Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.007
Filtrar
1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(5): 55001, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, new evidence-based strategies have emerged for reducing transmission of respiratory infections through management of indoor air. OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews critical advances that could reduce the burden of disease from inhaled pathogens and describes challenges in their implementation. DISCUSSION: Proven strategies include assuring sufficient ventilation, air cleaning by filtration, and air disinfection by germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light. Layered intervention strategies are needed to maximize risk reduction. Case studies demonstrate how to implement these tools while also revealing barriers to implementation. Future needs include standards designed with infection resilience and equity in mind, buildings optimized for infection resilience among other drivers, new approaches and technologies to improve ventilation, scientific consensus on the amount of ventilation needed to achieve a desired level of risk, methods for evaluating new air-cleaning technologies, studies of their long-term health effects, workforce training on ventilation systems, easier access to federal funds, demonstration projects in schools, and communication with the public about the importance of indoor air quality and actions people can take to improve it. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13878.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilação , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Ventilação/métodos , Microbiologia do Ar , Desinfecção/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10665, 2024 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724540

RESUMO

Bioaerosols generated during toilet flushing can contribute to the spread of airborne pathogens and cross-contamination in indoor environments. This presents an increased risk of fomite-mediated or aerosol disease transmission. This study systematically investigated the factors contributing to increased bioaerosol exposure following toilet flushing and developed an empirical model for predicting the exposure-relevant bioaerosol concentration. Air in a toilet cubicle was sampled by impaction after seeding with Clostridium difficile spores. Design of Experiments (DoE) main effects screening and full factorial design approaches were then employed to investigate the significant factors that heighten the risk of exposure to bioaerosols post-flush. Our findings reveal that the inoculated bacterial concentration (C), time elapsed after flushing (t), lateral distance (d), and mechanical ventilation (v) are significant predictors of bioaerosol concentration, with p-values < 0.05. The interaction term, C × d showed a marked increase in bioaerosol concentration up to 232 CFU/m3 at the closest proximity and highest pathogen load. The interplay of C and t (C × t) demonstrated a time-dependent attenuation of bioaerosol viability, with concentrations peaking at 241 CFU/m3 immediately post-flush and notably diminishing over time. The lateral distance and time post-flush (d × t) interaction also revealed a gradual decrease in bioaerosol concentration, highlighting the effectiveness of spatial and temporal dilution in mitigating bioaerosol exposure risks. Furthermore, there is an immediate rise in relative humidity levels post-flush, impacting the air quality in the toilet environment. This study not only advances our understanding of exposure pathways in determining bioaerosol exposure, but also offers pivotal insights for designing targeted interventions to reduce bioaerosol exposure. Recommendations include designing public toilets with antimicrobial surfaces, optimizing ventilation, and initiating timely disinfection protocols to prioritise surfaces closest to the toilet bowl during peak exposure periods, thereby promoting healthier indoor environments and safeguarding public health in high-traffic toilet settings.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Clostridioides difficile , Banheiros , Aerossóis/análise , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Aparelho Sanitário/microbiologia
4.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13732, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (TRAF) isolates are a growing public health problem with worldwide distribution. Epidemiological data on TRAF is limited in Africa, particularly in West Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to screen for the environmental presence of TRAF isolates in the indoor air of two hospitals in Burkina Faso. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air samples were collected in wards housing patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis, namely infectious diseases ward, internal medicine ward, nephrology ward, pulmonology ward, medical emergency ward and paediatric ward. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with triazoles was used to screen the suspected TRAF isolates and EUCAST method to confirm the resistance of suspected isolates. Sequencing of cyp51A gene was used to identify the resistance mechanism of confirmed TRAF isolates. RESULTS: Of the 198 samples collected and analysed, 67 showed growth of A. fumigatus isolates. The prevalence of TRAF isolates was 3.23% (4/124). One TRAF isolate exhibited a pan-triazole resistance. Sequencing of cyp51A gene identified the TR34/L98H mutation for this pan-triazole resistant isolate. This study showed for the first time the circulation of the pan-azole resistant isolate harbouring the TR34/L98H mutation in Burkina Faso. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasise the need to map these TRAF isolates in all parts of Burkina Faso and to establish local and national continuous surveillance of environmental and clinical TRAF isolates in this country.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Aspergillus fumigatus , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Proteínas Fúngicas , Mutação , Triazóis , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Triazóis/farmacologia , Humanos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Microbiologia do Ar
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 511, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703303

RESUMO

Emissions of airborne pollutants from livestock buildings affect indoor air quality, the health and well-being of farmers, animals and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the microbial count within pig sheds and its relationship with meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity and air velocity) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and microbial diversity. Sampling was conducted both inside and outside of two pig sheds over three seasons (summer, rainy and winter), with regular monitoring at fortnightly intervals. Results showed that the bacterial and fungal counts ranged from 0.07 to 3.98 x 103 cfu/m3 inside the sheds and 0.01 to 1.82 x 103 cfu/m3 outside. Seasonal variations were observed, with higher concentrations of particulate matter detected during the winter season, followed by summer. Climatic variables such as temperature, air velocity and relative humidity demonstrated significant impacts on the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and fungi, while air velocity specifically influenced the presence of mesophilic bacteria and staphylococci. Importantly, no significant disparities were found between microbial counts and particulate matter levels. Staphylococcaceae emerged as the predominant bacterial family, while Aspergillus and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant fungal species within the pig sheds. The average levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in pig sheds were found to be within the recommended range, which can be attributed to the loose housing design and lower animal population on the farms.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Animais , Material Particulado/análise , Suínos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Fungos , Abrigo para Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
6.
Analyst ; 149(10): 2978-2987, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602145

RESUMO

Cultivation-independent molecular biological methods are essential to rapidly quantify pathogens like Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) which is important to control aerosol-generating engineered water systems. A standard addition method was established to quantify L. pneumophila in the very complex matrix of process water and air of exhaust air purification systems in animal husbandry. Therefore, cryopreserved standards of viable L. pneumophila were spiked in air and water samples to calibrate the total bioanalytical process which includes cell lysis, DNA extraction, and qPCR. A standard addition algorithm was employed for qPCR to determine the initial concentration of L. pneumophila. In mineral water, the recovery rate of this approach (73%-134% within the concentration range of 100-5000 Legionella per mL) was in good agreement with numbers obtained from conventional genomic unit (GU) calibration with DNA standards. In air samples of biotrickling filters, in contrast, the conventional DNA standard approach resulted in a significant overestimation of up to 729%, whereas our standard addition gave a more realistic recovery of 131%. With this proof-of-principle study, we were able to show that the molecular biology-based standard addition approach is a suitable method to determine realistic concentrations of L. pneumophila in air and process water samples of biotrickling filter systems. Moreover, this quantification strategy is generally a promising method to quantify pathogens in challenging samples containing a complex microbiota and the classical GU approach used for qPCR leads to unreliable results.


Assuntos
Legionella pneumophila , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Filtração/métodos , Filtração/instrumentação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Microbiologia do Ar
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 470: 134278, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631247

RESUMO

Resuspension caused by human walking activities is an important source of indoor bioaerosols and has been associated with health effects such as allergies and asthma. However, it is unknown whether inhalation of resuspended bioaerosols is an important exposure pathway for airborne infection. Also, crucial factors influencing the resuspension of settled microbes have not been quantified. In this study, we experimentally investigated the resuspension of culturable bacteria from human-stepping on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring under different conditions. We determined the bacterial resuspension emission factor (ER), a normalized resuspension parameter for the ratio of resuspended mass in the air to the mass of settled particles, for two common bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The investigation involved varying factors such as microbial surface-attached durations (0, 1, 2, and 3 days), the absence or presence of nutrients on flooring surfaces, and changes in relative humidity (RH) (35%, 65%, and 85%). The results showed that, in the absence of nutrients, the highest ER values for E. coli and S. enterica were 3.8 × 10-5 ± 5.2 × 10-6 and 5.3 × 10-5 ± 6.0 × 10-6, respectively, associated with surface-attached duration of 0 days. As the surface-attached duration increased from 0 to 3 days, ER values decreased by 92% and 84% for E. coli and S. enterica, respectively. In addition, we observed that ER values decreased with the increasing RH, which is consistent with particle adhesion theory. This research offers valuable insights into microbial resuspension during human walking activities and holds the potential for assisting in the assessment and estimation of risks related to human exposure to bioaerosols.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Umidade , Caminhada , Humanos , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Salmonella enterica , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Microbiologia do Ar , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Nutrientes
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172278, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583631

RESUMO

The Wells-Riley model is extensively used for retrospective and prospective modelling of the risk of airborne transmission of infection in indoor spaces. It is also used when examining the efficacy of various removal and deactivation methods for airborne infectious aerosols in the indoor environment, which is crucial when selecting the most effective infection control technologies. The problem is that the large variation in viral load between individuals makes the Wells-Riley model output very sensitive to the input parameters and may yield a flawed prediction of risk. The absolute infection risk estimated with this model can range from nearly 0 % to 100 % depending on the viral load, even when all other factors, such as removal mechanisms and room geometry, remain unchanged. We therefore propose a novel method that removes this sensitivity to viral load. We define a quanta-independent maximum absolute before-after difference in infection risk that is independent of quanta factors like viral load, physical activity, or the dose-response relationships. The input data needed for a non-steady-state calculation are just the removal rates, room volume, and occupancy duration. Under steady-state conditions the approach provides an elegant solution that is only dependent on removal mechanisms before and after applying infection control measures. We applied this method to compare the impact of relative humidity, ventilation rate and its effectiveness, filtering efficiency, and the use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation on the infection risk. The results demonstrate that the method provides a comprehensive understanding of the impact of infection control strategies on the risk of airborne infection, enabling rational decisions to be made regarding the most effective strategies in a specific context. The proposed method thus provides a practical tool for mitigation of airborne infection risk.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis/análise , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Ventilação , Carga Viral , Modelos Teóricos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Medição de Risco
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371656, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651126

RESUMO

Given the dense population on university campuses, indoor and outdoor airborne bacterial contamination may lead to the rapid spread of diseases in a university environment. However, there are few studies of the characteristics of airborne and pathogenic bacterial communities in different sites on a university campus. In this study, we collected particulate matter samples from indoor and outdoor locations at a university in Bengbu City, Anhui Province, China, and analyzed the community characteristics of airborne and pathogenic bacteria using a high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that the composition of the dominant airborne and pathogenic bacterial communities was consistent among sites at the phylum and genus levels, with differences in their relative abundance. There were significant differences in the structure of the airborne and pathogenic bacterial communities between indoor and outdoor sites (p < 0.05). An analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) indicated that the structure of airborne bacterial communities in indoor sites was influenced by the room occupancy rate, ventilation conditions, and the extent of indoor furnishing (p < 0.05), while the structure of pathogenic bacterial communities was influenced by the number of individuals and spatial dimensions (p < 0.05). The impact of particle size on the structure of airborne and pathogenic bacterial communities was relatively minor. A total of 194 suspected pathogenic bacterial species were identified, accounting for 0.0001-1.3923% of the total airborne bacteria, all of which were conditional pathogens. Among them, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Moraxella osloensis exhibited relatively high relative abundance, accounting for 24.40, 16.22, and 8.66% of the total pathogenic bacteria, respectively. Moreover, 18 emerging or re-emerging pathogenic bacterial species with significant implications for human health were identified, although their relative abundance was relatively low (0.5098%). The relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria in indoor environments was significantly higher than outdoors, with the laboratory and dormitory having the highest levels. The findings of this study provide valuable guidance for the prevention and control of airborne bacterial contamination and the associated health risks in both a campus environment and other public spaces with high occupancy rates.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Bactérias , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Universidades , China , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
Environ Int ; 186: 108639, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603815

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is considered to be one of the biggest public health problems, and airborne transmission is an important but under-appreciated pathway for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. Previous research has shown pharmaceutical factories to be a major source of ARGs and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in the surrounding receiving water and soil environments. Pharmaceutical factories are hotspots of antibiotic resistance, but the atmospheric transmission and its environmental risk remain more concerns. Here, we conducted a metagenomic investigation into the airborne microbiome and resistome in three pharmaceutical factories in China. Soil (average: 38.45%) and wastewater (average: 28.53%) were major contributors of airborne resistome. ARGs (vanR/vanS, blaOXA, and CfxA) conferring resistance to critically important clinically used antibiotics were identified in the air samples. The wastewater treatment area had significantly higher relative abundances of ARGs (average: 0.64 copies/16S rRNA). Approximately 28.2% of the detected airborne ARGs were found to be associated with plasmids, and this increased to about 50% in the wastewater treatment area. We have compiled a list of high-risk airborne ARGs found in pharmaceutical factories. Moreover, A total of 1,043 viral operational taxonomic units were identified and linked to 47 family-group taxa. Different CRISPR-Cas immune systems have been identified in bacterial hosts in response to phage infection. Similarly, higher phage abundance (average: 2451.70 PPM) was found in the air of the wastewater treatment area. Our data provide insights into the antibiotic resistance gene profiles and microbiome (bacterial and non-bacterial) in pharmaceutical factories and reveal the potential role of horizontal transfer in the spread of airborne ARGs, with implications for human and animal health.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3540, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670957

RESUMO

The transmission bottleneck describes the number of viral particles that initiate an infection in a new host. Previous studies have used genome sequence data to suggest that transmission bottlenecks for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 involve few viral particles, but the general principles of virus transmission are not fully understood. Here we show that, across a broad range of circumstances, tight transmission bottlenecks are a simple consequence of the physical process of airborne viral transmission. We use mathematical modelling to describe the physical process of the emission and inhalation of infectious particles, deriving the result that that the great majority of transmission bottlenecks involve few viral particles. While exceptions to this rule exist, the circumstances needed to create these exceptions are likely very rare. We thus provide a physical explanation for previous inferences of bottleneck size, while predicting that tight transmission bottlenecks prevail more generally in respiratory virus transmission.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , Vírion/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673740

RESUMO

Molecular methods have become integral to microbiological research for microbial identification. This literature review focuses on the application of molecular methods in examining airborne bacteria and fungi in healthcare facilities. In January 2024, a comprehensive electronic search was carried out in esteemed databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, employing carefully selected keywords such as ((bacteria) OR (virus) OR (fungi)) AND (aerosol) AND ((hospital) OR (healthcare) OR (dental office)) AND ((molecular) OR (PCR) OR (NGS) OR (RNA) OR (DNA) OR (metagenomic) OR (microarray)), following the PRISMA protocol. The review specifically targets healthcare environments with elevated concentrations of pathogenic bacteria. A total of 487 articles were initially identified, but only 13 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The study disclosed that the prevalent molecular methodology for appraising aerosol quality encompassed the utilization of the PCR method, incorporating either 16S rRNA (bacteria) or 18S rRNA (fungi) amplification techniques. Notably, five diverse molecular techniques, specifically PFGE, DGGE, SBT, LAMP, and DNA hybridization methods, were implemented in five distinct studies. These molecular tests exhibited superior capabilities compared to traditional bacterial and fungal cultures, providing precise strain identification. Additionally, the molecular methods allowed the detection of gene sequences associated with antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, molecular testing offers significant advantages over classical microbiological culture, providing more comprehensive information.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias , Fungos , Fungos/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Instalações de Saúde
13.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(4): 181-190, 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678609

RESUMO

The objectives are to improve the rapid identification method of microbial risk and cut off the route of transmission of resistance genes. When new pathogenic microorganisms are found, intervention can be carried out as early as possible to identify the risk of potential pathogen transmission, and timely cut off the transmission route. Hospital air samples were collected to analyse the distribution of environmental pathogenic microorganisms and the characteristics of ARGs resistance genes. The air samples were collected from 12 sampling sites in the Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University. In the infusion room, general ward and intensive care unit, no significant difference was found in microorganisms, and no significant difference was found in microbial resistance genes. There were some differences in resistance genes between east and west districts. Combined with the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and resistance genes in our hospital, it is necessary to improve the daily disinfection measures such as air conditioning and fresh air equipment, cut off the infection route, block the transmission of resistance genes, and monitor pathogens and resistance genes in airborne diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Humanos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9183, 2024 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649676

RESUMO

Staphylococci as a nosocomial infection agent, increases the possibility of contracting diseases such as wound infection, sepsis and skin infections in humans. It was shown that Staphylococcus aureus considered as a commensal organism causing various both endemic and epidemic hospital-acquired infections. Air samples were collected from Sina Hospital, Hamadan city, which dedicated to various respiratory diseases and analysed by biochemical tests. The resistance and sensitivity of bacterial strains to the cefoxitin antibiotic were also determined. Staphylococcus aureus density (CFU/m3) were measured in the air of various wards as follows: infectious 13.35 ± 7.57, poisoning 29.84 ± 33.43, emergency 8.64 ± 2.72, eye operation room 0, recovery room 6.28 ± 4.90, skin outpatient operation room 4.71 ± 2.36, respiratory isolation 0, ICU 0.79 ± 1.36, and the administrative room 6.28 ± 5.93; while the Staphylococcus epidermidis were as follows: infectious 1.57 ± 2.35, poisoning 2.35 ± 4.08, emergency 2.35 ± 2.35, eye operation room 0, recovery room 0.78 ± 1.36, skin outpatient operation room 2.35 ± 2.35, respiratory isolation 0, ICU 2.35 ± 4.08, and the administrative room 1.57 ± 1.36. The positive and negative control samples showed a concentration of 0. Moreover, among the S. aureus isolates, 33.3% were found to be resistant to cefoxitin, while 40.6% showed to be sensitive. Based on the results, the number of active people and the type and quality of ventilation are very effective in the air quality of various wards of hospital. The poisoning section showed the most contaminated air and the highest resistance and sensitivity to the cefoxitin antibiotic.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Antibacterianos , Cefoxitina , Hospitais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolamento & purificação , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Water Res ; 256: 121646, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657309

RESUMO

Sewage treatment processes are a critical anthropogenic source of bioaerosols and may present significant health risks to plant workers. Compared with the specialization and scale of urban sewage treatment, many decentralized treatment models are flexible and extensive. These treatment facilities are usually close to residential areas owing to the pipe network layout and other restrictions. Bioaerosols generated by these facilities may present a serious and widespread occupational and non-occupational exposure risk to nearby residents, particularly the elderly and children. An understanding of the characteristics and exposure risks of bioaerosols produced during decentralized sewage treatment is lacking. We compared bioaerosol emission characteristics and potential exposure risks under four decentralized sewage discharge methods and treatment models: small container collection (SCC), open-channel discharge (OCD), single household/combined treatment (SHCT), and centralized treatment (CT) in northwest China. The OCD mode had the highest bioaerosol production, whereas the CT mode had the lowest. The OCD model contained the most pathogenic bacterial species, up to 43 species, including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Cladosporium, and Alternaria. Risk assessments indicated bioaerosol exposure was lower in the models with sewage treatment (SHCT and CT) than in those without (SCC and OCD). Different populations exhibited large variations in potential risks owing to differences in time spent indoors and outdoors. The highest risk was observed in males exposed to the SCC model. This study provides a theoretical basis and theories for the future joint prevention and control of the bioaerosol exposure risk from decentralized sewage treatment.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Esgotos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Bactérias
16.
Environ Pollut ; 349: 123993, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636838

RESUMO

Landfill is a huge pathogen reservoir and needs special attention. Herein, the distribution and spread risk of pathogen were assessed in excavated landfill scenario. The results show that landfill excavation will greatly increase the risk of environmental microbial contamination. The highest total concentration of culturable bacteria among landfill refuse, topsoil and plant leaves was found to be as high as 1010 CFU g-1. Total coliforms, Hemolytic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Enterococci, and Fecal coliforms were detected in the landfill surrounding environment. Notably, pathogens were more likely to adhere to plant leaves, making it an important source of secondary pathogens. The culturable bacteria concentration in the air samples differed with the landfill zone with different operation status, and the highest culturable bacteria concentration was found in the excavated area of the landfill (3.3 × 104 CFU m-3), which was the main source of bioaerosol release. The distribution of bioaerosols in the downwind outside of the landfill showed a tendency of increasing and then decreasing, and the highest concentration of bioaerosols outside of the landfill (6.56 × 104 CFU m-3) was significantly higher than that in the excavated area of the landfill. The risk of respiratory inhalation was the main pathway leading to infection, whereas the HQin (population inhalation hazardous quotient) at 500 m downwind the excavation landfill was still higher than 1, indicating that the neighboring residents were exposed to airborne microbial pollutants. The results of the study provide evidence for bioaerosols control protective measures taken to reduce health risk from the excavated landfill.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos , Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Medição de Risco
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 929: 172694, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670386

RESUMO

Bacterial and fungal aerosol pollution is widespread in indoor school environments, and poses potential health risks to students and staff. Understanding the distribution and diversity of microbial communities within aerosols is crucial to mitigate their adverse effects. Existing knowledge regarding the composition of bacterial and fungal aerosols, particularly the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from nursery schools to universities, is limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, in the present study, we collected PM2.5 samples from five types of schools (i.e., nursery schools, primary schools, junior schools, and high schools and universities) in China. We used advanced single-molecule real-time sequencing to analyze the species-level diversity of bacterial and fungal components in PM2.5 samples based on 16S and ITS ribosomal genes, respectively. We found significant differences in microbial diversity and community composition among the samples obtained from different educational institutions and pollution levels. In particularly, junior schools exhibited higher PM2.5 concentrations (62.2-86.6 µg/m3) than other schools (14.4-48.4 µg/m3). Moreover, microbial variations in PM2.5 samples were associated with institution type. Notably, the prevailing pathogenic microorganisms included Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Schizophyllum commune, all of which were identified as Class II Pathogenic Microorganisms in school settings. Four potentially novel strains of S. commune were identified in PM2.5 samples collected from the university; the four strains showed 92.4 %-94.1 % ITS sequence similarity to known Schizophyllum isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore bacterial and fungal diversity within PM2.5 samples from nursery schools to universities. Overall, these findings contribute to the existing knowledge of school environmental microbiology to ensure the health and safety of students and staff and impacting public health.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos , Material Particulado , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Universidades , Aerossóis/análise , Material Particulado/análise , China , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolas Maternais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Talanta ; 274: 126025, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574539

RESUMO

Exposure to bioaerosol contamination has detrimental effects on human health. Recent advances in ATP bioluminescence provide more opportunities for the quantitative detection of bioaerosols. Since almost all active organisms can produce ATP, the amount of airborne microbes can be easily measured by detecting ATP-driven bioluminescence. The accurate evaluation of microorganisms mainly relies on following the four key steps: sampling and enrichment of airborne microbes, lysis for ATP extraction, enzymatic reaction, and measurement of luminescence intensity. To enhance the effectiveness of ATP bioluminescence, each step requires innovative strategies and continuous improvement. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in the quantitative detection of airborne microbes based on ATP bioluminescence, which focuses on the advanced strategies for improving sampling devices combined with ATP bioluminescence. Meanwhile, the optimized and innovative strategies for the remaining three key steps of the ATP bioluminescence assay are highlighted. The aim is to reawaken the prosperity of ATP bioluminescence and promote its wider utilization for efficient, real-time, and accurate detection of airborne microbes.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina , Microbiologia do Ar , Medições Luminescentes , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 930: 172736, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663612

RESUMO

This study explored the assembly mechanisms and physicochemical dynamics of microbial communities within atmospheric bioaerosols, focusing on the influence of different aerial trajectories. Over two years, samples near Seoul were classified into 'North', 'Southwest', and 'Others' categories based on their aerial trajectories. Physicochemical analysis of the PM2.5 particles revealed distinct ion compositions for each cluster, reflecting diverse environmental influences. Microbial community analysis revealed that shared dominant bacterial phyla were present in all clusters. However, distinct taxonomic profiles and biomarkers were also evident, such as coastal bacteria in the 'Southwest' cluster correlating with wind speed, and arid soil-originated bacteria in the 'North' cluster correlating with cations. These findings demonstrate that biomarkers in each cluster are representative of the distinct environments associated with their aerial trajectories. Notably, cluster 'Southwest' the highest microbial diversity and a strong alignment with the neutral community model, suggesting a large influence of passive dispersal from marine environments. Contrarily, 'North' and 'Others' were more influenced by niche-dependent factors. This study highlights the complex interplay between environmental factors and microbial dynamics in bioaerosols and provides important insights for environmental monitoring and public health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Atmosfera , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbiota , Aerossóis/análise , Atmosfera/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Seul
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300920, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512950

RESUMO

We previously reported that variations in the number and type of bacteria found in public spaces are influenced by environmental factors. However, based on field survey data alone, whether the dynamics of bacteria in the air change as a result of a single environmental factor or multiple factors working together remains unclear. To address this, mathematical modeling may be applied. We therefore conducted a reanalysis of the previously acquired data using principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with a generalized linear model (Glm2) and a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) test employing the χ2 distribution. The data used for the analysis were reused from a previous public environmental survey conducted at 8:00-20:00 on May 2, June 1, and July 5, 2016 (regular sampling) and at 5:50-7:50 and 20:15-24:15 on July 17, 2017 (baseline sampling) in the Sapporo underground walking space, a 520-meter-long underground walkway. The dataset consisted of 60 samples (22 samples for "bacterial flora"), including variables such as "temperature (T)," "humidity (H)," "atmospheric pressure (A)," "traffic pedestrians (TP)," "number of inorganic particles (Δ5: 1-5 µm)," "number of live airborne bacteria," and "bacterial flora." Our PCA with these environmental factors (T, H, A, and TP) revealed that the 60 samples could be categorized into four groups (G1 to G4), primarily based on variations in PC1 [Loadings: T(-0.62), H(-0.647), TP(0.399), A(0.196)] and PC2 [Loadings: A(-0.825), TP(0.501), H(0.209), T(-0.155)]. Notably, the number of inorganic particles significantly increased from G4 to G1, but the count of live bacteria was highest in G2, with no other clear pattern. Further analysis with Glm2 indicated that changes in inorganic particles could largely be explained by two variables (H/TP), while live bacteria levels were influenced by all explanatory variables (TP/A/H/T). ANOVA tests confirmed that inorganic particles and live bacteria were influenced by different factors. Moreover, there were minimal changes in bacterial flora observed among the groups (G1-G4). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dynamics of live bacteria in the underground walkway differ from those of inorganic particles and are regulated in a complex manner by multiple environmental factors. This discovery may contribute to improving public health in urban settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bactérias , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Microbiologia do Ar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...