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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(5): 316-320, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047143

RESUMO

Emerging evidences suggest that gut microbiota-derived substances play a pivotal role in the regulation of host homeostasis including vascular function. Actually, these substances and/or their metabolites can be presented in circulation and local tissue and their levels are often abnormal in the pathophysiological states. Therefore, to determine the role of them in physiological function is important in human health. On the other hand, vascular dysfunction is a key event in the initiation and progression of systematic complications of cardiovascular, kidney and metabolic diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Although abnormalities in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells play an important role on vascular dysfunction, emerging evidences has suggested that gut microbiota-derived substances can directly or indirectly affect these cellular functions. The present review will focus on the relationship between vascular function and indoxyl sulfate or trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Indicã , Metilaminas , Óxidos
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113530, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076610

RESUMO

To verify the role of myricetin in alleviating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and regulating the intestinal flora, we established a type 2 diabetes mouse model. After being fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for six weeks, mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (80 mg/kg body weight [BW]) 2-3 times. Type 2 diabetes mice were randomly divided into type 2 diabetes control (T2DM) and myricetin intervention groups. Water and food intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and BW were monitored weekly. After six weeks of myricetin administration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and blood lipid content were measured. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to detect the gut microbiota composition. FBG and blood lipid levels of T2DM mice were significantly reduced upon myricetin treatment, while SOD levels were increased. Myricetin improved polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss in T2DM mice. In addition, the signature type 2 diabetes microflora was established by analyzing the microflora structure of healthy mice, type 2 diabetes mice, and mice treated with myricetin. Results showed that type 2 diabetes disrupted the mice intestinal flora, and myricetin intervention normalized the intestinal flora. In conclusion, our results indicate that myricetin alleviates type 2 diabetes in mice and regulates the intestinal microflora.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Flavonoides , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lipídeos , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Superóxido Dismutase
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(3): 513-522, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075637

RESUMO

The gut-brain axis describes a bidirectional interplay within the enteric environment between the intestinal epithelium, the mucosal immune system, and the microbiota with the enteric nervous system. This interplay provides a link between exogenous environmental stimuli such as nutrient sensing, and nervous system function, as well as a mechanism of feedback from cortical and sensory centers of the brain to enteric activities. The intestinal epithelium is one of the human body's largest sources of hormones and neurotransmitters, which have critical effects on neuronal function. The influence of the gut microbiota on these processes appears to be profound; yet to date, it has been insufficiently explored. Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is linked not only to diseases in the gut but also to brain symptomatology, including neurodegenerative and behavioral disorders (Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, and anxiety and/or depression). In this review we discuss the cellular wiring of the gut-brain axis, with a particular focus on the epithelial and neuronal interaction, the evidence that has led to our current understanding of the intestinal role in neurologic function, and future directions of research to unravel this important interaction in both health and allergic disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988326, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105818

RESUMO

Background: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (NP), a severe form of acute pancreatitis (AP), has higher mortality and worse outcome than non-necrotizing pancreatitis (non-NP). Infected NP is a devastating subgroup of NP. To date neither NP nor infected NP has robust prediction strategies, which may delay early recognition and timely intervention. Recent studies revealed correlations between disturbed gut microbiota and AP severity. Some features of intestinal microbiota have the potential to become biomarkers for NP prediction. Methods: We performed 16S rRNA sequencing to analyze gut microbiota features in 20 healthy controls (HC), and 58 AP patients on hospital admission. The AP patients were later classified into NP and non-NP groups based on subsequent diagnostic imaging features. Random forest regression model and ROC curve were applied for NP and infected NP prediction. PIRCUSt2 was used for bacterial functional pathway prediction analysis. Results: We found that the three groups (HC, NP, and non-NP) had distinct microorganism composition. NP patients had reduced microbial diversity, higher abundance of Enterobacteriales, but lower abundance of Clostridiales and Bacteroidales compared with the non-NP group. Correlation analyses displayed that intestine bacterial taxonomic alterations were related to severity, ICU admission, and prognosis. By pathway prediction, species more abundant in NP patients had positive correlation with synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and benzoate degradation. Enterococcus faecium (ASV2) performed best in discriminating NP and non-NP patients. Finegoldia magna (ASV3) showed the maximal prediction capacity among all ASVs and had comparable accuracy with Balthazar CT to detect patients with infected NP. Conclusions: Our study suggests that NP patients have distinct intestinal microbiota on admission compared to non-NP patients. Dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota might influence NP progression through ketone body or benzoate metabolism. Enterococcus faecium and Finegoldia magna are potential predictors for NP and infected NP. Our findings explore biomarkers which may inform clinical decision-making in AP and shed light on further studies on NP pathophysiology and management.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Doença Aguda , Bactérias/genética , Benzoatos , Biomarcadores , Clostridiales/genética , Firmicutes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 943427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046745

RESUMO

Evidence of gut microbiota involvement in regulating glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progression is accumulating. The understanding of microbial dysbiosis and specific alterations of gut microbiota composition that occur during the early stages of glucose intolerance, unperturbed by anti-diabetic medications, is especially essential. Hence, this systematic review was conducted to summarise the existing evidence related to microbiota composition and diversity in individuals with prediabetes (preDM) and individuals newly diagnosed with T2DM (newDM) in comparison to individuals with normal glucose tolerance (nonDM). A systematic search of the PubMed, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were conducted from inception to February 2021 supplemented with manual searches of the list of references. The primary keywords of "type 2 diabetes", "prediabetes", "newly-diagnosed" and "gut microbiota" were used. Observational studies that conducted analysis of the gut microbiota of respondents with preDM and newDM were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale by independent reviewers. A total of 18 studies (5,489 participants) were included. Low gut microbial diversity was generally observed in preDM and newDM when compared to nonDM. Differences in gut microbiota composition between the disease groups and nonDM were inconsistent across the included studies. Four out of the 18 studies found increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes along with decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes in newDM. At the genus/species levels, decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia, Dialister, Flavonifractor, Alistipes, Haemophilus and Akkermansia muciniphila and increased abundance of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Veillonella and Collinsella were observed in the disease groups in at least two studies. Lactobacillus was also found to positively correlate with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and/or homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in four studies. This renders a need for further investigations on the species/strain-specific role of endogenously present Lactobacillus in glucose regulation mechanism and T2DM disease progression. Differences in dietary intake caused significant variation in specific bacterial abundances. More studies are needed to establish more consistent associations, between clinical biomarkers or dietary intake and specific gut bacterial composition in prediabetes and early T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Bacteroidetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Verrucomicrobia
6.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 25(9): 777-783, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117368

RESUMO

There are direct and indirect interactions between gut microbiota and host immune response, which can have a multifaceted impact on host health. Dysbiosis caused by disturbances in the gut microbiota is associated with susceptibility to many diseases, especially immune-related diseases. Based on the research results in recent years, this paper introduced the mechanism of the interaction between gut microbiota and host immunity, and expounded the role of gut microbiota in the occurrence and development of immune-related diseases, including intestinal system diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and other systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and summarized disease treatment strategies targeting gut microbiota. A better understanding of the research progress of gut microbiota and immune-related diseases will help us in the prevention and management of such diseases, and broaden our path to discover disease intervention targets.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestinos
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1004765, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118025

RESUMO

Soybean isoflavones (SIs) are widely found in food and herbal medicines. Although the pharmacological activities of SIs have been widely reported, their effects on the intestinal microecology of normal hosts have received little attention. Five-week-old Kunming (KM) mice were administered SIs (10 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Food intake, body weight, and digestive enzyme activity were measured. Small intestine microbiota, including lumen-associated bacteria (LAB) and mucosa-associated bacteria (MAB), were analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the mice that consuming SIs showed a higher food intake but a lower body weight gain rate than that of normal mice. Sucrase, cellulase, and amylase activities reduced, while protease activity increased after SIs intervention. Moreover, SIs increased the intestinal bacterial diversity in both LAB and MAB of normal mice. The composition of LAB was more sensitive to SIs than those of MAB. Lactobacillus, Adlercreutzia, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Butyricicoccus, and Desulfovibrio were the differential bacteria among the LAB of mice treated with SIs. In addition, acetic acid, valeric acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and caproic acid decreased, while butyric acid and propionic acid increased in the mice treated with SIs. Taken together, SIs are beneficial for weight control, even in short-term interventions. The specific mechanism is related to regulating the gut microbiota, changing digestive enzyme activities, and further affecting carbohydrate absorption and metabolism.


Assuntos
Celulases , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Isoflavonas , Amilases/metabolismo , Amilases/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias , Peso Corporal , Caproatos/metabolismo , Caproatos/farmacologia , Carboidratos , Celulases/metabolismo , Celulases/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Isobutiratos/metabolismo , Isobutiratos/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Propionatos/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Sacarase/metabolismo , Sacarase/farmacologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 981917, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119070

RESUMO

Inflammation is an energy-intensive process and the liver is a key organ in energy regulation. Since the intestine and liver exchange nutrients and metabolites, enteritis can affect the liver. To investigate the correlation between enteritis and liver metabolism, we developed an intestinal inflammation model with concentration-dependent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in gibel carp (Carassius gibelio). The results showed the dysregulation of intestinal tight junction, increased permeability of the gut barrier, and apoptosis of epithelial cells during the development of enteritis. The liver metabolome was analyzed by LC-MS and the live respiration was determined using Oxygraph-2k. The results showed that glycolysis, the TCA cycle and pyrimidine metabolism were affected by intestinal inflammation. In particular, the activity of hepatic mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I was significantly increased. Structure and abundance changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Pathogenic bacteria in the intestine, as well as plasma LPS, increased significantly. Using a liver cell line, we verified that the dysfunctional metabolism of the liver is related to the dislocation of LPS. All results imply the existence of a connection between enteritis and liver metabolism in gibel carp, and the gut microbiome plays a critical role in this process.


Assuntos
Enterite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Endotoxinas , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado , Pirimidinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ácidos Sulfônicos
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 972160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045671

RESUMO

The etiological complexity of multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated, neurodegenerative disease with multifactorial etiology is still elusive because of an incomplete understanding of the complex synergy between contributing factors such as genetic susceptibility and aberrant immune response. Recently, the disease phenotypes have also been shown to be associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, a dynamic reservoir of billions of microbes, their proteins and metabolites capable of mimicring the autoantigens. Microbial factors could potentially trigger the neuroinflammation and symptoms of MS. In this perspective article, we discussed how microbial molecules resulting from a leaky gut might mimic a host's autoantigen, potentially contributing to the disease disequilibrium. It further highlights the importance of targeting the gut microbiome for alternate therapeutic options for the treatment of MS.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Esclerose Múltipla , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Autoantígenos , Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Mimetismo Molecular , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 904284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093194

RESUMO

Alterations in gut microbiota might contribute to uremic toxicity and immune dysregulation in patients with end-stage renal disease. Hemodialysis patients are prone to infection and higher mortality following sepsis. The virulence factors in the gut metagenome have not been well studied in hemodialysis patients, which could be employed by microorganisms to successfully thrive and flourish in their hosts. In this study, we performed shotgun metagenomics sequencing on fecal DNA collected from 16 control subjects and 24 hemodialysis patients. Our analysis shows that a number of microbial species, metabolic pathways, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factors were significantly altered in hemodialysis patients compared with controls. In particular, erythromycin resistance methylase, pyridoxamine 5-phosphate oxidase, and streptothricin-acetyl-transferase were significantly increased in hemodialysis patients. The findings in our study laid a valuable foundation to further elucidate the causative role of virulence factors in predisposing HD patients to infection and to develop treatment strategies to reduce the genetic capacities of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in HD patients.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Virulência/genética
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 929530, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072923

RESUMO

Metabolic surgery, or bariatric surgery, is currently the most effective approach for treating obesity and its complications. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the top two types of commonly performed metabolic surgery now. The precise mechanisms of how the surgeries work are still unclear, therefore much research has been conducted in this area. Gut hormones such as GLP-1 and PYY have been studied extensively in the context of metabolic surgery because they both participate in satiety and glucose homeostasis. Bile acids, whose functions cover intestinal lipid absorption and various aspects of metabolic regulation via the action of FXR, TGR5, and other bile acid receptors, have also been actively investigated as potential mediators of metabolic surgery. Additionally, gut microbiota and their metabolites have also been studied because they can affect metabolic health. The current review summarizes and compares the recent scientific progress made on identifying the mechanisms of RYGB and VSG. One of the long-term goals of metabolic/bariatric surgery research is to develop new pharmacotherapeutic options for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Because obesity is a growing health concern worldwide, there is a dire need in developing novel non-invasive treatment options.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 921119, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093113

RESUMO

Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most common side effect of chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). Acupuncture treatment has an anti-fatigue effect and can regulate gut microbiota disturbance in fatigue patients. Related studies have shown that the gut microbiota-gut-brain axis is closely related to the occurrence of CRF. In this study, we first investigated the alterations of acupuncture on fatigue-like behavior, gut microbiota, gut inflammation and neuroinflammation response, gut barriers, HPA axis, and serum metabolomics in CRF mice after BC chemotherapy. Then, the correlation analysis of gut microbiota and other indicators was discussed. Our results showed that acupuncture treatment could exert an anti-fatigue effect and ameliorate the gut barrier, gut inflammation, neuroinflammation, and dysfunction of the HPA axis in CRF mice after chemotherapy for BC. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that acupuncture treatment could enhance the abundance of Candidatus Arthromitus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridia_UCG-014_unclassified and decrease the abundances of Escherichia-Shigella, Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia, and Streptococcus. Serum metabolomics analysis showed that acupuncture treatment could regulate the differential metabolites N-methylnicotinamide, beta-glycerophosphoric acid, geranyl acetoacetate, serotonin and phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, taurine and hypotaurine, and beta-alanine metabolic pathways. Correlation analysis indicated that there are certain correlations between gut microbiota and gut inflammation, neuroinflammation, gut barrier, HPA axis function and serum metabolites. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the anti-fatigue mechanism of acupuncture treatment may be closely related to the gut microbiota-gut-brain axis. This study also provided a new reference for basic and clinical research on CRF after breast cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias , Animais , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Inflamação , Camundongos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079724

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of disability and mortality, affecting millions of people every year. The neuroinflammation and immune response post-TBI initially have neuroprotective and reparative effects, but prolonged neuroinflammation leads to secondary injury and increases the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Persistent microglial activation plays a critical role in chronic neuroinflammation post-TBI. Given the bidirectional communication along the brain-gut axis, it is plausible to suppose that gut microbiota dysbiosis post-TBI influences microglial activation. In the present study, hippocampal microglial activation was observed at 7 days and 28 days post-TBI. However, in TBI mice with a depletion of gut microbiota, microglia were activated at 7 days post-TBI, but not at 28 days post-TBI, indicating that gut microbiota contributes to the long-term activation of microglia post-TBI. In addition, in conventional mice colonized by the gut microbiota of TBI mice using fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), microglial activation was observed at 28 days post-TBI, but not at 7 days post-TBI, supporting the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in persistent microglial activation post-TBI. The RNA sequencing of the hippocampus identified a microglial activation gene, Lyz2, which kept upregulation post-TBI. This persistent upregulation was inhibited by oral antibiotics and partly induced by FMT. 16s rRNA gene sequencing showed that the composition and function of gut microbiota shifted over time post-TBI with progressive dysbiosis, and untargeted metabolomics profiling revealed that the tryptophan metabolic phenotype was differently reshaped at 7 days and 28 days post-TBI, which may play a role in the persistent upregulation of Lyz2 and the activation of microglia. This study implicates that gut microbiota and Lyz2 are potential targets for the development of novel strategies to address persistent microglial activation and chronic neuroinflammation post-TBI, and further investigations are warranted to elucidate the specific mechanism.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia , Fenótipo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
14.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079768

RESUMO

Plant-derived (poly)phenolic compounds have been undoubtedly shown to promote endocrine homeostasis through the improvement of diverse metabolic outcomes. Amongst diverse potential mechanisms, the prebiotic modulatory effects exerted by these compounds on the gut microbiota have supported their nutraceutical application in both experimental and clinical approaches. However, the comprehension of the microbiota modulatory patterns observed upon (poly)phenol-based dietary interventions is still in its infancy, which makes the standardization of the metabolic outcomes in response to a given (poly)phenol a herculean task. Thus, this narrative review sought to gather up-to-date information on the relationship among (poly)phenols intake, their modulatory effect on the gut microbiota diversity, and consequent metabolic outcomes as a supportive tool for the future design of experimental approaches and even clinical trials.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fenol , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Prebióticos
15.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079886

RESUMO

Pectin is a dietary fiber, and its health effects have been described extensively. Although there are limited clinical studies, there is a growing body of evidence from in vitro studies investigating the effect of pectin on human gut microbiota. This comprehensive review summarizes the findings of gut microbiota modulation in vitro as assessed by 16S rRNA gene-based technologies and elucidates the potential structure-activity relationships. Generally, pectic substrates are slowly but completely fermented, with a greater production of acetate compared with other fibers. Their fermentation, either directly or by cross-feeding interactions, results in the increased abundances of gut bacterial communities such as the family of Ruminococcaceae, the Bacteroides and Lachnospira genera, and species such as Lachnospira eligens and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, where the specific stimulation of Lachnospira and L. eligens is unique to pectic substrates. Furthermore, the degree of methyl esterification, the homogalacturonan-to-rhamnogalacturonan ratio, and the molecular weight are the most influential structural factors on the gut microbiota. The latter particularly influences the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. The prebiotic potential of pectin targeting specific gut bacteria beneficial for human health and well-being still needs to be confirmed in humans, including the relationship between its structural features and activity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Pectinas/química , Prebióticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079908

RESUMO

Commensal microorganisms in the human gut are a good source of candidate probiotics, particularly those with immunomodulatory effects that may improve health outcomes by regulating interactions between the gut microbiome and distal organs. Previously, we used an immune-based screening strategy to select two potential probiotic strains from infant feces in China, Bifidobacterium breve 207-1 (207-1) and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei 207-27 (207-27). In this study, the in vitro immunological effects and potential in vivo general health benefits of these two strains were evaluated using Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as the control. The results showed that 207-1 and 207-27 significantly and differentially modulated the cytokine profiles of primary splenic cells, while did not induce abnormal systemic immune responses in healthy mice. They also modulated the gut microbiota composition in a strain-dependent manner, thus decreasing Gram-negative bacteria and increasing health-promoting taxa and short-chain fatty acid levels, particularly butyric acid. Conclusively, 207-1 and 207-27 shaped a robust gut environment in healthy mice in a strain-specific manner. Their potential immunomodulatory effects and other elite properties will be further explored using animal models of disease and subsequent clinical trials. This immune-based screening strategy is promising in efficiently and economically identifying elite candidate probiotics.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Camundongos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
17.
FASEB J ; 36(10): e22546, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106538

RESUMO

The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the epicenter of cellular aerobic metabolism. TCA cycle intermediates facilitate energy production and provide anabolic precursors, but also function as intra- and extracellular metabolic signals regulating pleiotropic biological processes. Despite the importance of circulating TCA cycle metabolites as signaling molecules, the source of circulating TCA cycle intermediates remains uncertain. We observe that in mice, the concentration of TCA cycle intermediates in the portal blood exceeds that in tail blood indicating that the gut is a major contributor to circulating TCA cycle metabolites. With a focus on succinate as a representative of a TCA cycle intermediate with signaling activities and using a combination of gut microbiota depletion mouse models and isotopomer tracing, we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota is not a major contributor to circulating succinate. Moreover, we demonstrate that endogenous succinate production is markedly higher than intestinal succinate absorption in normal physiological conditions. Altogether, these results indicate that endogenous succinate production within the intestinal tissue is a major physiological source of circulating succinate. These results provide a foundation for an investigation into the role of the intestine in regulating circulating TCA cycle metabolites and their potential signaling effects on health and disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácido Succínico , Animais , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos , Camundongos , Succinatos/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014798

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports the importance of the gut microbiota (GM) in regulating multiple functions related to host physical health and, more recently, through the gut-brain axis (GBA), mental health. Similarly, the literature on the impact of physical activity (PA), including exercise, on GM and GBA is growing. Therefore, this narrative review summarizes and critically appraises the existing literature that delves into the benefits or adverse effects produced by PA on physical and mental health status through modifications of the GM, highlighting differences and similarities between preclinical and human studies. The same exercise in animal models, whether performed voluntarily or forced, has different effects on the GM, just as, in humans, intense endurance exercise can have a negative influence. In humans and animals, only aerobic PA seems able to modify the composition of the GM, whereas cardiovascular fitness appears related to specific microbial taxa or metabolites that promote a state of physical health. The PA favors bacterial strains that can promote physical performance and that can induce beneficial changes in the brain. Currently, it seems useful to prioritize aerobic activities at a moderate and not prolonged intensity. There may be greater benefits if PA is undertaken from a young age and the effects on the GM seem to gradually disappear when the activity is stopped. The PA produces modifications in the GM that can mediate and induce mental health benefits.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
19.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014805

RESUMO

Inonotus hispidus (Bull.: Fr.) P. Karst. spore powder (IHS) contains polyphenols and triterpenoids with pharmacological effects. Here, we analyzed its composition, and we investigated the effects of IHS on colorectal cancer (CRC) in B6/JGpt-Apcem1Cin(min)/Gpt (ApcMin/+) mice and its potential mechanisms by analyzing gut microbiota and serum metabolomics. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western blotting were used to confirm the changes in the cytokine and protein levels associated with IHS administration. The IHS affected the abundance of gut microbiota and the level of L-arginine (L-Arg). Furthermore, the IHS influenced T cells in ApcMin/+ mice by increasing the interleukin (IL)-2 and decreasing the IL-5, -6, and -10 levels, thus suppressing tumor development. Overall, IHS showed anti-CRC properties in ApcMin/+ mice by affecting the gut microbiota and serum metabolites, which in turn affected the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling, and regulated the abundance of CD8+ T cells. These results provide experimental support for the potential future treatment of CRC with IHS.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inonotus , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pós , Esporos/metabolismo
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(658): eabl3927, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976997

RESUMO

Unique gut microbiota compositions have been associated with inflammatory diseases, but identifying gut bacterial functions linked to immune activation in humans remains challenging. Translocation of pathogens from mucosal surfaces into peripheral tissues can elicit immune activation, although whether and which gut commensal bacteria translocate in inflammatory diseases is difficult to assess. We report that a subset of commensal gut microbiota constituents that translocate across the gut barrier in mice and humans are associated with heightened systemic immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses. We present a modified high-throughput, culture-independent approach to quantify systemic IgG against gut commensal bacteria in human serum samples without the need for paired stool samples. Using this approach, we highlight several commensal bacterial species that elicit elevated IgG responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including taxa within the clades Collinsella, Bifidobacterium, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. These and other taxa identified as translocating bacteria or targets of systemic immunity in IBD concomitantly exhibited heightened transcriptional activity and growth rates in IBD patient gut microbiomes. Our approach represents a complementary tool to illuminate interactions between the host and its gut microbiota and may provide an additional method to identify microbes linked to inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Camundongos
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