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1.
Mol Neurodegener ; 19(1): 14, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterised by lipid peroxidation as the terminal endpoint and a requirement for iron. Although it protects against cancer and infection, ferroptosis is also implicated in causing neuronal death in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The precise role for ferroptosis in causing neuronal death is yet to be fully resolved. METHODS: To elucidate the role of ferroptosis in neuronal death we utilised co-culture and conditioned medium transfer experiments involving microglia, astrocytes and neurones. We ratified clinical significance of our cell culture findings via assessment of human CNS tissue from cases of the fatal, paralysing neurodegenerative condition of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We utilised the SOD1G37R mouse model of ALS and a CNS-permeant ferroptosis inhibitor to verify pharmacological significance in vivo. RESULTS: We found that sublethal ferroptotic stress selectively affecting microglia triggers an inflammatory cascade that results in non-cell autonomous neuronal death. Central to this cascade is the conversion of astrocytes to a neurotoxic state. We show that spinal cord tissue from human cases of ALS exhibits a signature of ferroptosis that encompasses atomic, molecular and biochemical features. Further, we show the molecular correlation between ferroptosis and neurotoxic astrocytes evident in human ALS-affected spinal cord is recapitulated in the SOD1G37R mouse model where treatment with a CNS-permeant ferroptosis inhibitor, CuII(atsm), ameliorated these markers and was neuroprotective. CONCLUSIONS: By showing that microglia responding to sublethal ferroptotic stress culminates in non-cell autonomous neuronal death, our results implicate microglial ferroptotic stress as a rectifiable cause of neuronal death in neurodegenerative disease. As ferroptosis is currently primarily regarded as an intrinsic cell death phenomenon, these results introduce an entirely new pathophysiological role for ferroptosis in disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3145, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326384

RESUMO

Indole-3-carbinol(I3C) is a tumor chemopreventive substance that can be extracted from cruciferous vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the cerebral protective effects of I3C in an in vivo rats model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). 8-10 Week-Old male SD rat received I3C (150 mg/kg, once daily) for 3 days and underwent 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. The results showed that I3C pretreatment (150 mg/kg, once daily) prevented CIRI-induced cerebral infarction in rats. I3C pretreatment also decreased the mRNA expression levels of several apoptotic proteins, including Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, by increasing the mRNA expression levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Inhibited apoptosis in the brain cells of MCAO rats. In addition, we found that I3C pretreatment reduced neuronal loss, promoted neurological recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury and increased seven-day survival in MCAO rats. I3C pretreatment also significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in ischemic brain tissue; Increased expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA. At the same time, I3C pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of the M1 microglial marker IBA1 after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and increased the expression of these results in the M2 microglial marker CD206. I3C pretreatment also significantly decreased apoptosis and death of HAPI microglial cells after hypoxia induction, decreased interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNAs was increased. These results suggest that I3C protects the brain from CIRI by regulating the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of microglia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Indóis , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Apoptose , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 42, 2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311721

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects about 200 million people worldwide, causing leakage of blood components into retinal tissues, leading to activation of microglia, the resident phagocytes of the retina, promoting neuronal and vascular damage. The microglial receptor, CX3CR1, binds to fractalkine (FKN), an anti-inflammatory chemokine that is expressed on neuronal membranes (mFKN), and undergoes constitutive cleavage to release a soluble domain (sFKN). Deficiencies in CX3CR1 or FKN showed increased microglial activation, inflammation, vascular damage, and neuronal loss in experimental mouse models. To understand the mechanism that regulates microglia function, recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) expressing mFKN or sFKN were delivered to intact retinas prior to diabetes. High-resolution confocal imaging and mRNA-seq were used to analyze microglia morphology and markers of expression, neuronal and vascular health, and inflammatory mediators. We confirmed that prophylactic intra-vitreal administration of rAAV expressing sFKN (rAAV-sFKN), but not mFKN (rAAV-mFKN), in FKNKO retinas provided vasculo- and neuro-protection, reduced microgliosis, mitigated inflammation, improved overall optic nerve health by regulating microglia-mediated inflammation, and prevented fibrin(ogen) leakage at 4 weeks and 10 weeks of diabetes induction. Moreover, administration of sFKN improved visual acuity. Our results elucidated a novel intervention via sFKN gene therapy that provides an alternative pathway to implement translational and therapeutic approaches, preventing diabetes-associated blindness.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CX3CL1 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Quimiocina CX3CL1/genética , Quimiocina CX3CL1/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/genética , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo
4.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(733): eadg1323, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324639

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is acknowledged as a pivotal pathological event after cerebral ischemia. However, there is limited knowledge of the molecular and spatial characteristics of nonneuronal cells, as well as of the interactions between cell types in the ischemic brain. Here, we used spatial transcriptomics to study the ischemic hemisphere in mice after stroke and sequenced the transcriptomes of 19,777 spots, allowing us to both visualize the transcriptional landscape within the tissue and identify gene expression profiles linked to specific histologic entities. Cell types identified by single-cell RNA sequencing confirmed and enriched the spatial annotation of ischemia-associated gene expression in the peri-infarct area of the ischemic hemisphere. Analysis of ligand-receptor interactions in cell communication revealed galectin-9 to cell-surface glycoprotein CD44 (LGALS9-CD44) as a critical signaling pathway after ischemic injury and identified microglia and macrophages as the main source of galectins after stroke. Extracellular vesicle-mediated Lgals9 delivery improved the long-term functional recovery in photothrombotic stroke mice. Knockdown of Cd44 partially reversed these therapeutic effects, inhibiting oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination. In summary, our study provides a detailed molecular and cellular characterization of the peri-infact area in a murine stroke model and revealed Lgals9 as potential treatment target that warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Camundongos , Animais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Isquemia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2744, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302598

RESUMO

Amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agent used clinically for the treatment of aphthous ulcers, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Recent studies have demonstrated that amlexanox, a selective inhibitor of IkB kinase epsilon (IKKε) and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), suppresses a range of diseases or inflammatory conditions, such as obesity-related metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes. However, the effects of amlexanox on neuroinflammatory responses to amlexanox have not yet been comprehensively studied. In this study, we investigated the novel therapeutic effect of amlexanox on LPS-induced neuroinflammation in vivo, and intraperitoneal injection of amlexanox markedly reduced LPS-induced IKKε levels, proinflammatory cytokines, and microglial activation, as evidenced by ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) immunostaining. Furthermore, amlexanox significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in LPS-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), murine BV2, and human HMC3 microglial cells. This data provided considerable evidence that amlexanox can be used as a preventive and curative therapy for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In terms of mechanism aspects, our results demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory action of amlexanox in BV2 microglial cells was through the downregulation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways. In addition, the combination of amlexanox and SPI (a STAT3 selective inhibitor) showed high efficiency in inhibiting the production of neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Overall, our data provide rational insights into the mechanisms of amlexanox as a potential therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , NF-kappa B , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
6.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 12(1): 21, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308315

RESUMO

Tissue injury and tumorigenesis share many cellular and molecular features, including immune cell (T cells, monocytes) infiltration and inflammatory factor (cytokines, chemokines) elaboration. Their common pathobiology raises the intriguing possibility that brain injury could create a tissue microenvironment permissive for tumor formation. Leveraging several murine models of the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome and two experimental methods of brain injury, we demonstrate that both optic nerve crush and diffuse traumatic brain injury induce optic glioma (OPG) formation in mice harboring Nf1-deficient preneoplastic progenitors. We further elucidate the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, whereby glutamate released from damaged neurons stimulates IL-1ß release by oligodendrocytes to induce microglia expression of Ccl5, a growth factor critical for Nf1-OPG formation. Interruption of this cellular circuit using glutamate receptor, IL-1ß or Ccl5 inhibitors abrogates injury-induced glioma progression, thus establishing a causative relationship between injury and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Neurofibromatose 1 , Glioma do Nervo Óptico , Camundongos , Animais , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Biomed Res ; 45(1): 13-23, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325842

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of rutin on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) conditions and the underlying mechanisms involving microglia polarization and JAK/STAT3 signaling. RGCs isolated from C57/Bl6 mice were co-cultured with BV2 microglial cells under normal or in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) conditions. Rutin's effects were evaluated by assessing cell viability, apoptosis rates, cytokine levels, microglial polarization markers and JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation levels. The specific target is confirmed through the inhibitory effect of rutin on the respectively activated signaling factors. Furthermore, molecular docking analyses elucidated rutin-JAK1 interactions. OGD/R conditions significantly reduced RGC viability, exacerbated by BV2 co-culture. However, both 1 µM and 5 µM rutin treatment dose-dependently enhanced RGC viability, reduced apoptosis, and suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Western blot analysis indicated that rutin promoted the M2 microglial phenotype and suppressed JAK/STAT3 signaling. Notably, rutin selectively inhibited JAK1 phosphorylation without affecting STAT3. Molecular docking highlighted potential interaction sites between rutin and specific JAK1 pseudokinase domain. Rutin exerts neuroprotective effects against retinal I/R injury by promoting M2 microglial polarization, potentially through the selective inhibition of JAK1 phosphorylation within the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway. These findings provide a foundation for the therapeutic potential of rutin in retinal I/R injuries.


Assuntos
Microglia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Camundongos , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Rutina/farmacologia , Rutina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
8.
Sci Adv ; 10(5): eadj7813, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306420

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with an increased risk of dementia and cognitive impairment, and a complex interaction of genetic and environmental dietary factors may be implicated. Free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4) may bridge the genetic and dietary aspects of MetS development. However, the role of Ffar4 in MetS-related cognitive dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we found that Ffar4 expression is down-regulated in MetS mice and MetS patients with cognitive impairment. Conventional and microglial conditional knockout of Ffar4 exacerbated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cognitive dysfunction and anxiety, whereas microglial Ffar4 overexpression improved HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction and anxiety. Mechanistically, we found that microglial Ffar4 regulated microglial activation through type I interferon signaling. Microglial depletion and NF-κB inhibition partially reversed cognitive dysfunction and anxiety in microglia-specific Ffar4 knockout MetS mice. Together, these findings uncover a previously unappreciated role of Ffar4 in negatively regulating the NF-κB-IFN-ß signaling and provide an attractive therapeutic target for delaying MetS-associated cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Síndrome Metabólica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
9.
BMC Neurosci ; 25(1): 6, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308250

RESUMO

Under pathological conditions, the immune-specialized brain microenvironment contains both resident microglia and bone marrow-derived myeloid cells recruited from peripheral circulation. Due to largely overlapping phenotypic similarities between these ontogenically distinct myeloid populations, studying their individual functions in central nervous system diseases has been challenging. Recently, transmembrane protein 119 (Tmem119) has been reported as a marker for resident microglia which is not expressed by bone marrow-derived myeloid cells. However, several studies have reported the loss or reduction of Tmem119 expression in pathologically activated microglia. Here, we examined whether Tmem119 could be used as a robust marker to identify brain metastasis-associated microglia. In addition, we also compared Tmem119 expression of primary microglia to the immortalized microglia-like BV2 cell line and characterized expression changes after LPS treatment. Lastly, we used a commercially available transgenic mouse line (Tmem119-eGFP) to compare Tmem119 expression patterns to the traditional antibody-based detection methods. Our results indicate that brain metastasis-associated microglia have reduced Tmem119 gene and protein expression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Microglia , Animais , Camundongos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338716

RESUMO

Transcription factors within microglia contribute to the inflammatory response following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, we employed bioinformatics screening to identify the potential transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) within microglia. Inflammatory stimuli can provoke an elevated expression of TonEBP in microglia. Nevertheless, the expression and function of microglial TonEBP in ICH-induced neuroinflammation remain ambiguous. In our recent research, we discovered that ICH instigated an increased TonEBP in microglia in both human and mouse peri-hematoma brain tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that TonEBP knockdown mitigates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and the activation of NF-κB signaling in microglia. In order to more deeply comprehend the underlying molecular mechanisms of how TonEBP modulates the inflammatory response, we sequenced the transcriptomes of TonEBP-deficient cells and sought potential downstream target genes of TonEBP, such as Pellino-1 (PELI1). PELI has been previously reported to mediate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Through the utilization of CUT & RUN, a dual-luciferase reporter, and qPCR, we confirmed that TonEBP is the transcription factor of Peli1, binding to the Peli1 promoter. In summary, TonEBP may enhance the LPS-induced inflammation and activation of NF-κB signaling via PELI1.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 54, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383421

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the aggregation of α-Synuclein (αSYN) building up intraneuronal inclusions termed Lewy pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that neuron-released αSYN aggregates could be central to microglial activation, which in turn mounts and orchestrates neuroinflammatory processes potentially harmful to neurons. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that drive microglial cell activation, polarization and function in PD might have important therapeutic implications. Here, using primary microglia, we investigated the inflammatory potential of pure αSYN fibrils derived from PD patients. We further explored and characterized microglial cell responses to a chronic-type inflammatory stimulation combining PD patient-derived αSYN fibrils (FPD), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (TPFPD). We showed that FPD hold stronger inflammatory potency than pure αSYN fibrils generated de novo. When combined with TNFα and PGE2, FPD polarizes microglia toward a particular functional phenotype departing from FPD-treated cells and featuring lower inflammatory cytokine and higher glutamate release. Whereas metabolomic studies showed that TPFPD-exposed microglia were closely related to classically activated M1 proinflammatory cells, notably with similar tricarboxylic acid cycle disruption, transcriptomic analysis revealed that TPFPD-activated microglia assume a unique molecular signature highlighting upregulation of genes involved in glutathione and iron metabolisms. In particular, TPFPD-specific upregulation of Slc7a11 (which encodes the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT) was consistent with the increased glutamate response and cytotoxic activity of these cells toward midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vitro. Together, these data further extend the structure-pathological relationship of αSYN fibrillar polymorphs to their innate immune properties and demonstrate that PD-derived αSYN fibrils, TNFα and PGE2 act in concert to drive microglial cell activation toward a specific and highly neurotoxic chronic-type inflammatory phenotype characterized by robust glutamate release and iron retention.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo
12.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1303937, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384464

RESUMO

Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CINP) is one of the main adverse effects of chemotherapy treatment. At the spinal level, CINP modulation involves glial cells that upregulate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and signaling pathways, which can be activated by pro-inflammatory mediators as the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Objective: To evaluate the spinal role of HMGB1 in the paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain via receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and TLR4 activation expressed in glial cells. Methods: Male C57BL/6 Wild type and TLR4 deficient mice were used in the paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. The nociceptive threshold was measured using the von Frey filament test. In addition, recombinant HMGB1 was intrathecally (i.t.) injected to confirm its nociceptive potential. To evaluate the spinal participation of RAGE, TLR4, NF-kB, microglia, astrocytes, and MAPK p38 in HMGB1-mediated nociceptive effect during neuropathic pain and recombinant HMGB1-induced nociception, the drugs FPS-ZM1, LPS-RS, PDTC, minocycline, fluorocitrate, and SML0543 were respectively administrated by i.t. rout. Microglia, astrocytes, glial cells, RAGE, and TLR4 protein expression were analyzed by Western blot. ELISA immunoassay was also used to assess HMGB1, IL-1ß, and TNF-α spinal levels. Results: The pharmacological experiments demonstrated that spinal RAGE, TLR4, microglia, astrocytes, as well as MAPK p38 and NF-kB signaling are involved with HMGB1-induced nociception and paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. Furthermore, HMGB1 spinal levels were increased during the early stages of neuropathic pain and associated with RAGE, TLR4 and microglial activation. RAGE and TLR4 blockade decreased spinal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines during neuropathic pain. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings indicate that HMGB1 may be released during the early stages of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. This molecule activates RAGE and TLR4 receptors in spinal microglia, upregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines that may contribute to neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Neuralgia , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , NF-kappa B , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1899): 20220389, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368935

RESUMO

The endosomal gene SORL1 is a strong Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk gene that harbours loss-of-function variants causative for developing AD. The SORL1 protein SORL1/SORLA is an endosomal receptor that interacts with the multi-protein sorting complex retromer to traffic various cargo through the endo-lysosomal network (ELN). Impairments in endo-lysosomal trafficking are an early cellular symptom in AD and a novel therapeutic target. However, the cell types of the central nervous system are diverse and use the ELN differently. If this pathway is to be effectively therapeutically targeted, understanding how key molecules in the ELN function in various cell types and how manipulating them affects cell-type specific responses relative to AD is essential. Here, we discuss an example where deficiency of SORL1 expression in a human model leads to stress on early endosomes and recycling endosomes in neurons, but preferentially leads to stress on lysosomes in microglia. The differences observed in these organelles could relate to the unique roles of these cells in the brain as neurons are professional secretory cells and microglia are professional phagocytic cells. Experiments to untangle these differences are fundamental to advancing the understanding of cell biology in AD and elucidating important pathways for therapeutic development. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell models are a valuable platform for such experiments. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Understanding the endo-lysosomal network in neurodegeneration'.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Neurônios , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo
14.
Mol Neurodegener ; 19(1): 18, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365827

RESUMO

It has recently become well-established that there is a connection between Alzheimer's disease pathology and gut microbiome dysbiosis. We have previously demonstrated that antibiotic-mediated gut microbiota perturbations lead to attenuation of Aß deposition, phosphorylated tau accumulation, and disease-associated glial cell phenotypes in a sex-dependent manner. In this regard, we were intrigued by the finding that a marine-derived oligosaccharide, GV-971, was reported to alter gut microbiota and reduce Aß amyloidosis in the 5XFAD mouse model that were treated at a point when Aß burden was near plateau levels. Utilizing comparable methodologies, but with distinct technical and temporal features, we now report on the impact of GV-971 on gut microbiota, Aß amyloidosis and microglial phenotypes in the APPPS1-21 model, studies performed at the University of Chicago, and independently in the 5X FAD model, studies performed at Washington University, St. Louis.Methods To comprehensively characterize the effects of GV-971 on the microbiota-microglia-amyloid axis, we conducted two separate investigations at independent institutions. There was no coordination of the experimental design or execution between the two laboratories. Indeed, the two laboratories were not aware of each other's experiments until the studies were completed. Male and female APPPS1-21 mice were treated daily with 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg of GV-971 from 8, when Aß burden was detectable upto 12 weeks of age when Aß burden was near maximal levels. In parallel, and to corroborate existing published studies and further investigate sex-related differences, male and female 5XFAD mice were treated daily with 100 mg/kg of GV-971 from 7 to 9 months of age when Aß burden was near peak levels. Subsequently, the two laboratories independently assessed amyloid-ß deposition, metagenomic, and neuroinflammatory profiles. Finally, studies were initiated at the University of Chicago to evaluate the metabolites in cecal tissue from vehicle and GV-971-treated 5XFAD mice.Results These studies showed that independent of the procedural differences (dosage, timing and duration of treatment) between the two laboratories, cerebral amyloidosis was reduced primarily in male mice, independent of strain. We also observed sex-specific microbiota differences following GV-971 treatment. Interestingly, GV-971 significantly altered multiple overlapping bacterial species at both institutions. Moreover, we discovered that GV-971 significantly impacted microbiome metabolism, particularly by elevating amino acid production and influencing the tryptophan pathway. The metagenomics and metabolomics changes correspond with notable reductions in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles. Furthermore, GV-971 treatment dampened astrocyte and microglia activation, significantly decreasing plaque-associated reactive microglia while concurrently increasing homeostatic microglia only in male mice. Bulk RNAseq analysis unveiled sex-specific changes in cerebral cortex transcriptome profiles, but most importantly, the transcriptome changes in the GV-971-treated male group revealed the involvement of microglia and inflammatory responses.Conclusions In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the connection between the gut microbiome, neuroinflammation, and Alzheimer's disease pathology while highlighting the potential therapeutic effect of GV-971. GV-971 targets the microbiota-microglia-amyloid axis, leading to the lowering of plaque pathology and neuroinflammatory signatures in a sex-dependent manner when given at the onset of Aß deposition or when given after Aß deposition is already at higher levels.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Amiloidose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Amiloidose/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Amiloide/metabolismo , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
15.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 50, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder with a rapidly increasing prevalence worldwide. Current approaches targeting hallmark pathological features of AD have had no consistent clinical benefit. Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to neurodegeneration and hence, microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, are an attractive target for potentially more effective therapeutic strategies. However, there is no current in vitro model system that captures AD patient-specific microglial characteristics using physiologically relevant and experimentally flexible culture conditions. METHODS: To address this shortcoming, we developed novel 3D Matrigel-based monocyte-derived microglia-like cell (MDMi) mono-cultures and co-cultures with neuro-glial cells (ReNcell VM). We used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) analysis to compare the transcriptomic signatures of MDMi between model systems (2D, 3D and 3D co-culture) and against published human microglia datasets. To demonstrate the potential of MDMi for use in personalized pre-clinical strategies, we generated and characterized MDMi models from sixteen AD patients and matched healthy controls, and profiled cytokine responses upon treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs (dasatinib and spiperone). RESULTS: MDMi in 3D exhibited a more branched morphology and longer survival in culture compared to 2D. scRNAseq uncovered distinct MDMi subpopulations that exhibit higher functional heterogeneity and best resemble human microglia in 3D co-culture. AD MDMi in 3D co-culture showed altered cell-to-cell interactions, growth factor and cytokine secretion profiles and responses to amyloid-ß. Drug testing assays revealed patient- and model-specific cytokine responses. CONCLUSION: Our study presents a novel, physiologically relevant and AD patient-specific 3D microglia cell model that opens avenues towards improving personalized drug development strategies in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo
16.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1345625, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370420

RESUMO

The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a non-selective cation channel modulated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), localizes to microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons in the central nervous system, with the most incredible abundance in microglia. P2X7R partake in various signaling pathways, engaging in the immune response, the release of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, cell division, and programmed cell death. When neurodegenerative diseases result in neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, ATP activates the P2X7R. This activation induces the release of biologically active molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, proteases, reactive oxygen species, and excitotoxic glutamate/ATP. Subsequently, this leads to neuroinflammation, which exacerbates neuronal involvement. The P2X7R is essential in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This implies that it has potential as a drug target and could be treated using P2X7R antagonists that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This review will comprehensively and objectively discuss recent research breakthroughs on P2X7R genes, their structural features, functional properties, signaling pathways, and their roles in neurodegenerative diseases and possible therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7 , Humanos , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
17.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(1): 213-218, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372091

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation induced by microglia following spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to secondary neurologic injury. Androgens including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) show as endogenous neuroprotective factors against multiple neurologic diseases, while their therapeutic role in SCI-induced neuroinflammation and underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the study, we aimed to investigate the role of DHT against microglia-induced neuroinflammation in SCI and evaluate its protective treatment. BV2 cells were activated by neuroinflammation via LPS in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the SCI model. BV2 cells and SCI mice were administrated DHT. Microglia activation, pro-inflammatory factors, p38 and p65 phosphorylation, glial scar, fibrotic scar, histology, and locomotor function recovery were measured, respectively. We demonstrated that DHT administration attenuates neuroinflammation in microglia through inhibition of p38 and p65 pathways. Moreover, DHT reduces microglia and astrocyte accumulation, cord fibrosis and histologic damage. Besides, DHT ameliorates locomotor functional recovery after SCI. DHT is verified to play a neuroprotective role in SCI, which fights against neuroinflammation by inhibition of p38 and p65 pathways. Therefore, Mel is defined as a promising factor in protecting neural tissue after SCI.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
18.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14550, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334236

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-38 is a newly discovered cytokine of the IL-1 family, which binds various receptors (i.e., IL-36R, IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1, and IL-1R1) in the central nervous system (CNS). The hallmark physiological function of IL-38 is competitive binding to IL-36R, as does the IL-36R antagonist. Emerging research has shown that IL-38 is abnormally expressed in the serum and brain tissue of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), suggesting that IL-38 may play an important role in neurological diseases. Important advances include that IL-38 alleviates neuromyelitis optica disorder (NMOD) by inhibiting Th17 expression, improves IS by protecting against atherosclerosis via regulating immune cells and inflammation, and reduces IL-1ß and CXCL8 release through inhibiting human microglial activity post-ASD. In contrast, IL-38 mRNA is markedly increased and is mainly expressed in phagocytes in spinal cord injury (SCI). IL-38 ablation attenuated SCI by reducing immune cell infiltration. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of IL-38 in CNS diseases remain inadequately characterized. In this review, we summarize the biological characteristics, pathophysiological role, and potential mechanisms of IL-38 in CNS diseases (e.g., NMOD, Alzheimer's disease, ASD, IS, TBI, and SCI), aiming to explore the therapeutic potential of IL-38 in the prevention and treatment of CNS diseases.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Neuromielite Óptica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Interleucinas
19.
Cells ; 13(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334675

RESUMO

Cathepsin B (CatB) is thought to be essential for the induction of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg LPS)-induced Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies in mice, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) production and cognitive decline. However, little is known about the role of CatB in Pg virulence factor-induced IL-1ß production by microglia. We first subjected IL-1ß-luciferase reporter BV-2 microglia to inhibitors of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), IκB kinase, and the NLRP3 inflammasome following stimulation with Pg LPS and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). To clarify the involvement of CatB, we used several known CatB inhibitors, including CA-074Me, ZRLR, and human ß-defensin 3 (hBD3). IL-1ß production in BV-2 microglia induced by Pg LPS and OMVs was significantly inhibited by the TLR2 inhibitor C29 and the IκB kinase inhibitor wedelolactonne, but not by the NLRPs inhibitor MCC950. Both hBD3 and CA-074Me significantly inhibited Pg LPS-induced IL-1ß production in BV-2 microglia. Although CA-074Me also suppressed OMV-induced IL-1ß production, hBD3 did not inhibit it. Furthermore, both hBD3 and CA-074Me significantly blocked Pg LPS-induced nuclear NF-κB p65 translocation and IκBα degradation. In contrast, hBD3 and CA-074Me did not block OMV-induced nuclear NF-κB p65 translocation or IκBα degradation. Furthermore, neither ZRLR, a specific CatB inhibitor, nor shRNA-mediated knockdown of CatB expression had any effect on Pg virulence factor-induced IL-1ß production. Interestingly, phagocytosis of OMVs by BV-2 microglia induced IL-1ß production. Finally, the structural models generated by AlphaFold indicated that hBD3 can bind to the substrate-binding pocket of CatB, and possibly CatL as well. These results suggest that Pg LPS induces CatB/CatL-dependent synthesis and processing of pro-IL-1ß without activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In contrast, OMVs promote the synthesis and processing of pro-IL-1ß through CatB/CatL-independent phagocytic mechanisms. Thus, hBD3 can improve the IL-1ß-associated vicious inflammatory cycle induced by microglia through inhibition of CatB/CatL.


Assuntos
Microglia , beta-Defensinas , Humanos , beta-Defensinas/metabolismo , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
20.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 29, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326859

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. It is established that neuroinflammation contributes to the synaptic loss, neuronal death, and symptomatic decline of AD patients. Accumulating evidence suggests a critical role for microglia, innate immune phagocytes of the brain. For instance, microglia release pro-inflammatory products such as IL-1ß which is highly implicated in AD pathobiology. The mechanisms underlying the transition of microglia to proinflammatory promoters of AD remain largely unknown. To address this gap, we performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to profile global DNA methylation changes in human AD brains compared to no disease controls. We identified differential DNA methylation of CASPASE-4 (CASP4), which when expressed promotes the generation of IL-1ß and is predominantly expressed in immune cells. DNA upstream of the CASP4 transcription start site was hypomethylated in human AD brains, which was correlated with increased expression of CASP4. Furthermore, microglia from a mouse model of AD (5xFAD) express increased levels of CASP4 compared to wild-type (WT) mice. To study the role of CASP4 in AD, we developed a novel mouse model of AD lacking the mouse ortholog of CASP4 and CASP11, which is encoded by mouse Caspase-4 (5xFAD/Casp4-/-). The expression of CASP11 was associated with increased accumulation of pathologic protein aggregate amyloid-ß (Aß) and increased microglial production of IL-1ß in 5xFAD mice. Utilizing RNA-sequencing, we determined that CASP11 promotes unique transcriptomic phenotypes in 5xFAD mouse brains, including alterations of neuroinflammatory and chemokine signaling pathways. Notably, in vitro, CASP11 promoted generation of IL-1ß from macrophages in response to cytosolic Aß through cleavage of downstream effector Gasdermin D (GSDMD). Therefore, here we unravel the role for CASP11 and GSDMD in the generation of IL-1ß in response to Aß and the progression of pathologic inflammation in AD. Overall, our results demonstrate that overexpression of CASP4 due to differential DNA methylation in AD microglia contributes to the progression of AD pathobiology. Thus, we identify CASP4 as a potential target for immunotherapies for the treatment and prevention of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Caspases Iniciadoras , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metilação de DNA , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/metabolismo , Caspases Iniciadoras/metabolismo
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