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1.
Midwifery ; 104: 103157, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The number of forced migrants increased worldwide, while pregnant refugee women are considered a vulnerable group, concerning their physical and mental health. How do maternal health care professionals manage their maternal health care? The aim is to review the current evidence regarding the interaction between migrant refugee women and professionals in maternal health care provision after resettlement and in high-income host countries. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic qualitative review and searched the databases PubMed (MEDLINE); CINAHL; PSYNDEX, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library. Studies were judged for eligibility: a study had to address maternal health care provision for asylum seeking refugee (and migrant) women. FINDINGS: 16 primary studies were included. Heterogeneity of the included studies exists regarding e.g. origin of the women, reasons for migration and receiving country. Nevertheless, synthesis provides valuable information on challenges and chances within interactions in maternal health care for asylum seeking refugee (and migrant) women: Finding one's way in the unknown health care system is a barrier for women, which professionals meet by informing the women and coordinating their care. The perceived diversity of women may lead to conflicts in care. While some studies recommend "cultural recipes", others emphasize the individuality of women and prefer holistic care approaches. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care professionals face different barriers when providing maternal health care to refugee (and migrant) women such as communication barriers, coordinating care and handling women's diversity. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Initiating and enhancing public health activities such as training courses for professionals that convey general principles such as woman-centered care or communication techniques are valuable opportunities to improve asylum seeking refugee (and migrant) women's maternal health care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Refugiados , Migrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Gestantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 258-267, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635617

RESUMO

Background: With increasing number of migrants in Korea, there is an increasing need for blood products with rare blood antigens. Accordingly, the role of blood donors among migrants has been acknowledged. We investigated migrants' experiences and perceptions of blood donation along with their sociodemographic status and identified the effects on self-reported blood donation status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-developed, structured questionnaire was conducted on 479 migrants. The questionnaire included items about experiences, knowledge, and perceptions on blood donation and sociodemographic factors of respondents. Results: Most migrants in this study were from Southeast Asia (54.7%) or China (39.9%). Among them, 28.6% (N=137) had donated blood previously, and 2.7% (N=13) had previously donated blood in Korea. All previous blood donors were volunteers, and the two major deterrents of blood donation for non-donors were the fear of pain and lack of knowledge about blood donation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the country of birth (odds ratio [OR]=2.65, P<0.001 [China]; OR=4.85, P=0.001 [countries other than China and Southeast Asian countries]) and employment status (OR=2.80, P=0.034) were independently associated with blood donation. Conclusions: This is the first Korean study to analyze migrants' experiences and perceptions of blood donation in relation to their sociodemographic status. Our findings can help establish blood donation policies for migrants, devise campaigns to enhance blood donation awareness, and ultimately create a pool of rare blood resources in a multicultural society.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Migrantes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , República da Coreia
3.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(1): e113-e125, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978287

RESUMO

The Chinese government has been reforming the health care system by developing a primary care system. The objectives of this study were to compare the willingness to use and satisfaction with community health care centres (CHCs), a component within the Chinese primary care system, between locals and migrants living in Luohu, Shenzhen, China. A 2019 cross-sectional survey data that interviewed 1,205 adult residents living in Luohu district were used for secondary data analysis. Two identifications of migrants were used for analysis, Shenzhen hukou status and urban village status. Linear probability models were used to determine relationship between migrants' status and the outcome variable of willingness to use CHCs and order logistic regression were used to determine the association between migrants' status and the outcome variable of satisfaction with CHCs. Among participants, 37.6% of the participants had Shenzhen hukou. Using the classification of urban village status, 29.1% of participants were urban villagers. Urban villagers were less likely to know the location of nearest CHCs and less likely to select CHCs as their frequently used health care institutions. No statistically significant difference was found on willingness to use CHCs or satisfaction with CHCs between Shenzhen hukou and non-Shenzhen hukou. But urban villagers were more satisfied with attitude and medical skills of health care workers. Our findings indicated that policymakers and social professionals need to adjust the organization and functioning of primary care institutions in the community to increase awareness and utilization of primary care services.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
Soins Psychiatr ; 42(337): 31-34, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895692

RESUMO

The post-traumatic stress suffered by migrants is not only due to the events in their home country, but also to the difficult and often violent journey to the host country. On arrival, they are confronted with numerous administrative and legal procedures that hinder urgent access to care. Recognition of their problems and appropriate support towards the specific care they need should be provided by social workers, who are familiar with their culture and the warning signs of psychological trauma, and should require the services of a qualified interpreter. While access to care should be guaranteed, for migrants it represents a new and difficult road to recovery.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Migrantes , Ansiedade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948593

RESUMO

The social integration in host cities of China's migrant population and its determinants has received much attention from researchers. However, few have directly addressed the family migration in differentiating migrants' social integration. This study employs descriptive statistics and multivariate regression to explore the social integration across different family migration types, based on the data of China Migrants Dynamic Survey 2013 and 2017 in Wuhan metropolitan area. The findings show that the family migration in Wuhan metropolitan area is prevalent, and the central city Wuhan has advantages both in the proportion of whole-family migration and the scores of migrants' social integration. In addition, the migrants' family migration is significantly positively associated with their social integration, but the effect is variance in the regression models of social integration's four dimensions. The findings reveal the Wuhan City's leading position in promoting migrants' social integration within the Wuhan metropolitan area. Furthermore, migration with more family members has higher levels of integration in economy and public service. This implies that the convenience provided by inflow cities' government for family migration is crucial. To provide high-quality public services is of great significance to attract and retain migrants and then promote their overall social integration.


Assuntos
Migrantes , China , Cidades , Humanos , Integração Social , Urbanização
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917571

RESUMO

Despite the "migrants and COVID-19" topic has been neglected since felt marginal concerning other aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it represents a relevant public health issue in the European countries. This report describes COVID-19 containment strategies adopted in a large Italian reception center hosting recently arrived asylum-seeker migrants. Risk assessment and prevention measures adopted were described. Geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was reported. Significant gaps in the knowledge of self-protection measures from contagious diseases and in the perception of the pandemic risk were observed in migrants; health promotion activities, targeted to remove cultural barriers and improve behaviors appropriate to individual protection, were able to fulfill this gap. In low-resource settings, especially in closed communities, the implementation of social distancing strategies, the systematic use of individual protection devices, and active syndromic surveillance are essential tools to limit the risk of outbreaks. In the event of an outbreak, it is relevant to rapidly activate containment procedures based on systematic screening, isolation, and quarantine, taking into consideration the limits of tracing contacts within a closed community. Not being able to trace certain contacts, the geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of cases distribution could be key in the management of the outbreak. Interestingly, positive cases identified in our facility were all clinically pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic. Dedicated strategies are needed to minimize the chance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a limited space such as reception centers and a vulnerable population such as migrants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 257, 2021 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities increase the risk of death for patients with COVID-19, however, little is known about how it affects the prognosis of migrants who contract the virus. Therefore, this article aims to determine which comorbidities and risk conditions are associated with the probability of death among migrants infected with COVID-19 in Mexico. METHODS: We use a sample of migrants with a positive diagnosis for COVID-19 (N = 2126) registered in the public database published in the National Epidemiological Surveillance System of the Mexican Ministry of Health; the technique used was a Probit regression. RESULTS: The findings show that most of the comorbidities commonly associated with death from COVID-19 in the native-born population were actually not significant when present in migrants infected with COVID-19. Additionally, migrants have lower comorbidities than locals. The results further indicate that the factors related to the death of migrants infected with COVID-19 are: age, intubation, nationality group, pneumonia and the Health Care Management of Patients. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to preceding studies with native-born populations with COVID-19, where pre-existing diseases aggravated the diagnosis of COVID-19 and sometimes led to death, in the case of migrants, only pneumonia was the significant comorbidity associated with mortality among migrants diagnosed with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Comorbidade , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e057985, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937727

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Owing to their inherent vulnerabilities, the burden of COVID-19 and particularly of its control measures on migrants has been magnified. A thorough assessment of the value of the interventions for COVID-19 tailored to migrants is essential for improving their health outcomes as well as promoting an effective control of the pandemic. In this study, based on evidence from primary biomedical research, we aimed to systematically identify health interventions for COVID-19 targeting migrants and to assess and compare their effectiveness. The review will be conducted within a programme aimed at defining and implementing interventions to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and conducted by a consortium of Italian regional health authorities. METHODS AND ANALYSES: Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Embase, LOVE Platform COVID-19 Evidence, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies must evaluate health interventions for COVID-19 in migrants. Two independent reviewers will screen articles for inclusion using predefined eligibility criteria, extract data of retained articles and assess methodological quality by applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. In synthesising the evidence, we will structure results by interventions, outcomes and quality. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous, trial data will be pooled and meta-analyses will be performed. Data will be reported according to methodological guidelines for systematic review provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a review of existing literature, and ethics approval is not required. We will submit results for peer-review publication and present at relevant conferences. The review findings will be included in future efforts to develop evidence-informed recommendations, policies or programmatic actions at the national and regional levels and address future high-quality research in public health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948813

RESUMO

Background: African-born migrants and refugees arriving from fragile states and countries with political and economic challenges have unique health needs requiring tailored healthcare services and support. However, there is little investigation into the distribution of this population and their spatial access to healthcare in Australia. This paper reports on research that aimed to map the spatial distribution of Africa-born migrants from low and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) and refugees in New South Wales (NSW) and access to universal child and family health (CFH) services and hospitals. Methods: We analysed the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016 Census data and Department of Social Services 2018 Settlement data. Using a Geographic Information System mapping software (Caliper Corporation. Newton, MA, USA), we applied data visualisation techniques to map the distribution of Africa-born migrants and refugees relative to CFH services and their travel distance to the nearest service. Results: Results indicate a spatial distribution of 51,709 migrants from LLMICs in Africa and 13,661 refugees from Africa live in NSW, with more than 70% of the total population residing in Sydney. The Africa-born migrant and refugee population in Sydney appear to be well served by CFH services and hospitals. However, there is a marked disparity between local government areas. For example, the local government areas of Blacktown and Canterbury-Bankstown, where the largest number of Africa-born migrants and refugees reside, have more uneven and widely dispersed services than those in Sydney's inner suburbs. Conclusion: The place of residence and travel distance to services may present barriers to access to essential CFH services and hospitals for Africa-born refugees and migrants. Future analysis into spatial-access disadvantages is needed to identify how access to health services can be improved for refugees and migrants.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , África , Austrália , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , New South Wales
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969183

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the subjective well-being of migrant workers staying in a shelter home in India.Methods: A total of 54 residents of the shelter home participated in this exploratory survey study. Baseline assessments included sociodemographic profile, the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI), and the Perceived Stress Scale. The participants were reassessed with the SUBI after 2 weeks of staying in the shelter home. The survey was administered April 11 to May 10, 2020.Results: The mean ± SD age of the participants was 23.54 ± 11.68 years, and the majority were men and in the age group 21-30 years (45%). At baseline assessments, the mean ± SD stress level score was 17.39±4.62. The mean ± SD SUBI score was 81.44 ± 4.62 at baseline and increased to 100.65±5.95 after 2 weeks of staying in the shelter home.Conclusions: The survey findings demonstrate that the levels of subjective well-being among participants improved after their physical and mental health needs were met during their stay in the shelter home. The findings could help policy planners and senior public health administrators minimize gaps to better understand the multiple issues related to the subjective well-being of this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
11.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 238, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent and young women (10-24 years old) are habitually a neglected group in humanitarian settings. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is an unmet aspect of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and an additional challenge if lack of hygiene products, inadequate access to safe, clean, and private toilets identified as period poverty. Our objective was to provide an overview of the main MHM issues affecting Venezuelan migrant adolescents and young women in the north-western border of Venezuela-Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted, early in 2021, with the use of a self-responded questionnaire, in Spanish, adapted from the Menstrual Practice Needs Scale (MPNS-36). All identified adolescents and young women aged between 12 and 24 years old were invited to participate (convenience sample-167 women). Women with complete questionnaires and who menstruate were included. Information on access to and quality of hygiene kits and toilets were retrieved, and a descriptive analysis performed, with an evaluation of frequencies for categorical variables (n, %) and mean (± SD-standard deviation) for continuous variables. In addition to the open-ended questions, we included one open question about their personal experience with menstruation. RESULTS: According to official reports, at the moment of the interviews, there were 1.603 Venezuelans living on the streets in Boa Vista. A total of 167 young women were invited, and 142 further included, mean age was 17.7 years, almost half of the participants who menstruate (46.4%) did not receive any hygiene kits, 61% were not able to wash their hands whenever they wanted, and the majority (75.9%) did not feel safe to use the toilets. Further, menstruation was often described with negative words. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant Venezuelan adolescents and young women have their MHM needs overlooked, with evident period poverty, and require urgent attention. It is necessary to assure appropriate menstrual materials, education, and sanitation facilities, working in partnership among governmental and non-governmental organizations to guarantee menstrual dignity to these young women.


Assuntos
Higiene , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação , Pobreza , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784374

RESUMO

As the early COVID-19 outbreak sparked xenophobia against people of Asian and Chinese background, we collected data from Chinese migrants worldwide to test how discrimination at a macro-level was perceived by the Chinese during COVID-19 globally. Specifically, we examined (1) whether/how the Chinese migrants were aware of discrimination against their co-nationals during COVID; (2) if so, whether anger was a predominant reaction of these Chinese towards certain exposure to relevant information; (3) how responses of anger transcend across the group of Chinese migrants. Integrating the ecological approach to media and cultural psychology, as well as the intergroup perspective of social psychology, we conducted a study that explored the impact of traditional media exposure to discrimination on collective anger-a process mediated by national identity among the Chinese migrants. Findings provide some evidence that geographically dispersed mono-cultural groups may share or identify with collective emotions when facing xenophobic threats in a macro context. Further examination of cultural distance (between China and the host country) among the Chinese migrants also revealed a particular interaction between host newspaper coverage and cultural distance on national identity. These findings suggest further research to examine the emotional norms of similar cultures bonded via strong collective identities in times of intergroup threat and the theoretical possibility for diasporic identity processes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Ira , China , Humanos
13.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 36(4): 347-368, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748119

RESUMO

Compared with western countries, research on homelessness among older people in developing nations is minimal. Unlike in Global North nations that offer income security in late-life, in areas like Sub-Saharan Africa abject poverty contributes to older adults migrating from rural areas to urban centers in search of a means of livelihood. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges faced by homeless older rural-urban migrants in Kobo Town, Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study employed a qualitative descriptive case study. Purposive sampling was used to identify ten older adult migrants who had been homeless for more than a year. Data from in-depth interviews was supplemented with key informant interviews, observation, and document review. The narrative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study results revealed that homeless elders faced multiple challenges including lack of necessities such as food, shelter, and water, mobility issues, lack of employment access, social exclusion, and psychological struggles. The findings call attention to the need for practical access to social and economic empowerment responses to prevent and curb homelessness among older adults in developing nations.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Migrantes , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Humanos , População Rural
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733387

RESUMO

Introduction: migrant mine workers are susceptible to engage in risky sexual behaviour due to their high mobility, putting at risk their families and home communities. Because comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS is a key factor in reducing HIV infections, this study aims to understand the current state of knowledge about HIV in these communities, estimate HIV prevalence and evaluate the risk behaviour associated with comprehensive knowledge. Methods: secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey conducted in two communities of origin of mine workers in Gaza Province, targeting current and former mine workers of the South African mines and their relatives. Households were selected using simple random sampling methodology. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess statistical differences between comprehensive knowledge and categorical variables. Results: from a total of 1,012 participants, only 22.0% of the respondents had comprehensive knowledge about HIV. The overall HIV prevalence in these communities was 24.2% and the HIV prevalence in individuals with comprehensive knowledge was 18.6%. Among the respondents with comprehensive knowledge, 33.1% were male, 22.0% have worked in a South African mine and the median age was 34 years old. Individuals from Muzingane were almost twice as likely (AOR 1.7; 95% IC 1.21-7.44, p=0.014) to have less comprehensive knowledge about HIV than their counterparts in Patrice Lumumba. Conclusion: the results demonstrate a low level of comprehensive knowledge about HIV amongst this population and reveal an association between comprehensive knowledge about HIV and prevalence. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge about HIV, its transmission and prevention amongst this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrant workers are in a socially disadvantaged position and thus suffer from more stress and mental health disorders, resulting in a high risk of suicidal ideation. This study aimed to explore the association between psychosocial problems and suicidal ideation, and the syndemic effect of concurrent psychosocial problems on suicidal ideation among migrant workers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and recruited 1805 migrant workers in Shenzhen, China. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire to report sociodemographic information and mental health status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between psychosocial variables and suicidal ideation, and their syndemic effect on suicidal ideation. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation among migrant workers was 7.5%. All selected psychosocial variables were independently associated with suicidal ideation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that three psychosocial variables were associated with suicidal ideation: anxiety (ORm: 1783, 95% CI: 1.089-2.920), entrapment (ORm: 2.064, 95% CI: 1.257-3.388), and defeat (ORm: 2.572, 95% CI: 1.612-4.103). Various mental health issues can exist simultaneously to increase the risk of suicidal ideation (AOR: 5.762, 95% CI: 3.773-8.802). Workers with more psychosocial problems were more likely to have suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: The association between poor mental health and suicidal ideation should not be overlooked among migrant workers. The co-occurring or syndemic effect of psychosocial problems may increase the risk of suicidal ideation.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Migrantes , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Sindemia
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736340, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746082

RESUMO

Rural-to-urban migration has increased rapidly in China since the early 1980s, with the number of migrants has reached 376 million by 2020. Despite this sharp trend and the significant contributions that migrants have made to urban development, the migrant workers have had very limited access to the social insurance that the majority of urban workers enjoy. Against the background of the social insurance system adjustment in Chengdu in 2011, this study uses a difference-in-differences (DID) model to empirically test the impacts of changes in the social insurance policy contribution rates on the social insurance participation rates of migrant workers, using the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) data for 2009-2016. We find that the social insurance participation rate of migrant workers was significantly reduced after they were incorporated into the urban worker insurance system. There was no significant change in the wages of migrant workers, but the working hours were increased and their consumption level decreased. In other words, simply changing the social insurance model of migrant workers from "comprehensive social insurance" to "urban employee insurance" reduces the incentives for migrant workers to participate in insurance and harms the overall welfare of migrant workers. Our study indicates that the design of the social security policy is an important reason for the lower participation rate of migrants. It is necessary to solve the problem of insufficient incentives through the targeted social security policies; primarily, the formulation of a social security policy contribution rate suitable for the migrants, and the establishment of a comprehensive social security policy and the gradual integration of the social security system.


Assuntos
Migrantes , China , Humanos , Motivação , Política Pública , População Rural , Previdência Social
17.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(5): 1821-1836, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803021

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic is considered the most important health disaster of the century and the largest humanitarian crisis since World War II. In December 2019, a new respiratory disease/disorder was discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and World Health Organization named it COVID-19 (coronavirus 2019). It has been diagnosed with a new class of corona virus, called SARS-CoV-2 (a serious respiratory disease). According to the history of human civilization it is affected by the incidence of disease outbreaks caused by the number of viruses. Covid-19 is rapidly spreading across the globe, due to which mankind faces major health, economic, environmental and social challenges. The outbreak of coronavirus is seriously affecting the global economy. Almost all nations have problems limiting the spread of the disease by screening and treating patients, setting up suspects by keeping in touch, blocking large gatherings, maintaining full or partial closure etc. This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on society and the global environment, and the ways in which the disease is likely to be controlled have been discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Migrantes
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769978

RESUMO

At present, income and welfare inequality between migrant workers and urban natives has improved in China, but there are still many "semi-urbanized" migrant workers, whose psychological integration into the migrant city is very important for their mental health. By using a second stage conditional process model to decompose the effect of income on psychological integration into direct and indirect effects, this study explores the different psychological integration paths of migrant workers in different migration ranges, based on the data of the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS). The results show that the total effect of income on psychological integration is positive, and the value of inter-provincial samples is twice that of full samples. There is a significant difference in psychological integration paths between inter-provincial and intra-provincial samples, and when social comparison acts as a mediator, income has no direct effect on psychological integration of intra-provincial samples, while the direct and indirect effects of inter-provincial samples account for half of each other. Perceived discrimination played a reversed moderated role in the effect of social comparison on psychological integration, i.e., the lower the degree of perceived discrimination, the stronger the positive effect of social comparison on psychological integration, and vice versa. Therefore, according to the actual needs of different groups, relevant policies should be gradually adjusted to improve the psychological integration of migrant workers, thus contributing to their mental health.


Assuntos
População Rural , Migrantes , China , Cidades , Humanos , Saúde Mental , População Urbana
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769988

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease, and risk communication is one of several public health emergency responses. During the pandemic, many migrant workers in Thailand experienced barriers that hamper access to health information. This study aims to explore factors related to the outcomes of health risk communication, including awareness of public health measures and preventive practices. We conducted a cross-sectional survey on migrants between January and April 2021 using cluster sampling in Phuket, Ranong, and Samut Sakhon. In the descriptive analysis, we presented the median, proportion, and ratio, while in the inferential analysis, we employed a logistic regression with robust standard errors. Although a total of 303 participants were initially included in this study, the final number was narrowed down to 288 samples due to insufficient information required for the analysis. Frequent reception of health information and primary school education showed a statistically significant association with preventive practices. Middle-aged migrant workers demonstrated a significantly lower level of preventive practices than younger migrant workers. A longer stay in Thailand was significantly related to a lower degree of awareness toward public health measures. Thus, it is necessary to promote the accessibility of health information among migrant workers in Thailand, especially those who have lived in Thailand for more than eight years, are older, and have no formal education.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Tailândia/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770017

RESUMO

Employment can play an important role for humanitarian migrants in their successful integration into a new country. For humanitarian migrants to Australia, there are no skill or language restrictions imposed on resettlement. Despite the benefits, humanitarian migrants often find themselves in low-status jobs and precarious working conditions. The present study examines perceptions of job quality and exposure to workforce psychosocial risk factors such as job strain, bullying, and discrimination. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 humanitarian migrants from South Sudan, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Thematic analysis of transcripts identified three overarching themes: Uncertainty and Insecurity, Working Hard and Pushing Through, and Positive Attitudes and Actions. Overall, our findings show that despite high levels of education and long-term residency in Australia, many of the participants struggled to find a safe and secure place in the workforce. While some spoke about their work in positive terms, their comments should not be taken as confirmation of a positive work environment. Humanitarian migrants face an uphill battle against oppressive working conditions and underemployment.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Migrantes , Austrália , Emprego , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
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