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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8823-8830, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578074

RESUMO

Emetic Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), which can cause emetic food poisoning and in some cases even fulminant liver failure and death, has aroused widespread concern. Herein, a universal and naked-eye diagnostic platform for emetic B. cereus based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-assisted CRISPR/Cas12a was developed by targeting the cereulide synthetase biosynthetic gene (cesB). The diagnostic platform enabled one-pot detection by adding components at the bottom and cap of the tube separately. The visual limit of detection of RPA-CRISPR/Cas12a for gDNA and cells of emetic B. cereus was 10-2 ng µL-1 and 102 CFU mL-1, respectively. Meanwhile, it maintained the same sensitivity in the rice, milk, and cooked meat samples even if the gDNA was extracted by simple boiling. The whole detection process can be finished within 40 min, and the single cell of emetic B. cereus was able to be recognized through enrichment for 2-5 h. The good specificity, high sensitivity, rapidity, and simplicity of the RPA-assisted CRISPR/Cas12a diagnostic platform made it serve as a potential tool for the on-site detection of emetic B. cereus in food matrices. In addition, the RPA-assisted CRISPR/Cas12a assay is the first application in emetic B. cereus detection.


Assuntos
Eméticos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Recombinases/genética , Bacillus cereus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1337952, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596651

RESUMO

Food intoxications evoked by emetic Bacillus cereus strains constitute a serious threat to public health, leading to emesis and severe organ failure. The emetic peptide toxin cereulide, assembled by the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase CesNRPS, cannot be eradicated from contaminated food by usual hygienic measures due to its molecular size and structural stability. Next to cereulide, diverse chemical variants have been described recently that are produced concurrently with cereulide by CesNRPS. However, the contribution of these isocereulides to the actual toxicity of emetic B. cereus, which produces a cocktail of these toxins in a certain ratio, is still elusive. Since cereulide isoforms have already been detected in food remnants from foodborne outbreaks, we aimed to gain insights into the composition of isocereulides and their impact on the overall toxicity of emetic B. cereus. The amounts and ratios of cereulide and isocereulides were determined in B. cereus grown under standard laboratory conditions and in a contaminated sample of fried rice balls responsible for one of the most severe food outbreaks caused by emetic B. cereus in recent years. The ratios of variants were determined as robust, produced either under laboratory or natural, food-poisoning conditions. Examination of their actual toxicity in human epithelial HEp2-cells revealed that isocereulides A-N, although accounting for only 10% of the total cereulide toxins, were responsible for about 40% of the total cytotoxicity. An this despite the fact that some of the isocereulides were less cytotoxic than cereulide when tested individually for cytotoxicity. To estimate the additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects of the single variants, each cereulide variant was mixed with cereulide in a 1:9 and 1:1 binary blend, respectively, and tested on human cells. The results showed additive and synergistic impacts of single variants, highlighting the importance of including not only cereulide but also the isocereulides in routine food and clinical diagnostics to achieve a realistic toxicity evaluation of emetic B. cereus in contaminated food as well as in patient samples linked to foodborne outbreaks. Since the individual isoforms confer different cell toxicity both alone and in association with cereulide, further investigations are needed to fully understand their cocktail effect.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Depsipeptídeos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Venenos , Humanos , Bacillus cereus , Eméticos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Isoformas de Proteínas
3.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(3): e13339, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578165

RESUMO

The importance of food quality and safety lies in ensuring the best product quality to meet consumer demands and public health. Advanced technologies play a crucial role in minimizing the risk of foodborne illnesses, contamination, drug residue, and other potential hazards in food. Significant materials and technological advancements have been made throughout the food supply chain. Among them, quantum dots (QDs), as a class of advanced nanomaterials with unique physicochemical properties, are progressively demonstrating their value in the field of food quality and safety. This review aims to explore cutting-edge research on the different applications of QDs in food quality and safety, including encapsulation of bioactive compounds, detection of food analytes, food preservation and packaging, and intelligent food freshness indicators. Moreover, the modification strategies and potential toxicities of diverse QDs are outlined, which can affect performance and hinder applications in the food industry. The findings suggested that QDs are mainly used in analyte detection and active/intelligent food packaging. Various food analytes can be detected using QD-based sensors, including heavy metal ions, pesticides, antibiotics, microorganisms, additives, and functional components. Moreover, QD incorporation aided in improving the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of film/coatings, resulting in extended shelf life for packaged food. Finally, the perspectives and critical challenges for the productivity, toxicity, and practical application of QDs are also summarized. By consolidating these essential aspects into this review, the way for developing high-performance QD-based nanomaterials is presented for researchers and food technologists to better capitalize upon this technology in food applications.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300249, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573994

RESUMO

The effects of jogi (the fish Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus) on the production of physicochemical components, such as color, organic acids, and amino acids, in kimchi, a traditional fermented vegetable food of Korea, were determined. As fermentation progressed, the color change of jogi-added kimchi increased, but in comparison with that of the control group without jogi-added kimchi, was difficult to distinguish with the naked eye. Reducing sugar decreased in all experimental groups, and as fermentation progressed, kimchi with jogi showed a lower value. Acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and ethanol, were highly produced in both types of kimchi, and above all, the jogi-baechu-kimchi group showed higher acetic acid and lactic acid contents than the control group. The increase and decrease of amino acids were similar in both types of kimchi. However, significantly, immediately after manufacture, the savory components aspartic acid and glutamic acid were detected higher than the control group. Subsequently, the fermentation tended to decrease as it progressed, but the content was higher than that of the control group. The above results show that jogi addition has a greater effect on the contents of amino acid, especially the savory component, than on the physicochemical components.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados , Perciformes , Animais , Aminoácidos , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico , Acetatos , Microbiologia de Alimentos
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 367, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Street foods are any foods or drinks prepared or sold by street vendors in an open space. The purpose of this study was to determine the Bacteriological safety and antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae isolated from street foods. METHOD: A laboratory-based cross-sectional study was used from December 2022 to February 2023 on street foods of Addis Ababa, Hawassa, Dire Dawa, and Jimma towns of Ethiopia. 525 street foods and 175 water samples were taken from 175 street food vending stalls. Proportional allocation to the total town population and stratified sampling techniques were used to select vending stalls. Samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria following the standard microbiological methods used for the isolation, enumeration, and identification of bacteria. Pour plate technique was used to transfer the suspension to MacConkey agar, Mannitol Salt Agar, and Salmonella Shigella Agar. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. RESULT: Out of 525 food samples, 279 (53%) were contaminated by bacteria. From 175 water samples, 95 (54.3%) were contaminated with Escherichia coli. From both samples in total, eleven bacterial species were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated species. Shigella, Klebsiella, and Salmonella group A have statistically significant with the type of food. Erythromycin (54%), Streptomycin (17%), and Amoxicillin (14%) were the most resistant antibiotics. Least resistance was observed to Ciprofloxacin (5%). CONCLUSION: Street foods of the selected towns were highly contaminated with various antibiotic-resistant organisms. Hence, the relevant authorities ought to ensure the proper handling of street food by enforcing safety measures. Additionally, they should initiate a widespread awareness campaign promoting the prudent use of antibiotics among both street food vendors and the broader population.


Assuntos
Shigella , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Enterobacteriaceae , Staphylococcus aureus , Etiópia , Estudos Transversais , Ágar , Cidades , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Água
7.
Int. microbiol ; 27(2): 435-448, Abr. 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-156

RESUMO

The current study used zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to protect the tomato plant against Fusarium wilt. Gamma rays were used to synthesize ZnO-NPs, and the designed ZnO-NPs were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis.) spectroscopy. We found that the 20 kGy dose is the most effective for ZnO-NPs synthesis, with the highest O.D. = 1.65 (diluted 3 times) at 400 nm. The scale of ZnO-NPs ranged from 10.45 to 75.25 nm with an average diameter of 40.20 nm. The results showed that the designed ZnO-NPs showed promising activity as a potent inducer of plant physiological immunity against Fusarium wilt disease. Likewise, ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the wilt disease symptoms incidence by 28.57% and high protection by 67.99% against F. oxysporum. Additionally, infected tomato plants treated with ZnO-NPs show improved shoot length (44.71%), root length (40.0%), number of leaves (60.0 %), chlorophyll a (36.93%), chlorophyll b (16.46%), and carotenoids (21.87%) versus infected plants. Notably, in the treatment of tomato seedlings, the beneficial effects of ZnO-NPs extended to increase not only in osmolyte contents but also total phenol contents in comparison with control plants. In conclusion, the designed ZnO-NPs can control Fusarium wilt disease and improve and develop biochemical compounds responsible for defense against fusarial infection.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fusarium/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/toxicidade , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Óxido de Zinco/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110655, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430686

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause deadly severe listeriosis. While systematic review and meta-analysis are powerful tools for comprehensive analysis by pooling every related study, these approaches to L.monocytogenes contamination food have yet to be studied in South Korea. We aimed to identify high-risk L.monocytogenes foods in South Korea through a prevalence survey of retail food products for the first time. A total of 13,684 samples of 59 articles were used for meta-analysis through the systematic review, and the results were synthesized using a random-effects model considering the heterogeneity. The overall pooled prevalence was 2.26 % (95 % CI: 1.44-3.52 %). Among nine food categories, meat exhibited the highest prevalence at 8.32 % (95 % CI: 4.42-12.14 %) after sample size restriction. Specifically, a post-hoc sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the prevalence difference among subgroups and the source of heterogeneity. Intriguingly, the analysis revealed chicken as the primary contributor to the elevated prevalence of L.monocytogenes, a key factor deriving the observed heterogeneity. This study carries significant implications for public health and food safety in Korea. Furthermore, knowledge of differences in prevalence levels in various foods will be able to be used as a predictive guideline for foodborne outbreaks.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose , Humanos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevalência , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110645, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430687

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the growth of Pseudomonas spp. and psychrotrophic bacteria in chilled Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), a native South American fish, stored under chilling conditions (0 to 10 °C) through the use of predictive models under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Growth kinetic parameters, maximum growth rate (µmax, 1/h), lag time (tLag, h), and (Nmax, Log10 CFU/g) were estimated using the Baranyi and Roberts microbial growth model. Both kinetic parameters, growth rate and lag time, were significantly influenced by temperature (P < 0.05). The square root secondary model was used to describe the bacteria growth as a function of temperature. Secondary models, √µ = 0.016 (T + 10.13) and √µ =0.017 (T + 9.91) presented a linear correlation with R2 values >0.97 and were further validated under non-isothermal conditions. The model's performance was considered acceptable to predict the growth of Pseudomonas spp. and psychrotrophic bacteria in refrigerated Pacu fillets with bias and accuracy factors between 1.24 and 1.49 (fail-safe) and 1.45-1.49, respectively. Fish biomarkers and spoilage indicators were assessed during storage at 0, 4, and 10 °C. Volatile organic compounds, VOCs (1-hexanol, nonanal, octenol, and indicators 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) showed different behavior with storage time (P > 0.05). 1H NMR analysis confirmed increased enzymatic and microbial activity in Pacu fillets stored at 10 °C compared to 0 °C. The developed and validated models obtained in this study can be used as a tool for decision-making on the shelf-life and quality of refrigerated Pacu fillets stored under dynamic conditions from 0 to 10 °C.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Pseudomonas , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Temperatura , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Armazenamento de Alimentos
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110641, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432054

RESUMO

The commercialization of processed fish products is rising in restaurants and small to medium enterprises. However, there is a lack of data related to the microbiological safety of such products. In this study total aerobic colony count and Enterobacteriaceae, as proxy of process hygiene criteria, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and concentration of histamine, as food safety criteria, were investigated in Salmo salar (salmon), Xiphias gladius (swordfish) and Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), before, during, and at the end of a dry-curing process, performed in a dedicated cabinet, at controlled temperature, relative humidity and ventilation, up to 240 h. The microbiological parameters were investigated in the tested fish products by culture methods and shotgun metagenomic, while the presence of histamine, and other biogenic amines, was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. In the raw material, and up to the end of the dry curing process, the concentration of Enterobacteriaceae was always lower than 10 CFU/g, while total aerobic colony counts ranged between 3.9 and 5.4 Log CFU/g in salmon; 5.5 and 5.9 Log CFU/g in swordfish; 4.4 and 4.8 Log CFU/g in tuna. The pH values were significantly different between fish species, in the raw materials and during processing except for T4, occurring 70 h after the start of the process for salmon and after 114 h for swordfish and tuna. Water activity was different at specific sampling points and at the end of processing. Overall, 79 % of the sequences identified in the tested fish samples were assigned to y bacteria. The most abundant phyla were Pseudomonadota, Bacillota and Mycoplasmatota. The microbial populations identified by shotgun metagenomic in the tested fish species clustered well separated one from the other. Moreover, the microbial richness was significantly higher in salmon and tuna in comparison to swordfish. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in the raw material by using the reference cultural method and very few reads (relative abundance <0.007) were detected in swordfish and tuna by shotgun metagenomic. Histamine producing bacteria, belonging to the genera Vibrio, Morganella, Photobacterium and Klebsiella, were identified primarily in swordfish. However, histamine and other biogenic amines were not detected in any sample. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper reporting time point determinations of microbiological quality and safety parameters in salmon, swordfish and tuna, before, during and at the end of a dry-curing process. The data collected in this paper can help to predict the risk profile of ready to eat dry-cured fish products during storage before consumption.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Histamina , Animais , Histamina/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Enterobacteriaceae , Peixes , Bactérias/genética , Atum/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110635, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432055

RESUMO

Biopreservation is an approach consisting of using microorganisms as protective cultures and/or their metabolites to optimize the microbiological quality and shelf life of food by ensuring safety or reducing food waste. Biopreservation strain selection pipelines mainly focus on inhibition strength to identify strains of interest. However, in addition to inhibition strength, inhibition activity must be able to be expressed despite significant variations in food matrix properties. In this study, the anti-Listeria monocytogenes EGDelux properties of a collection of 77 Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains were investigated by high throughput competition assays under varying conditions of co-culture inoculation level, time interval between inoculation with C. maltaromaticum and L. monocytogenes, pH, and NaCl, resulting in 1309 different combinations of C. maltaromaticum strains and culture conditions. This screening led to the selection of two candidate strains with potent and robust anti-L. monocytogenes activities. Deferred growth inhibition assays followed by halo measurements, and liquid co-culture followed by colony counting, revealed that these two strains exhibit a wide anti-Listeria spectrum. Challenge tests in Camembert and Saint-Nectaire cheese revealed both strains were able to inhibit a cocktail of five strains of L. monocytogenes with high potency and high reproducibility. These results highlight the importance of including the robustness criterion in addition to potency when designing a strain selection process for biopreservation applications.


Assuntos
Carnobacterium , Queijo , Listeria monocytogenes , Eliminação de Resíduos , Queijo/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microbiologia de Alimentos
12.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104464, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431312

RESUMO

Egg washing guidelines vary across countries; however, since 2020, Korea has required that all eggs produced from farms with more than 10,000 laying hens must be washed through egg grading and packing (GP) plant. This study investigated the prevalence and characterization of non-typhoidal Salmonella in eggs after washing at GP plants. In total, 16,800 eggs were collected from 60 egg GP plants located inside commercial layer farms, and 840 pooled eggshell and egg contents were tested for Salmonella, respectively. Of the 60 GP plants tested, 11 (18.3%) and 12 (20.0%) plants were positive for Salmonella spp. In the eggshells and egg contents, respectively. In particular, High Salmonella prevalence in the eggshells and egg contents occurred most often in farms with laying hens older than 80 weeks (33.3% and 40.0%, respectively). However, among 840 pooled eggshells and egg content samples, only 19 (2.3%) of each sample type were positive only for non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. The most common Salmonella serovar in both eggshells and egg contents was S. Infantis, which was found in five (8.3%) of 60 GP plants for both samples types. The other Salmonella serovars detected in eggshells were S. Bareilly (5.0%), S. Agona (3.3%), S. Enteritidis (1.7%), and S. Montevideo (1.7%), whereas those detected in egg contents were S. Enteritidis (5.0%), S. Agona (3.3%), S. Newport (3.3%), S. Senftenberg (3.3%), and S. Derby (1.7%). Of the 19 virulence genes tested, 14 genes were detected in all Salmonella. Interestingly, the spvB gene was detected only in S. Enteritidis, and the sefC gene was detected only in S. Enteritidis and S. Senftenberg. Moreover, all S. Infantis isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR) against five or more classes, and the other serovars only showed MDR against three to four classes or no MDR. These results suggest that comprehensive surveillance and advanced management approaches for egg GP plants are required to minimize egg contamination with non-typhoidal Salmonella.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Animais , Feminino , Galinhas , Prevalência , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/genética , Casca de Ovo , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Ovos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Salmonella enteritidis , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
13.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104495, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431315

RESUMO

This study assessed the fate of a Salmonella enterica cocktail (S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, S. Agona and S. Anatum; initial counts 3.5 log CFU/g) in minimally processed sliced chard, broccoli and red cabbage at 16 conditions of different temperature (7, 14, 21 and 37 °C) and relative humidity (RH; 15, 35, 65 and 95%) over six days (144 h). Linear regression was used to estimate the rate change of Salmonella in cut vegetables as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH). R2 value of 0.85, 0.87, and 0.78 were observed for the rates of change in chard, broccoli, and red cabbage, respectively. The interaction between temperature and RH was significant in all sliced vegetables. Higher temperatures and RH values favored Salmonella growth. As temperature or RH decreased, the rate of S. enterica change varied by vegetable. The models developed here can improve risk management of Salmonella in fresh cut vegetables.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Brassica , Salmonella enterica , Temperatura , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Umidade , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Salmonella , Verduras
14.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104462, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431310

RESUMO

The antimicrobial effect of fresh garlic (20, 30, and 50 g/kg) and the equivalent concentrations of garlic oil (80, 120, and 200 mg/kg) was investigated in ground mutton during storage at 4 °C. By day 6 and thereafter, mutton meatballs treated with 50 g/kg of fresh garlic and 200 mg/kg garlic oil exhibited a significant decline in psychrotrophic and Pseudomonas counts in comparison with control. Fresh garlic added at a concentration of 50 g/kg exhibited the highest antimicrobial effect, followed by garlic oil at 200 mg/kg, fresh garlic at 30 g/kg, and garlic oil at 120 mg/kg. By the 15th day of storage, the fresh garlic added at concentrations of 50 and 30 g/kg and garlic oil added at concentrations of 120, and 200 mg/kg inactivated the populations of foodborne pathogens artificially inoculated into ground mutton and exhibited significant (P < 0.01) lower counts in Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus by more than 3 logs CFU/g, in comparison to control. Therefore, fresh garlic and garlic oil can be used as natural antimicrobial food additives to extend the shelf life and inactivate the populations of foodborne pathogens in meat products.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos , Alho , Listeria monocytogenes , Sulfetos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Salmonella typhimurium
15.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104474, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431320

RESUMO

This work describes the characterization of an artisanal sourdough set of bakeries located in the city of Valencia. Culture-dependent and -independent analyses detected Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kazachstania humilis as dominant species. Nevertheless, specific technological parameters, including backslopping temperature, dough yield, or the addition of salt affected microbial counting, LAB/Yeast ratio, and gassing performance, favouring the appearance of several species of Lactobacillus sp., Limosilactobacillus pontis or Torulaspora delbrueckii as additional players. Sourdough leavening activity was affected positively by yeast counts and negatively by the presence of salt. In addition, the predominance of a particular yeast species appeared to impact the dynamics of CO2 release. Seven important flavour-active compounds (ethyl acetate, 1-hexanol, 2-penthylfuran, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, 2-octen-1-ol, nonanal and 1-nonanol) were detected in all samples and together with 3-methyl butanol and hexyl acetate represented more than the 53% of volatile abundancy in nine of the ten sourdoughs analysed. Even so, the specific microbial composition of each sample influenced the volatile profile. For example, the occurrence of K. humilis or S. cerevisiae as dominant yeast influenced the composition of major alcohol species, while F. sanfranciscensis and L. pontis positively correlated with aldehydes and octanoic acid content. In addition, relevant correlations could be also found among different technological parameters and between these, volatile compounds and microbial species. Overall, our study emphasises on how differences in technological parameters generate biodiversity in a relatively small set of artisan sourdoughs providing opportunities for excellence and quality baking products.


Assuntos
Bioprospecção , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermentação , Pão/análise , Biodiversidade , Farinha/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos
16.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104477, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431323

RESUMO

The Castelvetrano method is the most widely used among the various table olive processing styles in Sicily. After debittering, the product is stored at low temperatures to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms. In an effort to enhance the production process, yeast isolates underwent genotypic characterization and technological screening. The screening process identified two yeast strains Candida norvegica OC10 and Candida boidinii LC1, which can grow at low temperatures and tolerate high pH values (up to 10) and salinity [10% (w/v)]. During the monitoring period, the inoculated trials showed limited presence of spoilage/pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the yeasts limited oxidative phenomena and softening of the drupes. The organic compounds detected were higher in the inoculated trials than in the control, and cold storage induced aromatic decay, which was less pronounced in the trial inoculated with C. norvegica. Sensory analysis revealed that the inoculated trials scored higher in sweetness, hardness and crispness.


Assuntos
Olea , Olea/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leveduras
17.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104480, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431326

RESUMO

Biofilms are central to microbial life because of the advantage that this mode of life provides, whereas the planktonic form is considered to be transient in the environment. During the winemaking process, grape must and wines host a wide diversity of microorganisms able to grow in biofilm. This is the case of Brettanomyces bruxellensis considered the most harmful spoilage yeast, due to its negative sensory effect on wine and its ability to colonise stressful environments. In this study, the effect of different biotic and abiotic factors on the bioadhesion and biofilm formation capacities of B. bruxellensis was analyzed. Ethanol concentration and pH had negligible effect on yeast surface properties, pseudohyphal cell formation or bioadhesion, while the strain and genetic group factors strongly modulated the phenotypes studied. From a biotic point of view, the presence of two different strains of B. bruxellensis did not lead to a synergistic effect. A competition between the strains was rather observed during biofilm formation which seemed to be driven by the strain with the highest bioadhesion capacity. Finally, the presence of wine bacteria reduced the bioadhesion of B. bruxellensis. Due to biofilm formation, O. oeni cells were observed attached to B. bruxellensis as well as extracellular matrix on the surface of the cells.


Assuntos
Brettanomyces , Vinho , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Brettanomyces/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia
18.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104490, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431333

RESUMO

Sporeforming bacteria are a concern in some food raw materials, such as cocoa powder. Samples (n = 618) were collected on two farms and at several stages during cocoa powder manufacture in three commercial processing lines to determine the impact of each stage on bacterial spore populations. Mesophilic aerobic, mesophilic anaerobic, thermophilic aerobic, and Bacillus cereus spore populations were enumerated in all the samples. Genetic diversity in B. cereus strains (n = 110) isolated from the samples was examined by M13 sequence-based PCR typing, partial sequencing of the panC gene, and the presence/absence of ces and cspA genes. The counts of different groups of sporeforming bacteria varied amongst farms and processing lines. For example, the counts of mesophilic aerobic spore-forming (MAS) populations of cocoa bean fermentation were lower than 1 log spore/g in Farm 1 but higher than 4 log spore/g in Farm 2. B. cereus isolated from cocoa powder was also recovered from cocoa beans, nibs, and samples after roasting, refining, and pressing, which indicated that B. cereus spores persist throughout cocoa processing. Phylogenetic group IV was the most frequent (73%), along with processing. Strains from phylogenetic group III (14 %) did not show the ces gene's presence.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Chocolate , Bacillus cereus/genética , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Esporos Bacterianos/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
19.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104483, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431328

RESUMO

Wooden vats are used in the production of some traditional cheeses as the biofilms on wooden vat surfaces are known to transfer large quantities of microbes to cheese. However, the safety of using wooden vats for cheese production remains controversial as the porous structure of wood provides an irregular surface that may protect any attached pathogen cells from cleaning and sanitation processes. On the other hand, the absence of pathogens in wooden vats has been reported in multiple studies and wooden materials have not been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. The present study determined the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) during the production of an uncooked pressed cheese in wooden vats as well as their ability to transfer to the wood and then to milk used in subsequent batches of cheese production in the absence of formal cleaning. Results from the study indicate that pathogens inoculated in milk grew during production of the uncooked cheese, but showed limited ability to colonize the wooden vats and contaminate subsequent batches. These results suggest that the risks of using wooden vats to produce cheese is low if the milk is of high microbiological quality.


Assuntos
Queijo , Listeria monocytogenes , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Animais , Queijo/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Microbiologia de Alimentos
20.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 27(1): 13-23, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511571

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous microorganism that is isolated from a variety of sources such as soil, water, decaying vegetation, sewage, animal feeds, silage, farm environments and food-processing environments. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, serogroups, biofilm formation, virulence factor genes, and genetic relationships of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from beef meat and meat contact surfaces obtained from a slaughterhouse in Burdur, Turkey. In this study, a total of 179 beef meat and meat contact surface samples were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of a total of 179 beef meat and meat contact surface samples, 83 (46.37%) were found to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes, with the highest incidence (53.01%) occurring in beef meat. In the present study, most of the isolated strains belonged to serogroups IIB and IVB (lineage I). The L. monocytogenes strain also contained monoA-B, prfA, plcA, plcB, mpl, hlyA, actA, gtcA, dltA, Fri, flaA, InlA, InlC, InlJ, and iap genes. Biofilm formation was not determined in the tested samples at pH 5.5 and different temperatures (4°C, 10°C, 25°C, and 37°C). However, strong biofilm formation was observed in 6.45% (2/31) of the strains at pH 7.0 after 48 h incubation at 37°C, and in 3.22% (1/31) of the strains at pH 7.0 after 48 h incubation at 4°C and 10°C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results showed that L. monocytogenes isolates were clonally related, and cross-contamination was present. In addition, PFGE results also revealed that AscI had more distinguishing power than the ApaI restriction enzyme. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes detected from meat and meat contact surfaces in the slaughterhouse pose a potential risk to public health.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Bovinos , Animais , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Virulência , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Matadouros , Carne
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