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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1345625, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370420

RESUMO

The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a non-selective cation channel modulated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), localizes to microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons in the central nervous system, with the most incredible abundance in microglia. P2X7R partake in various signaling pathways, engaging in the immune response, the release of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, cell division, and programmed cell death. When neurodegenerative diseases result in neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, ATP activates the P2X7R. This activation induces the release of biologically active molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, proteases, reactive oxygen species, and excitotoxic glutamate/ATP. Subsequently, this leads to neuroinflammation, which exacerbates neuronal involvement. The P2X7R is essential in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This implies that it has potential as a drug target and could be treated using P2X7R antagonists that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This review will comprehensively and objectively discuss recent research breakthroughs on P2X7R genes, their structural features, functional properties, signaling pathways, and their roles in neurodegenerative diseases and possible therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7 , Humanos , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
2.
Cell ; 187(4): 962-980.e19, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309258

RESUMO

Microglia (MG), the brain-resident macrophages, play major roles in health and disease via a diversity of cellular states. While embryonic MG display a large heterogeneity of cellular distribution and transcriptomic states, their functions remain poorly characterized. Here, we uncovered a role for MG in the maintenance of structural integrity at two fetal cortical boundaries. At these boundaries between structures that grow in distinct directions, embryonic MG accumulate, display a state resembling post-natal axon-tract-associated microglia (ATM) and prevent the progression of microcavities into large cavitary lesions, in part via a mechanism involving the ATM-factor Spp1. MG and Spp1 furthermore contribute to the rapid repair of lesions, collectively highlighting protective functions that preserve the fetal brain from physiological morphogenetic stress and injury. Our study thus highlights key major roles for embryonic MG and Spp1 in maintaining structural integrity during morphogenesis, with major implications for our understanding of MG functions and brain development.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Microglia , Axônios , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Microglia/patologia , Morfogênese
3.
Molecules ; 29(4)2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398662

RESUMO

The microglia, displaying diverse phenotypes, play a significant regulatory role in the development, progression, and prognosis of Parkinson's disease. Research has established that glycolytic reprogramming serves as a critical regulator of inflammation initiation in pro-inflammatory macrophages. Furthermore, the modulation of glycolytic reprogramming has the potential to reverse the polarized state of these macrophages. Previous studies have shown that Levistilide A (LA), a phthalide component derived from Angelica sinensis, possesses a range of pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. In our study, we have examined the impact of LA on inflammatory cytokines and glucose metabolism in microglia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we explored the effects of LA on the AMPK/mTOR pathway and assessed its neuroprotective potential both in vitro and in vivo. The findings revealed that LA notably diminished the expression of M1 pro-inflammatory factors induced by LPS in microglia, while leaving M2 anti-inflammatory factor expression unaltered. Additionally, it reduced ROS production and suppressed IκB-α phosphorylation levels as well as NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Notably, LA exhibited the ability to reverse microglial glucose metabolism reprogramming and modulate the phosphorylation levels of AMPK/mTOR. In vivo experiments further corroborated these findings, demonstrating that LA mitigated the death of TH-positive dopaminergic neurons and reduced microglia activation in the ventral SNpc brain region of the midbrain and the striatum. In summary, LA exhibited neuroprotective benefits by modulating the polarization state of microglia and altering glucose metabolism, highlighting its therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos de Anel em Ponte , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Microglia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(10): 15746-15758, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305974

RESUMO

The transition from paraquat (PQ) to diquat (DQ), both organic dication herbicides, in China has led to significant increases in the number of acute DQ poisoning cases. Case studies have shown that acute DQ poisoning resulted in injury to the central nervous system (CNS), but the mechanism underlying the injury remains to be explored. The present study aimed to investigate how DQ influenced purinergic signaling between astrocytes and microglia and whether extracellular ATP (eATP) was involved in promoting neuroinflammation induced by acute DQ toxicity through the activation of the P2X4/NLRP3 signaling pathway. We constructed a rat model of acute DQ toxicity to observe the pathological changes in hippocampal tissues after DQ exposure and measure the expression levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α in the hippocampal tissue. We also established an in vitro co-culture model of C6 astrocytes and BV-2 microglia using transwell chambers, measured the amount of eATP secreted into C6 astrocytes after DQ treatment, and assessed the inflammatory response and changes in the P2X4/NLRP3 signaling pathway in BV-2 microglia. The results showed that the neurons in the hippocampal tissue of rats exhibited loose arrangement, nuclear consolidation, and necrosis after DQ exposure, and IL-1ß and TNF-α levels were signification higher in the hippocampal tissue after DQ exposure. DQ exposure to the co-cultured cells induced an increase in ATP secretion from C6 astrocytes as well as a significant increase of P2X4, NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 expression in BV-2 microglia. In contrast, pretreatment of C6 astrocytes with apyrase (an ATP hydrolase) resulted in a significant decrease of P2X4, NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 expression in BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, inhibition of P2X4 expression in BV-2 microglia by transfection with si-P2X4 effectively reversed the increase of NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in BV-2 microglia induced by DQ when co-cultured with C6 astrocytes. These results indicate that astrocytes can activate the P2X4/NLRP3 signaling pathway in microglia through the DQ-induced extracellular release of ATP to promote neuroinflammation in rat hippocampal tissue.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Microglia , Ratos , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/farmacologia , Diquat , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo
5.
J Immunol Methods ; 526: 113626, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311008

RESUMO

The P2X4 receptor is a trimeric ligand-gated ion channel activated by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). P2X4 is present in immune cells with emerging roles in inflammation and immunity, and related disorders. This review aims to provide an overview of the methods commonly used to study P2X4 in immune cells, focusing on those methods used to assess P2RX4 gene expression, the presence of the P2X4 protein, and P2X4 ion channel activity in these cells from humans, dogs, mice and rats. P2RX4 gene expression in immune cells is commonly assessed using semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse-transcriptase-PCR. The presence of P2X4 protein in immune cells is mainly assessed using anti-P2X4 polyclonal antibodies with immunoblotting or immunochemistry, but the use of these antibodies, as well as monoclonal antibodies and nanobodies to detect P2X4 with flow cytometry is increasing. Notably, use of an anti-P2X4 monoclonal antibody and flow cytometry has revealed that P2X4 is present on immune cells with a rank order of expression in eosinophils, then neutrophils and monocytes, then basophils and B cells, and finally T cells. P2X4 ion channel activity has been assessed mainly by Ca2+ flux assays using the cell permeable Ca2+-sensitive dyes Fura-2 and Fluo-4 with fluorescence microscopy, spectrophotometry, or flow cytometry. However, other methods including electrophysiology, and fluorescence assays measuring Na+ flux (using sodium green tetra-acetate) and dye uptake (using YO-PRO-12+) have been applied. Collectively, these methods have demonstrated the presence of functional P2X4 in monocytes and macrophages, microglia, eosinophils, mast cells and CD4+ T cells, with other evidence suggestive of functional P2X4 in dendritic cells, neutrophils, B cells and CD8+ T cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4 , Camundongos , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
6.
In Vivo ; 38(2): 691-698, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the role of NOTCH receptor 1 (NOTCH1)-mediated activation of microglia in the L5-S2 spinal dorsal horn in chronic prostatitis pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into chronic prostatitis (CP) group and control group. Complete Freund's adjuvant was injected into the prostate, and prostate pathology and pain-related behavior were monitored to assess the successful establishment of the CP-related pain model. The dorsal horn of the L5-S2 spinal cord was collected for the detection of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) and NOTCH1 expression by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and the detection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Electrical excitability was assessed with whole-cell patch clamp. In addition, NOTCH1 receptor inhibitor or inhibitor of microglial cell activation was injected into the subarachnoid space, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord were detected. RESULTS: In the CP group, the expression of NOTCH1, IBA-1, TNF-α and IL-1ß began to increase at 4 days, peaked at 12 days, and began to decline at 24 days, and it was significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.01). Inhibition of microglia or NOTCH1 receptor markedly reduced the content of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the spinal cord (p<0.05). At 4, 12 and 24 days, the amplitude and frequency of neuronal action potential increased and the threshold decreased markedly as compared to the control group (p<0.05), and spontaneous action potential was noted. CONCLUSION: NOTCH1 mediates the activation of microglia in the L5-S2 spinal cord, leading to the secretion of inflammatory factors and enhanced electrical excitability of neurons, which is related to persistent and refractory chronic prostatitis-related pain.


Assuntos
Prostatite , Masculino , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Prostatite/terapia , Prostatite/metabolismo , Prostatite/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Dor , Doença Crônica , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia
7.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 38(2): 198-205, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385233

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of M2 microglia (M2-MG) transplantation on spinal cord injury (SCI) repair in mice. Methods: Primary MG were obtained from the cerebral cortex of 15 C57BL/6 mice born 2-3 days old by pancreatic enzyme digestion and identified by immunofluorescence staining of Iba1. Then the primary MG were co-cultured with interleukin 4 for 48 hours (experimental group) to induce into M2 phenotype and identified by immunofluorescence staining of Arginase 1 (Arg-1) and Iba1. The normal MG were harvested as control (control group). The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of 5 C57BL/6 mice born 1 week old were co-cultured with M2-MG for 5 days to observe the axon length, the DRG alone was used as control. Forty-two 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham group ( n=6), SCI group ( n=18), and SCI+M2-MG group ( n=18). In sham group, only the laminae of T 10 level were removed; SCI group and SCI+M2-MG group underwent SCI modeling, and SCI+M2-MG group was simultaneously injected with M2-MG. The survival of mice in each group was observed after operation. At immediate (0), 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after operation, the motor function of mice was evaluated by Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) score, and the gait was evaluated by footprint experiment at 28 days. The spinal cord tissue was taken after operation for immunofluorescence staining, in which glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining at 7, 14, and 28 days was used to observe the injured area of the spinal cord, neuronal nuclei antigen staining at 28 days was used to observe the survival of neurons, and GFAP/C3 double staining at 7 and 14 days was used to observe the changes in the number of A1 astrocytes. Results: The purity of MG in vitro reached 90%, and the most of the cells were polarized into M2 phenotype identified by Arg-1 immunofluorescence staining. M2-MG promoted the axon growth when co-cultured with DRGs in vitro ( P<0.05). All groups of mice survived until the experiment was completed. The hind limb motor function of SCI group and SCI+M2-MG group gradually recovered over time. Among them, the SCI+M2-MG group had significantly higher BMS scores than the SCI group at 21 and 28 days ( P<0.05), and the dragging gait significantly improved at 28 days, but it did not reach the level of the sham group. Immunofluorescence staining showed that compared with the SCI group, the SCI+M2-MG group had a smaller injury area at 7, 14, and 28 days, an increase in neuronal survival at 28 days, and a decrease in the number of A1 astrocytes at 7 and 14 days, with significant differences ( P<0.05). Conclusion: M2-MG transplantation improves the motor function of the hind limbs of SCI mice by promoting neuron survival and axon regeneration. This neuroprotective effect is related to the inhibition of A1 astrocytes polarization.


Assuntos
Microglia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Axônios/metabolismo , Regeneração Nervosa , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3145, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326384

RESUMO

Indole-3-carbinol(I3C) is a tumor chemopreventive substance that can be extracted from cruciferous vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the cerebral protective effects of I3C in an in vivo rats model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). 8-10 Week-Old male SD rat received I3C (150 mg/kg, once daily) for 3 days and underwent 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. The results showed that I3C pretreatment (150 mg/kg, once daily) prevented CIRI-induced cerebral infarction in rats. I3C pretreatment also decreased the mRNA expression levels of several apoptotic proteins, including Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, by increasing the mRNA expression levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Inhibited apoptosis in the brain cells of MCAO rats. In addition, we found that I3C pretreatment reduced neuronal loss, promoted neurological recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury and increased seven-day survival in MCAO rats. I3C pretreatment also significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in ischemic brain tissue; Increased expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA. At the same time, I3C pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of the M1 microglial marker IBA1 after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and increased the expression of these results in the M2 microglial marker CD206. I3C pretreatment also significantly decreased apoptosis and death of HAPI microglial cells after hypoxia induction, decreased interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNAs was increased. These results suggest that I3C protects the brain from CIRI by regulating the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of microglia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Indóis , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Apoptose , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 70, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418961

RESUMO

Perioperative neurocognitive dysfunction (PND) emerges as a common postoperative complication among elderly patients. Currently, the mechanism of PND remains unclear, but there exists a tendency to believe that inflammation plays a significant role in PND. Alterations in the abundance of intestinal microbiota can increase the permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier and incite extraintestinal inflammatory responses. Metabolites from these microbiota can be absorbed by the intestinal mucosa into the bloodstream, exerting influence upon the central nervous system (CNS). Lactobacillus (Lac), serving as an intestinal probiotic bacterium, possesses the capacity to modulate emotional behavior and cognitive functions. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are recognized as novel therapeutic carriers for targeted delivery to regulate physiology and pathogenesis. While the mechanism governing the primary function of Lac-EVs in the CNS remains uncertain. Therefore, we established an in vitro neuroinflammation model to induce PND and then treated the mice with Lac-EVs to observe the effect of these EVs on neuroinflammation, particularly on microglial (MG) polarization. Our research unveils that Lac-EVs reduced inflammation induced by LPS in microglia and the activation of related proteins, including the mRNA expression of M1 labeled protein (iNOS). Moreover, the mRNA expression of M2-labeled protein (Arg1) increased. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that the ratio of M1/M2 microglia also changed significantly. Therefore, Lac-EVs promoted the differentiation of M2 microglia by inducing the preferential expression of specific markers related to M2 macrophages and inflammation. In terms of inflammatory cytokine expression, Lac-EVs decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) and increased IL-10 production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Therefore, Lac-EVs induce the activation of M2 microglial cells without inducing cellular harm in vitro, and they demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. This finding suggested that it is an effective anti-inflammatory strategy for alleviating inflammation-driven PNDs.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Microglia , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Idoso , Microglia/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Citocinas/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
J Integr Neurosci ; 23(2): 32, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419439

RESUMO

The role of growth hormone (GH) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, formation of axonal projections, control of cognition, and regulation of metabolism. As GH induces insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression in many tissues, differentiating the specific functions of GH and IGF-1 in the organism is a significant challenge. The actions of GH and IGF-1 in neurons have been more extensively studied than their functions in nonneuronal cells (e.g., microglial cells). Glial cells are fundamentally important to CNS function. Microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and tanycytes are essential to the survival, differentiation, and proliferation of neurons. As the interaction of the GH/IGF-1 axis with glial cells merits further exploration, our objective for this review was to summarize and discuss the available literature regarding the genuine effects of GH on glial cells, seeking to differentiate them from the role played by IGF-1 action whenever possible.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/fisiologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo
11.
J Integr Neurosci ; 23(2): 26, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is a hallmark of neurodegeneration. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 (GRM8) has been reported to promote neuronal survival in neurodegenerative diseases, yet the effect of GRM8 on neuroinflammation is still unclear. Calcium overload-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial miscommunication has been reported to trigger neuroinflammation in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate putative anti-inflammatory effects of GRM8 in microglia, specifically focusing on its role in calcium overload-induced ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS: BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with GRM8 agonist prior to lipopolysaccharide administration. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and the microglial polarization state in BV2 cells were then quantified. Cellular apoptosis and the viability of neuron-like PC12 cells co-cultured with BV2 cells were examined using flow cytometry and a Cell Counting Kit-8, respectively. The concentration of cAMP, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R)-dependent calcium release, ER Ca2+ concentration, mitochondrial function as reflected by reactive oxygen species levels, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of ER stress-sensing protein, and phosphorylation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit were also quantified in BV2 cells. RESULTS: GRM8 activation inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine release and shifted microglia polarization towards an anti-inflammatory-like phenotype in BV2 cells, as well as promoting neuron-like PC12 cell survival when co-cultured with BV2 cells. Mechanistically, microglial GRM8 activation significantly inhibited cAMP production, thereby desensitizing the IP3R located within the ER. This process markedly limited IP3R-dependent calcium release, thus restoring mitochondrial function while inhibiting ER stress and subsequently deactivating NF-κB signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that GRM8 activation can protect against microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by attenuating ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and that IP3R-mediated calcium signaling may play a vital role in this process. GRM8 may thus be a potential target for limiting neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Microglia , Doenças Mitocondriais , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico , Ratos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo
12.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14551, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality after stroke, but the pathological mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CX3CR1 receptor plays a crucial role in maintaining an early protective microenvironment after stroke, but whether it persistently influences cognitive dysfunction in the chronic phase requires further investigation. METHODS: Mouse was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion model to study PSCI. Cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) and the novel object recognition test. Neurogenesis was assessed by immunofluorescence staining with Nestin+ /Ki67+ and DCX+ /BrdU+ double-positive cells. The cerebral damage was monitored by [18 F]-DPA-714 positron emission tomography, Nissel, and TTC staining. The pyroptosis was histologically, biochemically, and electron microscopically examined. RESULTS: Upon MCAO, at 28 to 35 days, CX3CR1 knockout (CX3CR1-/- ) mice had better cognitive behavioral performance both in MWM and novel object recognition test than their CX3CR1+/- counterparts. Upon MCAO, at 7 days, CX3CR1-/- mice increased the numbers of Nestin+ /Ki67+ and DCX+ /BrdU+ cells, and meanwhile it decreased the protein expression of GSDMD, NLRP3 inflammasome subunit, caspase-1, mature IL-1ß/IL-18, and p-P65 in the hippocampus as compared with CX3CR1+/- mice. In addition, CX3CR1-/- mice could reverse infarct volume in the hippocampus region post-stroke. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that CX3CR1 gene deletion was beneficial to PSCI recovery. The mechanism might lie in inhibited pyroptosis and enhanced neurogenesis. CX3CR1 receptor may serve as a therapeutic target for improving the PSCI.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Camundongos , Animais , Microglia/patologia , Nestina/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Piroptose , Bromodesoxiuridina/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Cognição , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia
13.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14567, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421106

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between microglial metabolism and neuroinflammation by examining the impact of citrate accumulation in microglia and its potential regulation through Cs K215 hypoacetylation. METHODS: Experimental approaches included assessing Cs enzyme activity through Cs K215Q mutation and investigating the inhibitory effects of hesperidin, a natural flavanone glycoside, on citrate synthase. Microglial phagocytosis and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also examined in relation to Cs K215Q mutation and hesperidin treatment. RESULTS: Cs K215Q mutation and hesperidin exhibited significant inhibitory effects on Cs enzyme activity, microglial citrate accumulation, phagocytosis, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Interestingly, Sirt3 knockdown aggravated microglial pro-inflammatory functions during neuroinflammation, despite its proven role in Cs deacetylation. CONCLUSION: Cs K215Q mutation and hesperidin effectively inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory functions without reversing the metabolic reprogramming. These findings suggest that targeting Cs K215 hypoacetylation and utilizing hesperidin may hold promise for modulating neuroinflammation in microglia.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hesperidina , Humanos , Microglia , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Citrato (si)-Sintase/farmacologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Citratos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo
14.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14581, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421141

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to explore the role and molecular mechanism of polygalacic acid (PA) extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Polygala tenuifolia in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: The network pharmacology analysis was used to predict the potential targets and pathways of PA. Molecular docking was applied to analyze the combination between PA and core targets. Aß42 oligomer-induced AD mice model and microglia were used to detect the effect of PA on the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and its further mechanism. In addition, a co-culture system of microglia and neuronal cells was constructed to assess the effect of PA on activating microglia-mediated neuronal apoptosis. RESULTS: We predict that PA might regulate inflammation by targeting PPARγ-mediated pathways by using network pharmacology. In vivo study, PA could attenuate cognitive deficits and inhibit the expression levels of inflammation-related factors. In vitro study, PA can also decrease the production of activated microglia-mediated inflammatory cytokines and reduce the apoptosis of N2a neuronal cells. PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 inversed the neuroprotective effect of PA. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed PA might attenuate the inflammation through the PPARγ/NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSIONS: PA is expected to provide a valuable candidate for new drug development for AD in the future.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , NF-kappa B , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas , Camundongos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Microglia
15.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14550, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334236

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-38 is a newly discovered cytokine of the IL-1 family, which binds various receptors (i.e., IL-36R, IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1, and IL-1R1) in the central nervous system (CNS). The hallmark physiological function of IL-38 is competitive binding to IL-36R, as does the IL-36R antagonist. Emerging research has shown that IL-38 is abnormally expressed in the serum and brain tissue of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), suggesting that IL-38 may play an important role in neurological diseases. Important advances include that IL-38 alleviates neuromyelitis optica disorder (NMOD) by inhibiting Th17 expression, improves IS by protecting against atherosclerosis via regulating immune cells and inflammation, and reduces IL-1ß and CXCL8 release through inhibiting human microglial activity post-ASD. In contrast, IL-38 mRNA is markedly increased and is mainly expressed in phagocytes in spinal cord injury (SCI). IL-38 ablation attenuated SCI by reducing immune cell infiltration. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of IL-38 in CNS diseases remain inadequately characterized. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics, pathophysiological role, and potential mechanisms of IL-38 in CNS diseases (e.g., NMOD, Alzheimer's disease, ASD, IS, TBI, and SCI), aiming to explore the therapeutic potential of IL-38 in the prevention and treatment of CNS diseases.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Neuromielite Óptica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Interleucinas
16.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334675

RESUMO

Cathepsin B (CatB) is thought to be essential for the induction of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg LPS)-induced Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies in mice, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) production and cognitive decline. However, little is known about the role of CatB in Pg virulence factor-induced IL-1ß production by microglia. We first subjected IL-1ß-luciferase reporter BV-2 microglia to inhibitors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IκB kinase, and the NLRP3 inflammasome following stimulation with Pg LPS and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). To clarify the involvement of CatB, we used several known CatB inhibitors, including CA-074Me, ZRLR, and human ß-defensin 3 (hBD3). IL-1ß production in BV-2 microglia induced by Pg LPS and OMVs was significantly inhibited by the TLR2 inhibitor C29 and the IκB kinase inhibitor wedelolactonne, but not by the NLRPs inhibitor MCC950. Both hBD3 and CA-074Me significantly inhibited Pg LPS-induced IL-1ß production in BV-2 microglia. Although CA-074Me also suppressed OMV-induced IL-1ß production, hBD3 did not inhibit it. Furthermore, both hBD3 and CA-074Me significantly blocked Pg LPS-induced nuclear NF-κB p65 translocation and IκBα degradation. In contrast, hBD3 and CA-074Me did not block OMV-induced nuclear NF-κB p65 translocation or IκBα degradation. Furthermore, neither ZRLR, a specific CatB inhibitor, nor shRNA-mediated knockdown of CatB expression had any effect on Pg virulence factor-induced IL-1ß production. Interestingly, phagocytosis of OMVs by BV-2 microglia induced IL-1ß production. Finally, the structural models generated by AlphaFold indicated that hBD3 can bind to the substrate-binding pocket of CatB, and possibly CatL as well. These results suggest that Pg LPS induces CatB/CatL-dependent synthesis and processing of pro-IL-1ß without activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In contrast, OMVs promote the synthesis and processing of pro-IL-1ß through CatB/CatL-independent phagocytic mechanisms. Thus, hBD3 can improve the IL-1ß-associated vicious inflammatory cycle induced by microglia through inhibition of CatB/CatL.


Assuntos
Microglia , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
18.
Brain Behav ; 14(2): e3373, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and vitamin D supplementation robustly alleviates neurodegeneration in PD models. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect require further clarification. Current evidence suggests that harnessing regulatory T cells (Treg) may mitigate neuronal degeneration. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of vitamin D receptor activation by calcitriol on PD, specifically focusing on its role in Treg. METHODS: Hemiparkinsonian mice model was established through the injection of 6-OHDA into the striatum. Mice were pretreated with calcitriol before 6-OHDA injection. The motor performance, dopaminergic neuronal survival, contents of dopamine, and dopamine metabolites were evaluated. The pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, T-cell infiltration, mRNA expression of indicated microglial M1/M2 phenotypic markers, and microglial marker in the midbrain were detected. Populations of Treg in the splenic tissues were assessed using a flow cytometry assay. PC61 monoclonal antibody was applied to deplete Treg in vivo. RESULTS: We show that calcitriol supplementation notably improved motor performance and reduced dopaminergic degeneration in the 6-OHDA-induced PD model. Mechanistically, calcitriol promoted anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective Treg and inhibited pro-inflammatory/neurodestructive effector T-cell generation in this model. This process significantly inhibited T-cell infiltration in the midbrain, restrained microglial activation, microglial M1 polarization, and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines release. This more favorable inflammatory microenvironment rescued dopaminergic degeneration. To further verify that the anti-inflammatory effects of calcitriol are associated with Treg expansion, we applied an antibody-mediated Treg depletion assay. As predicted, the anti-inflammatory effects of calcitriol in the PD model were diminished following Treg depletion. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that calcitriol's anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in PD are associated with its potential to boost Treg expansion.


Assuntos
Microglia , Doença de Parkinson , Camundongos , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Calcitriol/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças
19.
Acta Neuropathol ; 147(1): 37, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347231

RESUMO

There are several cellular and acellular structural barriers associated with the brain interfaces, which include the dura, the leptomeninges, the perivascular space and the choroid plexus epithelium. Each structure is enriched by distinct myeloid populations, which mainly originate from erythromyeloid precursors (EMP) in the embryonic yolk sac and seed the CNS during embryogenesis. However, depending on the precise microanatomical environment, resident myeloid cells differ in their marker profile, turnover and the extent to which they can be replenished by blood-derived cells. While some EMP-derived cells seed the parenchyma to become microglia, others engraft the meninges and become CNS-associated macrophages (CAMs), also referred to as border-associated macrophages (BAMs), e.g., leptomeningeal macrophages (MnMΦ). Recent data revealed that MnMΦ migrate into perivascular spaces postnatally where they differentiate into perivascular macrophages (PvMΦ). Under homeostatic conditions in pathogen-free mice, there is virtually no contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to MnMΦ and PvMΦ, but rather to macrophages of the choroid plexus and dura. In neuropathological conditions in which the blood-brain barrier is compromised, however, an influx of bone marrow-derived cells into the CNS can occur, potentially contributing to the pool of CNS myeloid cells. Simultaneously, resident CAMs may also proliferate and undergo transcriptional and proteomic changes, thereby, contributing to the disease outcome. Thus, both resident and infiltrating myeloid cells together act within their microenvironmental niche, but both populations play crucial roles in the overall disease course. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the sources and fates of resident CAMs in health and disease, and the role of the microenvironment in influencing their maintenance and function.


Assuntos
Macrófagos , Proteômica , Camundongos , Animais , Macrófagos/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Microglia , Meninges
20.
Acta Neuropathol ; 147(1): 38, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347307

RESUMO

Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with vascular disturbances or inflammation and frequently both. Consequently, endothelial cells and macrophages are key cellular players that mediate pathology in many CNS diseases. Macrophages in the brain consist of the CNS-associated macrophages (CAMs) [also referred to as border-associated macrophages (BAMs)] and microglia, both of which are close neighbours or even form direct contacts with endothelial cells in microvessels. Recent progress has revealed that different macrophage populations in the CNS and a subset of brain endothelial cells are derived from the same erythromyeloid progenitor cells. Macrophages and endothelial cells share several common features in their life cycle-from invasion into the CNS early during embryonic development and proliferation in the CNS, to their demise. In adults, microglia and CAMs have been implicated in regulating the patency and diameter of vessels, blood flow, the tightness of the blood-brain barrier, the removal of vascular calcification, and the life-time of brain endothelial cells. Conversely, CNS endothelial cells may affect the polarization and activation state of myeloid populations. The molecular mechanisms governing the pas de deux of brain macrophages and endothelial cells are beginning to be deciphered and will be reviewed here.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Células Endoteliais , Encéfalo/patologia , Macrófagos , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Microglia
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