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1.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 77-85, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544528

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic, which spread largely among people who have had close contact with the infected person. The immunopathology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus includes the production of an excess amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines "a cytokine-storm". The respiratory system (main), cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract are the most affected body systems during viral infection. It has been found that most of the patients who require admission to hospital are elderly or have chronic underlying diseases. Higher cases of malnutrition and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are reported in elderly patients due to which, the immune system weakens and hence, the response to the virus is diminished in magnitude. A deficiency of micronutrients results in impaired immune responses leading to improper secretion of cytokines, alterations in secretory antibody response and antibody affinity which increases susceptibility to viral infection. The deficiency of various micronutrients in COVID-19 patient can be treated by appropriate nutritional supplements, prescribed after evaluating the patients' nutritional status. Here we aim to highlight the role of a few particular nutrients namely Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Omega-3 fatty acids, Zinc and Magnesium along with the synergistic roles they play in enhancing immunity and thus, maintaining homeostasis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/fisiologia , /imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Magnésio/fisiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/imunologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Micronutrientes/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pandemias , Vitamina D/fisiologia , Zinco/fisiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540920

RESUMO

Although simultaneous supplementation of iron and folic acid is justified, the potential interactions between these micronutrients and other elements are poorly known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of iron and folic acid supplementation on the levels of selected essential and toxic elements in the serum of micronutrient-deficient young women. A total of 40 women participated in this study and were divided into two groups: study group (n = 23) (with iron and folate deficiency) and control group (n = 17). The study group received iron and folic acid supplements for 3 months. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after the completion of the study period. Women completed a 3-day food intake record. We calculated the body mass index (BMI) of all the participants. Cellular morphology was analyzed in whole blood, and biochemical parameters were determined in serum. Elements were measured in serum by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). According to our results, in the case of the study group, the supplementation of iron and folic acid restored their levels; however, it caused a significant decrease in the level of zinc, calcium, and magnesium. In the case of the control group, at the end of the study period, there was a marked decrease in the level of iron. Interestingly, there was an increase in the level of arsenic and vanadium in both groups. In conclusion, simultaneous supplementation of iron and folic acid impairs the level of zinc, calcium, and magnesium in women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Ferro , Complicações na Gravidez , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Gravidez
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(3): 271-275, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631771

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, continues to plague children across the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The situation has worsened alongside the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic because of major systemic disruptions to food supply, healthcare, and employment. Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) is a potential strategy for improving micronutrient intakes through the addition of vitamins and minerals to staple foods and improving the nutritional status of populations at large. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence unquestionably supports the use of LSFF to improve micronutrient status. Evidence syntheses have also demonstrated impact on some functional outcomes, including anemia, wasting, underweight, and neural tube defects, that underpin poor health and development. Importantly, many of these effects have also been reflected in effectiveness studies that examine LSFF in real-world situations as opposed to under-controlled environments. However, programmatic challenges must be addressed in LMICs in order for LSFF efforts to reach their full potential. SUMMARY: LSFF is an important strategy that has the potential to improve the health and nutrition of entire populations of vulnerable children. Now more than ever, existing programs should be strengthened and new programs implemented in areas with widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/tendências , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/terapia , Alimentos Fortificados/provisão & distribução , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 160: 386-396, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556754

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide at low concentrations act as signaling of several abiotic stresses. Overproduction of hydrogen peroxide causes the oxidation of plant cell lipid phosphate layer promoting senescence and cell death. To mitigate the effect of ROS, plants develop antioxidant defense mechanisms (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase), ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (ASA-GSH) (ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase), which have the function of removing and transforming ROS into non-toxic substances to maintain cellular homeostasis. Foliar or soil application of fertilizers containing B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn at low concentrations has the ability to elicit and activate antioxidative enzymes, non-oxidizing metabolism, as well as sugar metabolism to mitigate damage by oxidative stress. Plants treated with micronutrients show higher tolerance to abiotic stress and better nutritional status. In this review, we summarized results indicating micronutrient actions in order to reduce ROS resulting the increase of photosynthetic capacity of plants for greater crop yield. This meta-analysis provides information on the mechanism of action of micronutrients in combating ROS, which can make plants more tolerant to several types of abiotic stress such as extreme temperatures, salinity, heavy metals and excess light.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Micronutrientes , Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Nutr Rev ; 79(3): 289-300, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570583

RESUMO

Worldwide, there is an array of clinical trials under way to evaluate treatment options against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Concurrently, several nutritional therapies and alternative supportive treatments are also being used and tested to reduce the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19. In the context of COVID-19, improved nutrition that includes micronutrient supplementation to augment the immune system has been recognized as a viable approach to both prevent and alleviate the severity of the infection. The potential role of micronutrients as immune-boosting agents is particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries, which already have an existing high burden of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. A systematic literature review was performed to identify nutritional interventions that might prevent or aid in the recovery from COVID-19. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched electronically from February to April 2020. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined for their relevance to this review. The information gathered was collated under various categories. Deficiencies of micronutrients, especially vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, zinc, iron, and selenium, are common among vulnerable populations in general and among COVID-19 patients in particular and could plausibly increase the risk of mortality. Judicious use of need-based micronutrient supplementation, alongside existing micronutrient fortification programs, is warranted in the current global pandemic, especially in low- and middle-income economies.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Micronutrientes , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , /imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Ferro , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Vitamina A , Zinco
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573169

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging situation with high rates of morbidity and mortality, in the pathophysiology of which inflammation and thrombosis are implicated. The disease is directly connected to the nutritional status of patients and a well-balanced diet is recommended by official sources. Recently, the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) was suggested in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In the present review several micronutrients (vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals), phytochemicals and Mediterranean diet compounds with potential anti-COVID activity are presented. We further underline that the well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic actions of the investigated nutrients and/or holistic dietary schemes, such as the Mediterranean diet, are also mediated through PAF. In conclusion, there is no single food to prevent coronavirus Although the relationship between PAF and COVID-19 is not robust, a healthy diet containing PAF inhibitors may target both inflammation and thrombosis and prevent the deleterious effects of COVID-19. The next step is the experimental confirmation or not of the PAF-COVID-19 hypothesis.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Micronutrientes , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fator de Ativação de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Humanos
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472840

RESUMO

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are a leading cause of ill-health and death globally. Individual or multiple micronutrients have been shown to modulate immune function and affect the risk and severity of a number of infectious diseases. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the impact of micronutrient supplements to reduce the occurrence of ARIs and shorten the duration of ARI symptoms among adults. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled effects of vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) on the occurrence of ARIs and the duration of ARI symptoms. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of ARI (risk ratio (RR)=0.97; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.00; p=0.028) and shortened the duration of symptoms (per cent difference: -6% (95% CI -9% to -2%; p=0.003)). The RR of vitamin D to prevent ARI was farther from the null when diagnosis was based on clinical diagnosis or laboratory testing, compared with self-report and when the loading dose was <60 000 IU. Vitamin C supplementation reduced the risk of ARIs (RR=0.96; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99; p=0.01) and shortened the duration of symptoms (per cent difference: -9% (95% CI -16% to -2%; p=0.014)). The effect of vitamin C on preventing ARI was stronger among men and in middle-income countries, compared with women and high-income countries, respectively. Zinc supplementation did not reduce the risk of ARIs but shortened the duration of symptoms substantially (per cent difference: -47% (95% CI -73% to -21%; p=0.0004)). Our synthesis of global evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that micronutrient supplements including zinc, vitamins C and D, and multiple micronutrient supplements may be modestly effective in preventing ARIs and improving their clinical course. Further research is warranted to better understand the effectiveness that individual or multiple micronutrients have on SARS-CoV-2 infection and treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle
8.
Nutrition ; 84: 111103, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is seriously threatening public health and setting off huge economic crises across the world. In the absence of specific drugs for COVID-19, there is an urgent need to look for alternative approaches. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the roles of micronutrients and bioactive substances as potential alternative approaches in combating COVID-19. METHODS: This review was based on the literature identified using electronic searches in different databases. RESULTS: Vitamins (A, B, C, D, and E), minerals (selenium and zinc), and bioactive substances from curcumin, echinacea, propolis, garlic, soybean, green tea, and other polyphenols were identified as having potential roles in interfering with spike glycoproteins, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and transmembrane protease serine 2 at the entry site, and inhibiting activities of papain-like protease, 3 chymotrypsin-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Having immunomodulating, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties, such micronutrients and bioactive substances are consequently promising alterative nutritional approaches to combat COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The roles of micronutrients and bioactive substances in the fight against COVID-19 are exciting areas of research. This review may suggest directions for further study.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , /virologia , Humanos
9.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 394-403, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462859

RESUMO

A novel deodorization method of edible oil by using ethanol steam at low-temperature was developed. We compared the chemical changes in predeodorized rapeseed oil after anhydrous ethanol steam distillation at low temperature (140 to 220 °C) (L-ESD) and conventional high-temperature (250 °C) water-steam distillation (H-WSD) in terms of odor characteristics, physicochemical properties, micronutrient contents, antioxidant performance, and fatty acid composition. Compared with H-WSD (250 °C for 60 min), L-ESD at 180 °C for 80 to 100 min resulted in lower response values of electronic nose, free fatty acid (0.03% to 0.07%), and peroxide value (0.00 to 0.67 meq/kg), but higher retention of tocopherols (554.93 to 551.59 mg/kg), total phenols (43.36 to 45.42 mgGAE/kg), total carotenoids (65.78 to 67.85 mg/kg), phytosterols (585.80 to 596.53 mg/100 g), polyunsaturated fatty acids (27.95 to 28.01%), and better antioxidant properties. In conclusion, L-ESD can mitigate the damage of oil and thus significantly improve the safety of vegetable oils with a high retention of nutrients compared with conventional H-WSD. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The present study aimed to compare the chemical changes in predeodorized rapeseed oil after anhydrous ethanol steam distillation at low temperature (140 to 220 °C) (L-ESD) and conventional high-temperature (250 °C) water-steam distillation (H-WSD) in terms of odor characteristics, physicochemical properties, micronutrient contents, antioxidant performance, and fatty acid composition. Results indicated that this finding supplies a theoretical basis for developing a method with retaining more micronutrients and producing less harmful substances for the deodorization of rapeseed oil.


Assuntos
Etanol , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/prevenção & controle , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Vapor , Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Destilação/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/análise , Temperatura , Tocoferóis/análise
10.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429965

RESUMO

The steep increase in asthma prevalence, observed worldwide in recent decades, has created an urgent need to search for effective methods of its prevention. Among other environmental factors, changes in diet habits and the potential influence of individual food components on immunological processes have been extensively studied as a potential method of intervention in primary prevention of asthma. The preventive role of some nutrients has been confirmed: unpasteurized milk reduced the risk of asthma in epidemiological studies, vitamin D supplementation was effective in preventing the transient forms of wheezing in small children and high maternal intake of fish oil reduced the risk of persistent wheeze and asthma in children. However, not all studies provided consistent results, and many food ingredients are still pending for defining their role in asthma development. Moreover, a novel approach looking not only at single food ingredients, but the whole dietary patterns and diversity has recently been proposed. In this paper, we discuss the current role of nutrients in asthma primary prevention and the reasons for inconsistencies in the study results. We look at single diet components, but also the whole dietary patterns. We describe the proposed mechanisms of action at different stages of life, identify the role of modifiers and delineate future perspectives on the application of nutrients in targeting strategies for asthma primary prevention.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Dietoterapia , Dieta , Prevenção Primária , Alérgenos , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
11.
West Afr J Med ; 38(1): 42-47, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micronutrients are needed in small quantities but are vital in the proper functioning of the human body. Deficiencies in the intake of food rich in micronutrient lead to major health problems among children and adults especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the knowledge and practice of micronutrient dietary intake among patients attending an urban comprehensive health centre in Oke-Ila , Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 150 patients were recruited into the study by purposive sampling method on different clinic days. Semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit data collection on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of micronutrient dietary intake among respondents. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistical methods such as means, standard deviation as inferential statistics. Summary statistics were presented using frequencies, tables and charts. Inferential statistics were used to test for associations between categorical variables. P-value was set at 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 34.1±11.1 years and 62 (42%) respondents were aged between 30-39 years. One hundred and twelve (74.7%) were females; 109 (72.6%) were married; 109 (72.6%) had tertiary education. About 58% had poor knowledge of micronutrients, while 96% had good practice of micronutrient-rich food intake. CONCLUSION: The research concluded that most respondents had good practices compared to the knowledge of micronutrient dietary intake. More attention should be paid to increase awareness and knowledge of micronutrient dietary intake so as to bridge the knowledge gap.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , População Urbana
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144329, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445002

RESUMO

As an essential micronutrient, selenium (Se) exerts its biological function as a catalytic entity in a variety of enzymes. From a toxicological perspective, however, Se can become extremely toxic at concentrations slightly above its nutritional levels. Over the last few decades, there has been a growing level of concern worldwide regarding the adverse effects of both inorganic and organic Se compounds on a broad spectrum of neurological functions. A wealth of evidence has shown that exposure to excess Se may compromise the normal functioning of various key proteins, neurotransmitter systems (the glutamatergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic systems), and signaling molecules involved in the control and regulation of cognitive, behavioral, and neuroendocrine functions. Elevated Se exposure has also been suspected to be a risk factor for the development of several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Nonetheless, despite the various deleterious effects of excess Se on the central nervous system (CNS), Se neurotoxicity and negative behavioral outcomes are still disregarded at the expense of its beneficial health effects. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge regarding the neurobehavioral effects of Se and discusses its potential mode of action on different aspects of the central and peripheral nervous systems. This review also provides a brief history of Se discovery and uses, its physicochemical properties, biological roles in the CNS, environmental occurrence, and toxicity. We also review potential links between exposure to different forms of Se compounds and aberrant neurobehavioral functions in humans and animals, and identify key knowledge gaps and hypotheses for future research.


Assuntos
Compostos de Selênio , Selênio , Animais , Dopamina , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Selênio/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011302, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a condition where the number of red blood cells (and consequently their oxygen-carrying capacity) is insufficient to meet the body's physiological needs. Fortification of wheat flour is deemed a useful strategy to reduce anaemia in populations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of wheat flour fortification with iron alone or with other vitamins and minerals on anaemia, iron status and health-related outcomes in populations over two years of age. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, 21 other databases and two trials registers up to 21 July 2020, together with contacting key organisations to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster- or individually-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) carried out among the general population from any country, aged two years and above. The interventions were fortification of wheat flour with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients. We included trials comparing any type of food item prepared from flour fortified with iron of any variety of wheat DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results and assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data from included studies and assessed risks of bias. We followed Cochrane methods in this review. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified 3538 records, after removing duplicates. We included 10 trials, involving 3319 participants, carried out in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Kuwait, Philippines, South Africa and Sri Lanka. We identified two ongoing studies and one study is awaiting classification. The duration of interventions varied from 3 to 24 months. One study was carried out among adult women and one trial among both children and nonpregnant women. Most of the included trials were assessed as low or unclear risk of bias for key elements of selection, performance or reporting bias. Three trials used 41 mg to 60 mg iron/kg flour, three trials used less than 40 mg iron/kg and three trials used more than 60 mg iron/kg flour. One trial used various iron levels based on type of iron used: 80 mg/kg for electrolytic and reduced iron and 40 mg/kg for ferrous fumarate. All included studies contributed data for the meta-analyses. Iron-fortified wheat flour with or without other micronutrients added versus wheat flour (no added iron) with the same other micronutrients added Iron-fortified wheat flour with or without other micronutrients added versus wheat flour (no added iron) with the same other micronutrients added may reduce by 27% the risk of anaemia in populations (risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 0.97; 5 studies, 2315 participants; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether iron-fortified wheat flour with or without other micronutrients reduces iron deficiency (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.04; 3 studies, 748 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases haemoglobin concentrations (in g/L) (mean difference MD 2.75, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.80; 8 studies, 2831 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on adverse effects in children (including constipation, nausea, vomiting, heartburn or diarrhoea), except for risk of infection or inflammation at the individual level. The intervention probably makes little or no difference to the risk of Infection or inflammation at individual level as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) (mean difference (MD) 0.04, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.11; 2 studies, 558 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Iron-fortified wheat flour with other micronutrients added versus unfortified wheat flour (nil micronutrients added) It is unclear whether wheat flour fortified with iron, in combination with other micronutrients decreases anaemia (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.46; 2 studies, 317 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The intervention probably reduces the risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.99; 3 studies, 382 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and it is unclear whether it increases average haemoglobin concentrations (MD 2.53, 95% CI -0.39 to 5.45; 4 studies, 532 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on adverse effects in children. Nine out of 10 trials reported sources of funding, with most having multiple sources. Funding source does not appear to have distorted the results in any of the assessed trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Fortification of wheat flour with iron (in comparison to unfortified flour, or where both groups received the same other micronutrients) may reduce anaemia in the general population above two years of age, but its effects on other outcomes are uncertain. Iron-fortified wheat flour in combination with other micronutrients, in comparison with unfortified flour, probably reduces iron deficiency, but its effects on other outcomes are uncertain. None of the included trials reported data on adverse side effects except for risk of infection or inflammation at the individual level. The effects of this intervention on other health outcomes are unclear. Future studies at low risk of bias should aim to measure all important outcomes, and to further investigate which variants of fortification, including the role of other micronutrients as well as types of iron fortification, are more effective, and for whom.


Assuntos
Anemia/dietoterapia , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Triticum , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Fumaratos , Hemoglobina A/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrition ; 81: 110989, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049573

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic causing one of the biggest challenges for critical care medicine. Mortality from COVID-19 is much greater in elderly men, many of whom succumb to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by the viral infection. Because there is no specific antiviral treatment against COVID-19, new strategies are urgently needed. Selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Poor nutritional status increases the pathogenicity of viruses and low selenium in particular can be a determinant of viral virulence. In the past decade, selenium pharmaconutrition studies have demonstrated some reduction in overall mortality, including how reduced incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and infectious complications such as ARDS in the critically ill. Consequently, we postulate that intravenous selenium therapy, could be part of the therapeutic fight against COVID-19 in intensive care unit patients with ARDS and that outcomes could be affected by age, sex, and body weight. Our working hypothesis addresses the question: Could high-dose selenite pharmaconutrition, as an early pharmacologic intervention, be effective at reducing the incidence and the progression from type 1 respiratory failure (non-ARDS) to severe ARDS, multiorgan failure, and new infectious complications in patients with COVID-19 patients?


Assuntos
/dietoterapia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , /complicações , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/farmacocinética , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/farmacocinética
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(1): 118865, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980354

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn2+) is an essential micronutrient that is required for a wide variety of cellular processes. Tools and methods have been instrumental in revealing the myriad roles of Zn2+ in cells. This review highlights recent developments fluorescent sensors to measure the labile Zn2+ pool, chelators to manipulate Zn2+ availability, and fluorescent tools and proteomics approaches for monitoring Zn2+-binding proteins in cells. Finally, we close with some highlights on the role of Zn2+ in regulating cell function and in cell signaling.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteínas de Transporte/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Zinco/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Micronutrientes/química , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 345: 128723, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333357

RESUMO

Crop nutrient deficiencies are determined based on leaf nutrient composition, and rarely on food composition. Consequently, it remains unclear whether leaf nutrients are useable to form conclusions on quality of produced foods. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between plant macro- (Mg, P, S, K, Ca) and micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) concentrations of leaves and edible parts of three East African staple crops: Zea mays, Manihot esculenta, and Musa acuminata. Low phloem mobile nutrients Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu showed the largest differences in correlations between leaves and edible parts. Perennial crops showed lower correlations between nutrient concentrations of leaves and edible parts than annuals. Leaves may provide information on plant health, however do not provide enough information to gauge both yields and food quality, particularly regarding micronutrients. Therefore, agricultural and nutritional scientists should harmonize methods to develop sustainable management options for increased food and nutrition security.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Nutrientes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Micronutrientes/análise , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Soins ; 65(849): 59-62, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357621

RESUMO

Our social environment shapes our eating habits, notably our consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), essential for regulating the immune system. Ensuring a balanced intake of micronutrients could prove to be particularly beneficial for patients with severe forms of COVID-19 suffering from critical immune dysregulation.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Humanos
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(46): 3720-3726, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342151

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically review the studies on impact of macronutrients and micronutrients on human's immunity including cell-meditated immunity and humoral immunity as well as disease outcome. Methods: The database searched included Wan Fang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed and Web of Science. "Nutrients" , "food" , "diet structure" , "diet pattern" , "protein" , "fat" , "vitamin" , "mineral" etc. were searched in Chinese and English for nutrition related terms, and "inflammation" , "inflammatory" , "oxidative stress" , "immune" , "immunity" etc. were searched for immunity related terms in Chinese and English respectively for published articles till Jan. 10th, 2020. Results: A total of 53 articles including 18 Chinese articles and 35 English articles were included in this review. Studies mainly focused on the relationship between nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E and fatty acids and immunity. In a summary, insufficiency or deficiency of nutrients would impact immunity of humans which was mostly reflected in changes of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+), IgA and IgG levels. Furthermore, nutrient intake level or serum level was associated with disease outcomes such as prevalence, occurring risk or severity of symptoms. Interventions studies on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), zinc and vitamin A confirmed the positive effects of such nutrients on immunity and disease outcome. Conclusions: The intake level or serum level of nutrients is associated with cell-meditated immunity and humoral immunity. Optimal status of nutrients plays an important role in effectively strengthening immune system and disease defense of humans.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes , Nutrientes , China , Dieta , Humanos , Vitaminas
20.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(10): 643-649, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197676

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La ingesta adecuada de yodo es esencial durante el embarazo. Sin embargo, una parte de la población gestante de nuestro país persiste en una situación de yododeficiencia. Un estudio previo realizado en embarazadas del área sanitaria de Pamplona mostró una yoduria insuficiente (125 mcg/l) y un bajo consumo de sal yodada. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer la ingesta de yodo y analizar la evolución del estado de yodación en gestantes de nuestro medio en los últimos años. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional de 400 gestantes de primer trimestre sin antecedentes conocidos de enfermedad tiroidea. Se cumplimentó un cuestionario de consumo de yodo. Como marcadores del estado de yodación se analizaron la yoduria en una muestra simple de orina y la tiroglobulina sérica, y se calculó el volumen tiroideo mediante ecografía cervical. RESULTADOS: El 70,5% de las participantes consumía sal yodada (55,3% pregestacional) y el 98,5% suplementos farmacológicos con yodo (dosis 202,6±30,1 mcg/día). La mediana de la yoduria fue 242 mcg/l (138,5-415,5 mcg/l) y de la tiroglobulina 12,3 mcg/l (8,39 mcg/l). El consumo de sal yodada se asoció a mayor yoduria y a un menor volumen tiroideo. No se encontraron diferencias en los parámetros estudiados en función del consumo de lácteos, pescado o huevos. CONCLUSIONES: La ingesta de yodo en gestantes de Pamplona ha aumentado, tanto a expensas del empleo de sal yodada como de la dosis de la suplementación farmacológica. Esto ha permitido alcanzar un estado de yodación adecuado


INTRODUCTION: Adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy. A previous study of pregnant women from the Pamplona healthcare region showed mild iodine deficiency (mean urinary iodine level, 125 mcg/L). This study was intended to ascertain the iodine intake of pregnant women in our region and to analyze the change over time in their iodine nutritional status. METHODS: An observational study of 400 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. An iodine intake questionnaire was administered. To assess iodine status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a simple urine sample, and serum thyroglobulin levels were determined. In addition, thyroid volume was measured by cervical ultrasound examination. RESULTS: Iodized salt was used by 70.5% of all participants (55.3% since the pre-gestational period) and 98.5% of them received iodine-containing supplements (mean dose, 202.6±30.1 mcg/day). Mean urinary iodine concentration was 242 mcg/L (138.5-415.5 mcg/L) and the mean serum thyroglobulin level was 12.3 mcg/L (8.3-9 mcg/L). Iodized salt intake was associated with higher UICs and lower thyroid volume. No differences were found in any of the tested parameters regarding the intake of dairy products, fish, or eggs. CONCLUSIONS: Iodine intake by pregnant women in Pamplona has increased due to a greater use of iodized salt and to higher doses of iodine supplements. As a result of this, an adequate iodine status has been achieved in the last decade


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Estado Nutricional , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Evolução Clínica/métodos , Deficiência de Iodo/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/dietoterapia , Iodo/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Tireoglobulina/urina , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais
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