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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 922, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lebanon, an Eastern Mediterranean country, is witnessing a remarkable nutrition transition, and the diets of school-aged children may be amongst those most affected. However, limited studies have examined the food consumption patterns and nutrient adequacy in this age group. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the dietary intakes of school-aged children in Lebanon and assess their adherence to nutrition guidelines and recommendations. METHODS: This study used data for 4-13 y-old children (n = 711) from a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014-2015 on a representative sample of Lebanese households with children. Dietary intake was assessed using single 24-h recall method. Estimated food group and nutrient intakes were compared to dietary recommendations and age-specific dietary reference intakes (DRI), including Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR). Food group, energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intakes were presented for all children in the sample and stratified by age (4-8 y and 9-13 y) and sex. RESULTS: Mean energy intake of 4-13-year-old children was 1804 kcal/d. Almost half of the energy was provided by carbohydrates while 12% of children had protein intakes below EAR. Approximately three-quarters of children (4-13 y) exceeded the AMDR for total fat and saturated fats, and a similar proportion over consumed added sugars. The main sources of energy intake (EI) among children were the sweets, sweetened beverages and desserts followed by grains and mixed dishes. No significant differences were noted in %EI from different food groups, by sex, in either age groups. The highest adherence of children to food group recommendations was observed for the grains' food group (47.2-54.4%EI), while the lowest adherence was found for vegetables (3.1-14.1%EI). A high prevalence of vitamin and mineral inadequacies was noted amongst 4-13 y old children for key micronutrients, including vitamin D (99%), calcium (81%), and vitamin A (69.5%). Risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes was significantly increased among the older age group (p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nutrient intakes of school-aged children in Lebanon reflect suboptimal nutrition. Educational and public health interventions are needed to promote healthier diets among children and prevent micronutrient deficiencies during this critical phase.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Líbano , Micronutrientes , Inquéritos Nutricionais
2.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1003984, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over 250 million children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not reach their full developmental potential. Poor maternal diet, anemia, and micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy are associated with suboptimal neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. However, the effect of prenatal macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation on child development in LMIC settings remains unclear due to limited evidence from randomized trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 3-arm cluster-randomized trial (n = 53 clusters) that evaluated the efficacy of (1) prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS; n = 18 clusters) and (2) lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS; n = 18 clusters) as compared to (3) routine iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation (n = 17 clusters) among pregnant women in the rural district of Madarounfa, Niger, from March 2015 to August 2019 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02145000). Children were followed until 2 years of age, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID-III) were administered to children every 3 months from 6 to 24 months of age. Maternal report of WHO gross motor milestone achievement was assessed monthly from 3 to 24 months of age. An intention-to-treat analysis was followed. Child BSID-III data were available for 559, 492, and 581 singleton children in the MMS, LNS, and IFA groups, respectively. Child WHO motor milestone data were available for 691, 781, and 753 singleton children in the MMS, LNS, and IFA groups, respectively. Prenatal MMS had no effect on child BSID-III cognitive (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.21; 95% CI: -0.20, 0.62; p = 0.32), language (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30, 0.61; p = 0.50) or motor scores (SMD: 0.18; 95% CI: -0.39, 0.74; p = 0.54) or on time to achievement of the WHO gross motor milestones as compared to IFA. Prenatal LNS had no effect on child BSID-III cognitive (SMD: 0.17; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.49; p = 0.29), language (SMD: 0.11; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.44; p = 0.53) or motor scores (SMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.46, 0.37; p = 0.85) at the 24-month endline visit as compared to IFA. However, the trajectory of BSID-III cognitive scores during the first 2 years of life differed between the groups with children in the LNS group having higher cognitive scores at 18 and 21 months (approximately 0.35 SD) as compared to the IFA group (p-value for difference in trajectory <0.001). Children whose mothers received LNS also had earlier achievement of sitting alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.24; p = 0.01) and walking alone (1.52; 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.03; p = 0.004) as compared to IFA, but there was no effect on time to achievement of other motor milestones. A limitation of our study is that we assessed child development up to 2 years of age, and, therefore, we may have not captured effects that are easier to detect or emerge at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: There was no benefit of prenatal MMS on child development outcomes up to 2 years of age as compared to IFA. There was evidence of an apparent positive effect of prenatal LNS on cognitive development trajectory and time to achievement of selected gross motor milestones. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02145000.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Micronutrientes , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Níger , Gravidez
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 849752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493529

RESUMO

The innate immune system can limit the growth of invading pathogens by depleting micronutrients at a cellular and tissue level. However, it is not known whether nutrient depletion mechanisms discriminate between living pathogens (which require nutrients) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (which do not). We stimulated SHK-1 cells with different PAMPs (outer membrane vesicles of Piscirickettsia salmonis "OMVs", protein extract of P. salmonis "TP" and lipopolysaccharides of P. salmonis "LPS") isolated from P. salmonis and evaluated transcriptional changes in nutritional immunity associated genes. Our experimental treatments were: Control (SHK-1 stimulated with bacterial culture medium), OMVs (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of outer membrane vesicles), TP (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of total protein extract) and LPS (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of lipopolysaccharides). Cells were sampled at 15-, 30-, 60- and 120-minutes post-stimulation. We detected increased transcription of zip8, zip14, irp1, irp2 and tfr1 in all three experimental conditions and increased transcription of dmt1 in cells stimulated with OMVs and TP, but not LPS. Additionally, we observed generally increased transcription of ireg-1, il-6, hamp, irp1, ft-h and ft-m in all three experimental conditions, but we also detected decreased transcription of these markers in cells stimulated with TP and LPS at specific time points. Our results demonstrate that SHK-1 cells stimulated with P. salmonis PAMPs increase transcription of markers involved in the transport, uptake, storage and regulation of micronutrients such as iron, manganese and zinc.


Assuntos
Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Salmão , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos , Micronutrientes , Piscirickettsia
4.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(3): e137-e141, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533127

RESUMO

Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. Although it is currently rare, risk groups in the pediatric population are described in the bibliography, including patients with eating disorders. We report the case of an 11-year-old male adolescent who developed the disease due to a selective eating habit, without fruits or vegetables. The objective of this report is to highlight the importance of complete food anamnesis in consultation with the health team, which allows to suspect and detect early and timely micronutrient deficiency disorders such as scurvy.


El escorbuto es una enfermedad producida por déficit de vitamina C. Si bien en la actualidad es poco frecuente, la bibliografía describe grupos de riesgo en la población pediátrica, dentro de los que se encuentran los pacientes con alteraciones alimentarias. Se reporta el caso de un adolescente varón, de 11 años de edad, que desarrolló la enfermedad por un hábito alimentario selectivo, sin ingesta de frutas ni verduras. El objetivo del reporte es resaltar la importancia de la anamnesis alimentaria completa en la consulta con el equipo de salud, que permita sospechar y detectar de manera temprana y oportuna trastornos por déficit de micronutrientes como el escorbuto. Palabras clave: escorbuto, vitamina C, deficiencia de ácido ascórbico, micronutrientes.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Escorbuto , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Fatores de Risco , Escorbuto/diagnóstico , Escorbuto/etiologia
5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210169, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491591

RESUMO

Minerals are required in small amounts to sustain metabolic activity in animals, but mineral deficiencies can also lead to metabolic bottlenecks and mineral excesses can induce toxicity. For these reasons, we could reasonably expect that micronutrients are actively regulated around nutritional optima. Honeybees have co-evolved with flowering plants such that their main sources of nutrients are floral pollen and nectar. Like other insects, honeybees balance their intake of multiple macronutrients during food consumption using a combination of pre- and post-ingestive mechanisms. How they regulate their intake of micronutrients using these mechanisms has rarely been studied. Using two-choice feeding assays, we tested whether caged and broodless young workers preferred solutions containing individual salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2) or metals (FeCl3, CuCl2, ZnCl2, MnCl2) in a concentration-dependent manner. We found that young adult workers could only self-select and optimize their dietary intake around specific concentrations of sodium, iron and copper. Bees largely avoided high concentration mineral solutions to minimize toxicity. These experiments demonstrate the limits of the regulation of intake of micronutrients in honeybees. This is the first study to compare this form of behaviour in one organism for eight different micronutrients. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Animais , Abelhas , Comportamento Alimentar , Micronutrientes , Minerais
6.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 34, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the first study on dietary intakes of infants and young children in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, a region that is currently witnessing the nutrition transition. It aims at characterizing food consumption patterns amongst 0-4 year old children in Lebanon, evaluating their macro- and micronutrient intakes and assessing adherence to dietary recommendations. METHODS: Based on a national cross-sectional survey in 2012 (n = 866), the study collected data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, and one 24-hour dietary recall was administered. Nutrient intakes were compared with reference values: Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR). RESULTS: Milk was the highest contributor to energy intake (EI) in infants (95.8 and 56.5% in 0-5.9 months and 6-11.9 months old infants, respectively), while its intake was lower among toddlers and preschoolers (35.4 and 15.1%, respectively). In contrast, intakes of sweets and sweetened beverages were the highest in preschoolers compared to younger children, contributing 18.5% EI in preschoolers. Compared to dietary guidelines, the lowest dietary adherence was found for vegetables (17.8-20.7%) and fruits (14.4-34.3%). Protein intake was within the recommendations for the vast majority of children. Although total fat intake was lower in toddlers and preschoolers compared to infants, more than 40% of toddlers and preschoolers exceeded the AMDR for fat and 87.3% of preschoolers exceeded the upper limit for saturated fat. Only 3.6% of toddlers and 11.5% of preschoolers exceeded the AI level for dietary fiber. Micronutrient intake assessment showed that mean intakes in infants exceeded the AI for all micronutrients, except for vitamin D and magnesium. In toddlers, vitamin D and calcium were below the EAR among 84.7, and 44.6%, respectively. In preschoolers, most of the children (91.9%) had inadequate intakes of vitamin D, and a third had inadequate intakes of folate, calcium and vitamin A. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified priority issues for nutrition intervention in infants and young children in Lebanon. Concerted multi-stakeholder efforts are needed to instill heathier food consumption and nutrient intake patterns early in life.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Ingestão de Alimentos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano , Micronutrientes , Necessidades Nutricionais , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(15): 17783-17793, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393856

RESUMO

Advanced intelligent systems for delivery of pesticides or fertilizers require formulations that allow for long-term efficacy. In this work, a metal-organic framework (MOF) hybrid was developed for long-term pest management and micronutrient supply. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 was fabricated for crop micronutrients (Zn2+) supply and insecticide dinotefuran (DNF) encapsulation. Polymethylmethacrylate was polymerized in situ to impart the MOF hybrid with sustained cargo delivery. Then, zein was introduced to facilitate protease-triggered cargo release associated with the microenvironment of pests and targeted release. The resulting MOF hybrid exhibited stimulus-responsive, slow-release behaviors. Sustained DNF delivery was achieved over a period of at least 32 days in soil. Compared with that of free DNF, the UV resistance of DNF in the MOF hybrid increased by nearly 10 times, and the insecticidal efficiency increased 33.3% with leaching treatment and 40.1% after incubating in a greenhouse for 14 days. This MOF hybrid provides a controlled, targeted, and sustained delivery formulation for long-term pest management and crop micronutrient supply and has huge application prospects in sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Oligoelementos , Fertilizantes , Micronutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Controle de Pragas
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6774, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474082

RESUMO

Citrate (Cit) and Deferoxamine B (DFOB) are two important organic ligands coexisting in soils with distinct different affinities for metal ions. It has been theorized that siderophores and weak organic ligands play a synergistic role during the transport of micronutrients in the rhizosphere, but the geochemical controls of this process remain unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that gradients in pH and ion strength regulate and enable the cooperation. To this end, first we use potentiometric titrations to identify the dominant Zn(II)-Cit and Zn(II)-DFOB complexes and to determine their ionic strength dependent stability constants between 0 and 1 mol dm-3. We parametrise the Extended Debye-Hückel (EDH) equation and determine accurate intrinsic association constants (logß0) for the formation of the complexes present. The speciation model developed confirms the presence of [Zn(Cit)]-, [Zn(HCit)], [Zn2(Cit)2(OH)2]4-, and [Zn(Cit)2]4-, with [Zn(Cit)]- and [Zn2(Cit)2(OH)2]4- the dominant species in the pH range relevant to rhizosphere. We propose the existence of a new [Zn(Cit)(OH)3]4- complex above pH 10. We also verify the existence of two hexadentate Zn(II)-DFOB species, i.e., [Zn(DFOB)]- and [Zn(HDFOB)], and of one tetradentate species [Zn(H2DFOB)]+. Second, we identify the pH and ionic strength dependent ligand exchange points (LEP) of Zn with citrate and DFOB and the stability windows for Zn(II)-Cit and Zn(II)-DFOB complexes in NaCl and rice soil solutions. We find that the LEPs fall within the pH and ionic strength gradients expected in rhizospheres and that the stability windows for Zn(II)-citrate and Zn(II)-DFOB, i.e., low and high affinity ligands, can be distinctly set off. This suggests that pH and ion strength gradients allow for Zn(II) complexes with citrate and DFOB to dominate in different parts of the rhizosphere and this explains why mixtures of low and high affinity ligands increase leaching of micronutrients in soils. Speciation models of soil solutions using newly determined association constants demonstrate that the presence of dissolved organic matter and inorganic ligands (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate, or chlorides) do neither affect the position of the LEP nor the width of the stability windows significantly. In conclusion, we demonstrate that cooperative and synergistic ligand interaction between low and high affinity ligands is a valid mechanism for controlling zinc transport in the rhizosphere and possibly in other environmental reservoirs such as in the phycosphere. Multiple production of weak and strong ligands is therefore a valid strategy of plants and other soil organisms to improve access to micronutrients.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Sideróforos , Citratos , Ácido Cítrico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Micronutrientes , Concentração Osmolar , Solo/química , Zinco/química
9.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406004

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication skills, and repetitive and restrictive behaviors and interests. Even though there is a biological basis for an effect of specific nutrition factors on ASD symptoms and there is scientific literature available on this relationship, whether nutrition factors could play a role in ASD treatment is unclear. The goal of the current literature review was to summarize the available scientific literature on the relation between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in childhood, and to formulate practical dietary guidelines. A comprehensive search strategy including terms for ASD, nutrition factors (therapeutic diets, dietary patterns, specific food products, fatty acids and micronutrients) and childhood was developed and executed in six literature databases (Cinahl, Cochrane, Ovid Embase, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science). Data from meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original studies were qualitatively summarized. A total of 5 meta-analyses, 29 systematic reviews and 27 original studies were retrieved that focused on therapeutic diets, specific food products, fatty acids and micronutrients and ASD symptoms during childhood. Results of the available studies were sparse and inconclusive, and hence, no firm conclusions could be drawn. There is currently insufficient evidence for a relation between nutrition and ASD symptoms in childhood, making it impossible to provide practical nutrition guidelines; more methodological sound research is needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Criança , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional
10.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406021

RESUMO

Children living in resource-limited settings often suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies (MMD). However, there lacks evidence on the correlates of MMD in young children. We investigated the role of diets, water, sanitation and hygiene practice, enteric infections, and impaired gut health on MMD in children at 24 months of age using data from the multi-country MAL-ED birth cohort study. Co-existence of more than one micronutrient deficiency (e.g., anemia, iron, zinc, or retinol deficiency) was considered as MMD. We characterized intestinal inflammation by fecal concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neopterin (NEO) measured in the non-diarrheal stool samples. Bayesian network analysis was applied to investigate the factors associated with MMD. A total of 1093 children were included in this analysis. Overall, 47.6% of the children had MMD, with the highest prevalence in Pakistan (90.1%) and lowest in Brazil (6.3%). MMD was inversely associated with the female sex [OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.92]. A greater risk of MMD was associated with lower vitamin C intake [OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.94] and increased fecal concentrations of MPO [OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.51]. The study results imply the importance of effective strategies to ameliorate gut health and improve nutrient intake during the early years of life.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Desnutrição , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Ácido Ascórbico , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes , Prevalência
11.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406037

RESUMO

Maintaining an adequate micronutrient status can be achieved by following a complete, diverse diet. Yet, food trends in Western countries show suboptimal consumption of healthy nutrients. In this study, we explored the prevalence of vitamin and mineral imbalances in a general population cohort of Dutch adults and evaluated the effect of a digital lifestyle program on the nutritional status and nutrition health behaviors of these individuals. A micronutrient panel was measured in 348 participants, alongside a dietary assessment. One hundred users subsequently underwent a remeasurement. We identified at least one nutritional imbalance in 301 individuals (86.5%). A total of 80% improved and normalized B6, 67% improved folate, 70% improved B12, and 86% improved vitamin D. Iron abnormalities were corrected in 75% of the participants. In conclusion, this study found that micronutrient deficiencies of easily obtainable vitamins through diet or supplementation such as B vitamins and vitamin D were more prevalent than expected in a Dutch population. This can partly be explained by insufficient consumption of food groups rich in B vitamins. Our preliminary results in those remeasured after a digitally enabled lifestyle intervention show these imbalances can be corrected with adequate behavioral support complemented with supplementation where needed.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Complexo Vitamínico B , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Vitamina D
12.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406057

RESUMO

Magnesium may contribute to the immune response during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection by acting as a cofactor for immunoglobulin production and other processes required for T and B cell activity. Considering magnesium as a recommended dietary supplement during pregnancy and the possible role of magnesium deficiency in COVID-19 and its complications, the current study sought to determine the effect of magnesium and magnesium-containing nutritional supplements on the immune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women, as well as to observe differences in pregnancy outcomes based on the supplements taken during pregnancy. The study followed a cross-sectional design, where patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection during their pregnancy were surveyed for their preferences in nutritional supplementation and their profile compared with existing records from the institutional database. A cohort of 448 pregnant women with COVID-19 during 22 months of the pandemic was assembled, out of which 13.6% took a magnesium-only supplement, and 16.5% supplemented their diet with a combination of calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Around 60% of patients in the no-supplementation group had the SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD lower than 500 U/mL, compared with 50% in those who took magnesium-based supplements. A quantity of magnesium >450 mg in the taken supplements determined higher levels of antibody titers after COVID-19. Low magnesium dosage (<450 mg) was an independent risk factor for a weak immune response (OR-1.25, p-value = 0.003). The observed findings suggest supplementing the nutritional intake of pregnant women with magnesium-based supplements to determine higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 anti-RBD antibodies, although causality remains unclear.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Magnésio , Cálcio , Cálcio na Dieta , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Micronutrientes , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinco
13.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406142

RESUMO

Preterm neonates display a high risk of postnatal malnutrition, especially at very low gestational ages, because nutritional stores are less in younger preterm infants. For this reason nutrition and growth in early life play a pivotal role in the establishment of the long-term health of premature infants. Nutritional care for preterm neonates remains a challenge in clinical practice. According to the recent and latest recommendations from ESPGHAN, at birth, water intake of 70-80 mL/kg/day is suggested, progressively increasing to 150 mL/kg/day by the end of the first week of life, along with a calorie intake of 120 kcal/kg/day and a minimum protein intake of 2.5-3 g/kg/day. Regarding glucose intake, an infusion rate of 3-5 mg/kg/min is recommended, but VLBW and ELBW preterm neonates may require up to 12 mg/kg/min. In preterm infants, lipid emulsions can be started immediately after birth at a dosage of 0.5-1 g/kg/day. However, some authors have recently shown that it is not always possible to achieve optimal and recommended nutrition, due to the complexity of the daily management of premature infants, especially if extremely preterm. It would be desirable if multicenter randomized controlled trials were designed to explore the effect of early nutrition and growth on long-term health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Micronutrientes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Nutrição Parenteral , Nutrição Parenteral Total
14.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458234

RESUMO

Pernicious anemia is still a neglected disorder in many medical contexts and is underdiagnosed in many patients. Pernicious anemia is linked to but different from autoimmune gastritis. Pernicious anemia occurs in a later stage of autoimmune atrophic gastritis when gastric intrinsic factor deficiency and consequent vitamin B12 deficiency may occur. The multifaceted nature of pernicious anemia is related to the important role of cobalamin, which, when deficient, may lead to several dysfunctions, and thus, the proteiform clinical presentations of pernicious anemia. Indeed, pernicious anemia may lead to potentially serious long-term complications related to micronutrient deficiencies and their consequences and the development of gastric cancer and type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors. When not recognized in a timely manner or when pernicious anemia is diagnosed with delay, these complications may be potentially life-threatening and sometimes irreversible. The current review aimed to focus on epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentations of pernicious anemia in an attempt to look beyond borders of medical specialties. It aimed to focus on micronutrient deficiencies besides the well-known vitamin B12 deficiency, the diagnostic approach for pernicious anemia, its long-term complications and optimal clinical management, and endoscopic surveillance of patients with pernicious anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa , Gastrite , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Anemia Perniciosa/diagnóstico , Gastrite/complicações , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Vitamina B 12 , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Vitaminas
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 184, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elements are the basis of life on Earth, whereby organisms are essentially evolved chemical substances that dynamically interact with each other and their environment. Determining species elemental quotas (their elementome) is a key indicator for their success across environments with different resource availabilities. Elementomes remain undescribed for functionally diverse dinoflagellates within the family Symbiodiniaceae that includes coral endosymbionts. We used dry combustion and ICP-MS to assess whether Symbiodiniaceae (ten isolates spanning five genera Breviolum, Cladocopium, Durusdinium, Effrenium, Symbiodinium) maintained under long-term nutrient replete conditions have unique elementomes (six key macronutrients and nine micronutrients) that would reflect evolutionarily conserved preferential elemental acquisition. For three isolates we assessed how elevated temperature impacted their elementomes. Further, we tested whether Symbiodiniaceae conform to common stoichiometric hypotheses (e.g., the growth rate hypothesis) documented in other marine algae. This study considers whether Symbiodiniaceae isolates possess unique elementomes reflective of their natural ecologies, evolutionary histories, and resistance to environmental change. RESULTS: Symbiodiniaceae isolates maintained under long-term luxury uptake conditions, all exhibited highly divergent elementomes from one another, driven primarily by differential content of micronutrients. All N:P and C:P ratios were below the Redfield ratio values, whereas C:N was close to the Redfield value. Elevated temperature resulted in a more homogenised elementome across isolates. The Family-level elementome was (C19.8N2.6 P1.0S18.8K0.7Ca0.1) · 1000 (Fe55.7Mn5.6Sr2.3Zn0.8Ni0.5Se0.3Cu0.2Mo0.1V0.04) mmol Phosphorous-1 versus (C25.4N3.1P1.0S23.1K0.9Ca0.4) · 1000 (Fe66.7Mn6.3Sr7.2Zn0.8Ni0.4Se0.2Cu0.2Mo0.2V0.05) mmol Phosphorous -1 at 27.4 ± 0.4 °C and 30.7 ± 0.01 °C, respectively. Symbiodiniaceae isolates tested here conformed to some, but not all, stoichiometric principles. CONCLUSIONS: Elementomes for Symbiodiniaceae diverge from those reported for other marine algae, primarily via lower C:N:P and different micronutrient expressions. Long-term maintenance of Symbiodiniaceae isolates in culture under common nutrient replete conditions suggests isolates have evolutionary conserved preferential uptake for certain elements that allows these unique elementomes to be identified. Micronutrient content (normalised to phosphorous) commonly increased in the Symbiodiniaceae isolates in response to elevated temperature, potentially indicating a common elemental signature to warming.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Micronutrientes , Simbiose
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 331, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386016

RESUMO

Soil parental material is one of the main factors that influence pedogenesis. Several studies evaluated the relationship between the parent material and soil chemistry, but few studies have assessed such a relationship in semi-arid tropical regions. This investigation was carried out to assess the effect of different parent materials on the chemical composition and available concentrations of macronutrients and micronutrients, including potentially toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in soils in a semi-arid tropical setting. The chemical composition of the soils inherited the geochemical signature of their parent materials. Quartz sandstones, augen gneisses, and peraluminous granites exhibited the lowest reservoirs of plant nutrients and formed sandy, acid, and infertile soils. On the other hand, alkaline soils and soils with high concentrations of nutrients formed on ultramafic rocks (harzburgite), marble, and anorthosite. The pH, clay content, and CEC were the main attributes of the soils governing the availability of macro and micronutrients. The low soil organic carbon contents did not influence the availability of the nutrients. The parent material also influenced the soil texture. Parent materials that are richer in silica formed more sandy soils. The availability of Cd, Cr, and Pb in soils was low; however, the elevated Ni concentrations of soils derived from ultramafic rocks may pose risks to the environment and human health. Cluster and discriminant analyses were used to discriminate the natural fertility of soils. These results are useful for the agro-pedological zoning of the Brazilian semi-arid tropical region and for land use planning.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Brasil , Cádmio/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013463, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is an important micronutrient deficiency contributing to the global burden of disease, and particularly affects children, premenopausal women, and people in low-resource settings. Anaemia is a possible consequence of iron deficiency, although clinical and functional manifestations of anemia can occur without iron deficiency (e.g. from other nutritional deficiencies, inflammation, and parasitic infections). Direct nutritional interventions, such as large-scale food fortification, can improve micronutrient status, especially in vulnerable populations. Given the highly successful delivery of iodine through salt iodisation, fortifying salt with iodine and iron has been proposed as a method for preventing iron deficiency anaemia. Further investigation of the effect of double-fortified salt (i.e. with iron and iodine) on iron deficiency and related outcomes is warranted.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of double-fortified salt (DFS) compared to iodised salt (IS) on measures of iron and iodine status in all age groups. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases, and two trial registries up to April 2021. We also searched relevant websites, reference lists, and contacted the authors of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All prospective randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), and controlled before-after (CBA) studies, comparing DFS with IS on measures of iron and iodine status were eligible, irrespective of language or publication status. Study reports published as abstracts were also eligible. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors applied the study selection criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors rated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. When necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We assessed RCTs, cRCTs and CBA studies using the Cochrane RoB 1 tool and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) tool across the following domains: random sequence generation; allocation concealment; blinding of participants and personnel; blinding of outcome assessment; incomplete outcome data; selective reporting; and other potential sources of bias due to similar baseline characteristics, similar baseline outcome assessments, and declarations of conflicts of interest and funding sources. We also assessed cRCTs for recruitment bias, baseline imbalance, loss of clusters, incorrect analysis, and comparability with individually randomised studies. We assigned studies an overall risk of bias judgement (low risk, high risk, or unclear).  MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 studies (7 RCTs, 7 cRCTs, 4 CBA studies), involving over 8800 individuals from five countries. One study did not contribute to analyses. All studies used IS as the comparator and measured and reported outcomes at study endpoint.  With regards to risk of bias, five RCTs had unclear risk of bias, with some concerns in random sequence generation and allocation concealment, while we assessed two RCTs to have a high risk of bias overall, whereby high risk was noted in at least one or more domain(s). Of the seven cRCTs, we assessed six at high risk of bias overall, with one or more domain(s) judged as high risk and one cRCT had an unclear risk of bias with concerns around allocation and blinding. The four CBA studies had high or unclear risk of bias for most domains. The RCT evidence suggested that, compared to IS, DFS may slightly improve haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 0.43 g/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.63; 13 studies, 4564 participants; low-certainty evidence), but DFS may reduce urinary iodine concentration compared to IS (MD -96.86 µg/L, 95% CI -164.99 to -28.73; 7 studies, 1594 participants; low-certainty evidence), although both salts increased mean urinary iodine concentration above the cut-off deficiency. For CBA studies, we found DFS made no difference in haemoglobin concentration (MD 0.26 g/dL, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.63; 4 studies, 1397 participants) or urinary iodine concentration (MD -17.27 µg/L, 95% CI -49.27 to 14.73; 3 studies, 1127 participants). No studies measured blood pressure. For secondary outcomes reported in RCTs, DFS may result in little to no difference in ferritin concentration (MD -3.94 µg/L, 95% CI -20.65 to 12.77; 5 studies, 1419 participants; low-certainty evidence) or transferrin receptor concentration (MD -4.68 mg/L, 95% CI -11.67 to 2.31; 5 studies, 1256 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to IS. However, DFS may reduce zinc protoporphyrin concentration (MD -27.26 µmol/mol, 95% CI -47.49 to -7.03; 3 studies, 921 participants; low-certainty evidence) and result in a slight increase in body iron stores (MD 1.77 mg/kg, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.74; 4 studies, 847 participants; low-certainty evidence). In terms of prevalence of anaemia, DFS may reduce the risk of anaemia by 21% (risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.94; P = 0.007; 8 studies, 2593 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Likewise, DFS may reduce the risk of iron deficiency anaemia by 65% (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.52; 5 studies, 1209 participants; low-certainty evidence).  Four studies measured salt intake at endline, although only one study reported this for both groups. Two studies reported prevalence of goitre, while one CBA study measured and reported serum iron concentration. One study reported adverse effects. No studies measured hepcidin concentration. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest DFS may have a small positive impact on haemoglobin concentration and the prevalence of anaemia compared to IS, particularly when considering efficacy studies. Future research should prioritise studies that incorporate robust study designs and outcome measures (e.g. anaemia, iron status measures) to better understand the effect of DFS provision to a free-living population (non-research population), where there could be an added cost to purchase double-fortified salt. Adequately measuring salt intake, both at baseline and endline, and adjusting for inflammation will be important to understanding the true effect on measures of iron status.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Iodo , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Ferro , Micronutrientes , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood malnutrition is an important public health problem. Animal protein provides essential amino acids in a more adequate pattern than plant-based protein. However, the production of sufficient animal-sourced protein to feed the growing world population is a serious challenge. This review aims to explore the evidence on the use of edible insects as an alternative source of protein and micronutrients in complementary foods for children and their potential to address childhood malnutrition. METHODS: Searches were conducted in two electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane. The reference lists of included studies were also searched. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this review. All insect-enriched formulations (e.g., biscuits, cereals, porridge, paste, etc.) exceeded the daily recommended amount of protein and fat for children's complementary foods and showed good acceptability. Only two studies assessed the efficacy of insect-enriched foods on nutritional indicators and found no effect on the reduction of stunting and wasting. However, one study found improvements in the haemoglobin levels and fewer cases of anaemia in the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Insect-enriched complementary foods for children are safe, acceptable and have the potential to tackle micronutrient deficiencies. More studies are needed to examine their effect on nutritional status in children.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Desnutrição , Animais , Criança , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional
19.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 21(3): 2520-2559, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430763

RESUMO

Camel milk consists of an essential macro/micronutrient for human nutrition in the arid and urban regions. This review study aimed to use meta-analysis statistical techniques for assessment and correction of publication bias, exploration of heterogeneity between studies, and detailed assessment of the effect of a comprehensive set of moderators including breed, season, country, year of publication, and the interaction between composition elements. This could provide a single synthesis of the camel milk composition to warrant strong generalizability of results, examine variability between available studies, and analyze differences in camel milk composition among different exposures. Such a finding will aid future researchers and health professionals in acquiring a more precise understanding of camel milk composition and drawing more clinical implications. Six searching databases and bibliographic were used including PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Springer, EBSCOhost, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 1980 to December 2021. The DerSimonian-Laird estimator was used to create the current random-effects meta-analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis included a total of 7298 camel milk samples from 23 countries. This review comprises 79 studies published in the English language on or after 1980, including a subgroup of 117 analyses consisting of seasons, sub-breeds, and countries. The contents of macro/micronutrients in camel milk were identified as follows: protein, 3.17%; fat, 3.47%; lactose, 4.28%; ash, 0.78%; and total solids, 11.31%; calcium, 112.93 mg/100 g; iron, 0.45 mg/100 g; potassium, 116.13 mg/100 g; magnesium, 9.65 mg/100 g; sodium, 53.10 mg/100 g; zinc, 1.68 mg/100 g; vitamin C, 5.38 mg/100 g; vitamin A, 0.36 mg/100 g; vitamin B1 ,0.05 mg/100 g; vitamin B2 , 0.13 mg/100 g; vitamin B3 , 0.51 mg/100 g; vitamin B6 , 0.09 mg/100 g; and vitamin B12 , 0.0039 mg/100 g. Our meta-regression analysis found that fat and total solids were statistically significant moderators of protein; moreover, total solids content is a statistically significant moderator of fat. Discrepancies observed in camel milk profiles are dependent upon several factors, including number of included studies, number of samples, different analytical techniques, feeding patterns, camel's breeds, geographical locations, and seasonal variations.


Assuntos
Camelus , Leite , Animais , Micronutrientes , Estações do Ano , Vitaminas
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5604, 2022 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379868

RESUMO

Yellow gypsum (YG), a synthetic product from Linz-Donawitz slag containing high iron (Fe) (5.41%), zinc (Zn) (0.37%) and silicon (Si) (3.41%) can be used as a source of these nutrients along with calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S) for groundnut production. Three field experiments were conducted to know the effect of different rates (500 and 625 kg YG ha-1) and time of application (basal alone and basal + split) of YG on growth, yield and economic returns of groundnut, and micronutrient and Si availability and their uptake in comparison with basal application of 500 kg natural gypsum (NG) ha-1. Basal alone and basal + split application of YG significantly increased the growth, yield and economic returns of groundnut. Further, it increased the soil pH, availability of micronutrients, Si and their uptake by haulm and kernel of groundnut over NG. Irrespective of the location, YG application recorded higher plant available nutrient (PAN) coefficient of micronutrients, while NG application recorded higher PAN recovery coefficient of Si. Basal + split application of YG resulted in better growth and yield of groundnut than basal application of YG. In conclusion, YG can be a potential alternative for NG as a source of Fe, Zn and Si along with Ca and S for groundnut production.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Solo , Sulfato de Cálcio , Micronutrientes , Zinco
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