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1.
Ethics Hum Res ; 46(3): 16-25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629226

RESUMO

Migration research poses several unique challenges and opportunities. Conducting ethical global health practice, especially when studying migrant mental health, is of particular concern. This article explores seven challenges and lessons learned in our mixed-methods study conducted to assess the impact of the migration experience on Haitian migrants' mental health in Santiago, Chile. The primary challenges were recruiting in a highly mobile population, building trust and community participation, overcoming language barriers, safety considerations during the Covid-19 pandemic, mitigating potential negative impacts of research on the community, providing psychological support, and finding meaningful ways to benefit the community. We propose moving toward a better and more ethical migrant research practice by ensuring language accessibility, hiring community members for the study team, working with local institutions and nongovernmental organizations, and maintaining sustainable connections.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Migrantes , Humanos , Chile , Haiti , Pandemias
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1051, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The last decade saw the emergence of a new significant migration corridor due to the mass migration of Venezuelans to neighboring countries in South America. Since 2018, Brazil became the third host country of Venezuelan displaced populations. Little is known about how migratory processes affect needs, access to social programs, and public health services of migrant women. The goal of this study is to shed light on the socio-economic profile, living conditions, and use of health services of Venezuelan migrant women in two main reception cities in Brazil. METHODS: A survey was conducted using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in the cities of Boa Vista (Roraima), and Manaus (Amazonas). The study included 2012 Venezuelan migrant women aged between 15 and 49 years old who migrated from Venezuela to Brazil between 2018 and 2021. Relative prevalence was calculated, and the χ2 test was used to analyse the homogeneity of proportions. All analyses considered the complex sampling. RESULTS: The main reasons for migrating relate to difficulties obtaining food (54%) and accessing health services (37.8%) in their country of origin. They were young and mixed race (65.7%) and had high school education (69.9%). In Manaus, 3.7% of the interviewees declared that they had no family income in the last month, while in Boa Vista, it was higher (66.2%) (p-value < 0.001). Almost one-third of them sought health care in the last 15 days, and 95% of them received care. The residents of Boa Vista arrived more recently and family income and access to paid work improved with time of residence in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Given the increasing flow of Venezuelan migrants crossing to Brazil, a reception system was established for the provision of food, shelter, access to health services, and income transfer programs to migrants. This was the case despite high unemployment and poverty levels and income inequality, particularly in the city of Boa Vista. However, the majority had legal migrant status and had access to the public and universal healthcare system in Brazil (SUS). The use of the SUS was similar in both cities, acting as a buffer for the differences in opportunities offered.


Assuntos
Condições Sociais , População da América do Sul , Migrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde
3.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 225-232, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To study the structure and characteristics of psychopathological symptoms in FM who left Ukraine as a result of the full-scale armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, and internally displaced persons, in a comparative aspect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: Examination was performed in compliance with the principles of biomedical ethics, based on informed consent. Research was provided on the basis of the Ternopil Regional Clinical Psychoneurological Hospital. Inclusion criteria were women who were forced to leave the territory of Ukraine as a result of hostilities after February 24, 2022, and who left for temporary residence in the territory of the Republic of Poland (Poland) (FM), and women who were temporarily relocated within Ukraine in connection with connection with hostilities (IDP). Exclusion criteria from the study were presence of language disorders, pronounced cognitive disorders, severe somatic condition. The examination was organized by the method of a semi-structured clinical interview according to the developed by us protocol and was conducted remotely. During the examination, depressive, anxiety-phobic, asthenic and dyssomnic disorders, addictive behavior and symptoms of PTSDwere identified and verified. Statistical and mathematical processing a was carried out using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Results: The data we obtained indicate a significant spread of psychopathological symptoms in FM and IDP. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: FM and IDP are characterized by a high incidence of psychopathological symptoms. The most frequent were: depressed mood (FM - 67.2%, IDP - 58.5%), feelings of anxiety and fear (FM -52.5%, IDP - 43.6%), obsessive thoughts (FM - 58.9 %, IDP - 49.5%).


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Refugiados , Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade
4.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2334316, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mental disorder and the sixth leading cause of disability in Thailand. Chiang Mai has historically been a city of attraction for labour migration for Shan migrants from the adjacent Southern Shan State of Myanmar. Currently, only infectious diseases are screened during the pre-employment period. Prevention and early detection of noncommunicable diseases can improve a healthy workforce and reduce the healthcare burden on the host country. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done among Myanmar migrant adults legally working in Chiang Mai, Thailand. RESULTS: The final analysis included 360 participants and the prevalence of depression was 14.4%. Being female, duration of stay in Thailand of more than 10 years, co-residence with co-workers, and marginalisation pattern of acculturation were significant associated factors affecting depression in a multivariate regression analysis model. CONCLUSION: Although the culture and dialect were not different between the host and country of origin, Myanmar migrant workers of Shan ethnicity suffered from depression. Our findings highlighted the importance of social determinants beyond common predictors of depression among migrants and the need for public health measures to promote migrants' integration into the host culture.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
5.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 35(1): 8-13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people experience higher levels of stigma, discrimination, and interpersonal violence due to their gender identity and/or expression, particularly TGD people with a migration background. This study aimed to conduct and evaluate group psychotherapy for TGD migrants to provide opportunities for exploring and developing interpersonal skills and relationships. METHOD: The group therapy included five individuals who identified as TGD and originated from the Middle East. The TGD group therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of 90 minutes each and was facilitated by a psychiatrist. All sessions were conducted online and in Turkish. The sessions were guided by the group process and discussions. RESULTS: After completing 12 group therapy sessions, members of the group reported benefiting from observing and emulating others who shared their problem constellation. Through the interpersonal skills that they built up throughout the sessions, they became more open to share their feelings experiencing fewer social barriers, and reduced anxiety. CONCLUSION: This observational study indicates the significance of offering group-based psychotherapy to enhance affirmation and social connection within gender minority groups and emphasizes the need to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of group psychotherapy with TGD individuals, with special attention to the unique needs of TGD migrants.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Migrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Vergonha , Ansiedade
6.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606296, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577390

RESUMO

Objective: Episiotomy, defined as the incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth, is one of the most commonly performed surgical interventions in the world. We aimed to determine if migrant status is associated with episiotomy, and if individual characteristics mediate this association. Methods: We analyzed data from the Bambino study, a national, prospective cohort of migrant and native women giving birth at a public hospital in mainland Portugal between 2017 and 2019. We included all women with vaginal delivery. The association between migrant status and episiotomy was assessed using multivariable multilevel random-effect logistic regression models. We used path analysis to quantify the direct, indirect and total effects of migrant status on episiotomy. Results: Among 3,583 women with spontaneous delivery, migrant parturients had decreased odds of episiotomy, especially those born in Africa, compared to native Portuguese women. Conversely, with instrumental delivery, migrant women had higher odds of episiotomy. Disparities in episiotomy were largely explained by maternity units' factors, and little by maternal and fetal characteristics. Conclusion: Our results suggest non-medically justified differential episiotomy use during childbirth and highlight the importance of developing evidence-based recommendations for episiotomy use in a country with a high frequency of medical interventions during delivery.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Migrantes , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Episiotomia/métodos , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Parto Obstétrico
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298022, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578760

RESUMO

Food security and dietary diversity, defined as providing either physical (availability) or economic (accessibility) access to food, are linked with access to and control over productive resources and is a highly-gendered phenomenon. In Nepal, labor out-migration has increased household income and may have increased people's ability to access diverse food either by increasing investment in agriculture or purchasing various food items from the market. However, the relationship between household dietary improvement and labor out-migration is complex. Drawing on a survey of 1,053 migrant households in three agroecological regions of Nepal, this paper disentangles this complex phenomenon by showing how household dietary diversity and women's dietary diversity are influenced by biophysical, social, economic, and cultural factors. The influence of the amount of remittances, land abandonment, and women confined to the house by household chores are some factors that policy makers should consider seriously in designing gender-sensitive nutrition policies. The expansion of women's agency contributes to enhancing dietary diversity and specifically women's dietary diversity at the household level; however, how these factors determine an individual's dietary diversity depends on intrahousehold dynamics and relations.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Nepal , Dieta , Alimentos , Emigração e Imigração , Abastecimento de Alimentos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 963, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrants face several barriers when accessing care and tend to rely on emergency services to a greater extent than primary care. Comparing emergency department (ED) utilization by migrants and non-migrants can unveil inequalities affecting the migrant population and pave the way for public health strategies aimed at improving health outcomes. This systematic review aims to investigate differences in ED utilization between migrant and non-migrant populations to ultimately advance research on migrants' access to care and inform health policies addressing health inequalities. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in March 2023 on the Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. The included studies were limited to those relying on data collected from 2012 and written in English or Italian. Data extracted included information on the migrant population and the ED visit, the differences in ED utilization between migrants and non-migrants, and the challenges faced by migrants prior to, during, and after the ED visit. The findings of this systematic review are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. RESULTS: After full-text review, 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. All but one adopted a quantitative methodology. Some studies reported a higher frequency of ED visits among migrants, while others a higher frequency among non-migrants. Migrants tend to leave the hospital against medical advice more frequently than the native population and present at the ED without consulting a general practitioner (GP). They are also less likely to access the ED via ambulance. Admissions for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, namely health conditions for which adequate, timely, and effective outpatient care can prevent hospitalization, were higher for migrants, while still being significant for the non-migrant population. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison between migrants' and non-migrants' utilization of the ED did not suggest a clear pattern. There is no consensus on whether migrants access EDs more or less than non-migrants and on whether migrants are hospitalized at a higher or lower extent. However, migrants tend to access EDs for less urgent conditions, lack a referral from a GP and access the ED as walk-ins more frequently. Migrants are also discharged against medical advice more often compared to non-migrants. Findings of this systematic review suggest that migrants' access to care is hindered by language barriers, poor insurance coverage, lack of entitlement to a GP, and lack of knowledge of the local healthcare system.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Saúde Pública , Barreiras de Comunicação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
9.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613093

RESUMO

The causes and conditions of displacement often increase the vulnerability of migrant and refugee populations to food insecurity, alongside other material hardships. We aimed to examine the multidimensional aspects and patterns of food insecurity and other material hardships in a cross-sectional sample of 6221 Venezuelan refugees and migrants in urban Colombia using a latent class analysis. Using multinomial and logistic regression models, we investigated the demographic and migratory experiences associated with identified classes and how class membership is associated with multiple health outcomes among Venezuelan refugees and migrants, respectively. Approximately two thirds of the sample was comprised cisgender women, and the participants had a median age of 32 years (IQR: 26-41). Four heterogeneous classes of food insecurity and material hardships emerged: Class 1-low food insecurity and material hardship; Class 2-high food insecurity and material hardship; Class 3-high income hardship with insufficient food intake; and Class 4-income hardship with food affordability challenges. Class 2 reflected the most severe food insecurity and material hardships and had the highest class membership; Venezuelans with an irregular migration status were almost 1.5 times more likely to belong to this class. Food insecurity and material hardship class membership was independently associated with self-rated health, mental health symptoms, and recent violence victimization and marginally associated with infectious disease outcomes (laboratory-confirmed HIV and/or syphilis infection). Social safety nets, social protection, and other interventions that reduce and prevent material hardships and food insecurity among refugees and migrants, alongside the host community, may improve public health, support development, and reduce healthcare costs. In the long term, regularization and social policies for migrants aimed at enhancing refugees' and migrants' social and economic inclusion may contribute to improving food security in this population.


Assuntos
Refugiados , População da América do Sul , Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Análise de Classes Latentes , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 238, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As fertility rates continue to decline and negative population growth emerges, China has sequentially introduced encouraging fertility policies to raise fertility levels. The impact of fertility on women's health remains inconclusive. It is essential to explore further the correlation between fertility and the health status of 113 million migrant women of childbearing age in China. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how fertility affects the health status of migrant women of childbearing age and determine if migrant women's socioeconomic status plays a moderating role in this process. METHODS: Using a nationally representative dataset from the 2018 China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS), we examined the effects of fertility on the self-rated health of migrant women of childbearing age. An ordinary least squares regression model with moderating effects was used for the empirical study, and robustness tests were conducted based on the ordered probit model and propensity score matching to address endogeneity. RESULTS: The empirical results indicated that a rise in the number of children born significantly reduces the self-rated health of migrant women of childbearing age. An increase in years of schooling and household income can significantly mitigate the negative impact of childbearing on the health of migrant women. The robustness of the above results was validated through alternative models and propensity score matching (PSM) methods. The heterogeneity analysis revealed that fertility exerts a negative impact on the health status of migrant women with rural household registration and on the health status of inter-provincial and inter-city migrant women. Further investigation found that the occurrence of childbirth during migration and an increase in the number of girls significantly negatively impacted the health status of migrant women. In contrast, the increase in the number of boys did not show a significant effect. Improving the health of migrant women of childbearing age significantly positively impacted their future childbearing intentions. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant women of childbearing age bear the dual burden of migration and childbirth. Our findings showed the rise in the number of children born and the occurrence of childbirth during migration posed greater challenges to the health status of female migrants, particularly among those with lower socioeconomic status. Government and community efforts for enhancing health among migrant women of childbearing age are recommended.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Masculino , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Fertilidade , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Parto , Parto Obstétrico
12.
Ann Glob Health ; 90(1): 25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618272

RESUMO

Background: In Europe and Italy, marginalized communities have a higher risk for both contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI) and progressing towards adverse outcomes. Objectives: This study focuses on the screening of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among homeless individuals and agricultural migrant workers living in Apulia, Italy. It aims to assess STI prevalence and investigate factors that might hinder return to collect test results. In addition, it explores STI knowledge, attitudes, and practices among these vulnerable populations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 1, 2022, to September 30, 2023. Participants were recruited from community health centers and migrant camps. Blood tests for HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis were performed, and Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) survey were conducted via face-to-face interviews. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors influencing the return for test results. Results: A total of 149 persons were recruited, including 64 agricultural migrant workers and 85 homeless people. Overall, 24.8% (n = 37) tested positive for at least one infection, and only 50.3% (n = 75) of the screened participants returned to collect their test results. Significant disparities in STI knowledge and healthcare access were observed between the two populations, with only 14.1% (n = 9) of migrants having access to primary healthcare. At multivariable analysis, the strongest predictor for not returning for test results was being positive for HCV. Conclusions: Among homeless people and agricultural migrant workers, STI prevalence was high, and only half of the population returned to collect test results. The study underscores the urgent need for targeted interventions and policy reevaluation to address healthcare disparities in marginalized communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Migrantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Prevalência , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
13.
Soc Sci Res ; 119: 102990, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609309

RESUMO

Scholarly research has consistently shown that teachers present negative assessments of and attitudes toward migrant students. However, previous studies have not clearly addressed the distinction between implicit and explicit prejudices, or identified their underlying sources. This study identifies the explicit and implicit prejudices held by elementary and middle school teachers regarding the learning abilities of an ethnic minority group: Haitian students within the Chilean educational system. We use a list experiment to assess how social desirability and intergroup attitudes toward minority students influence teachers' prejudices. The findings reveal that teachers harbor implicit prejudices towards Haitian students and are truthful in reporting their attitudes, thereby contradicting the desirability bias hypothesis. We suggest that teachers rely on stereotypes associated with the students' nationality when assessing Haitian students' learning abilities. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to theories grounded in stereotypes and intergroup attitudes.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Migrantes , Humanos , Haiti , Desejabilidade Social , Grupos Minoritários , Preconceito , Estudantes
15.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 45(4): 365-370, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564680

RESUMO

Undocumented migrants are often in a position of extreme vulnerability and experience many barriers to accessing mental health care. It is crucial that health professionals understand this and quickly establish trust and respect. If the stressful living conditions that contribute to the distress of undocumented migrants are recognized, compassionate and trauma-informed care is enhanced. In this regard, it is important that health professionals understand the fear of being expelled from a country. This paper discusses problems that arise when health professionals interact with undocumented migrants and the need to quickly convey recognition to establish trust and respect. We argue that insights from Axel Honneth's social philosophical theory of recognition and disrespect can further enhance health professionals strategies to improve their verbal and non-verbal communication and thereby increase access to health care for undocumented migrants. We suggest ideas for codifying this knowledge in health care policies and guidelines.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Respeito , Medo , Política de Saúde
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1359363, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601503

RESUMO

Introduction: Given the high infection rate of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among migrant women sex workers (WSWs), it is necessary to understand how to improve prevention, information and care for this vulnerable population. Community health workers (CHWs), by linking community to health services, are positioned to improve health outcomes in migrant communities. This article aims to describe a pilot innovative intervention performed by CHWs to improve sexual health in migrant WSWs. Methods: This one-year intervention study used a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit a representative cohort of migrant WSWs in Marseille, France. Four CHWs were recruited from different communities and participated in all stages of the research. They performed individual and group interventions of prevention, support in care and empowerment. Data on participant characteristics, type of intervention and adherence to the intervention were reported via questionnaires given to participants. Simultaneously, semi-structured interviews and informal interviews of migrant WSW, CHWs and care providers were carried out. Results: A total of 132 migrant WSWs were included in the cohort. Very few of them knew about PrEP (12%) or already used HIV post-exposure treatment (9%). Migrant WSWs were often victims of rape or racism, 15 and 21%, respectively. In two-thirds of cases the level of health literacy was low. Participants suffered from a combination of vulnerability factors: difficulties with access to social rights, food or housing. Only 13% reported having benefited from medical follow-up or assistance by an NGO in the 3 months prior to the program. By 3 months, more than one third of the participants had been tested for HIV (35%) and 63% knew about PrEP. A total retention rate of 70% was reported in the cohort after 6 months. Conclusion: CHWs enabled to improve care access for migrant WSWs by improving the collaboration between care and social actors at a local level. Through these "bring-back-to" interventions for this hard-to-reach population, CHWs enabled an optimization of the care pathway. Our results also highlight the importance of a population-based approach for individual and group support of empowerment interventions in order to strengthen their capacity for action.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Saúde Sexual , Migrantes , Humanos , Feminino , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8361, 2024 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600240

RESUMO

Low dietary diversity (LDD) is prevalent among vulnerable populations, posing a morbidity risk. Few studies have been conducted on the dietary diversity of migrants. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of LDD among migrants in Morocco and the risk factors associated with it. In the Oriental region, we conducted a cross-sectional study with migrants between November and December 2021. The sampling method used was convenience sampling. A face-to-face, structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data. We calculated a dietary diversity score based on a 24-h food recall and assessed food intake. The risk factors associated with LDD were identified using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 445 migrants was enrolled. The prevalence of LDD was 31.7%. Risk factors associated with LDD were: being homeless (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) of 6.32; CI% [3.55-11.25]), a lack of social support (AOR of 2.30; CI% [1.33-03.98]), and low monthly income (AOR of 8.21; CI% [3.39-19.85]). Public policies must focus on social and environmental determinants. Nutrition training programs should be set up for the migrant population.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Marrocos , Dieta , Prevalência
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37418, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608085

RESUMO

Migrants living in the informal settlements of Southern Spain tend to have precarious employment and poor living conditions, making then vulnerable to mental health issues. This study aimed to assess psychological distress in a sample of unemployed migrants residing in informal settlements in the province of Huelva (southern Spain), during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during the months of April to June 2021, through a heteroadministered questionnaire, in informal settlements. The measurement instrument was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), used to analyze psychological distress, and other sociodemographic and health-related variables. Univariate and bivariate descriptive data analysis were performed, using the nonparametric statistics Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Tau ß correlation. A categorical regression analysis was performed to study the relationship between psychological distress and the rest of the variables. The sample consisted of 317 subjects, 83.9% of whom were males, and the mean age was 33.4 years (SD = 10.7 years). The mean score obtained in the GHQ-12 questionnaire was 13.69 points (SD = 3.86). Significant differences were found between levels of psychological distress and substance abuse (H = 14.085; P = .049), people who wished to stay in Spain (t = 6987; P = .049), people who experienced isolation due to COVID-19 contact (t = 1379.5; P = .001), people who needed medical assistance due to COVID-19 (t = 7.990; P = .018), and those who reported having chronic illnesses (t = 2686.5, P = .02). The mean score of psychological distress indicates general high levels of psychological distress. Participants who had experienced isolation due to COVID-19 contact, who consumed substances, and who had chronic illnesses reported the highest levels of psychological distress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Migrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , Espanha/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica
19.
Tunis Med ; 102(2): 65-69, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transformed progressively into a transit country towards Europe but also as a host, Tunisia has seen a diversification of migratory movements since the 2011 revolution, as well as the profiles of migrants who face multiple difficulties that can have an impact on their health. AIM: This update aimed to expose the situation of migrants in Tunisia regarding access to healthcare, and to raise the ethical issues that result from it. RESULTS: Providing care to vulnerable individuals, especially migrants, compels us to reevaluate our practices and question ourselves. Ethical questioning is constant to determine how to do well and not harm. The reflection on this more humane "social medicine" comprehending the patient in its entirety, is only in its beginnings. The critical health status of the poorest populations and their extreme vulnerability do not only call for adapted and specific care measures but also a more comprehensive questioning of social ties and the place that our society grants to the weakest and excluded. CONCLUSION: Migration must be considered as a central issue of the ethics of the health of a population in order to provide quality care without prejudice.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Pobreza
20.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301552, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573958

RESUMO

This study investigates the intricate relationship between Venezuelan migration and urban growth in Colombia from 2018 to 2021. The study employs remote sensing data and social network metrics to uncover migration patterns and their impact on urban expansion. The methodology consists of three stages. Firstly, nighttime satellite imagery is used to analyze year-over-year urban growth in Colombia. Secondly, social network data estimates Venezuelan migration, overcoming challenges of underreporting and informal border crossings. Lastly, an econometric analysis explores the quantitative link between Venezuelan migration and urban growth, integrating socioeconomic variables to address endogeneity. The findings reveal the complex interplay of Venezuelan migration, socioeconomic factors, and urban growth. The study outlines remote sensing analysis, introducing the Anthropogenic Footprint Expansion Index (AFEI) to quantify urban growth. Facebook API data estimates migration trends and explores socioeconomic impacts on urban expansion. The analysis uncovers migration, poverty, aging, and urban population proportion as key factors affecting Colombia's urban landscape. Furthermore, the research underscores how Venezuelan migration affected short-term urban expansion pre- and post-COVID-19. Migration had a notable effect before the pandemic, but this influence waned afterward. The study highlights migration's short-term nature and emphasizes age demographics' role in medium-term dynamics.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Demografia , Incidência , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
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