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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(5): 623-624, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723597

RESUMO

Common nutrients in our diet often affect our health through unexpected mechanisms. In a recent issue of Nature, Scott et al. show gut microbes convert dietary tryptophan into metabolites activating intestinal dopamine receptors, which can block attachment of bacterial pathogens to host cells.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Animais , Triptofano/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Aderência Bacteriana
2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(5): 625-626, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723598

RESUMO

Fungi colonize the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and can adopt both commensal and opportunistic lifestyles. In a recent issue of Nature, Liang et al. unraveled the complex interplay between Candida morphotypes and the gut bacterial microbiota and described a key role for candidalysin in gut colonization.1.


Assuntos
Candida , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal , Simbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Candida/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(5): 630-632, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723600

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has the capacity to metabolize food-derived molecules. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Li et al. explore how some bacterial species of the gut microbiota can deplete amino acids in the gut lumen, modulating the amino acid landscape and energy metabolism of the host.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Humanos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Animais , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(5): 639-650, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723604

RESUMO

There is rapidly growing awareness of microbiome assembly and function in early-life gut health. Although many factors, such as antibiotic use and highly processed diets, impinge on this process, most research has focused on people residing in high-income countries. However, much of the world's population lives in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where, in addition to erratic antibiotic use and suboptimal diets, these groups experience unique challenges. Indeed, many children in LMICs are infected with intestinal helminths. Although helminth infections are strongly associated with diverse developmental co-morbidities and induce profound microbiome changes, few studies have directly examined whether intersecting pathways between these components of the holobiont shape health outcomes in early life. Here, we summarize microbial colonization within the first years of human life, how helminth-mediated changes to the gut microbiome may affect postnatal growth, and why more research on this relationship may improve health across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Helmintos/fisiologia , Animais , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38088, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728472

RESUMO

Microbiota modulation, the intentional change in the structure and function of the microbial community, is an emerging trajectory that holds the promise to mitigate an infinite number of health issues. The present review illustrates the underlying principles of microbiota modulation and the various applications of this fundamental process to human health, healthcare management, and pharmacologic interventions. Different strategies, directing on dietary interventions, fecal microbiota transplantation, treatment with antibiotics, bacteriophages, microbiome engineering, and modulation of the immune system, are described in detail. This therapeutic implication is reflected in clinical applications to gastrointestinal disorders and immune-mediated diseases for microbiota-modulating agents. In addition to this, the review outlines the challenges of translating researched outcomes into clinical practice to consider safety and provides insights into future research directions of this rapidly developing area.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia
8.
Vet Q ; 44(1): 1-9, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733121

RESUMO

The gut microbiota (GM) is essential for mammalian health. Although the association between infant GM and breast milk (BM) composition has been well established in humans, such a relationship has not been investigated in horses. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the GM formation of foals during lactation and determine the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites in mares' BM and their role in shaping foals' GM. The fecal and BM samples from six pairs of foals and mares were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic and metabolomic analyses, respectively. The composition of foal GM changed during lactation time; hierarchical cluster analysis divided the fetal GM into three groups corresponding to different time points in foal development. The level of most metabolites in milk decreased over time with increasing milk yield, while threonic acid and ascorbic acid increased. Further analyses revealed gut bacteria that correlated with changes in milk metabolites; for instance, there was a positive correlation between Bacteroidaceae in the foal's gut microbiota and serine/glycine in the mother's milk. These findings help improve the rearing environment of lactating horses and establish artificial feeding methods for foals.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactação , Leite , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Cavalos , Feminino , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
9.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2350173, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738780

RESUMO

Although fecal microbiota composition is considered to preserve relevant and representative information for distal colonic content, it is evident that it does not represent microbial communities inhabiting the small intestine. Nevertheless, studies investigating the human small intestinal microbiome and its response to dietary intervention are still scarce. The current study investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the small intestinal microbiome within a day and over 20 days, as well as its responses to a 14-day synbiotic or placebo control supplementation in 20 healthy subjects. Microbial composition and metabolome of luminal content of duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum and feces differed significantly from each other. Additionally, differences in microbiota composition along the small intestine were most pronounced in the morning after overnight fasting, whereas differences in composition were not always measurable around noon or in the afternoon. Although overall small intestinal microbiota composition did not change significantly within 1 day and during 20 days, remarkable, individual-specific temporal dynamics were observed in individual subjects. In response to the synbiotic supplementation, only the microbial diversity in jejunum changed significantly. Increased metabolic activity of probiotic strains during intestinal passage, as assessed by metatranscriptome analysis, was not observed. Nevertheless, synbiotic supplementation led to a short-term spike in the relative abundance of genera included in the product in the small intestine approximately 2 hours post-ingestion. Collectively, small intestinal microbiota are highly dynamic. Ingested probiotic bacteria could lead to a transient spike in the relative abundance of corresponding genera and ASVs, suggesting their passage through the entire gastrointestinal tract. This study was registered to http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02018900.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestino Delgado , Simbióticos , Humanos , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Feminino , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Metaboloma , Voluntários Saudáveis , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732510

RESUMO

Amino acids are essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development. Disruptions in maternal amino acid metabolism have been associated with various adult diseases later in life, a phenomenon referred to as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). In this review, we examine the recent evidence highlighting the significant impact of amino acids on fetal programming, their influence on the modulation of gut microbiota, and their repercussions on offspring outcomes, particularly in the context of cardiovascular-kidney-metabolic (CKM) syndrome. Furthermore, we delve into experimental studies that have unveiled the protective effects of therapies targeting amino acids. These interventions have demonstrated the potential to reprogram traits associated with CKM in offspring. The discussion encompasses the challenges of translating the findings from animal studies to clinical applications, emphasizing the complexity of this process. Additionally, we propose potential solutions to overcome these challenges. Ultimately, as we move forward, future research endeavors should aim to pinpoint the most effective amino-acid-targeted therapies, determining the optimal dosage and mode of administration. This exploration is essential for maximizing the reprogramming effects, ultimately contributing to the enhancement of cardiovascular-kidney-metabolic health in offspring.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rim , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Nefropatias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna
11.
Biol Res ; 57(1): 23, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705984

RESUMO

Obesity, associated with the intake of a high-fat diet (HFD), and anxiety are common among those living in modern urban societies. Recent studies suggest a role of microbiome-gut-brain axis signaling, including a role for brain serotonergic systems in the relationship between HFD and anxiety. Evidence suggests the gut microbiome and the serotonergic brain system together may play an important role in this response. Here we conducted a nine-week HFD protocol in male rats, followed by an analysis of the gut microbiome diversity and community composition, brainstem serotonergic gene expression (tph2, htr1a, and slc6a4), and anxiety-related defensive behavioral responses. We show that HFD intake decreased alpha diversity and altered the community composition of the gut microbiome in association with obesity, increased brainstem tph2, htr1a and slc6a4 mRNA expression, including in the caudal part of the dorsomedial dorsal raphe nucleus (cDRD), a subregion previously associated with stress- and anxiety-related behavioral responses, and, finally, increased anxiety-related defensive behavioral responses. The HFD increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio relative to control diet, as well as higher relative abundances of Blautia, and decreases in Prevotella. We found that tph2, htr1a and slc6a4 mRNA expression were increased in subregions of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the HFD, relative to control diet. Specific bacterial taxa were associated with increased serotonergic gene expression in the cDRD. Thus, we propose that HFD-induced obesity is associated with altered microbiome-gut-serotonergic brain axis signaling, leading to increased anxiety-related defensive behavioral responses in rats.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Masculino , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(7): 2476-2490, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725863

RESUMO

Peristaltic movements in gut are essential to propel ingested materials through the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal resident macrophages play an important role in this physiological function through protecting enteric neurons. However, it is incompletely clear how individuals maintain the homeostasis of gut motility. Here we found that NLRP3 is a critical factor in controlling loss of muscularis resident macrophages (MMs), and demonstrate that MMs are involved in the homeostasis of excitatory neurons such as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)+ but not inhibitory neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)+ neurons. NLRP3 knockout (KO) mice had enhanced gut motility and increased neurons, especially excitatory ChAT+ and VGLUT2+ neurons. Single cell analyses showed that there had increased resident macrophages, especially MMs in NLRP3 KO mice. The MM proportion in the resident macrophages was markedly higher than those in wild-type (WT) or caspase 1/11 KO mice. Deletion of the MMs and transplantation of the NLRP3 KO bone marrow cells showed that survival of the gut excitatory ChAT+ and VGLUT2+ neurons was dependent on the MMs. Gut microbiota metabolites ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) could promote gut motility through protecting MMs from pyroptosis. Thus, our data suggest that MMs regulated by NLRP3 maintain the homeostasis of excitatory neurons.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Macrófagos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Neurônios , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Camundongos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Masculino , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
13.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114339, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729694

RESUMO

The health-promoting activities of polyphenols and their metabolites originating from germinated quinoa (GQ) are closely related to their digestive behavior, absorption, and colonic fermentation; however, limited knowledge regarding these properties hinder further development. The aim of this study was to provide metabolomic insights into the profile, bioaccessibility, and transepithelial transport of polyphenols from germinated quinoa during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell transport, whilst also investigating the changes in the major polyphenol metabolites and the effects of prebiotics during colonic fermentation. It was found that germination treatment increased the polyphenol content of quinoa by 21.91%. Compared with RQ group, 23 phenolic differential metabolites were upregulated and 47 phenolic differential metabolites were downregulated in GQ group. Compared with RQ group after simulated digestion, 7 kinds of phenolic differential metabolites were upregulated and 17 kinds of phenolic differential metabolites were downregulated in GQ group. Compared with RQ group after cell transport, 7 kinds of phenolic differential metabolites were upregulated and 9 kinds of phenolic differential metabolites were downregulated in GQ group. In addition, GQ improved the bioaccessibilities and transport rates of various polyphenol metabolites. During colonic fermentation, GQ group can also increase the content of SCFAs, reduce pH value, and adjust gut microbial populations by increasing the abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobiota, and Spirochaeota at the phylum level, as well as Bifidobacterium, Megamonas, Bifidobacterium, Brevundimonas, and Bacteroides at the genus level. Furthermore, the GQ have significantly inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Based on these results, it was possible to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of polyphenol metabolism in GQ and highlight its beneficial effects on the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Colo , Digestão , Fermentação , Metabolômica , Polifenóis , Prebióticos , Humanos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Germinação , Transporte Biológico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
14.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114403, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729705

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the functional, technological, and sensory aspects of mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) fruit pulp fermented with the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus casei 01 (LC1) during refrigerated storage (7 °C, 28 days). The effects of the fermented mangaba pulp on the modulation of the intestinal microbiota of healthy vegan adults were also assessed. Mangaba pulp allowed high viability of LC1 during storage and after simulated gastrointestinal conditions (≥7 log CFU/g). The fermented mangaba pulp showed lower pH and total soluble solids, and higher titratable acidity, and concentrations of lactic, acetic, citric, and propionic acids during storage compared to non-fermented pulp. Also, it presented a higher concentration of bioaccessible phenolics and volatiles, and improved sensory properties (yellow color, brightness, fresh appearance, and typical aroma and flavor). Fermented mangaba pulp added to in vitro cultured colonic microbiota of vegan adults decreased the pH values and concentrations of maltose, glucose, and citric acid while increasing rhamnose and phenolic contents. Fermented mangaba pulp promoted increases in the abundance of Dorea, Romboutsia, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 genera and positively impacted the microbial diversity. Findings indicate that mangaba pulp fermented with LC1 has improved chemical composition and functionality, inducing changes in the colonic microbiota of vegan adults associated with potential benefits for human health.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lacticaseibacillus casei , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lacticaseibacillus casei/metabolismo , Adulto , Paladar , Probióticos , Masculino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Frutas/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Feminino
15.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114287, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729740

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is widely acknowledged as a crucial factor in regulating host health. The structure of dietary fibers determines changes in the gut microbiota and metabolic differences resulting from their fermentation, which in turn affect gut microbe-related health effects. ß-Glucan (BG) is a widely accessible dietary fiber to humans, and its structural characteristics vary depending on the source. However, the interactions between different structural BGs and gut microbiota remain unclear. This study used an in vitro fermentation model to investigate the effects of BG on gut microbiota, and microbiomics and metabolomics techniques to explore the relationship between the structure of BG, bacterial communities, and metabolic profiles. The four sources of BG (barley, yeast, algae, and microbial fermentation) contained different types and proportions of glycosidic bonds, which differentially altered the bacterial community. The BG from algal sources, which contained only ß(1 â†’ 4) glycosidic bonds, was the least metabolized by the gut microbiota and caused limited metabolic changes. The other three BGs contain more diverse glycosidic bonds and can be degraded by bacteria from multiple genera, causing a wider range of metabolic changes. This work also suggested potential synergistic degradation relationships between gut bacteria based on BG. Overall, this study deepens the structural characterization-microbial-functional understanding of BGs and provides theoretical support for the development of gut microbiota-targeted foods.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , beta-Glucanas , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolômica
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 334, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the gut microbiota and inflammatory factor characteristics in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with anorexia and to analyze the correlation between gut microbiota and inflammatory factors, anorexia, and HAMD scores. METHODS: 46 MDD patients and 46 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study. The 46 MDD patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had anorexia:20 MDD without anorexia (MDA0 group) and 26 MDD with anorexia (MDA1 group). We used the Hamilton Depression Scale-24 (HAMD-24) to evaluate the depression status of all participants and 16 S ribosomal RNA (16 S rRNA)sequencing to evaluate the composition of the gut microbiota. Inflammatory factors in peripheral blood such as C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between gut microbiota and inflammatory factors, HAMD scores, and anorexia. RESULTS: 1). CRP was significantly higher in the MDA0, MDA1, than HC. 2). An analysis of α-diversity shows: the Simpson and Pielou indices of the HC group are higher than the MDA1 group (P < 0.05). 3). The ß-diversity analysis shows differences in the composition of microbial communities between the MDA0, MDA1, and HC group. 4). A correlation analysis showed that Blautia positively correlated with anorexia, HAMD scores, and CRP level, whereas Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Roseburia, and Parabacteroides negatively correlated with anorexia, HAMD scores, and CRP level. 5). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn using the differential bacterial genera between MDD patients with or without anorexia as biomarkers to identify whether MDD patients were accompanied with anorexia, and its area under curve (AUC) was 0.85. The ROC curve was drawn using the differential bacterial genera between MDD patients with anorexia and healthy controls as biomarkers to diagnose MDD patients with anorexia, with its AUC was 0.97. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that MDD patients with anorexia had a distinct gut microbiota compared to healthy individuals, with higher level of CRP. Blautia was more abundant in MDD patients with anorexia and positively correlated with CRP, HAMD scores, and anorexia. The gut microbiota might have influenced MDD and anorexia through the inflammatory factor CRP.


Assuntos
Anorexia , Proteína C-Reativa , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/microbiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Anorexia/microbiologia , Anorexia/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(5): 2, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691091

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify compositional differences in the gut microbiome of nonmyopes (NM) and myopes using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and to investigate whether the microbiome may contribute to the onset or progression of the condition. Methods: Faecal samples were collected from 52 adult participants, of whom 23 were NM, 8 were progressive myopes (PM), and 21 were stable myopes (SM). The composition of the gut microbiota in each group was analysed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: There were no significant differences in alpha and beta diversity between the three groups (NM, PM, and SM). However, the distributions of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Megamonas, Faecalibacterium, Coprococcus, Dorea, Roseburia, and Blautia were significantly higher in the myopes (SM and PM combined) when compared with emmetropes. The myopes exhibited significantly greater abundance of bacteria that are linked to the regulation of dopaminergic signalling, such as Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides. Individuals with stable myopia were found to have a significantly higher proportion of Prevotella copri than those with progressive myopia. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing bacterium, was significantly higher in all myopes than in NM and, in the comparison between SM and PM, it is significantly higher in SM. B. uniformis and B. fragilis, both GABA-producing Bacteroides, were present in relatively high abundance in all myopes and in SM compared with PM, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of bacteria related to dopamine effect and GABA-producing bacteria in the gut microbiome of myopes may suggest a role of these microorganisms in the onset and progression of myopia.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Miopia/microbiologia , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , DNA Bacteriano
18.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4276, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769296

RESUMO

Alterations in gut microbiota composition are suggested to contribute to cardiometabolic diseases, in part by producing bioactive molecules. Some of the metabolites are produced by very low abundant bacterial taxa, which largely have been neglected due to limits of detection. However, the concentration of microbially produced metabolites from these taxa can still reach high levels and have substantial impact on host physiology. To explore this concept, we focused on the generation of secondary bile acids by 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria and demonstrated that addition of a very low abundant bacteria to a community can change the metabolic output dramatically. We show that Clostridium scindens converts cholic acid into the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) very efficiently even though the abundance of C. scindens is low, but still detectable by digital droplet PCR. We also show that colonization of germ-free female mice with a community containing C. scindens induces DCA production and affects host metabolism. Finally, we show that DCA correlates with impaired glucose metabolism and a worsened lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes, which implies that this metabolic pathway may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Ácido Desoxicólico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucose , Ácido Desoxicólico/metabolismo , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Clostridium/metabolismo , Clostridium/genética , Ácido Cólico/metabolismo , Masculino
19.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2357177, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781112

RESUMO

The prevalence of eating disorders has been increasing over the last 50 years. Binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are two typical disabling, costly and life-threatening eating disorders that substantially compromise the physical well-being of individuals while undermining their psychological functioning. The distressing and recurrent episodes of binge eating are commonly observed in both BED and BN; however, they diverge as BN often involves the adoption of inappropriate compensatory behaviors aimed at averting weight gain. Normal eating behavior is coordinated by a well-regulated trade-off between intestinal and central ingestive mechanism. Conversely, despite the fact that the etiology of BED and BN remains incompletely resolved, emerging evidence corroborates the notion that dysbiosis of gastrointestinal microbiome and its metabolites, alteration of gut-brain axis, as well as malfunctioning central circuitry regulating motivation, execution and reward all contribute to the pathology of binge eating. In this review, we aim to outline the current state of knowledge pertaining to the potential mechanisms through which each component of the gut-brain axis participates in binge eating behaviors, and provide insight for the development of microbiome-based therapeutic interventions that hold promise in ameliorating patients afflicted with binge eating disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Encéfalo , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/microbiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/metabolismo , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/fisiologia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar
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