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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 169-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473853

RESUMO

Treatment of patients with advanced metastatic melanoma has for decades been a story of very limited success. This dramatically changed when therapy with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blocking antibodies was approved in the USA and Europe in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The therapy exploits the capacity of CD8+ T cells to specifically kill tumor cells. Within the tumor microenvironment, CD8+ T cell activity is blocked by suppressive signals received via PD-1, an inhibitory co-receptor and so-called checkpoint of T cell activation. PD-1 binds to its ligand PD-L1 on melanoma cells which dampens the T cell's activity. Antibodies blocking inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 interaction release T cells from suppression. Treatment of late-stage disease melanoma patients with antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, termed immune checkpoint blocking therapy (ICBT), yields clinical frequently long-lasting responses in 30-40% of cases. Despite this remarkable breakthrough, still the majority of patients resists ICBT or develops resistance after initial therapy response. Administration of anti-PD-1 antibodies in combination with antibodies targeting CTLA-4, another inhibitory immune checkpoint increased clinical responses rate up to 50% but at costs of higher treatment-related toxicities. Thus, strong efforts are now directed toward the understanding of therapy resistance, the identification of biomarkers predicting therapy response, and the development of alternative PD-1-based combination treatment to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Imunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígeno B7-H1 , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(10): 966-971, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630495

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with colorectal cancer (DCRC). Methods: A case-control study was conducted. Inclusion criteria: (1) hospitalized patients receiving fibrocolonoscopy; (2) adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma diagnosed by pathology; (3) with preoperative cTNM clinical staging; (4) colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment; (5) with postoperative pTNM staging; (6) no smoking or drinking habits. Exclusion criteria: (1) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP); (2) Lynch syndrome; (3) carcinoma of anal canal and perianal carcinoma; (4) multiple primary cancer; (5) with serious cardiocerebrovascular diseases or multiple organ failure. Clinicopathlogical data of 32 DCRC patients who were diagnosed and treated in Peking University Shougang Hospital from December 2017 to December 2018 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Forty nondiabetic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients during the same period were selected as control group according to the sex ratio and the age difference less than 5 years. Student's t test and χ(2) test were used to compare the difference between the two groups in baseline clinicopathological data, clinical test results, tumor markers and infiltration status of T cells in tumor immune microenvironment. Results: Among 32 DCRC patients, 24 were males and 8 were females with a mean age of (63.0±1.7) years; among 40 CRC patients, 30 were males and 10 were females with a mean age of (60.5±1.6) years. The duration of diabetes mellitus in DCRC patients (from the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus to the diagnosis of colorectal cancer) was (9.2±1.3) years. The body mass index (BMI) of DCRC group was significantly higher than that of CRC group [(24.8±0.6) kg/m(2) vs. (23.2±0.4) kg/m(2), t=2.372, P=0.020]. There were no significant differences in other baseline data (sex, age, primary site of tumor, R0 resection rate, pathological stage, pathological type, differentiation degree of tumor, preoperative intestinal obstruction) between the two groups (all P>0.05). Serum triglyceride level in DCRC group was higher than that in CRC group [(2.1±0.2) mmol/L vs. (1.5±0.1) mmol/L, t=3.085, P=0.003], while hemoglobin [(120.3±5.2) g/L vs. (132.7±2.8) g/L, t=-2.224, P=0.029], anti- thrombin III [(94.2±3.7)% vs. (103.5±2.4)%, t=-2.197, P=0.031], and red blood cell count [(4.2±0.1)×10(12)/L vs. (4.5±0.1)×10(12)L, t=-2.055, P=0.044] were all lower than those in CRC group. The preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in DCRC group was higher than that in CRC group [(50.3±21.8) µg/L vs. (5.6±1.0) µg/L, t=2.339, P=0.022]. There were no significant differences in preoperative levels of other four tumor molecular markers (CA199, CA242, CA724 and CA125) between the two groups (all P>0.05). The expression of Foxp3 [specific markers of CD4+, CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg)] in DCRC group was higher than that in CRC group [(82.7±6.2) cell/HPF vs. (62.6±4.9) cell/HPF, t=2.586, P=0.012]. There were no significant differences in the infiltration of CD4, CD8, PD-1 and PD-L1 positive cells between two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The average diabetic history of DCRC patients is nearly 10 years. They have higher BMI and serum CEA level, and more Treg cell infiltration in the tumor. Close attention should be paid to these patients in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1164: 63-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576540

RESUMO

Gankyrin (also called PSMD10, p28, or p28GANK) is a crucial oncoprotein that is upregulated in various cancers and assumed to play pivotal roles in the initiation and progression of tumors. Although the in vitro function of gankyrin is relatively well characterized, its role in vivo remains to be elucidated. We have investigated the function of gankyrin in vivo by producing mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Alb-Cre;gankyrinf/f) and gankyrin deletion both in liver parenchymal and in non-parenchymal cells (Mx1-Cre;gankyrinf/f). Gankyrin deficiency both in non-parenchymal cells and parenchymal cells, but not in parenchymal cells alone, reduced STAT3 activity, interleukin-6 production, and cancer stem cell marker expression, leading to attenuated tumorigenic potential in the diethylnitrosamine hepatocarcinogenesis model. Essentially similar results were obtained by analyzing mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific gankyrin ablation (Villin-Cre;Gankyrinf/f) and gankyrin deletion both in myeloid and epithelial cells (Mx1-Cre;Gankyrinf/f) in the colitis-associated cancer model. Clinically, gankyrin expression in the tumor microenvironment was negatively correlated with progression-free survival in patients undergoing treatment with Sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas. These findings indicate important roles played by gankyrin in non-parenchymal cells as well as parenchymal cells in the pathogenesis of liver cancers and colorectal cancers, and suggest that by acting both on cancer cells and on the tumor microenvironment, anti-gankyrin agents would be promising as therapeutic and preventive strategies against various cancers, and that an in vitro cell culture models that incorporate the effects of non-parenchymal cells and gankyrin would be useful for the study of human cell transformation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Camundongos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1229-1235, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597848

RESUMO

Recent advances in immunotherapy have highlighted the importance of the tumor microenvironment. Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from lymphocytes and typically develop in lymphoid tissues. It has been recognized that the elements of the lymphoma microenvironment are not mere bystanders to a host antitumor inflammatory response but are important components of the tumor that support proliferation, survival, and chemoresistance of lymphoma cells. Lymphoma cells have individual expression patterns of chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules, according to their histological subtypes, and the patterns of surface molecules determine the sites of tumor involvement. Lymphoma cells often depend on the signals provided by non-tumor cells, such as stromal cells and macrophages, through direct cell contact and paracrine factors. On the other hand, there are genetic and non-genetic mechanisms allowing lymphoma cells to escape from anti-tumor immunity, such as downregulation of HLA molecules, B2M, CD58, CD70, and/or upregulation of PD-L1 and PD-L2. Further understanding of the interactions of lymphoma cells and the tumor microenvironment gives an insight into the pathogenesis of lymphomas and supports new approaches to their treatment.


Assuntos
Linfoma/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Humanos , Linfócitos , Macrófagos , Células Estromais
5.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(9): 1243-1256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597850

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell neoplasm that is incurable despite significant progress in treatment over the past several decades. The incorporation of novel agents and combinations into the MM treatment paradigm has resulted in improved survival and tolerability, as well as deeper responses including achieving a minimal residual disease negative state. The addition of new treatment options and combinations has added complexity in treatment selection for myeloma patients. The current strategy for newly diagnosed myeloma involves induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy. However, nearly all myeloma patients will develop refractory disease. This highlights the need for more effective therapies targeting the myeloma cells and their microenvironment. In this article, we summarize current management of transplant eligible and ineligible newly diagnosed patients in both the upfront and relapsed refractory setting, highlighting risk adapted strategies. We also summarize emerging therapies, such as immune and targeted approaches, as well as drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Emerging strategies offer individualized treatment options and may ultimately offer the possibility of a cure for myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583083

RESUMO

Myelofibrosis is the advanced stage of the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), characterized by systemic inflammation, hematopoietic failure in the bone marrow, and development of extramedullary hematopoiesis, mainly in the spleen. The only potentially curative therapy for this disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, an option that may be offered only to those patients with a compatible donor and with an age and functional status that may face its toxicity. By contrast, with the Philadelphia-positive MPNs that can be dramatically modified by inhibitors of the novel BCR-ABL fusion-protein generated by its genetic lesion, the identification of the molecular lesions that lead to the development of myelofibrosis has not yet translated into a treatment that can modify the natural history of the disease. Therefore, the cure of myelofibrosis remains an unmet clinical need. However, the excitement raised by the discovery of the genetic lesions has inspired additional studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms driving these neoplasms towards their final stage. These studies have generated the feeling that the cure of myelofibrosis will require targeting both the malignant stem cell clone and its supportive microenvironment. We will summarize here some of the biochemical alterations recently identified in MPNs and the novel therapeutic approaches currently under investigation inspired by these discoveries.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Medula Óssea/patologia , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Hematopoese Extramedular , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1167: 175-190, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520355

RESUMO

Accumulative studies suggest that a fraction of cells within a tumor, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that initiate tumors, show resistance to most of the therapies, and causes tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs could be either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells. The eventual goal of CSC research is to identify pathways that selectively regulate CSCs and then target these pathways to eradicate CSCs. CSCs and normal stem cells share some common features, such as self-renewal, the production of differentiated progeny, and the expression of stem-cell markers, however, CSCs vary from normal stem cells in forming tumors. Specifically, CSCs are normally resistant to standard therapies. In addition, CSCs and non-CSCs can be mutually convertible in response to different signals or microenvironments. Even though CSCs are involved in human cancers, the biology of CSCs, is still not well understood, there are urgent needs to study CSCs in model organisms. In the last several years, discoveries in Drosophila have greatly contributed to our understanding of human cancer. Stem-cell tumors in Drosophila share various properties with human CSCs and maybe used to understand the biology of CSCs. In this chapter, we first briefly review CSCs in mammalian systems, then discuss stem-cell tumors in the Drosophila posterior midgut and Malpighian tubules (kidney) and their unique properties as revealed by studying oncogenic Ras protein (RasV12)-transformed stem-cell tumors in the Drosophila kidney and dominant-negative Notch (NDN)-transformed stem-cell tumors in the Drosophila intestine. At the end, we will discuss potential approaches to eliminate CSCs and achieve tumor regression. In future, by screening adult Drosophila neoplastic stem-cell tumor models, we hope to identify novel and efficacious compounds for the treatment of human cancers.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4699-4709, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, also exerts anticancer effects. This study addressed the immunological effects of metformin on peritoneal dissemination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a mouse model of peritoneal dissemination via intraperitoneal injection of RLmale1, an X-ray-induced leukemia cell line, into BALB/c mice. Cell-surface markers, cytokine production, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were examined in cells from spleen and peritoneal lavage fluid. RESULTS: Metformin-treated mice exhibited suppressed intraperitoneal tumor growth and extended survival, and these effects were lost in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. MDSCs induction was inhibited in metformin-treated mice. Although MDSC mobilization into the peritoneal cavity was correlated with suppression of interferon-γ production by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, the T-helper 1 ability of these lymphocytes was preserved in metformin-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the action of metformin on both intraperitoneal tumors and immune-suppressive cells and might contribute to the development of immunotherapy against peritoneal dissemination.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/imunologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(9): 1367-1371, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530772

RESUMO

Recent advances in cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs), have shown some durable clinical responses in patients with various types of advanced cancers. The development of the next-generation sequencing technologies can result in a comprehensive characterization of the human cancer genomes. Personalized immunotherapy and precision cancer medicine might enable the next generation of rational cancer immunotherapy. Conventional cancer vaccines are designed to target tumor-associated antigens(TAAs), which are overexpressed in cancers. However, since TAAs are also expressed in normal tissues, cancer vaccine against TAAs can potentially initiate central and peripheral tolerance responses, which results in low vaccination efficiency. Cancer neoantigens derived from somatic mutations in tumor tissue represent highly immunogenic and can escape from central thymic tolerance. They are suggested to provide tumor specific targets for personalized cancer vaccines. Therefore, neoantigen-based cancer vaccine, which can induce tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes( CTLs), should be developed. The efficacy of current immunotherapies also remains limited due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which leads to CTLs exhaustion or anergy and the escape of tumor cells from immune attack. The combination of neoantigen-based cancer vaccine and ICIs should be a potential therapeutic approach. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the recent advances in the development of neoantigen-based cancer vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Medicina de Precisão , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1621-1633, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549213

RESUMO

Defects in DNA damage repair caused by mutations in BRCA1/2, ATM or other genes have been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. The influence of such mutations on anti-tumor immunity in prostate cancer, however, is largely unknown. To better understand the correlation between BRCA1/2 mutations and the immune phenotype in prostate cancer, we characterized the immune infiltrate of eight BRCA2-mutated tumors in comparison with eight BRCA1/2 wild-type patients by T-cell receptor sequencing and immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD4, CD8, FOXP3, and CD163. In addition, we analyzed seven prostate cancer biopsies that were either BRCA2 or ATM-mutated in comparison with wild-type tumors. Whereas in BRCA1/2 wild-type tumors, immune cells were found predominantly extratumorally, most BRCA2-mutated tumors including one biopsy showed a significantly increased intratumoral immune cell infiltration. The ratio of intratumoral to extratumoral immune cells was considerably higher in BRCA2-mutated tumors for all markers and reached statistical significance for CD4 (p = 0.007), CD8 (p = 0.006), and FOXP3 (p = 0.001). However, the intratumoral CD8 to FOXP3 ratio showed a trend to be lower in BRCA2-mutated tumors suggesting a more suppressed tumor immune microenvironment. Our findings provide a rationale for the future use of immune oncological approaches in BRCA2-mutated prostate cancer and may encourage efforts to target immunosuppressive T-cell populations to prime tumors for immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Antígenos CD8/análise , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1635-1648, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549214

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer has been termed a 'recalcitrant cancer' due to its relative resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This resistance is thought to be due in part to the dense fibrotic tumor microenvironment and lack of tumor infiltrating CD8 + T cells. The gastrointestinal peptide, gastrin, has been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer by both a paracrine and autocrine mechanism. Interruption of gastrin at the CCK receptor may reduce tumor-associated fibrosis and alter tumor immune cells. Polyclonal Ab Stimulator (PAS) is a vaccine that targets gastrin and has been shown to prolong survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that PAS vaccination monotherapy elicits both a humoral and cellular immune response when used in immune competent mice-bearing pancreatic tumors and that PAS monotherapy produced a marked T-cell activation and influx of CD8 + lymphocytes into pancreatic tumors. Isolated peripheral lymphocytes elicited cytokine release upon re-stimulation with gastrin in vitro demonstrating specificity of immune activation for the target peptide. Combination therapy with PAS and PD-1 Ab activated CD4 -/CD8 - TEMRA cells important in T-cell-mediated tumor death and memory. Tumors of mice treated with PAS (250 µg) or PAS (100 and 250 µg) in combination with a PD-1 Ab were significantly smaller compared to tumors from PBS or PD-1 Ab-treated mice. When PAS was given in combination with PD-1 Ab, tumors had less fibrosis, fewer inhibitory Treg lymphocytes, and fewer tumor-associated macrophages. These findings reveal a novel approach to improve treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Gastrinas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Vacinação , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 89-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562624

RESUMO

The importance of prostaglandin E2 in cancer progression is well established, but research on its role in cancer has so far mostly been focused on epithelial cancer in adults while the knowledge about the contribution of prostaglandin E2 to childhood malignancies is limited. Neuroblastoma, an extracranial solid tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, mainly affects young children. Patients with tumors classified as high-risk have poor survival despite receiving intensive treatment, illustrating a need for new treatments complimenting existing ones. The basis of neuroblastoma treatment e.g. chemotherapy and radiation therapy, target the proliferating genetically unstable tumor cells leading to treatment resistance and relapses. The tumor microenvironment is an avenue, still to a great extent, unexplored and lacking effective targeted therapies. Cancer-associated fibroblasts is the main source of prostaglandin E2 in neuroblastoma contributing to angiogenesis, immunosuppression and tumor growth. Prostaglandin E2 is formed from its precursor arachidonic acid in a two-step enzymatic reaction. Arachidonic acid is first converted by cyclooxygenases into prostaglandin H2 and then further converted by microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 into prostaglandin E2. We believe targeting of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts will be an effective future therapeutic strategy in fighting neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona , Neuroblastoma , Prostaglandina-E Sintases , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/enzimologia , Neuroblastoma/fisiopatologia , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Cancer Invest ; 37(9): 463-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490702

RESUMO

The associations of the immunological status of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) microenvironment with prognosis were assessed. A high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density was associated with a better prognosis. Importantly, even with a high density of TILs, the PDA cells with programed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression showed a worse prognosis than the patients with negative PD-L1 expression. A significant association between a better prognosis and a tumor microenvironment with a high TIL density/negative PD-L1 expression was observed. Assessments of a combined immunological status in the tumor microenvironment may predict the prognosis of PDA patients following surgical resection.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1573-1583, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511925

RESUMO

Desmoid tumors (DTs) are local aggressive neoplasms, whose therapeutic approach has remained so far unsolved and in many instances controversial. Nowadays, immunotherapy appears to play a leading role in the treatment of various tumor types. Characterization of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) and immune checkpoints can possibly help identify new immunotherapeutic targets for DTs. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 33 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from DT samples to characterize the TME and the immune checkpoint expression profile. We stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, FoxP3, CD45RO, CD56, CD68, NKp46, granzyme B, CD27, CD70, PD1 and PD-L1. We investigated the expression of the markers in the tumoral stroma, as well as at the periphery of the tumor. We found that most of the tumors showed organization of lymphocytes into lymphoid aggregates at the periphery of the tumor, strongly resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). The tumor expressed a significant number of memory T cells, both at the periphery and in the tumoral stroma. In the lymphoid aggregates, we also recognized a significant proportion of regulatory T cells. The immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 was negative on the tumor cells in almost all samples. On the other hand, PD1 was partially expressed in lymphocytes at the periphery of the tumor. To conclude, we are the first to show that DTs display a strong immune infiltration at the tumor margins, with formation of lymphoid aggregates. Moreover, we demonstrated that there is no PD-L1-driven immune suppression present in the tumor cells.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/fisiologia , Fibromatose Agressiva/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD20/análise , Ligante CD27/análise , Feminino , Fibromatose Agressiva/patologia , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microambiente Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
15.
Life Sci ; 234: 116781, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430455

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a population of self-renewal cells with high tumorigenic potency. CSCs can adopt easily with changes in the nearby milieu, and are more resistant to conventional therapies than other cells within a tumor. CSC resistance can be induced secondary to radio- and chemotherapy, or even after chemotherapy secession. A combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors is contributed to CSC-mediated therapy resistance. CSCs represent protective autophagy and efficient cell cycling, along with highly qualified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, drug transporters, and anti-apoptotic and DNA repairing systems. In addition, CSCs develop cross-talking and share some characteristics with other cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) being more intense in higher stage tumors, and thereby sophisticating tumor-targeted therapies. TME, in fact, is a nest for aggravating resistance mechanisms in CSCs. TME is exposed constantly to the nutritional, metabolic and oxygen deprivation; these conditions promote CSC adaptation. This review is aimed to discuss main (intrinsic and extrinsic) mechanisms of CSC resistance and suggest some strategies to revoke this important promoter of therapy failure.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
16.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3215-3224, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432603

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are a useful tool in cancer biology research. However, the number of lung cancer PDX is limited. In the present study, we successfully established 10 PDX, including three adenocarcinoma (AD), six squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) and one large cell carcinoma (LA), from 30 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (18 AD, 10 SQ, and 2 LA), mainly in SCID hairless outbred (SHO) mice (Crlj:SHO-Prkdcscid Hrhr ). Histology of SQ, advanced clinical stage (III-IV), status of lymph node metastasis (N2-3), and maximum standardized uptake value ≥10 when evaluated using a delayed 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan was associated with successful PDX establishment. Histological analyses showed that PDX had histology similar to that of patients' surgically resected tumors (SRT), whereas components of the microenvironment were replaced with murine cells after several passages. Next-generation sequencing analyses showed that after two to six passages, PDX preserved the majority of the somatic mutations and mRNA expressions of the corresponding SRT. Two out of three PDX with AD histology had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (L858R or exon 19 deletion) and were sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as gefitinib and osimertinib. Furthermore, in one of the two PDX with an EGFR mutation, osimertinib resistance was induced that was associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This study presented 10 serially transplantable PDX of NSCLC in SHO mice and showed the use of PDX with an EGFR mutation for analyses of EGFR-TKI resistance.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3061-3067, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444833

RESUMO

Tryptophan metabolism is important to induce immune tolerance in tumors. To date, 3 types of tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes have been identified: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and 2 (IDO1 and IDO2) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2. Numerous studies have focused on IDO1 as its expression is enhanced in various cancers. Recently, IDO2 has been identified as a tryptophan-metabolizing enzyme that is involved in several immune functions and expressed in cancers such as pancreatic cancer. However, the biological role of IDO2 in the induction of immune tolerance in tumors has not yet been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Ido2 depletion on tumor growth in a mouse model of Lewis lung carcinoma by using Ido2-knockout mice. Ido2-knockout mice had reduced tumor volumes compared to WT mice. Furthermore, Ido2 depletion altered the tumor microenvironment, such as tryptophan accumulation and kynurenine reduction, leading to enhancement of immune cell invasion. Finally, enzyme-linked immunospot assay revealed that Ido2 depletion enhanced γ-interferon secretion in the tumor. In conclusion, Ido2 is an important immune regulator in the tumor microenvironment. Our data indicate that IDO2 is a potential target for cancer treatment and drug development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/terapia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4541-4558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417257

RESUMO

Background: Tumor metastasis is responsible for most cancer death worldwide, which lacks curative treatment. Purpose: The objective of this study was to eliminate tumor and control the development of tumor metastasis. Methods: Herein, we demonstrated a smart nano-enabled platform, in which 2-[2-[2-chloro-3-[(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-1-propyl-2h-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]ethenyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1-propylindolium iodide (IR780) and tirapazamine (TPZ) were co-loaded in poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL) to form versatile nanoparticles (PEG-PCL-IR780-TPZ NPs). Results: The intelligence of the system was reflected in the triggered and controlled engineering. Specially, PEG-PCL not only prolonged the circulation time of IR780 and TPZ but also promoted tumor accumulation of nanodrugs through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by IR780 armed by an 808 nm laser irradiation evoked a cargo release. Meanwhile, IR780, as a mitochondria-targeting phototherapy agent exacerbated tumor hypoxic microenvironment and activated TPZ for accomplishing hypoxia-activated chemotherapy. Most significantly, IR780 was capable of triggering immunogenic cell death (ICD) during the synergic treatment. ICD biomarkers as a "danger signal" accelerated dendritic cells (DCs) maturation, and subsequently activated toxic T lymphocytes. Conclusion: Eventually, antitumor immune responses stimulated by combinational phototherapy and hypoxia-activated chemotherapy revolutionized the current landscape of cancer treatment, strikingly inhibiting tumor metastasis and providing a promising prospect in the clinical application.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fototerapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fotoquimioterapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Tirapazamina/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1429-1441, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428800

RESUMO

MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) is one of the major ligands for natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D), which is an activating NK receptor. MICA is expressed on the surface of human epithelial tumor cells, and its shedding from tumor cells leads to immunosuppression. To activate immune response in the tumor microenvironment, we designed an anti-VEGFR2-MICA bispecific antibody (JZC01), consisting of MICA and an anti-VEGFR2 single chain antibody fragment (JZC00) and explored its potential anti-tumor activity. JZC01 targeted vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and inhibited tumorigenesis by blocking the VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Additionally, JZC01 promoted NK and CD8+ T cells to release IFN-γ and engaged activated lymphocytes to lysis of VEGFR2-expressing tumor cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity of JZC01 was investigated by establishing a Lewis lung cancer cell-transplanted mouse model. It effectively reduced the tumor vascular density and increased the infiltration and activation of NK and CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, JZC01 functions in anti-tumor angiogenesis and anti-tumor immune activation, and showed improved anti-tumor efficacy combined with docetaxel, which provides a new insight into anti-tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/genética , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(73): 10940-10943, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441920

RESUMO

Different from traditional "always on" photothermal therapy (PTT) agents, tumor microenvironment responsive agents showed more tumor specificity and lower photo-toxicity to normal tissues. Herein, a photo-stable and reversible pH responsive phenazine dye (PIOH) was synthesized and assembled with liposomes forming nanoparticles (PIOH-NPs), which exhibited a strong NIR absorption in a weak acid environment and were successfully utilized for photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal therapy in mice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Corantes Fluorescentes/uso terapêutico , Fenazinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Colesterol/química , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Lecitinas/química , Lipossomos/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenazinas/síntese química , Fenazinas/química , Fenazinas/toxicidade , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Fototerapia/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
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