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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 730088, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484241

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new viral disease emerged and quickly spread all around the world. In March 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak was classified as a global pandemic and by June 2021, the number of infected people grew to over 170 million. Along with the patients' mild-to-severe respiratory symptoms, reports on probable central nervous system (CNS) effects appeared shortly, raising concerns about the possible long-term detrimental effects on human cognition. It remains unresolved whether the neurological symptoms are caused directly by the SARS-CoV-2 infiltration in the brain, indirectly by secondary immune effects of a cytokine storm and antibody overproduction, or as a consequence of systemic hypoxia-mediated microglia activation. In severe COVID-19 cases with impaired lung capacity, hypoxia is an anticipated subsidiary event that can cause progressive and irreversible damage to neurons. To resolve this problem, intensive research is currently ongoing, which seeks to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 virus' neuroinvasive potential and the examination of the antibody and autoantibody generation upon infection, as well as the effects of prolonged systemic hypoxia on the CNS. In this review, we summarize the current research on the possible interplay of the SARS-CoV-2 effects on the lung, especially on alveolar macrophages and direct and indirect effects on the brain, with special emphasis on microglia, as a possible culprit of neurological manifestation during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360590

RESUMO

Poor sleep quality and disrupted circadian behavior are a normal part of aging and include excessive daytime sleepiness, increased sleep fragmentation, and decreased total sleep time and sleep quality. Although the neuronal decline underlying the cellular mechanism of poor sleep has been extensively investigated, brain function is not fully dependent on neurons. A recent antemortem autographic study and postmortem RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical studies on aged human brain have investigated the relationship between sleep fragmentation and activation of the innate immune cells of the brain, microglia. In the process of aging, there are marked reductions in the number of brain microglial cells, and the depletion of microglial cells disrupts circadian rhythmicity of brain tissue. We also showed, in a previous study, that pharmacological suppression of microglial function induced sleep abnormalities. However, the mechanism underlying the contribution of microglial cells to sleep homeostasis is only beginning to be understood. This review revisits the impact of aging on the microglial population and activation, as well as microglial contribution to sleep maintenance and response to sleep loss. Most importantly, this review will answer questions such as whether there is any link between senescent microglia and age-related poor quality sleep and how this exacerbates neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371878

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the aberrant processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, both of which are accompanied by neuroinflammation. Dietary supplementation with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDP) has anti-inflammatory effects in inflammation models. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with SDP prevents the neuropathological features of AD. The experiments were performed in 2- and 6-month-old SAMP8 mice fed a control diet, or a diet supplemented with 8% SDP, for 4 months. AD brain molecular markers were determined by Western blot and real-time PCR. Senescent mice showed reduced levels of p-GSK3ß (Ser9) and an increase in p-CDK5, p-tau (Ser396), sAPPß, and the concentration of Aß40, (all p < 0.05). SDP prevented these effects of aging and reduced Bace1 levels (all p < 0.05). Senescence increased the expression of Mme1 and Ide1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-17 and Il-18; all p < 0.05); these changes were prevented by SDP supplementation. Moreover, SDP increased Tgf-ß expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in aged mice, the gene expression levels of the microglial activation markers Trem2, Ym1, and Arg1 were increased, and SDP prevented these increases (all p < 0.05). Thus, dietary SDP might delay AD onset by reducing its hallmarks in senescent mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Plasma , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Secagem por Atomização , Sus scrofa , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
4.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360004

RESUMO

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system contributing substantially to health and disease. There is increasing evidence that inflammatory microglia may induce or accelerate brain aging, by interfering with physiological repair and remodeling processes. Many viral infections affect the brain and interfere with microglia functions, including human immune deficiency virus, flaviviruses, SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and human herpes viruses. Especially chronic viral infections causing low-grade neuroinflammation may contribute to brain aging. This review elucidates the potential role of various neurotropic viruses in microglia-driven neurocognitive deficiencies and possibly accelerated brain aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Microglia/virologia , Viroses/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361780

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the resultant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Various studies have shown that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation plays a major role in PD progression. In addition, the autophagy lysosome pathway (ALP) plays an important role in the degradation of aggregated proteins, abnormal cytoplasmic organelles and proteins for intracellular homeostasis. Dysfunction of ALP results in the accumulation of α-synuclein and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Thus, modulating ALP is becoming an appealing therapeutic intervention. In our current study, we wanted to evaluate the neuroprotective potency of noscapine in a rotenone-induced PD rat model. Rats were administered rotenone injections (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.,) daily followed by noscapine (10 mg/kg, i.p.,) for four weeks. Noscapine, an iso-qinulinin alkaloid found naturally in the Papaveraceae family, has traditionally been used in the treatment of cancer, stroke and fibrosis. However, the neuroprotective potency of noscapine has not been analyzed. Our study showed that administration of noscapine decreased the upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and α-synuclein expression with a significant increase in antioxidant enzymes. In addition, noscapine prevented rotenone-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes. These neuroprotective mechanisms resulted in a decrease in dopaminergic neuron loss in SNpc and neuronal fibers in the striatum. Further, noscapine administration enhanced the mTOR-mediated p70S6K pathway as well as inhibited apoptosis. In addition to these mechanisms, noscapine prevented a rotenone-mediated increase in lysosomal degradation, resulting in a decrease in α-synuclein aggregation. However, further studies are needed to further develop noscapine as a potential therapeutic candidate for PD treatment.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Noscapina/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/genética , Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/patologia , Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/metabolismo , Parte Compacta da Substância Negra/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Rotenona/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360881

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major public health problem and devastating subtype of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Notably, there is no effective treatment for ICH. Neuroinflammation, a pathological hallmark of ICH, contributes to both brain injury and repair and hence, it is regarded as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Recent studies document that microRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules, can regulate inflammatory brain response after ICH and are viable molecular targets to alter brain function. Therefore, there is an escalating interest in studying the role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of ICH. Herein, we provide, for the first time, an overview of the microRNAs that play roles in ICH-induced neuroinflammation and identify the critical knowledge gap in the field, as it would help design future studies.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Encefalite/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361744

RESUMO

Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) belongs to the Genus Pinus, and its bark contains a great amount of naturally occurring phenolic compounds. Until now, few studies have been conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of Pinus densiflora bark extract against brain ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of pre-treatment with the extract in the hippocampus following 5-min transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Furthermore, this study examined the anti-inflammatory effect as a neuroprotective mechanism of the extract. Pinus densiflora bark was extracted by pure water (100 °C), and this extract was quantitatively analyzed and contained abundant polyphenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for seven days before the ischemia. In the gerbil hippocampus, death of the pyramidal neurons was found in the subfield cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) five days after the ischemia. This death was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg, not 25 or 50 mg/kg, of the extract. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of the extract markedly inhibited the activation of microglia (microgliosis) and significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α). In addition, the treatment significantly increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 4 and interleukin 13). Taken together, this study clearly indicates that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of Pinus densiflora bark extract in gerbils can exert neuroprotection against brain ischemic injury by the attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Prosencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerbillinae , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação , Interleucina-13/agonistas , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/agonistas , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445223

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that systemic inflammation triggers a neuroinflammatory response that involves sustained microglia activation. This response has deleterious consequences on memory and learning capability in experimental animal models and in patients. However, the mechanisms connecting systemic inflammation and microglia activation remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the autotaxin (ATX)/lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)/LPA-receptor axis as a potential pharmacological target to modulate the LPS-mediated neuroinflammatory response in vitro (the murine BV-2 microglia cell line) and in vivo (C57BL/6J mice receiving a single i.p. LPS injection). In LPS-stimulated (20 ng/mL) BV-2 cells, we observed increased phosphorylation of transcription factors (STAT1, p65, and c-Jun) that are known to induce a proinflammatory microglia phenotype. LPS upregulated ATX, TLR4, and COX2 expression, amplified NO production, increased neurotoxicity of microglia conditioned medium, and augmented cyto-/chemokine concentrations in the cellular supernatants. PF8380 (a type I ATX inhibitor, used at 10 and 1 µM) and AS2717638 (an LPA5 antagonist, used at 1 and 0.1 µM) attenuated these proinflammatory responses, at non-toxic concentrations, in BV-2 cells. In vivo, we demonstrate accumulation of PF8380 in the mouse brain and an accompanying decrease in LPA concentrations. In vivo, co-injection of LPS (5 mg/kg body weight) and PF8380 (30 mg/kg body weight), or LPS/AS2717638 (10 mg/kg body weight), significantly attenuated LPS-induced iNOS, TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, and CXCL2 mRNA expression in the mouse brain. On the protein level, PF8380 and AS2717638 significantly reduced TLR4, Iba1, GFAP and COX2 expression, as compared to LPS-only injected animals. In terms of the communication between systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation, both inhibitors significantly attenuated LPS-mediated systemic TNFα and IL-6 synthesis, while IL-1ß was only reduced by PF8380. Inhibition of ATX and LPA5 may thus provide an opportunity to protect the brain from the toxic effects that are provoked by systemic endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Endotoxemia , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Microglia/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Endotoxemia/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Microglia/patologia , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the course of microglial and macroglial activation in injured and contralateral retinas after unilateral optic nerve crush (ONC). METHODS: The left optic nerve of adult pigmented C57Bl/6 female mice was intraorbitally crushed and injured, and contralateral retinas were analyzed from 1 to 45 days post-lesion (dpl) in cross-sections and flat mounts. As controls, intact retinas were studied. Iba1+ microglial cells (MCs), activated phagocytic CD68+MCs and M2 CD206+MCs were quantified. Macroglial cell changes were analyzed by GFAP and vimentin signal intensity. RESULTS: After ONC, MC density increased significantly from 5 to 21 dpl in the inner layers of injured retinas, remaining within intact values in the contralateral ones. However, in both retinas there was a significant and long-lasting increase of CD68+MCs. Constitutive CD206+MCs were rare and mostly found in the ciliary body and around the optic-nerve head. While in the injured retinas their number increased in the retina and ciliary body, in the contralateral retinas decreased. Astrocytes and Müller cells transiently hypertrophied in the injured retinas and to a lesser extent in the contralateral ones. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral ONC triggers a bilateral and persistent activation of MCs and an opposed response of M2 MCs between both retinas. Macroglial hypertrophy is transient.


Assuntos
Axônios/metabolismo , Axotomia , Microglia/metabolismo , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Microglia/patologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia
10.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108815, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339843

RESUMO

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most prevalent of all head injuries. Microglia play an essential role in homeostasis and diseases of the central nervous system. We hypothesize that microglia may play a beneficial or detrimental role in TBI depending on their state of activation and duration. In this study, we evaluated whether TBI results in a spatiotemporal change in microglia phenotype and whether it affects sensory-motor or learning and memory functions in male C57BL/6 mice. We used a panel of neurological and behavioral tests and a multi-color flow cytometry-based data analysis followed by unsupervised clustering to evaluate isolated microglia from injured brain tissue. We characterized several microglial phenotypes and their association with cognitive deficits. TBI results in a spatiotemporal increase in activated microglia that correlated negatively with spatial learning and memory at 35 days post-injury. These observations could define therapeutic windows and accelerate translational research to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/classificação , Microglia/patologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(3): 511-524, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342041

RESUMO

Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases worldwide, and it is associated with various systemic diseases, including cognitive diseases. STAT3 regulates the inflammatory cascade and influences adaptive immunity by modulating Th17/Treg cell differentiation. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of adaptive immunity inside and outside the brain on the association between periodontitis and cognitive impairment and understand the role of the STAT3 signaling pathway. We established Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced periodontitis mice models by injecting P. gingivalis LPS into the gingival sulcus of mice. Behavioral tests showed that learning and memory abilities were impaired. The flow cytometry data showed an imbalance in the Th17/Treg ratio in the blood and brain samples of the mice. The expression of Th17-related cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-22) increased, whereas that of Treg-related cytokines (IL-2 and IL-10) decreased in both the blood and the brain. The level of LPS increased and the STAT3 signaling pathway was activated during this process. These effects were reversed by C188-9, a STAT3 inhibitor. In conclusion, P. gingivalis LPS-induced periodontitis may promote the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment by modulating the Th17/Treg balance inside and outside the brain. The STAT3 signaling pathway may have immunoregulatory effects on the mouth-to-brain axis.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/microbiologia , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Processo Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Reabsorção Óssea/complicações , Reabsorção Óssea/imunologia , Reabsorção Óssea/microbiologia , Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Citocinas/metabolismo , Gengiva/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Memória , Camundongos , Microglia/patologia , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/diagnóstico por imagem , Transdução de Sinais , Aprendizagem Espacial
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299102

RESUMO

Aging is associated with immune disregulation and oxidative stress which lead to inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. We have tried to identify the anti-neuroinflammatory and anti-inflammatory components of Coreopsis lanceolata L. The dried flowers of C. lanceolata were extracted with 70% EtOH, and the obtained extract was divided into CH2Cl2, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions. The CH2Cl2 fraction was separated using silica gel and C-18 column chromatography to yield phenylheptatriyne (1), 2'-hydroxy-3,4,4'-trimethoxychalcone (2), and 4',7-dimethoxyflavanone (3). Additionally, the EtOAc fraction was subjected to silica gel, C-18, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to yield 8-methoxybutin (4) and leptosidin (5). All the compounds isolated from C. lanceolata inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-induced BV2 and RAW264.7 cells. In addition, phenylheptatriyne and 4',7-dimethoxyflavanone reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6. Among them, phenylheptatriyne was significantly downregulated in the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequently, phenylheptatriyne also effectively inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulated BV2 and RAW264.7 cells. Based on these results, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of phenylheptatriyne isolated from C. lanceolata was confirmed, which may exert a therapeutic effect in treatment of neuroinflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Coreopsis/química , Flores/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204581

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered the most common disorder of synucleinopathy, which is characterised by intracellular inclusions of aggregated and misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn) protein in various brain regions, and the loss of dopaminergic neurons. During the early prodromal phase of PD, synaptic alterations happen before cell death, which is linked to the synaptic accumulation of toxic α-syn specifically in the presynaptic terminals, affecting neurotransmitter release. The oligomers and protofibrils of α-syn are the most toxic species, and their overexpression impairs the distribution and activation of synaptic proteins, such as the SNARE complex, preventing neurotransmitter exocytosis and neuronal synaptic communication. In the last few years, the role of the immune system in PD has been increasingly considered. Microglial and astrocyte activation, the gene expression of proinflammatory factors, and the infiltration of immune cells from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) represent the main features of the inflammatory response. One of the actors of these processes is α-syn accumulation. In light of this, here, we provide a systematic review of PD-related α-syn and inflammation inter-players.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Biomarcadores , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Sinapses/imunologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299000

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder, characterized by progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, which consists of dopaminergic cell bodies in substantia nigra and their neuronal projections to the striatum. Moreover, PD is associated with an array of non-motor symptoms such as olfactory dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, impaired regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment. Inflammation and concomitant oxidative stress are crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, this study aimed to model PD via intrastriatal injection of the inflammagen lipopolysaccharide (LPS)to investigate if the lesion causes olfactory and motor impairments, inflammation, oxidative stress, and alteration in synaptic proteins in the olfactory bulb, striatum, and colon. Ten µg of LPS was injected unilaterally into the striatum of 27 male C57BL/6 mice, and behavioural assessment was conducted at 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment, followed by tissue collection. Intrastriatal LPS induced motor impairment in C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks post-treatment evidenced by reduced latency time in the rotarod test. LPS also induced inflammation in the striatum characterized by increased expression of microglial marker Iba-1 and astrocytic marker GFAP, with degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal fibres (reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity), and reduction of synaptic proteins and DJ-1 protein. Additionally, intrastriatal LPS induced inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in synaptic proteins within the olfactory bulb, although this did not induce a significant impairment in olfactory function. Intrastriatal LPS induced mild inflammatory changes in the distal colon, accompanied by increased protein expression of 3-nitrotyrosine-modified proteins. This model recapitulated the major features of PD such as motor impairment and degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal fibres in the striatum, as well as some pathological changes in the olfactory bulb and colon; thus, this model could be suitable for understanding clinical PD and testing neuroprotective strategies.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Bulbo Olfatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Proteína Desglicase DJ-1/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Substância Negra/patologia , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208040

RESUMO

(1) Background: The pro-resolving lipid mediator Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has already shown protective effects in animal models of diabetic retinopathy. This study aimed to investigate the retinal levels of RvD1 in aged (24 months) and younger (3 months) Balb/c mice, along with the activation of macro- and microglia, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation. (2) Methods: Retinas from male and female mice were used for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (3) Results: Endogenous retinal levels of RvD1 were reduced in aged mice. While RvD1 levels were similar in younger males and females, they were markedly decreased in aged males but less reduced in aged females. Both aged males and females showed a significant increase in retinal microglia activation compared to younger mice, with a more marked reactivity in aged males than in aged females. The same trend was shown by astrocyte activation, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and nitrosative stress, in line with the microglia and Müller cell hypertrophy evidenced in aged retinas by electron microscopy. (4) Conclusions: Aged mice had sex-related differences in neuroinflammation and apoptosis and low retinal levels of endogenous RvD1.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Retina/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Microglia/ultraestrutura , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208092

RESUMO

Vascular dementia (VaD) is a progressive cognitive impairment caused by a reduced blood supply to the brain. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is one cause of VaD; it induces oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, damaging several brain regions. Vitamin C plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress-related diseases induced by reactive oxygen species, but it is easily oxidized and loses its antioxidant activity. To overcome this weakness, we have developed a vitamin C/DNA aptamer complex (NXP031) that increases vitamin C's antioxidant efficacy. Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acid polymers (DNA or RNA) that can interact with their corresponding target with high affinity. We established an animal model of VaD by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in 12 week old Wistar rats. Twelve weeks after BCCAO, we injected NXP031 into the rats intraperitoneally for two weeks at moderate (200 mg/4 mg/kg) and high concentrations (200 mg/20 mg/kg). NXP031 administration alleviates cognitive impairment, microglial activity, and oxidative stress after CCH. NXP031 increased the expression of basal lamina (laminin), endothelial cell (RECA-1, PECAM-1), and pericyte (PDGFRß); these markers maintain the BBB integrity. We found that NXP031 administration activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway and increased the expression of SOD-1 and GSTO1/2. These results suggest that this new aptamer complex, NXP031, could be a therapeutic intervention in CCH-induced VaD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Demência Vascular/complicações , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Microglia/patologia , Microvasos/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Regulação para Cima
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208374

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, inhibits ischemia-induced brain injury. The present study was conducted to examine whether pioglitazone can reduce impairment of behavioral deficits mediated by inflammatory-induced brain white matter injury in neonatal rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rat pups on postnatal day 5 (P5), and i.p. administration of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was performed 5 min after LPS injection. Sensorimotor behavioral tests were performed 24 h after LPS exposure, and changes in biochemistry of the brain was examined after these tests. The results show that systemic LPS exposure resulted in impaired sensorimotor behavioral performance, reduction of oligodendrocytes and mitochondrial activity, and increases in lipid peroxidation and brain inflammation, as indicated by the increment of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) levels and number of activated microglia in the neonatal rat brain. Pioglitazone treatment significantly improved LPS-induced neurobehavioral and physiological disturbances including the loss of body weight, hypothermia, righting reflex, wire-hanging maneuver, negative geotaxis, and hind-limb suspension in neonatal rats. The neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone against the loss of oligodendrocytes and mitochondrial activity was associated with attenuation of LPS-induced increment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, IL-1ß levels and number of activated microglia in neonatal rats. Our results show that pioglitazone prevents neurobehavioral disturbances induced by systemic LPS exposure in neonatal rats, and its neuroprotective effects are associated with its impact on microglial activation, IL-1ß induction, lipid peroxidation, oligodendrocyte production and mitochondrial activity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Substância Branca/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Encefalite/patologia , Feminino , Hipotermia Induzida , Lipopolissacarídeos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Branca/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206048

RESUMO

Acrylamide is a well characterized neurotoxicant known to cause neuropathy and encephalopathy in humans and experimental animals. To investigate the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in acrylamide-induced neuropathy, male C57Bl/6JJcl adult mice were exposed to acrylamide at 0, 200 or 300 ppm in drinking water and co-administered with subcutaneous injections of sulforaphane, a known activator of the Nrf2 signaling pathway at 0 or 25 mg/kg body weight daily for 4 weeks. Assessments for neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress as well as messenger RNA-expression analysis for Nrf2-antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes were conducted. Relative to mice exposed only to acrylamide, co-administration of sulforaphane protected against acrylamide-induced neurotoxic effects such as increase in landing foot spread or decrease in density of noradrenergic axons as well as hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Moreover, co-administration of sulforaphane enhanced acrylamide-induced mRNA upregulation of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant proteins and suppressed acrylamide-induced mRNA upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cerebral cortex. The results demonstrate that activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway by co-treatment of sulforaphane provides protection against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. Nrf2 remains an important target for the strategic prevention of acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299330

RESUMO

The ability of endocannabinoid (eCB) to change functional microglial phenotype can be explored as a possible target for therapeutic intervention. Since the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main catabolic enzyme of anandamide (AEA), may provide beneficial effects in mice model of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology, we aimed at determining whether the FAAH inhibitor URB597 might target microglia polarization and alter the cytoskeleton reorganization induced by the amyloid-ß peptide (Aß). The morphological evaluation showed that Aß treatment increased the surface area of BV-2 cells, which acquired a flat and polygonal morphology. URB597 treatment partially rescued the control phenotype of BV-2 cells when co-incubated with Aß. Moreover, URB597 reduced both the increase of Rho protein activation in Aß-treated BV-2 cells and the Aß-induced migration of BV-2 cells, while an increase of Cdc42 protein activation was observed in all samples. URB597 also increased the number of BV-2 cells involved in phagocytosis. URB597 treatment induced the polarization of microglial cells towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype, as demonstrated by the decreased expression of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines along with the parallel increase of Arg-1 and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these data suggest that FAAH inhibition promotes cytoskeleton reorganization, regulates phagocytosis and cell migration processes, thus driving microglial polarization towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/patologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200256

RESUMO

Aneurysms and vascular malformations of the brain represent an important source of intracranial hemorrhage and subsequent mortality and morbidity. We are only beginning to discern the involvement of microglia, the resident immune cell of the central nervous system, in these pathologies and their outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that activated proinflammatory microglia are implicated in the expansion of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in both the acute and chronic phases, being also a main actor in vasospasm, considerably the most severe complication of SAH. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory microglia may be involved in the resolution of cerebral injury and hemorrhage. These immune cells have also been observed in high numbers in brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) and cerebral cavernomas (CCM), although their roles in these lesions are currently incompletely ascertained. The following review aims to shed a light on the most significant findings related to microglia and their roles in intracranial aneurysms and vascular malformations, as well as possibly establish the course for future research.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/fisiopatologia , Microglia/patologia , Malformações Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos
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