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130718, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641303

RESUMO

Recently, microalgae had received extensive attention for carbon capture and utilization. But its overall efficiency still could not reach a satisfactory degree. Artificial photosynthesis showed better efficiency in the conversion of carbon dioxide. However, artificial photosynthesis could generally only produce C1-C3 organic matters at present. Some studies showed that heterotrophic microalgae can efficiently synthesize high value organic matters by using simple organic matter such as acetate. Therefore, the combination of artificial photosynthesis with heterotrophic microalgae culture showed great potential for efficient carbon capture and high-value organic matter production. This article systematically analyzed the characteristics and challenges of carbon dioxide conversion by microalgae and artificial photosynthesis. On this basis, the coupling mode and development trend of artificial photosynthesis combined with microalgae culture were discussed. In summary, the combination of artificial photosynthesis and microalgae culture has great potential in the field of carbon capture and utilization, and deserves further study.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Microalgas , Fotossíntese , Microalgas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Carbono/metabolismo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130714, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641299

RESUMO

This study established and investigated continuous macular pigment (MP) production with a lutein (L):zeaxanthin (Z) ratio of 4-5:1 by an MP-rich Chlorella sp. CN6 mutant strain in a continuous microalgal culture module. Chlorella sp. CN6 was cultured in a four-stage module for 10 days. The microalgal culture volume increased to 200 L in the first stage (6 days). Biomass productivity increased to 0.931 g/L/day with continuous indoor white light irradiation during the second stage (3 days). MP content effectively increased to 8.29 mg/g upon continuous, indoor white light and blue light-emitting diode irradiation in the third stage (1 day), and the microalgal biomass and MP concentrations were 8.88 g/L and 73.6 mg/L in the fourth stage, respectively. Using a two-step MP extraction process, 80 % of the MP was recovered with a high purity of 93 %, and its L:Z ratio was 4-5:1.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Chlorella , Pigmento Macular , Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pigmento Macular/metabolismo , Luteína/metabolismo , Luz , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130735, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670293

RESUMO

Municipal wastewater treatment plants are mostly based on traditional activated sludge (AS) processes. These systems are characterised by major drawbacks: high energy consumption, large amount of excess sludge and high greenhouse gases emissions. Treatment through microalgal-bacterial consortia (MBC) is an alternative and promising solution thanks to lower energy consumption and emissions, biomass production and water sanitation. Here, microbial difference between a traditional anaerobic sludge (AS) and a consortium-based system (photo-sequencing batch reactor (PSBR)) with the same wastewater inlet were characterised through shotgun metagenomics. Stable nitrification was achieved in the PSBR ensuring ammonium removal > 95 % and significant total nitrogen removal thanks to larger flocs enhancing denitrification. The new system showed enhanced pathogen removal, a higher abundance of photosynthetic and denitrifying microorganisms with a reduced emissions potential identifying this novel PSBR as an effective alternative to AS.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Microalgas , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Esgotos/microbiologia , Microalgas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/química , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desnitrificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Nitrificação
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 401: 130749, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679239

RESUMO

Microalgae are promising sources of valuable compounds: carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipids, etc. To overcome the feasibility challenge due to low yield and attain commercial potential, researchers merge technologies to enhance algal bioprocess. In this context, nanomaterials are attractive for enhancing microalgal bioprocessing, from cultivation to downstream extraction. Nanomaterials enhance biomass and product yields (mainly lipid and carotenoids) through improved nutrient uptake and stress tolerance during cultivation. They also provide mechanistic insights from recent studies. They also revolutionize harvesting via nano-induced sedimentation, flocculation, and flotation. Downstream processing benefits from nanomaterials, improving extraction and purification. Special attention is given to cost-effective extraction, showcasing nanomaterial integration, and providing a comparative account. The review also profiles nanomaterial types, including metallic nanoparticles, magnetic nanomaterials, carbon-based nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles, polymers, and functionalized nanomaterials. Challenges and future trends are discussed, emphasizing nanomaterials' role in advancing sustainable and efficient microalgal bioprocessing, unlocking their potential for bio-based industries.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Biotecnologia/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108588, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615438

RESUMO

Digestate is a complex by-product of anaerobic digestion and its composition depends on the digestor inputs. It can be exploited as a sustainable source of nutrients for microalgae cultivation but its unbalanced composition and toxic elements make the use challenging. Screening algae in a simplified synthetic digestate which mimics the main nutrient constraints of a real digestate is proposed as a reproducible and effective method to select suitable species for real digestate valorisation and remediation. Growth performance, nutrient removal and biomass composition of eight microalgae exposed to high amounts of NH4+, PO4- and organic-C were assessed. Using a score matrix, A. protothecoides, T. obliquus, C. reinhardtii, and E. gracilis were identified as the most promising species. Thus, three strategies were applied to improve outcomes: i) establishment of an algal consortium to improve biomass production, ii) K+ addition to the medium to promote K+ uptake over NH4+ and to reduce potential NH4+ toxicity, iii) P starvation as pretreatment for enhanced P removal by luxury uptake. The consortium was able to implement a short-term response displaying higher biomass production than single species (3.77 and 1.03-1.89 mg mL-1 respectively) in synthetic digestate while maintaining similar nutrient remediation, furthermore, its growth rate was 1.6 times higher than in the control condition. However, the strategies aiming to reduce NH4+ toxicity and higher P removal were not successful except for single cases. The proposed algal screening and the resulting designed consortium were respectively a reliable method and a powerful tool towards sustainable real digestate remediation.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134304, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615650

RESUMO

In lightly polluted water containing heavy metals, organic matter, and green microalgae, the molecular weight of organic matter may influence both the growth of green microalgae and the concentration of heavy metals. This study elucidates the effects and mechanisms by which different molecular weight fractions of fulvic acid (FA), a model dissolved organic matter component, facilitate the bioaccumulation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a typical green alga, Chlorella vulgaris. Findings show that the addition of FA fractions with molecular weights greater than 10 kDa significantly enhances the enrichment of total chromium and Cr(VI) in algal cells, reaching 21.58%-31.09 % and 16.17 %-22.63 %, respectively. Conversely, the efficiency of chromium enrichment in algal cells was found to decrease with decreasing molecular weight of FA. FA molecular weight within the range of 0.22 µm-30 kDa facilitated chromium enrichment primarily through the algal organic matter (AOM) pathway, with minor contributions from the algal cell proliferation and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) pathways. However, with decreasing FA molecular weight, the AOM and EPS pathways become less prominent, whereas the algal cell proliferation pathway becomes dominant. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of chromium enrichment in green algae enhanced by medium molecular weight FA.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos , Chlorella vulgaris , Cromo , Microalgas , Peso Molecular , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cromo/metabolismo , Cromo/química , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzopiranos/química , Benzopiranos/metabolismo
12.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14296, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650503

RESUMO

In Dunaliella tertiolecta, a microalga renowned for its extraordinary tolerance to high salinity levels up to 4.5 M NaCl, the mechanisms underlying its stress response have largely remained a mystery. In a groundbreaking discovery, this study identifies a choline dehydrogenase enzyme, termed DtCHDH, capable of converting choline to betaine aldehyde. Remarkably, this is the first identification of such an enzyme not just in D. tertiolecta but across the entire Chlorophyta. A 3D model of DtCHDH was constructed, and molecular docking with choline was performed, revealing a potential binding site for the substrate. The enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3) and subsequently purified, achieving enzyme activity of 672.2 U/mg. To elucidate the role of DtCHDH in the salt tolerance of D. tertiolecta, RNAi was employed to knock down DtCHDH gene expression. The results indicated that the Ri-12 strain exhibited compromised growth under both high and low salt conditions, along with consistent levels of DtCHDH gene expression and betaine content. Additionally, fatty acid analysis indicated that DtCHDH might also be a FAPs enzyme, catalyzing reactions with decarboxylase activity. This study not only illuminates the role of choline metabolism in D. tertiolecta's adaptation to high salinity but also identifies a novel target for enhancing the NaCl tolerance of microalgae in biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Betaína , Colina Desidrogenase , Tolerância ao Sal , Betaína/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Colina Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Colina Desidrogenase/genética , Colina/metabolismo , Clorofíceas/genética , Clorofíceas/fisiologia , Clorofíceas/enzimologia , Clorofíceas/metabolismo , Microalgas/genética , Microalgas/enzimologia , Microalgas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
13.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(5): 725-736, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582779

RESUMO

The global energy crisis has spurred a shift from conventional to clean and sustainable energy sources. Biomass derived from microalgae is emerging as an alternative energy source with diverse applications. Despite the numerous advantages of microalgae, large-scale biomass harvesting is not economical and convenient. Self-flocculation is considered an effective phenomenon facilitated by extracting the flocculating substances from microalgae that assist aggregation of algal cells into flocs. A novel cellulose-based bioflocculant has been synthesized from sewage water grown Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus abundans for harvesting application. The produced bioflocculant amounted to 38.5% and 19.38% of the dry weight of S. abundans and C. sorokiniana, respectively. Analysis via FTIR, XRD, and FESEM-EDX revealed the presence of cellulose hydroxyapatite (HA) in algae-derived cellulose. Harvesting efficiencies of 95.3% and 89.16% were attained for S. abundans and C. sorokiniana, respectively, at a dosage of 0.5 g/L. Furthermore, the bioflocculant was recovered, enabling its reuse with recovery efficiencies of 52% and 10% for S. abundans and C. sorokiniana, respectively. This simple and efficient approach has the potential to replace other harvesting methods, thereby contributing to the economic algal biofuel production.


Assuntos
Celulose , Chlorella , Floculação , Scenedesmus , Esgotos , Chlorella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlorella/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Biomassa , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo
14.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(5): 665-681, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589569

RESUMO

This work explores the potential of three hypersaline native microalgae strains from Oklahoma, Geitlerinema carotinosum, Pseudanabaena sp., and Picochlorum oklahomensis, for simultaneous treatment of flowback (FW) and produced wastewater (PW) and the production of algal biomass. The quality of wastewater before and after treatment with these microalgae strains was evaluated and a characterization of algal biomass in terms of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash contents was assessed. The experimental results indicated how all the microalgae strains were able to grow in both FW and PW, revealing their potential for wastewater treatment. Although algal biomass production was limited by nutrient availability both in PW and FW, a maximum biomass concentration higher than 1.35 g L-1 were achieved by the three strains in two of the PWs and one of the FWs tested, with Pseudanabaena sp. reaching nearly 2 g L-1. Interestingly, higher specific growth rates were obtained by the two cyanobacteria strains G. carotinosum and Pseudanabaena sp. when cultivated in both PW and FW, compared to P. oklahomensis. The harvested algal biomass contained a significant amount of energy, even though it was significantly reduced by the very high salt content. The energy content fell within the recommended range of 16-17 MJ kg-1 for biomass as feedstock for biofuels. The algal treatment resulted in the complete removal of ammonia from the wastewater and a significant reduction in contaminants, such as nitrate, phosphate, boron, and micronutrients like zinc, manganese, and iron.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/química , Biomassa , Oklahoma , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Salinidade
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134279, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613960

RESUMO

The application of antibiotics in freshwater aquaculture leads to increased contamination of aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the co-metabolic biodegradation of antibiotics by microalgae in aquaculture. Feedstuffs provide multiple organic substrates for microalgae-mediated co-metabolism. Herein, we investigated the co-metabolism of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by Chlorella pyrenoidosa when adding main components of feedstuff (glucose and lysine). Results showed that lysine had an approximately 1.5-fold stronger enhancement on microalgae-mediated co-metabolism of SMX than glucose, with the highest removal rate (68.77% ± 0.50%) observed in the 9-mM-Lys co-metabolic system. Furthermore, we incorporated reactive sites predicted by density functional theory calculations, 14 co-metabolites identified by mass spectrometry, and the roles of 18 significantly activated enzymes to reveal the catalytic reaction mechanisms underlying the microalgae-mediated co-metabolism of SMX. In lysine- and glucose-treated groups, five similar co-metabolic pathways were proposed, including bond breaking on the nucleophilic sulfur atom, ring cleavage and hydroxylation at multiple free radical reaction sites, together with acylation and glutamyl conjugation on electrophilic nitrogen atoms. Cytochrome P450, serine hydrolase, and peroxidase play crucial roles in catalyzing hydroxylation, bond breaking, and ring cleavage of SMX. These findings provide theoretical support for better utilization of microalgae-driven co-metabolism to reduce sulfonamide antibiotic residues in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Chlorella , Glucose , Microalgas , Sulfametoxazol , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sulfametoxazol/metabolismo , Sulfametoxazol/química , Microalgas/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Lisina/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química
16.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14308, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666320

RESUMO

Mixotrophy, the concurrent use of inorganic and organic carbon in the presence of light for microalgal growth, holds ecological and industrial significance. However, it is poorly explored in diatoms, especially in ecologically relevant species like Skeletonema marinoi. This study strategically employed mixotrophic metabolism to optimize the growth of a strain of Skeletonema marinoi (Sm142), which was found potentially important for biomass production on the west coast of Sweden in winter conditions. The aim of this study was to discern the most effective organic carbon sources by closely monitoring microalgal growth through the assessment of optical density, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and biomass concentration. The impact of various carbon sources on the physiology of Sm142 was investigated using photosynthetic and respiratory parameters. The findings revealed that glycerol exhibited the highest potential for enhancing the biomass concentration of Sm142 in a multi-cultivator under the specified experimental conditions, thanks to the increase in respiration activity. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of glycerol was confirmed at a larger scale using environmental photobioreactors simulating the winter conditions on the west coast of Sweden; it was found comparable to the stimulation by CO2-enriched air versus normal air. These results were the first evidence of the ability of Skeletonema marinoi to perform mixotrophic metabolism during the winter and could explain the ecological success of this diatom on the Swedish west coast. These findings also highlight the importance of both organic and inorganic carbon sources for enhancing biomass productivity in harsh winter conditions.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Diatomáceas , Fotossíntese , Estações do Ano , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Suécia , Carbono/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Microalgas/fisiologia , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo
17.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669460

RESUMO

We evaluated changes in growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and basic physiological and biochemical parameters of the microalgae Thalassiosira weissflogii cells under the influence of the herbicide glyphosate in concentrations 0, 25, 95 and 150µgL-1 . The toxic effect of glyphosate on algae is weakly dependent on the level of cell mineral nutrition. High concentrations of the herbicide do not lead to the death of microalgae but block the process of algae cell division. An increase in the glyphosate concentration in the medium leads to a slowdown or stop of algal growth, a decrease in their final biomass, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarisation of mitochondrial membranes and metabolic activity of algae. Glyphosate inhibits the photosynthetic activity of cells and inhibits the relative rate of electron transport in the photosynthetic apparatus. Glyphosate at the studied concentrations does not affect the size characteristics of cells and the intracellular content of chlorophyll in T. weissflogii . The studied herbicide or products of its decay retain their toxic properties in the environment for at least 9days. This result shows the need for further in-depth studies to assess the physiological response and possible acclimation changes in the functional state of oxygenic phototrophs in response to the herbicide action. The species specificity of microalgae to the effects of glyphosate in natural conditions is potentially dangerous due to a possible change in the species structure of biocoenoses, in particular, a decrease in the contribution of diatoms.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Diatomáceas , Glicina , Glifosato , Herbicidas , Microalgas , Fotossíntese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa
18.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 61, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662080

RESUMO

Emissions from transportation and industry primarily cause global warming, leading to floods, glacier melt, and rising seas. Widespread greenhouse gas emissions and resulting global warming pose significant risks to the environment, economy, and society. The need for alternative fuels drives the development of third-generation feedstocks: microalgae, seaweed, and cyanobacteria. These microalgae offer traits like rapid growth, high lipid content, non-competition with human food, and growth on non-arable land using brackish or waste water, making them promising for biofuel. These unique phototrophic organisms use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biofuels, biochemicals, and more. This review delves into the realm of microalgal biofuels, exploring contemporary methodologies employed for lipid extraction, significant value-added products, and the challenges inherent in their commercial-scale production. While the cost of microalgae bioproducts remains high, utilizing wastewater nutrients for cultivation could substantially cut production costs. Furthermore, this review summarizes the significance of biocircular economy approaches, which encompass the utilization of microalgal biomass as a feed supplement and biofertilizer, and biosorption of heavy metals and dyes. Besides, the discussion extends to the in-depth analysis and future prospects on the commercial potential of biofuel within the context of sustainable development. An economically efficient microalgae biorefinery should prioritize affordable nutrient inputs, efficient harvesting techniques, and the generation of valuable by-products.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
19.
Environ Int ; 186: 108633, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603814

RESUMO

In the severe pollution area of nanoplastics (NPs) and cadmium ions (Cd2+), the joint effects of their high environmental concentrations on primary producers may differ from those of low environmental doses. Thus, we investigated the physiological changes, cell morphology, molecular dynamic simulation, phenotypic interactions, and metabolomics responses of C. pyrenoidosa to high environmental concentrations of NPs and Cd2+ after 12-d acclimation. After 12-d cultivation, mono-NPs and mono-Cd2+ reduced cell density and triggered antioxidant enzymes, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production, and cell aggregation to defend their unfavorable effects. Based on the molecular dynamic simulation, the chlorine atoms of the NPs and Cd2+ had charge attraction with the nitrogen and phosphorus atoms in the choline and phosphate groups in the cell membrane, thereby NPs and Cd2+ could adsorb on the cells to destroy them. In the joint exposure, NPs dominated the variations of ultrastructure and metabolomics and alleviated the toxicity of NPs and Cd2+. Due to its high environmental concentration, more NPs could compete with the microalgae for Cd2+ and thicken cell walls, diminishing the Cd2+ content and antioxidant enzymes of microalgae. NPs addition also decreased the EPS content, while the bound EPS with -CN bond was kept to detoxicate Cd2+. Metabolomics results showed that the NPs downregulated nucleotide, arachidonic acid, and tryptophan metabolisms, while the Cd2+ showed an opposite trend. Compared with their respective exposures, metabolomics results found the changes in metabolic molecules, suggesting the NPs_Cd2+ toxicity was mitigated by balancing nucleotide, arachidonic acid, tryptophan, and arginine and proline metabolisms. Consequently, this study provided new insights that simultaneous exposure to high environmental concentrations of NPs and Cd2+ mitigated microalgae cellular toxicity, which may change their fates and biogeochemical cycles in aquatic systems.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Metabolômica , Microalgas , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade
20.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120723, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565028

RESUMO

Due to increased pesticide usage in agriculture, a significant concentration of pesticides is reported in the environment that can directly impact humans, aquatic flora, and fauna. Utilizing microalgae-based systems for pesticide removal is becoming more popular because of their environmentally friendly nature, ability to degrade pesticide molecules into simpler, nontoxic molecules, and cost-effectiveness of the technology. Thus, this review focused on the efficiency, mechanisms, and factors governing pesticide removal using microalgae-based systems and their effect on microalgal metabolism. A wide range of pesticides, like atrazine, cypermethrin, malathion, trichlorfon, thiacloprid, etc., can be effectively removed by different microalgal strains. Some species of Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Scenedesmus, Nostoc, etc., are documented for >90% removal of different pesticides, mainly through the biodegradation mechanism. The antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, as well as the complex structure of microalgae cell walls, are mainly involved in eliminating pesticides and are also crucial for the defense mechanism of microalgae against reactive oxygen species. However, higher pesticide concentrations may alter the biochemical composition and gene expression associated with microalgal growth and metabolism, which may vary depending on the type of strain, the pesticide type, and the concentration. The final section of this review discussed the challenges and prospects of how microalgae can become a successful tool to remediate pesticides.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Praguicidas/química , Microalgas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Malation/metabolismo , Malation/farmacologia
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