Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.620
Filtrar
1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 251-255, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580563

RESUMO

Trends in dietary nutrition and their personalization are progress in medical science and point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovations in health system. The main objective of this article is to review the role of dietary fibre as prebiotics in nutrition with different functionality, its influence on modulation of intestinal microbiota, which has an essential role in maintenance of healthy organisms in people of all ages.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem
2.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(10): 921-930, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544557

RESUMO

Introduction: In each section of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract we may find bacteria that are adapted to local conditions and fulfill an important role in the proper functioning of the body. The gut microorganisms are crucial in human physiology in areas as diverse as the brain and the immune system functions. Therefore, there is a close relationship between the intestinal microbiota, its metabolic activity, and health of the host. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the host-microbiome interactions and characterize the role they may play in drug metabolism and toxicity. The study is based on pertinent papers that were retrieved by a selective search using relevant keywords in PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. Expert opinion: Increasing unhealthy eating habits, stress, antibiotic therapy, unfavorable environmental factors, and genetic predisposition contribute to imbalances in the composition and function of the GI tract microbes and the initiation and progression of disease processes. Restoration of the balanced gut microbiota composition is possible by oral administration of probiotics.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
3.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(11): 656-661, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562390

RESUMO

Research into the gut microbiota and its role in health and disease has expanded rapidly in the past two decades. However, much of the early focus has been on cataloguing the microorganisms present, identifying correlations between microbial species and disease and using preclinical animal models to understand phenotypes. Now efforts are under way to provide functional insights into the gut microbiota and its mechanisms of action, improve understanding of the role of the microbiota beyond the gut and advance the development of microbiota-based therapeutics so that the microbiome can be harnessed in the clinic. In this Viewpoint article, we asked a selection of scientists and clinicians working in the gut microbiome field for their opinions on the major advances in and the challenges and solutions for translating gut microbiome research to the clinic, and where they expect progress to be made in the future.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 381-385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders may be correlated with a low-grade systemic inflammation but the origin of this inflammatory response remains unclear and both genetics and environmental factors seems to be concerned. Recent researches observed that gut microbiota seems to have an impact on the brain and immune processes. METHOD: We review recent literature to a better understanding of how microbiota interacts with brain, immunity and psychiatric disorders. We search on Pubmed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Sciencedirect articles with the keywords "gastrointestinal microbiota" and "mental disorders" or "psychological stress". RESULTS: We showed links between gut microbiota and brain-gut axis regulation, immune and endocrine system activity, neurophysiological changes, behavior variations and neuropsychiatric disorders. Communications between brain and gut are bidirectional via neural, endocrine and immune pathway. Microbiota dysbiosis and increase gut permeability with subsequent immune challenges seems to be the source of the chronic mild inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Repeated immune or stress events early in life may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders or sickness behavior later in life. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological stress impact gut microbiota with subsequent immune activation leading to neurodevelopmental disorders or sickness behavior and altering neurophysiology and reactivity to stress or lifestyle.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/imunologia , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/psicologia , Sistema Endócrino/imunologia , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Neuropsiquiatria , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 637-654, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551115

RESUMO

The relationship between gut microbiota and neurological diseases, including chronic pain, has received increasing attention. The gut microbiome is a crucial modulator of visceral pain, whereas recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota may also play a critical role in many other types of chronic pain, including inflammatory pain, headache, neuropathic pain, and opioid tolerance. We present a narrative review of the current understanding on the role of gut microbiota in pain regulation and discuss the possibility of targeting gut microbiota for the management of chronic pain. Numerous signalling molecules derived from gut microbiota, such as by-products of microbiota, metabolites, neurotransmitters, and neuromodulators, act on their receptors and remarkably regulate the peripheral and central sensitisation, which in turn mediate the development of chronic pain. Gut microbiota-derived mediators serve as critical modulators for the induction of peripheral sensitisation, directly or indirectly regulating the excitability of primary nociceptive neurones. In the central nervous system, gut microbiota-derived mediators may regulate neuroinflammation, which involves the activation of cells in the blood-brain barrier, microglia, and infiltrating immune cells, to modulate induction and maintenance of central sensitisation. Thus, we propose that gut microbiota regulates pain in the peripheral and central nervous system, and targeting gut microbiota by diet and pharmabiotic intervention may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the management of chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , Dor Visceral/microbiologia , Dor Visceral/terapia
6.
Microbes Environ ; 34(3): 226-233, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378758

RESUMO

The gut of the European honeybee Apis mellifera is the site of exposure to multiple stressors, such as pathogens and ingested chemicals. Therefore, the gut microbiota, which contributes to host homeostasis, may be altered by these stressors. The abundance of major bacterial taxa in the gut was evaluated in response to infection with the intestinal parasite Nosema ceranae or chronic exposure to low doses of the neurotoxic insecticides coumaphos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid. Experiments were performed under laboratory conditions on adult workers collected from hives in February (winter bees) and July (summer bees) and revealed season-dependent changes in the bacterial community composition. N. ceranae and a lethal fipronil treatment increased the relative abundance of both Gilliamella apicola and Snodgrassella alvi in surviving winter honeybees. The parasite and a sublethal exposure to all insecticides decreased the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. regardless of the season. The similar effects induced by insecticides belonging to distinct molecular families suggested a shared and indirect mode of action on the gut microbiota, possibly through aspecific alterations in gut homeostasis. These results demonstrate that infection and chronic exposure to low concentrations of insecticides may affect the honeybee holobiont.


Assuntos
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nosema/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Abelhas/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Homeostase
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(62): 9080-9083, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287110

RESUMO

New strategies are required for the discovery of unknown bioactive molecules produced by gut microbiota in the human host. Herein, we utilize a chemoselective probe immobilized to magnetic beads for analysis of carbonyls in human fecal samples. We identified 112 metabolites due to femtomole analysis and an increased mass spectrometric sensitivity by up to six orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Cetonas/análise , Sondas Moleculares/análise , Sondas Moleculares/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cetonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
9.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1455-1463, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265956

RESUMO

Circadian rhythm is believed to play important roles in atherosclerosis. The gut microbiota is found to be closely related to atherogenesis, and shows compositional and functional circadian oscillation. However, it's still unclarified whether circadian clock and intestinal microbiota are involved in the progression of atherosclerosis induced by environmental pollutant acrolein. Herein, patients with atherosclerosis showed higher MMP9, a promising biomarker for atherosclerosis, and lower Bmal1 and Clock expression in the plasma. Interestingly, acrolein exposure contributed to the increased MMP9, decreased Clock and Bmal1, and activated MAPK pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that knockdown of Clock or Bmal1 lead to upregulation of MMP9 in HUVECs, and that Clock and Bmal1 expression was elevated while MAPK pathways were blocked. Atherosclerotic apolipoproteinE-deficient mice consumed a high-fat diet were used and treated with acrolein (3 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water for 12 weeks. Upregulation of MMP9, and downregulation of Clock and Bmal1 were also observed in plasma of the mice. Besides, acrolein feeding altered gut microbiota composition at a phylum level especially for an increased Firmicutes and a decreased Bacteroidetes. Additionally, gut microbiota showed correlation with atherosclerotic plaque, MMP9 and Bmal1 levels. Therefore, our findings indicated that acrolein increased the expression of MMP9 through MAPK regulating circadian clock, which was associated with gut microbiota regulation in atherosclerosis. Circadian rhythms and gut microbiota might be promising targets in the prevention of cardiovascular disease caused by environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/sangue , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteínas CLOCK/sangue , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Acroleína , Adulto , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Linhagem Celular , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 4084-4093, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330021

RESUMO

Host-microbiota interactions describe a co-evolution and mutualistic symbiosis. Gut microbial communities are important for diverse host functions. However, in birds, the relationship between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the genetic variation of the host is not clearly understood. To dissect these interactions, a Chinese yellow broiler line (genetically selected for a high growth rate) and Huiyang Beard chickens (low growth rate) were crossed, generating an F2 population. The population structures of the gut microbes in the phenotypically high and low 91-d body weight individuals of both sexes in the F2 population were studied. Interestingly, a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the microbiota of the high-weight and low-weight females was clearly separated into 2 clusters. A ß-diversity analysis showed that the locus rs16775833 within the doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor (DMRT) gene cluster accounted for approximately 21% of the variation in the population structure of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the 2 genetic loci rs15142709 and rs15142674 were significantly associated with specific species of Methanobacterium. These loci are located in the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) and lck/yes-related novel tyrosine kinase (LYN) genes, which are involved in cell differentiation and growth. This finding suggests evidence for the influence of the host genetics on the composition of the gut microbiota in birds and the importance and utility of the host-microbe status to better understand its effect on the potential growth of birds.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
11.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 1005-1013, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352822

RESUMO

Gut microbiota may influence blood pressure (BP), namely via end products of carbohydrate fermentation. After informed consent, male volunteers were prospectively categorized into 3 groups upon European Society of Hypertension criteria based on 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements: (1) hypertension, (2) borderline hypertension, and (3) normotension. Stool, urine and serum samples were collected in fasting conditions. Gut microbiota was characterized by 16S amplicon sequencing. Metabolomics, including quantification of short-chain fatty acids, was conducted using nuclear magnetic resonance. Two-way ANOVA combined with Tukey post hoc test, as well as multiple permutation test and Benjamini-Hochberg-Yekutieli false discovery rate procedure, was used. The cohort included 54 males: 38 hypertensive (including 21 under treatment), 7 borderline, and 9 normotensive. No significant difference was observed between groups concerning age, body mass index, smoking habits, and weekly alcohol consumption. The genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1 positively correlated with BP levels in nontreated patients (n=33). This correlation was significant after multiple permutation tests but was not substantiated following false discovery rate adjustment. Short-chain fatty acid levels were significantly different among groups, with higher stool levels of acetate, butyrate, and propionate in hypertensive versus normotensive individuals. No difference was observed in serum and urine metabolomes. Correlation between stool metabolome and 24-hour BP levels was evidenced, with R2 reaching 0.9. Our pilot study based on 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements, 16S amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics supports an association between gut microbiota and BP homeostasis, with changes in stool abundance of short-chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 629-636, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265910

RESUMO

Imbalance of intestinal microbiota has been recognized in aquatic animals infected with various diseases. However, the signature of intestinal bacteria of the "cotton shrimp-like" disease in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei remains unknown. This study investigates the composition, diversity, microbial-mediated function and interspecies interaction of intestinal microbiota on shrimp with different health status using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. Meanwhile, the growth performance and the mRNA expression of innate immune gene in hepatopancreas were also investigated. The growth performance and the mRNA expression of innate immune genes (e.g., crustin, toll, and immune deficiency genes) in the hepatopancreas were significantly decreased in diseased shrimp compared with healthy shrimp. Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae and genus Tenacibaculum were exclusively enriched and significantly increased in diseased shrimp, respectively, whereas, the Actinobacteria class dramatically deceased. The diseased shrimp exhibited higher ACE and Chao1 indices and lower complexity of intestinal interspecies interaction than healthy shrimp. Microbial-mediated functions predicted by PICRUSt showed that 83% KEGG pathway including nutrient absorption and digestion significantly increased in diseased shrimp. This study provides an overview on the interplay among the "cotton shrimp-like" disease, intestinal microbiota, growth performance and host immune responses from an ecological perspective.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276746

RESUMO

The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products has led to concern about their impact on human health. This paper aims to provide new scientific evidence about the modifications and potential effects of AgNPs with food applications during their passage through the digestive tract. For that, two types of AgNPs [solid polyethylene glycol-stabilised silver nanoparticles (PEG-AgNPs 20) and liquid glutathione-stabilised silver nanoparticles (GSH-AgNPs)] were initially subjected to gut-microbial digestion simulation in an in vitro static model. Based on these experiments, digestion of GSH-AgNPs was carried out in a dynamic model (simgi®) that simulated the different regions of the digestive tract (stomach, small intestine and the ascending, transverse and descending colon) in physiological conditions. Dynamic transport of GSH-AgNPs in the simgi® was similar to that observed for the inert compound Cr-EDTA, which discarded any alterations in the intestinal fluid delivery due to the AgNPs. Also, feeding the simgi® with GSH-AgNPs seemed not to induce significant changes in the composition and metabolic activity (i.e., proteolytic activity) of the gut microbiota. Concerning monitoring of AgNps, it was observed that the GSH-AgNPs underwent several transformations in the gastrointestinal fluids and appeared to expose the intestine in ways that were structurally different from the original forms. In compliance with European guidelines, the simgi® model can be considered a useful in vitro tool to evaluate the effects of nanoparticles at the digestive level, prior to human studies, and, therefore, minimising animal testing.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Modelos Biológicos , Prata/química , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Glutationa/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Prata/análise
14.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291601

RESUMO

The yeast Candida albicans forms part of the natural gut microbiota of healthy human individuals and its interactions with other microbial symbionts can impact host well-being. We therefore studied binary interactions between potentially pathogenic representatives of the gut-associated bacterial genus Bacteroides and C. albicans using anaerobic bacteria/yeast co-cultures prepared with a quarter-strength brain heart infusion (» BHI; 9.25 g/l) broth. We found that, except for minor changes observed in the cell numbers of one out of four C. albicans strains tested, yeast growth was largely unaffected by the presence of the bacteria. In contrast, growth of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 and Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482 was significantly enhanced in the presence of C. albicans. Supplementation of Bacteroides monocultures with dead Candida albicans CAB 392 cells, containing intact outer cell wall mannan layers, resulted in increased bacterial concentrations. Subsequent culturing of the Bacteroides strains in a liquid minimal medium supplemented with candidal mannan demonstrated that B. vulgatus ATCC 8482, unlike B. fragilis NCTC 9343, utilized the mannan. Furthermore, by reducing the initial oxygen levels in monocultures prepared with » BHI broth, bacterial numbers were significantly enhanced compared to in monocultures prepared with » BHI broth not supplemented with the reducing agent l-cysteine hydrochloride. This suggests that C. albicans can stimulate Bacteroides growth via aerobic respiration and/or antioxidant production. The cell-free supernatant of 24-h-old C. albicans CAB 392 monocultures was also found to increase Bacteroides growth and chloramphenicol sensitivity.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Anaerobiose , Bacteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroides fragilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Meios de Cultura/química , Humanos , Mananas , Viabilidade Microbiana , Oxigênio
15.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1255-1265, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337187

RESUMO

To investigate the diversity of gastrointestinal microflora and lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in wild Asian elephants, three of these animals living in the same group were selected for study from the Wild Elephant Valley in the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province, China. Fresh fecal samples from the three wild Asian elephants were analyzed by metagenomic sequencing to study the diversity of their gastrointestinal microbes and cellulolytic enzymes. There were a high abundance of Firmicutes and a higher abundance of hemicellulose-degrading hydrolases than cellulose-degrading hydrolases in the wild Asian elephants. Furthermore, there were a high abundance and a rich diversity of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) obtained from the gene set annotation of the three samples, with the majority of them showing low identity with the CAZy database entry. About half of the CAZymes had no species source at the phylum or genus level. These indicated that the wild Asian elephants might possess greater ability to digest hemicellulose than cellulose to provide energy, and moreover, the gastrointestinal tracts of these pachyderms might be a potential source of novel efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. Therefore, the exploitation and utilization of these enzyme resources could help us to alleviate the current energy crisis and ensure food security.


Assuntos
Elefantes/microbiologia , Enzimas/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Celulose/metabolismo , China , Firmicutes/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Filogenia
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 339-359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342760

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the potential of two new fat-protected butyrate or heptanoate salts to improve gut health and control post-weaning colibacillosis in weaning piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4+, particularly focusing on their impact on intestinal microbiota and fermentative activity along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Seventy-two 21-d-old pigs were fed a plain diet (CTR) or supplemented with sodium butyrate (BUT) or sodium heptanoate (HPT), both at 0.3%. After a week of adaptation, animals were orally challenged at days 8 and 9 with 5.8 · 109 and 6.6 · 1010 cfu, respectively, and were euthanised on d 4 and d 8 post-inoculation (PI) (n = 8) to collect blood, digesta and tissue samples and characterise microbial groups, pathogen loads (qPCR), fermentation, ileal histomorphometry and immune markers. Colonic microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. Supplementing both acid salts did not compensate clinical challenge effects nor performance impairments and neither histomorphometry nor serum biomarkers. Changes in the gastric fermentative activity were registered, BUT reducing lactic acid concentrations (day 8 PI), and with HPT fewer animals presenting detectable concentrations of propionic, butyric and valeric acids. At ileum BUT increased acetic acid concentration (day 8 PI), and both additives reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the colon. Increases in enterobacteria and coliforms counts in ileal digesta (day 4 PI, p < 0.10) and mucosa scrapes (p < 0.05) were registered although E. coli F4 gene copies were unaffected. Regarding changes in the colonic microbiota (day 4 PI), Prevotellaceae and Prevotella were promoted with BUT supplementation whereas only minor groups were modified in HPT-treated animals. Summarising, although the pathogen loads or inflammatory mediators remained unresponsive, butyrate and heptanoate showed a significant impact on microbial fermentation along the whole GIT, being able to modify different bacterial groups at the colon. It could be hypothesised that these effects might be mediated by a carry-over effect of the changes observed in gastric fermentation, but possibly also to a better nutrient digestion in the foregut as a result of the reduced colonic SCFA concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Heptanoatos/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Heptanoatos/administração & dosagem , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
17.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(8): 303-315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218724

RESUMO

We investigated the correlation between the beneficial effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on gut microbiota composition, metabolic activities, and reducing cow's milk protein allergy. Mice sensitized with ß-lactoglobulin (ß-Lg) were treated with different doses of L. acidophilus KLDS 1.0738 for 4 weeks, starting 1 week before allergen induction. The results showed that intake of L. acidophilus significantly suppressed the hypersensitivity responses, together with increased fecal microbiota diversity and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration (including propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate) when compared with the allergic group. Moreover, treatment with L. acidophilus induced the expression of SCFAs receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors 41 (GPR41) and 43 (GPR43), in the spleen and colon of the allergic mice. Further analysis revealed that the GPR41 and GPR43 messenger RNA expression both positively correlated with the serum concentrations of transforming growth factor-ß and IFN-γ (p < .05), but negatively with the serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-4, and IL-6 in the L. acidophilus-treated group compared with the allergic group (p < .05). These results suggested that L. acidophilus protected against the development of allergic inflammation by improving the intestinal flora, as well as upregulating SCFAs and their receptors GPR41/43.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus/fisiologia , Lactoglobulinas/efeitos adversos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Butiratos/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Isobutiratos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Proteínas do Leite , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Planta Med ; 85(9-10): 729-737, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167298

RESUMO

Rotundic acid and pedunculoside are the most abundant constituents in Ilicis Rotundae Cortex, and possess lipid-lowering activity. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic interactions of rotundic acid with pedunculoside and other ingredients from Ilicis Rotundae Cortex with rotundic acid and pedunculoside, and preliminarily investigated the effects of gut microbiota on their pharmacokinetics using a pseudo-germ-free rat model. After a single oral administration of each monomer, a monomer mixture, and Ilicis Rotundae Cortex extract to the conventional and pseudo-germ-free rats, rotundic acid and pedunculoside were quantified in plasma by an UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS method. The systemic exposure (maximum plasma concentration and area under concentration-time curve) of two analytes in conventional rats were increased in an approximately dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of rotundic acid and pedunculoside in the forms of a monomer mixture and Ilicis Rotundae Cortex extract to the conventional rats significantly decreased the systemic exposure compared with the monomer groups, which demonstrated the existence of significant pharmacokinetic interactions. The pseudo-germ-free rats were prepared by nonabsorbable antibiotic treatment, and the systemic exposure of two analytes were significantly decreased and most of the "time to reach the maximum" values were delayed in comparison to conventional rats, therefore gut microbiota might serve as an efficient absorption promoter. These results provide a scientific basis for the clinical application of the two bioactive constituents and Ilicis Rotundae Cortex.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/farmacocinética , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem
19.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159359

RESUMO

Seaweeds are an underexploited and potentially sustainable crop which offer a rich source of bioactive compounds, including novel complex polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids, and carotenoids. The purported efficacies of these phytochemicals have led to potential functional food and nutraceutical applications which aim to protect against cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and some cancers. Concurrent understanding that perturbations of gut microbial composition and metabolic function manifest throughout health and disease has led to dietary strategies, such as prebiotics, which exploit the diet-host-microbe paradigm to modulate the gut microbiota, such that host health is maintained or improved. The prebiotic definition was recently updated to "a substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit", which, given that previous discussion regarding seaweed prebiotics has focused upon saccharolytic fermentation, an opportunity is presented to explore how non-complex polysaccharide components from seaweeds may be metabolised by host microbial populations to benefit host health. Thus, this review provides an innovative approach to consider how the gut microbiota may utilise seaweed phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids, and provides an updated discussion regarding the catabolism of seaweed-derived complex polysaccharides with potential prebiotic activity. Additional in vitro screening studies and in vivo animal studies are needed to identify potential prebiotics from seaweeds, alongside untargeted metabolomics to decipher microbial-derived metabolites from seaweeds. Furthermore, controlled human intervention studies with health-related end points to elucidate prebiotic efficacy are required.


Assuntos
Prebióticos , Alga Marinha/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 880-888, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211897

RESUMO

AIMS: This study evaluated the effects of a potential probiotic, Bacillus sp., on the growth, serum and hepatic triglyceride, histological features of liver tissues and colonic microflora in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups: mice fed a low-fat diet (Cont), mice fed a high-fat diet (Hf), Hf and orally challenged with Bacillus subtilis (Bs), B. licheniformis (Bl) and a mixture of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis (Bls). Gavage feeding was provided at week 9 and the experiment was continued for 8 weeks. Treatment with B. licheniformis and a mixture of Bacillus sp. attenuated body weight gain at the end of study and enhanced glucose tolerance by sensitizing insulin action in the Hf-fed mice. Lower serum and hepatic triglyceride and epididymal fat weight were observed in Bl and Bls groups than that of Hf group. Lesser hepatic fat deposition was observed in the Bl and Bls groups than in the Hf group. High-throughput sequencing showed that Bacillus sp. supplementation dramatically changed the colonic bacterial community in obese mice. CONCLUSIONS: Bacillus licheniformis reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance, obesity and insulin resistance in Hf-fed mice by changing colonic microbiota composition. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Orally administration of Bacillus licheniformis may reduce body weight and decrease fat deposition by modulating colonic bacterial community in Hf model.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ganho de Peso
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA