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2.
Int J Health Serv ; 51(1): 107-114, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092455

RESUMO

During the nationwide lockdown as part of the state response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the predicament of interstate migrant laborers in India, caught in crowded cities without means of livelihood and basic resources needed to sustain life, gained national and international attention. This article explores the context of the current migrant crisis through the historical trajectories and political roots of internal migration in India and its relationship with the urban informal labor market and the structural determinants of precarious employment. We argue that the both the response to the pandemic and the disproportionate impact on migrant laborers are reflections and consequences of an established pattern of neglect and poor accountability of the state toward the employment and living conditions of migrant workers who toil precariously in the informal labor market.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Migrantes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Política , Dinâmica Populacional , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prática de Saúde Pública
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127547, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693334

RESUMO

Plastic food packages usually contain additives which may migrate from the package into the food and then be ingested by the consumer, representing a risk for their health. In this study, targeted and untargeted analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is proposed to monitor any contaminants of this type in honey. The application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) as a preconcentration technique allowed very low detection limits to be reached for all the substances. Fifteen target compounds, including styrene, phthalates, fatty acids, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, were quantified. Untargeted analyses were also carried out, allowing other migrants in the honey samples to be identified, such as two phthalates, four acids, three esters, one aldehyde, one hydrocarbon and two alkyl phenol compounds. The proposed method was seen to be a useful approach for the quantification and identification of potential migrants from plastics in challenging samples such as honey.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Plásticos/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Migrantes
5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(1): 110-115, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211577

RESUMO

Immigration detention centers are densely populated facilities in which restrictive conditions limit detainees' abilities to engage in social distancing or hygiene practices designed to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With tens of thousands of adults and children in more than 200 immigration detention centers across the United States, immigration detention centers are likely to experience COVID-19 outbreaks and add substantially to the population of those infected.Despite compelling evidence indicating a heightened risk of infection among detainees, state and federal governments have done little to protect the health of detained im-migrants. An evidence-based public health framework must guide the COVID-19 response in immigration detention centers.We draw on the hierarchy of controls framework to demonstrate how immigration detention centers are failing to implement even the least effective control strategies. Drawing on this framework and recent legal and medical advocacy efforts, we argue that safely releasing detainees from immigration detention centers into their communities is the most effective way to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in immigration detention settings. Failure to do so will result in infection and death among those detained and deepen existing health and social inequities.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , /transmissão , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
Soins ; 65(850): 28-30, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357735

RESUMO

The Maison de Solenn at Cochin hospital in Paris provides transcultural care to a local migrant population. The transcultural approach consists in taking into account the cultural dimension in care and favours, through a specific technique, the sharing of cultural representations between professionals and families. The therapists can move around the hospital to provide advice as and when required, notably to facilitate care and compliance and to ensure there are no misunderstandings regarding treatments. In some situations, we recommend a transcultural consultation which consists in forming a group of several therapists from diverse professional and cultural backgrounds, to discuss a complex situation with the patient and their family.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Transcultural , Migrantes , Humanos , Paris , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
Soins ; 65(850): 43-45, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357739

RESUMO

As part of a clinical practice which aims to alleviate the psychological suffering of children in situations of migration and/or uprooting, a discussion can be undertaken regarding the cultural aetiologies of migrant families whose children present autism spectrum disorders. The transcultural context enables families to travel between worlds as well as share their collective imagination regarding psychological suffering using graphic expression and narrative elements.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Migrantes , Criança , Humanos , Narração , Pais , Estresse Psicológico
8.
Soins ; 65(850): 50-52, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357741

RESUMO

Over recent years, more and more unaccompanied minors have been arriving on French territory in search of a better future. As a result of their complicated journey before, during and after the migration, these youngsters have specific psychological needs which are not always recognised by the professionals working with them. Research has highlighted the elements weakening the educational alliance between youngsters and the adults surrounding them.


Assuntos
Educação , Refugiados , Migrantes , Criança , Criança Abandonada , Humanos , Menores de Idade
9.
Soins ; 65(850): 56-58, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357743

RESUMO

Somatic difficulties, solitude and the loss of independence are challenges facing ageing people, whatever their culture. However, when one is far from one's home, one's country, one's family, in a complex political and social context, this stage of life can be even more of an ordeal.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Migrantes , Idoso , Humanos , Migrantes/psicologia
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e292, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256863

RESUMO

Despite high exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the predictors for seropositivity in the context of husbandry practices for camels in Eastern Africa are not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to describe the camel herd profile and determine the factors associated with MERS-CoV seropositivity in Northern Kenya. We enrolled 29 camel-owning households and administered questionnaires to collect herd and household data. Serum samples collected from 493 randomly selected camels were tested for anti-MERS-CoV antibodies using a microneutralisation assay, and regression analysis used to correlate herd and household characteristics with camel seropositivity. Households reared camels (median = 23 camels and IQR 16-56), and at least one other livestock species in two distinct herds; a home herd kept near homesteads, and a range/fora herd that resided far from the homestead. The overall MERS-CoV IgG seropositivity was 76.3%, with no statistically significant difference between home and fora herds. Significant predictors for seropositivity (P ⩽ 0.05) included camels 6-10 years old (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), herds with ⩾25 camels (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4) and camels from Gabra community (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). These results suggest high levels of virus transmission among camels, with potential for human infection.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes , Zoonoses/transmissão
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167380

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is increasingly recognized as a spectrum of metabolic disorders sharing chronic hyperglycaemia. In Europe, the continually growing number of migrants from developing countries could affect diabetes phenotypes. We evaluated a population of 426 Italians and 412 undocumented migrants. Using 17 variables (with the exclusion of ethnic origin) we performed a multiple component analysis to detect potential clusters, independently from ethnicity. We also compared the two groups to evaluate potential ethnicity associated differences. We found five clusters of patients with different disease phenotypes. Comparing Italians with undocumented migrants, we noted that the first had more often cardiovascular risk factors and neurologic involvement, while the latter had a higher frequency of diabetic ulcers and renal involvement. Metformin was used in a comparable percentage of patients in all clusters, but other antidiabetic treatments showed some differences. Italians were more often on insulin, due to a larger use of long acting insulin, and received a larger number of oral antidiabetics in combination. Pharmacological treatment of comorbidities showed some differences too. We suggest that type 2 diabetes should be considered as a spectrum of diseases with different phenotypes also in heterogeneous populations, and that this is not due only to ethnic differences.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Migrantes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fenótipo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167475

RESUMO

Improving health literacy (HL) is critical for addressing health inequalities. Low literacy rates are believed to be more prevalent in ethnic minorities, which may have an impact on people's health. For measures to be implemented in this regard, HL must be evaluated to obtain specific indicators. Our aim, therefore, was to develop a version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16), which is recommended to be used with vulnerable populations, suited to Arabic/French-speaking migrants who reside in south-eastern Spain, and to explore its psychometric properties for assessing health literacy in this population. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a convenient sample of 205 migrants. The structural validity was calculated by a confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), which suggested appropriate adjustment indicators, and which indicated that the three-dimensional model is adequately adjusted to the data obtained in the study. The coefficient omega showed high internal consistency in the three HL dimensions (health care, disease prevention, and health promotion). Concurrent validity presented a significant correlation with the Newest Vital Sign test (r = 0.390; p < 0.001). The multigroup CFA showed that the heterogeneity of the sample used was not a problem for establishing the structural validity of the scale. The Arabic/French version showed good construct validity.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Psicometria , Migrantes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232342

RESUMO

Anthropogenic change has been associated with population growth, land use change, and changing economies. However, internal migration patterns and armed conflicts are also key drivers of anthropogenic and demographic processes. To better understand the processes associated with this change, we explore the spatial relationship between forced migration due to armed conflict and changing socioeconomic factors in Colombia, a country which has a recent history of 7 million internal migrants. In addition, we use remote sensing, Google Earth Engine, as well as spatial statistical analyses of demographic data in order to measure anthropogenic change between 1984 and 2013-a socio-politically important period in Colombia's armed conflict. We also analyze spatiotemporal relationships between socioeconomic and anthropogenic changes, which are caused by forced migration. We found that forced migration is significantly and positively related to an increasing rural-urban type of migration which results from armed conflict. Results also show that it is negatively related to interregional displacement. Indeed, anthropogenic change pertaining to different regions have had different correlations with forced migration, and across different time periods. Findings are used to discuss how socioeconomic and political phenomena such as armed conflict can have complex effects on the dynamics of anthropogenic and ecological change as well as movement of humans in countries like Colombia.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Dinâmica Populacional , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização , Colômbia , Humanos , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 475, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the incremental implementation of the essential public health services (EPHS) during the last decade, the goal of EPHS's equalization is impossible to cannot be achieved without appropriate policies targeting older migrants. Therefore, this study aims to examine whether the supply side meets the needs of older migrants and to explore the relationships among health status, the use of health services, and diverse factors. METHODS: The data were derived from a national cross-sectional dataset (N = 11,161) of the 2015 Chinese Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey. Mediating effects analysis and moderating effects analysis were conducted to explore the interactions between physical status and the use of EPHS in older migrants such as physical examination, health record, and follow-up services. RESULTS: The use of physical examination, health record, and follow-up services were correlated with each other. Household income, migrating for employment, and migrating for offspring were negatively associated with the use of EPHS. A positive association was observed between the use of EPHS and willingness for long-stay. The mediating effects of household income, migrating for employment, migrating for offspring, and willingness for long-stay were observed on the relationship between physical status and the use of EPHS. The moderating effects of household income and migrating for employment were discovered. CONCLUSION: Public health policies that may be worthy of consideration include further enhancing the delivery capacity of primary health institutions, integrating professional clinical resources into the primary health system, and launching the target policies to improve the accessibility of EPHS in older migrants.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Public Health Service
18.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(4): 513-518, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID pandemic and subsequent lockdown has disrupted food supplies across large parts of India, where even prior to the pandemic, food insecurity and malnutrition were widely prevalent. Tribal populations in southern Rajasthan, India, live in extreme scarcity, rely mainly on outward migration for sustenance, and have been significantly affected by the pandemic. In this study, we assess the availability of foodstuffs at the household level and community experiences about satiety and hunger during lockdown. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a rapid assessment of food security in rural southern Rajasthan, India, using a structured questionnaire. Trained interviewers conducted telephonic interviews using KoBoToolbox, an open-source tool. A total of 211 respondents including community volunteers, family members of tuberculosis patients and malnourished children, pregnant women, and influential members in the villages participated in the study. RESULTS: A cereal was reported to be present by 97% of the respondents, two-thirds had pulses, and nearly half had milk. The amount of cereals available was adequate for about 5 months and that of pulses, oil/ ghee, and sugar for about 1 to 2 weeks. Two-thirds of the respondents reported that food in their households was sometimes not sufficient for the amount they wanted to eat, and 97% of these mentioned not having money to buy food as the reason for not having sufficient food. CONCLUSION: This study highlights widespread food insecurity among tribal communities in southern Rajasthan, and the scenario is likely to be similar in other tribal migration dependent areas of the country.


Assuntos
Grupos Populacionais , Migrantes , Adulto , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pandemias , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253270

RESUMO

Migrant workers may experience higher burdens of occupational injury and illness compared to native-born workers, which may be due to the differential exposure to occupational hazards, differential vulnerability to exposure-associated health impacts, or both. This study aims to assess if the relationships between psychosocial job characteristics and mental health vary by migrant status in Australia (differential vulnerability). A total of 8969 persons from wave 14 (2014-2015) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey were included in the analysis. Psychosocial job characteristics included skill discretion, decision authority and job insecurity. Mental health was assessed via a Mental Health Inventory-5 score (MHI-5), with a higher score indicating better mental health. Migrant status was defined by (i) country of birth (COB), (ii) the combination of COB and English/Non-English dominant language of COB and (iii) the combination of COB and years since arrival in Australia. Data were analysed using linear regression, adjusting for gender, age and educational attainment. Migrant status was analysed as an effect modifier of the relationships between psychosocial job characteristics and mental health. Skill discretion and decision authority were positively associated with the MHI-5 score while job insecurity was negatively associated with the MHI-5 score. We found no statistical evidence of migrant status acting as an effect modifier of the psychosocial job characteristic-MHI-5 relationships. With respect to psychosocial job characteristic-mental health relationships, these results suggest that differential exposure to job stressors is a more important mechanism than differential vulnerability for generating occupational health inequities between migrants and native-born workers in Australia.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Escolaridade , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2010 there has been a growing population of refugees and asylum seekers in Latin America. This study sought to investigate the perceived experiences and healthcare needs of refugees and asylum seekers of Latin American origin in Chile in order to identify main barriers to healthcare and provide guidance on allied challenges for the public healthcare system. METHODS: Descriptive qualitative case study with semi-structured interviews applied to refugees and asylum seekers (n = 8), healthcare workers (n = 4), and members of Non-Governmental Organizations and religious foundations focused on working with refugees and asylum seekers in Chile (n = 2). RESULTS: Although Chilean law guarantees access to all levels of healthcare for the international migrant population, the specific healthcare needs of refugees and asylum seekers were not adequately covered. Primary care and mental healthcare were the most required types of service for participants, yet they appeared to be the most difficult to access. Difficulties in social integration -including access to healthcare, housing, and education- upon arrival and lengthy waiting times for legal status of refugees also presented great barriers to effective healthcare provision and wellbeing. Healthcare workers and members of organizations indicated the need for more information about refugee and asylum-seeking populations, their rights and conditions, as well as more effective and tailored healthcare interventions for them, especially for emergency mental healthcare situations. CONCLUSIONS: All participants perceived that there was disinformation among institutional actors regarding the healthcare needs of refugees and asylum seekers in Chile. They also perceived that there were barriers to access to primary care and mental healthcare, which might lead to overuse of emergency services. This study highlights a sense of urgency to protect the social and healthcare needs of refugees and asylum seekers in Latin America.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Chile , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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