Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.650
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 316-321, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583054

RESUMO

The International Myopia Institute introduced the concept of "pre-myopia" in 2019, defining it as children with refractive error ≤+0.75 D and >-0.50 D. By considering baseline refractive error, age, and other quantifiable risk factors, there is a significant likelihood that individuals falling into this category may develop myopia in the future. Therefore, it is deemed worthwhile to implement preventative intervention measures.This article delves into the epidemiology of premyopia in children and adolescents, the criteria for determining pre-myopia, the characteristics of refractive changes, and the existing evidence gaps in pre-myopia control technology. Furthermore, it explores the role and advantages of implementing pre-myopia control to enhance efforts in preventing and managing myopia. The paper highlights the essential value and future trajectory of pre-myopia control in the comprehensive management of myopia. The ultimate goal is to foster collaboration with professionals, aiming to discuss innovative strategies for effectively preventing and managing the onset and progression of myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais , Fatores de Risco
2.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 307-311, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583052

RESUMO

The incidence of myopia is high in China. The proportion of high myopia is also high in the myopic population. High myopia is associated with multiple fundus changes, among which the neuropathic damage is usually ignored, and thus there has been limited clinical research on the pathogenesis, standard follow-up and effective treatment of optic neuropathy in high myopia. This article focuses on the types of high myopia-associated neuropathic changes, the quantitive imaging of neuropathic damage, and the need of relevant cohort studies and pathogenesis research, aiming to attract more attention to optic neuropathic changes in high myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/etiologia , Fundo de Olho , China/epidemiologia
3.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 378-383, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583062

RESUMO

Myopia has become a global phenomenon, transitioning into a significant public health issue of worldwide reach. The escalating prevalence of myopia may lead to an increase in the incidence of related complications, potentially resulting in irreversible vision damage for individuals. This not only causes considerable economic strain on societies but also poses a serious threat to vital sectors like national defense. This review outlines various external and internal exposure factors related to childhood myopia. It places particular focus on the analysis of the interaction between geographical environmental factors and internal exposure factors, and examines the limitations of applying traditional methods in studying the relationship between childhood myopia and geographical environmental factors. The paper also introduces two spatial regression methodologies based on frequency estimation and Bayesian estimation, summarizing their feasibility and merits when applied in the study of external exposure elements related to childhood myopia. Finally, it provides a fresh perspective on regional childhood myopia prevention strategies that are conscious of geographical environmental factors.


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Teorema de Bayes , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37805, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608049

RESUMO

The prevalence of myopia among children and adolescents is currently rising to alarming levels (>80%) in China. This study used several routinely collected demographic factors to quantify myopia and glass-wearing rates for primary and secondary school students. We identified myopia risk factors and proposed new aspects for early intervention. This study was a cross-sectional survey of myopia and glass-wearing rates for students (6-18 years old) in Yantai, China. We collected both vision (vision acuity [VA] and spherical equivalence [SE]) and glass-wearing information to establish respective logistic models for quantifying myopia and glass-wearing rate. We further propose a joint decision region (VA, SE, age) to guide early intervention. Among 10,276 children, 63% had myopia (65% wore glasses). The prevalence of myopia increases with age and levels off during adulthood. Females had a higher overall prevalence rate than males (P < .001). The rural age mode (≈15.5) is about 2 years larger than the urban age (≈13.5) for myopia students. For the myopia rate, in the age ≤14.5, the linear age effect was significant (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73, P < .0001), males had a significant negative baseline effect at the start of schooling (vs. females) (OR = 0.68, P < .0001), and the urban group had a significant positive baseline effect (vs. rural) (OR = 1.39, P < .0001). The correlation between VA and SE increases with age and has a directional shift (from negative to positive) at ages 8 to 9. For the glass-wearing rate, age had a significant positive effect (OR = 1.25, P < .0001), VA had a significant negative effect (OR = 0.002, P < .0001), and body mass index had a slightly significant positive effect (OR = 1.02, P = .03). Urban female have a higher myopia rate than rural male at the start of schooling, and vocational high school has improved vision upon high school. Body mass index was not a significant factor for myopia. The myopia rate model is specific to age range (separated at 14.5 years old). Students of lower ages are less likely to wear glasses for correction, and this may require intervention. The temporal age-specific (VA, SE) correlations and joint distributions strengthen the speculation in the literature that age 8 to 9 is a critical intervention period and motivates us to propose a rigorous intervention decision region for (age, VA, and SE) which mainly applies for this tight age period.


Assuntos
Miopia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Acuidade Visual , China/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários
5.
Korean J Ophthalmol ; 38(2): 137-146, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between myopia and obesity through direct measurements of fat content. METHODS: A cross-sectional study used a stratified, multistage survey, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). Subjects 19 years or older (n = 10,305) were included. Participants were divided into three groups according to refractive status: myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] ≤ -1.0 diopter [D]), emmetropia (-1.0 D < SE ≤ 1.0 D), and hyperopia (SE > 1.0 D). Obesity was investigated with assessment of fat mass and body mass index or waist circumference. Fat mass was measured with whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat percentage was calculated as (total fat mass / body weight × 100). RESULTS: Higher obesity index was found in individuals with myopic eyes after adjustment for age, sex, education level, income status, physical activity, residence, and serum vitamin D level. The significant difference in total body fat percentages among myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia was significant in the young age group (19-39 years, p < 0.05) but not in the middle age group (40-64 years) and the old age group (≥65 years). Individuals with a higher percentage of total body fat had greater odds ratios for myopia (fourth quartile of body fat; odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.178-1.551). CONCLUSIONS: An association was found between adiposity and myopia in relatively young adults using direct measurements of fat mass.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Miopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia
6.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 141, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phakic intraocular lenses treat higher degrees of myopia not possible previously with conventional refractive surgery. The aim of this study is to report the incidence and risk factors of retinal complications after posterior chamber PIOL implantation and assess the differences in biometric parameters between patients who developed such complications versus those who did not. METHODS: This retrospective study recruited 514 patients who underwent ICL implantation to correct myopia at a tertiary eye hospital center in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Follow up period was at least one year. Medical records of the patients were reviewed to obtain the required data. Associations between respondents' characteristics and retinal complications were evaluated using the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 27.7 (± 6.5) years ranging from 18 to 47. Laser treatment was performed in 14 cases (2.7%). Retinal complications occurred in six cases (1.2%). The risk of retinal complication was significantly higher among patients with high axial length (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.2, 1.4) and patients with high pre-spherical equivalent before ICL (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.4). CONCLUSION: Patients with higher axial length and higher pre-spherical equivalent before ICL implantation are at high risk of retinal complications.


Assuntos
Miopia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Implante de Lente Intraocular/efeitos adversos , Acuidade Visual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/cirurgia , Miopia/etiologia , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas/efeitos adversos , Hospitais , Seguimentos
7.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2331056, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the factors influencing myopia and construct a nomogram to forecast the risk of myopia among school-age children, providing a reference for identifying high-risk groups to aid prevention and control. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 3512 students from three primary schools in Shenzhen using random cluster sampling for a questionnaire survey, myopia screening and ocular biometric parameter measurement. Logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of myopia, and a nomogram was constructed to forecast myopia risk. Bootstrap resampling was used to verify the practicability of the nomogram. RESULTS: Older age (odds ratio[OR] = 1.164; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.111-1.219), female sex (OR = 2.405; 95% CI: 2.003-2.887), maternal myopia (OR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.114-1.589), incorrect posture during reading and writing (OR = 1.283; 95% CI: 1.078-1.528) and axial length (OR = 7.708; 95% CI: 6.044-8.288) are risk factors for myopia, whereas an increase in corneal radius (OR = 0.036; 95% CI: 0.025-0.052) is a protective factor against myopia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the nomogram was 0.857, and the net benefit was high when the risk threshold of the decision curve analyses (DCA) ranged from 0.20 to 1.00. The measured values were consistent with the prediction. CONCLUSION: The nomogram was accurate in predicting the risk of myopia among schoolchildren. This study provides a reference for screening high-risk students and for individualized myopia prevention and control.


Older age, female sex, maternal myopia, incorrect posture during reading and writing, and prolonged axial length are risk factors for myopia among primary school students.The nomogram constructed based on age, sex, maternal myopia, incorrect posture during reading and writing, axial length and corneal radius showed good predictive accuracy and practicability.The nomogram constructed in this study can be used for individualized myopia risk assessment.


Assuntos
Miopia , Nomogramas , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudantes , Fatores de Risco , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle
8.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 93, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the trend of refractive error among elementary school students in grades 1 to 3 in Hubei Province, analyze the relevant factors affecting myopia progression, and develop a model to predict myopia progression and the risk of developing high myopia in children. METHODS: Longitudinal study. Using a cluster-stratified sampling method, elementary school students in grades 1 to 3 (15,512 in total) from 17 cities in Hubei Province were included as study subjects. Visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and height and weight measurements were performed for three consecutive years from 2019 to 2021. Basic information about the students, parental myopia and education level, and the students' behavioral habits of using the eyes were collected through questionnaires. RESULTS: The baseline refractive errors of children in grades 1 ~ 3 in Hubei Province in 2019 were 0.20 (0.11, 0.27)D, -0.14 (-0.21, 0.06)D, and - 0.29 (-0.37, -0.22)D, respectively, and the annual myopia progression was - 0.65 (-0.74, -0.63)D, -0.61 (-0.73, -0.59)D and - 0.59 (-0.64, -0.51)D, with the prevalence of myopia increasing from 17.56%, 20.9%, and 34.08% in 2019 to 24.16%, 32.24%, and 40.37% in 2021 (Χ2 = 63.29, P < 0.001). With growth, children's refractive error moved toward myopia, and the quantity of myopic progression gradually diminished. (F = 291.04, P = 0.027). The myopia progression in boys was less than that in girls in the same grade (P < 0.001). The change in spherical equivalent refraction in myopic children was smaller than that in hyperopic and emmetropic children (F = 59.28, P < 0.001), in which the refractive change in mild myopia, moderate myopia, and high myopia children gradually increased (F = 73.12, P < 0.001). Large baseline refractive error, large body mass index, and high frequency of eating sweets were risk factors for myopia progression, while parental intervention and strong eye-care awareness were protective factors for delaying myopia progression. The nomogram graph predicted the probability of developing high myopia in children and found that baseline refraction had the greatest predictive value. CONCLUSION: Myopia progression varies by age, sex, and myopia severity. Baseline refraction is the most important factor in predicting high myopia in childhood. we should focus on children with large baseline refraction or young age of onset of myopia in clinical myopia prevention and control.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Miopia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 116, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for astigmatism in 7-19-year-old students in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on students who underwent refraction examination in Xinjiang, China, between May and December 2019. The prevalence of astigmatism was determined. Astigmatism was defined as cylinder power (C) ≤-0.75 D, undefined astigmatism as ≤-1.50 D, and high astigmatism as C ≤-3.00 D. Astigmatism types were: against-the-rule astigmatism (maximum refraction of the main meridian in 180° ± 30°), with-the-rule astigmatism (maximum refraction of the main meridian at 90°±30°), and oblique astigmatism (all other cases). RESULTS: Of the 71,838 students examined (51.0% boys, 7 - 19 years old), 25,945 (36.1%, 95%CI: 35.52-36.68%) had astigmatism and 1267 (1.8%, 95%CI: 1.07-2.53%) had high astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism was greater in Han individuals (39.6%) compared with the Hui (34.0%), Kazakh (34.0%), Kyrgyz (32.1%), and Uyghur (26.4%) populations. Among the 25,945 students with astigmatism, 19,947 had with-the-rule astigmatism (76.9%), 3405 had against-the-rule astigmatism (13.1%), and 2593 had oblique astigmatism (10.0%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity (Han individuals more susceptible), male gender, age, and refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia) were independently associated with astigmatism, high astigmatism, and with-the-rule astigmatism (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of astigmatism among children and adolescents in Xinjiang was 36.1%, including 1.8% of high astigmatism. In this population, astigmatism was mainly of the with-the-rule astigmatism type (76.9%). Han ethnicity, male gender, and myopia or hyperopia were independently associated with a high risk of astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia
10.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 289, 2024 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global myopia prevalence poses a substantial public health burden with vision-threatening complications, necessitating effective prevention and control strategies. Precise prediction of spherical equivalent (SE), myopia, and high myopia onset is vital for proactive clinical interventions. METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical records of pediatric and adolescent patients who underwent cycloplegic refraction measurements at the Eye & Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital of Fudan University between January 2005 and December 2019. Patients aged 3-18 years who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. To predict the SE and onset of myopia and high myopia in a specific year, two distinct models, random forest (RF) and the gradient boosted tree algorithm (XGBoost), were trained and validated based on variables such as age at baseline, and SE at various intervals. Outputs included SE, the onset of myopia, and high myopia up to 15 years post-initial examination. Age-stratified analyses and feature importance assessments were conducted to augment the clinical significance of the models. RESULTS: The study enrolled 88,250 individuals with 408,255 refraction records. The XGBoost-based SE prediction model consistently demonstrated robust and better performance than RF over 15 years, maintaining an R2 exceeding 0.729, and a Mean Absolute Error ranging from 0.078 to 1.802 in the test set. Myopia onset prediction exhibited strong area under the curve (AUC) values between 0.845 and 0.953 over 15 years, and high myopia onset prediction showed robust AUC values (0.807-0.997 over 13 years, with the 14th year at 0.765), emphasizing the models' effectiveness across age groups and temporal dimensions on the test set. Additionally, our classification models exhibited excellent calibration, as evidenced by consistently low brier score values, all falling below 0.25. Moreover, our findings underscore the importance of commencing regular examinations at an early age to predict high myopia. CONCLUSIONS: The XGBoost predictive models exhibited high accuracy in predicting SE, onset of myopia, and high myopia among children and adolescents aged 3-18 years. Our findings emphasize the importance of early and regular examinations at a young age for predicting high myopia, thereby providing valuable insights for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Miopia , Refração Ocular , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar
11.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 104, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myopia is the most prevalent refractive error and a growing global health concern that significantly affects visual function. Researchers have recently emphasized considerably on the influence of lifestyle on myopia incidence and development. This study investigates the relationship between leisure sedentary behaviors (LSB)/physical activity (PA)/sleep traits and myopia. METHODS: LSB, PA, and sleep trait-associated genetic variants were used as instrument variables in a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine their causal effects on myopia. Summary genome-wide association studies (GWASs) statistical data for LSB and PA were obtained from UK Biobank, and the data of sleep traits was obtained from UK Biobank, UK Biobank and 23andMe, and FinnGen. We used summary statistics data for myopia from MRC IEU. The MR analyses was performed using the inverse variance-weighted (IVW), MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier methods. RESULTS: Computer use was genetically predicted to increase the myopia risk [IVW odds ratio (OR) = 1.057; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.038-1.078; P = 7.04 × 10- 9]. The self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (IVW OR = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.932-0.993; P = 1.57 × 10- 2) and television watching (IVW OR = 0.973; 95% CI, 0.961-0.985, P = 1.93 × 10- 5) were significantly associated with a lower myopia risk. However, genetically predicted sleep traits or accelerometer-measured physical activity had no significant associations with myopia. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that computer use is a risk factor for myopia, whereas television watching and MVPA may protect against myopia. These findings shed new light on possible strategies for reducing the prevalence of myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/genética , Exercício Físico , Sono , Atividades de Lazer
12.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 140(1): 93-98, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450472

RESUMO

Myopia and glaucoma are the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the world, and as the number of nearsighted people is predicted to increase sharply in the upcoming decades, an increase in combined pathology is expected. This article analyzes literature sources to assess the epidemiology of glaucoma and myopia both worldwide and in the Russian Federation, examine the anatomical changes of the eyeball associated with these diseases, and identify the diagnostic criteria that facilitate the verification of glaucoma when combined with myopia.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Miopia , Humanos , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/etiologia , Miopia/complicações , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Olho , Cegueira , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
13.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(1)Jan.-March. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229116

RESUMO

Introduction Myopia is a global public health concern that has a significant socioeconomic and psychological impact on schoolchildren. If Myopic patients are not detected early, they are exposed to retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma. There have been previous studies conducted in Ethiopia, but there is significant inconsistency among studies. Hence, the aim of this study was to provide a single figure as well as associated factors for Myopia among Ethiopian schoolchildren. Method The national and international databases and gray literature were searched for important research articles. This review included school-based cross-sectional studies that were reported in English. The data were extracted using Microsoft word and exported to Stata™ Version 17.0 statistical software for further management and analysis .The presence of heterogeneity was checked using Cochrane Q test via fixed effects model and presented by forest plots with 95% CI. Due to the presence of substantial heterogeneity, I2 test using random effects model was computed to estimate the effect size. The existing heterogeneity among studies was explained by regional difference. To identify factors associated with myopia, meta regression was computed and significant factors was reported using OR with 95% CI. Results In this systematic review and meta-analysis, 12 studies with a total of 9688 schoolchildren were included. The national estimate of myopia among schoolchildren in Ethiopia was 6.49% (95%CI: 4.86, 8.12). Having family history of myopia (OR: 9.18, 95%CI: 3.5,24.02) and being female (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.98) were the identified factors associated with myopia. Conclusion Myopia is one of the most prevalent childhood health condition in Ethiopia, which affects about one in every fourteen schoolchildren. Schoolchildren who had family history of myopia and being female were the identified risk factors of myopia among schoolchildren. ... (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia
14.
Optom Vis Sci ; 101(1): 37-43, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350056

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Popularity of publicly searched myopia terminologies is reported, for example, myopia control over myopia management and myopia over nearsighted or shortsighted. Insights are also provided for searches on specific myopia control interventions. The findings offer an evidence-based starting point for public messaging and communications by clinicians, policymakers, and other industry leaders. PURPOSE: Public understanding of myopia can be difficult to ascertain for clinicians. Although small-scale studies provide valuable snapshots of data, findings tend to be population-specific and thus difficult to extrapolate to global audiences. In this study, big data were used to provide a more comprehensive depiction of global market interest in myopia. METHODS: Google Trends data were used to analyze searches relating to myopia between January 2004 and August 2023. Data extracted were related to use of the terms myopia control and myopia management, with further searches executed for common myopia control interventions: orthokeratology, contact lenses, atropine, and glasses. Analysis into the search interest of other refractive error states, hyperopia and astigmatism, was also undertaken along with alternative terms that may be used to describe myopia. Where relevant, search trends were considered worldwide, by country, and over time. RESULTS: Myopia was a more popular search term than common layman alternatives such as nearsighted or shortsighted. Myopia control was found to be more popular than myopia management, and of the specific myopia interventions, atropine was most popular. Compared with astigmatism and hyperopia, relative search volumes were greatest for myopia, on average accounting for approximately 50% of the relative search volume at the country level. CONCLUSIONS: The differences identified in both popularity of myopia-related search terms and specific interventions may provide the basis for improvements in public messaging and facilitate patient-practitioner communication.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Miopia , Humanos , Big Data , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Atropina
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 65, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of peripheral and posterior pole retinal changes in highly myopic Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was designed. A total of 120 subjects with high myopia were recruited and underwent cycloplegic refraction, dilated fundus examination, and optical coherence tomography. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the factors associated with peripheral and posterior pole retinal changes. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent refraction of the subjects was - 8.74 ± 2.86 D, and the mean age was 11.45 ± 3.02 years. Snowflake retinal degeneration (27.5%), white without pressure (27.5%), snail-track degeneration (15%), and lattice degeneration (15%) were the most common peripheral retinal changes, while tessellated fundus (84.17%), optic nerve crescents (78.3%), and posterior staphyloma (11.7%) were the most common posterior changes. Subjects with peripheral changes were significantly older, with thinner choroids (OR = 1.194, 95% CI: 1.045-1.363, p = 0.009; OR = 0.993, 95% CI: 0.987-0.999, p = 0.022, respectively). Optic nerve crescents, tessellated fundus, and posterior scleral staphyloma were all associated with thin choroids (OR = 0.990, 95% CI: 0.983-0.997, p = 0.008; OR = 0.983, 95% CI: 0.974-0.991, p < 0.001; OR = 0.974, 95% CI: 0.960-0.987, p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of the subjects had peripheral and posterior retinal changes. An increased risk of retinal changes was associated with high degrees of myopia, long axial lengths, thin choroids, and older ages among 7-16-year-old individuals.


Assuntos
Miopia Degenerativa , Miopia , Degeneração Retiniana , Doenças da Esclera , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Retina , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/complicações , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Miopia Degenerativa/complicações
16.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 95, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368573

RESUMO

Myopia is a worldwide public health problem of vision disorder caused by multiple factors, which has posed a huge socioeconomic burden, raising concerns about sight-threatening ocular complications. Vitamin D, as a kind of fat-soluble vitamin, related to time-spent-outdoors, has been considered by extensive studies to have potential relationship with myopia. We reviewed studies published in a decade which estimated the association of blood vitamin D status with myopia and summarized the universality and individuality of all research articles. Several research articles suggested the known environmental risk factors of myopia, including age, gender, ethnicity, education level, parental and school conditions, time-spent-outdoors, and sunlight exposure, and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that increased vitamin D levels, by virtue of the extended outdoor time, may be an important modifiable factor and a protective effect that delay the progression of myopia in children and adolescents rather than in adults. The genetic studies have been conducted to get access to the evidence of gene polymorphism for explaining the association of serum vitamin D status and myopia, but the precise genetic interpretation of vitamin D and myopia remains unclear so far; on the other hand, the possible mechanisms are various like copolymerization mechanism, calcium homeostasis and imbalance of ciliary muscle function regulation, but nearly all of the investigators are inclined to remain skeptical. This article reviews the age-related epidemiological proofs, existent genetics correlations, possible underlying biological mechanisms and further values for the protective association between vitamin D and myopia, providing the possibility of prevention or postponement for myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Vitamina D , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Vitaminas , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Corpo Ciliar , Escolaridade
17.
Eye Contact Lens ; 50(3): 121-125, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determine the pediatric prevalence of keratoconus (KC) using Scheimpflug corneal tomography. METHODS: A prospective observational study was done on subjects aged 3 to 18 years at the Princeton Vision Clinic, Chicago, IL. Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam HR, OCULUS Optikgerate GmbH) scans (Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia BAD3) yielded BAD Final D (Final D) and Back Elevation at the Thinnest Point (BETP) measurements. Criteria differentiating non-KC from KC suspects & KC were, Non-KC -Final D <2.00 in both eyes; KC suspect -Final D ≥2.00 and <3.00 in combination with BETP ≥18 µm for myopia and ≥28 µm for hyperopia/mixed astigmatism in at least one eye; and KC -Final D of ≥3.00 with BETP ≥18 µm for myopia or ≥28 µm for hyperopia/mixed astigmatism in at least one eye. Two thousand two hundred and six subjects were recorded, removing duplicate and poor-quality scans leaving 2007 subjects. RESULTS: Of 2007 subjects, six were classified as KC -prevalence of 1:334, three subjects were KC suspects -prevalence of 1:669, and total prevalence of KC suspects and KC was 1:223. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of KC in children is higher than previously reported, emphasizing the importance of sensitive screening for KC at its earliest manifestation as standard in pediatric comprehensive eye examinations.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Ceratocone , Miopia , Criança , Humanos , Chicago/epidemiologia , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Paquimetria Corneana , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/epidemiologia , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Tomografia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Prev Med ; 180: 107893, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between sleep and myopia in children and adolescents has been reported, yet it remains controversial and inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different sleep traits on the risk of myopia using meta-analytical and Mendelian randomization (MR) techniques. METHODS: The literature search was performed in August 31, 2023 based on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library. The meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the relationship between sleep and myopia was conducted. MR analyses were carried out to assess the causal impact of genetic pre-disposition for sleep traits on myopia. RESULTS: The results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant association between the risk of myopia and both short sleep duration [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.42, P = 0.003] and long sleep duration (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.66-0.86, P < 0.001). MR analyses revealed no significant causal associations of genetically determined sleep traits with myopia, including chronotype, sleep duration, short sleep duration and long sleep duration (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found to support a causal relationship between sleep traits and myopia. While sleep may not independently predict the risk of myopia, the potential impact of sleep on the occurrence and development of myopia cannot be disregarded.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Miopia , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Sono/genética , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/genética , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(2): 21, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334703

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of posterior vortex veins (PVVs) in healthy eyes and explore their relationship with age and refractive status. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional analysis encompassed 510 eyes from 255 consecutive healthy participants. Wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography (WF-OCTA) imaging was used to assess the presence of PVVs. Eyes were classified according to refractive status (emmetropia, low and moderate myopia, and high myopia) and age (minors and adults). The incidence and characteristics of eyes with PVVs were analyzed. Results: Participants (mean age = 30.60 ± 21.12 years, 47.4% men) showed a mean refractive error of -2.83 ± 3.10 diopters (D; range = -12.00 to +0.75). PVVs were observed in 16.1% (82/510) of eyes. Of these, 39% (32/82) had PVVs in one eye and 61% (50/82) in both eyes. The mean number of PVVs per eye was 1.65 ± 1.05 (range = 1-6). PVVs are mainly around the optic disc (78%, 64/82) of eyes with PVVs and less in the macular area (6.1%, 5/82) or elsewhere (15.9%, 13/82). PVV incidence correlated with refractive status: 10.3% (22/213) in emmetropia, 16.6% (31/187) in low and moderate myopia, and 26.4% (29/110) in high myopia (P = 0.001), but not with age. Refractive status was the key predictor of PVV occurrence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.06, P = 0.038). Conclusions: This study confirms PVVs' presence in healthy eyes, highlighting their inherent existence and susceptibility to alterations due to refractive conditions. These findings enhance our understanding of the vortex vein system and its distribution within the eyes.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Incidência , Estudos Transversais , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Miopia/epidemiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e080066, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emmetropia depends on the precise coordination of ocular biometry, including axial length (AL), corneal curvature, lens thickness and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Disruption of this coordination leads to refractive errors such as myopia. This article aimed to determine the factors affecting ocular biometry and myopia development in young children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted in a primary school in the Yanqing district of Beijing, China. PARTICIPANTS: 792 students in grades 1-3 without hyperopia (>+2.00 D), strabismus, or amblyopia were selected. EXCLUSIONS: students had conditions affecting best corrected visual acuity and whose guardians refused to provide informed consent. Ocular biometric measurements and non-cycloplegia autorefraction were performed. The questionnaire addressed factors such as perinatal factors and environmental factors. INTERVENTIONS: None. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Ocular biometry and myopia. RESULTS: According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, electronic screen use >2 hours/day (OR=2.175, p=0.013), paternal myopia (OR=1.761, p=0.002), maternal myopia (OR=1.718, p=0.005), taller height (OR=1.071, p<0.001), maternal education (OR=0.631, p=0.012) and maternal gestational hypertension (OR=0.330, p=0.042) were associated with myopia. AL was affected by female sex (OR=0.295, p<0.001), older age (OR=1.272, p=0.002) and taller height (OR=1.045, p<0.001). Female sex (OR=0.509, p<0.001), taller height (OR=1.046, p<0.001), use of electronic screens >2 hours each day (OR=3.596, p<0.001) and time spent outdoors >2 hours each day (OR=0.431, p=0.001) influenced ACD incidence. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was associated with older age (OR=1.113, p=0.008), paternal education (OR=1.474, p=0.007), premature birth (OR=0.494, p=0.031), history of blue light therapy in infancy (OR=0.636, p=0.041) and history of incubator therapy in infancy (OR=0.263, p=0.009). Only sex influenced corneal curvature. CONCLUSIONS: The factors associated with myopia were partly related to ACD and AL, and perinatal factors were associated with myopia and CCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2200065398.


Assuntos
Miopia , Refração Ocular , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Biometria
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...