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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e42694, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myopia is a serious public health issue. High school-aged adolescents in Beijing have an alarming prevalence of myopia. Therefore, determining myopia protective factors is essential. Green space has a certain association with myopia protective factors that can protect against myopia. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effects of green space around schools on individual myopia risk in high school-aged adolescents and the school-level myopia prevalence. METHODS: Green space was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). A total of 13,380 samples of 51 high schools were selected from a 2021 Beijing Municipal Health Commission survey. Adolescent myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent of ≤-1.00 diopters in the worse eye. Generalized linear mixed models with a binomial error structure were used to analyze the effects of the NDVI on personal myopia risk and adjust them by other factors, such as demographics, exposure time, and outdoor exercise. The effects of the NDVI on school-level myopia prevalence with adjusted demographics and the relative position factors of trees were analyzed through quasibinomial regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of myopia was 80.61% (10,785/13,380, 95% CI 79.93%-81.27%). Although with a 0.1 increase in the 500 and 1000 m buffer NDVIs adjusted by demographic and other factors, the high school-aged personal myopia risk significantly dropped by 16% (odds ratio [OR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.97) and 12% (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99), respectively. However, only the adjusted 500 m buffer NDVI (by demographics and the position of trees) with a 0.1 increase significantly reduced the school-level myopia prevalence by 15% (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.98). Subgroup analysis showed that the adjusted effects of the 500 m buffer NDVI are significant in schoolgirls (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.93), juniors (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94), the Han nationality (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.97), 1-year exposure (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99) and 3-year exposure (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: The greenness of a 500 m buffer around schools is associated with a lower personal myopia risk among adolescents and a lower prevalence of myopia in schools. With regard to prevention and control activities, green space within a 500 m buffer around schools is suggested as an independent protective factor for adolescent myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myopia is a global public health problem affecting quality of life and work productivity. Data is scarce regarding the effects of near work on myopia. Providing a larger meta-analysis with life-long perspective, including adults and occupational exposure seemed needed. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct for studies reporting myopia prevalence in near work. Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent ≤ -0.50 diopter. We performed a meta-analysis using random-effects model on myopia prevalence, myopia progression per year, and odds ratio (OR) of myopia in near work, completed by subgroup analyses and meta-regressions on patients' characteristics, type of work in adults, geographic zones, time and characteristics of near work. RESULTS: We included 78 studies, representing a total of 254,037 participants, aged from 6 to 39 years. The global prevalence of myopia in near work was 35% (95% CI: 30 to 41%), with a prevalence of 31% (95% CI: 26 to 37%) in children and 46% (95% CI: 30 to 62%) in adults. Myopia progression was -0.39 diopters per year (-0.53 to -0.24 D/year), ranging from -0.44 (-0.57 to -0.31) in children to -0.25 D/year (-0.56 to 0.06) in adults. The odds of myopia in workers exposed vs. non-exposed to near work were increased by 26% (18 to 34%), by 31% (21 to 42%) in children and 21% (6 to 35%) in adults. Prevalence of myopia was higher in adults compared to children (Coefficient 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Near work conditions, including occupational exposure in adults, could be associated with myopia. Targeted prevention should be implemented in the workplace.


Assuntos
Miopia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Refração Ocular , Razão de Chances , Prevalência
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 229-234, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588241

RESUMO

Purpose: This introductory study aims to analyze the association of serum vitamin D3 levels with recently detected myopia in Indian children following home confinement post-COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Children aged 5-15 years who had not attended physical school in the past 1 year and visited the ophthalmology department with various ocular symptoms were divided into two groups: the myopic group with recently detected myopia and the non-myopic group with ocular ailments other than myopia. All children underwent basic ophthalmic evaluation and a general physical examination. Blood samples were collected for serum vitamin D3 levels. A pretested questionnaire inquiring about the duration of exposure to a digital screen, outdoor activities, and socioeconomic status was filled out for all children. Results: The mean serum vitamin D3 level in the myopic group was 28.17 ± 15.02 ng/dl in comparison to 45.36 ± 17.56 ng/dl in the non-myopic group (P value < 0.05). Linear regression of the data establishes that myopia is associated with hypovitaminosis D3 (OR- 13.12, 95% CI 2.90-50.32, a P value of 0.001). The correlation between spherical equivalent and vitamin D3 levels was significant (Pearson correlation value: 0.661). In the myopic group, 63.3% of children had screen use >6 hours against 43.3% of children in the non-myopic group. In the myopic group, 33.3% of the children had an outdoor activity duration of <2 hours against 6.6% of children in the non-myopic group. Conclusion: This study proposes hypovitaminosis D3 as a strong factor associated with the development of myopia in children. Although it is a preliminary study, it suggests that the trial for vitamin D3 supplementation in young children to delay or cease the development of myopia is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Colecalciferol
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279020, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore an influence of the COVID-19-related lockdown on ocular axial elongation in school children in Russia. METHODS: The participants of the school-based Ufa Children Myopia Study in Ufa/Russia underwent, at baseline in 2019/2020 before the COVID-19 outbreak and after a COVID-19-related lockdown, a detailed interview and ophthalmological examination including laser interferometric biometry for axial length measurement. RESULTS: The study included 461 children (age:10.7±2.1 years;range:6.8-16.9 years). The mean follow-up was 1.41±0.33 years. Mean axial length at baseline was 23.96±0.95mm and 23.94±0.95mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. During the study period, annual axial elongation (right/left eyes) was 0.19±0.17mm/0.19±0.22mm. Before the COVID-19 lockdown, the age-dependent coefficient for axial length (ADCAL) for the right/left eyes was 0.21mm (95%CI:0.17,0.25)/0.20mm (95%CI:0.16,0.24). In children younger than 9.6 years (n = 157), annual axial elongation (right eyes) during the study period was larger than the ADCAL before the COVID-19 outbreak (0.29 mm (95%:0.00,0.66) versus 0.21 mm (95%CI:0.02,0.41)). In the groups aged 9.6 to 11.4 years (n = 148) and aged >11.4 years (n = 156), annual axial elongation during the study period was comparable to the ADCAL before the COVID-19 outbreak (0.18mm (95%CI:-0.07,0.46) versus 0.22mm (95%CI:-0.05,0.48), and (0.09mm (95%CI:-0.15,0.34) versus 0.14mm (95%CI:0.00,0.28), respectively). In children aged ≤9 years at study end, axial length at study end was 0.20 mm larger than axial length at baseline in the participants aged ≤9 years at baseline. Larger axial elongation during the study period was associated (multivariable analysis) with younger age (beta:-0.62;P<0.001), female sex (beta:0.21;P<0.001), longer study period (beta:0.22;P<0.001), and longer axial length at baseline (beta:0.28;P<0.001), and marginally, with less time spent outdoors (beta:-0.07;P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-related lockdown in the Russian city of Ufa was associated with a relatively minor increase in axial elongation, detected only in children aged <9.6 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Miopia/epidemiologia , Olho , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Refração Ocular
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 1, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status influences the growth and development of the eyes. However, there are few studies on the association between diet, especially whole grains (WG) consumption, and myopia. The study aimed to evaluate the association between WG intake and myopia prevalence among primary school-age children in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted between November 2019 and December 2019 included 586 children, aged 6-12 years, attending primary school in Binhai district, Tianjin, China. Ophthalmologic examinations and optometric cycloplegic refraction measurements were conducted. Information was collected on known risks and protective factors for myopia and the consumption of WGs, vegetables, and fruits. This association between the probability of myopia and the proportion of WG consumption (WG proportion was calculated as the mean intake from WG sources divided by total grain intake), adjusted for protective and risk factors, was analysed using crude and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the study participants, 226/586 (38.57%) children had myopia in at least one eye. WG intake was inversely correlated with the prevalence of myopia. Furthermore, in the multivariate analysis, WG intake of > 50% was identified as a protective factor against myopia after subsequent adjustment for children's age, sex, parental myopia, near-work activity, screen time, reading and writing habits, visual fatigue, outdoor time, and classroom light environment (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: WG intake (> 50%) was an independent protective factor against myopia. Modifying the form of grains consumed (whole versus refined) could be one of the targets of future public health measures.


Assuntos
Miopia , Grãos Integrais , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Fatores de Risco , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental migration is an important factor affecting left-behind children's health. However, few studies have addressed the effect of parental migration on children's vision health in China. To fill the gap, this study aimed to assess the impact of parental migration on left-behind children's vision health and to explore the possible mechanisms of the effect. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), which included over 10,000 junior high school students. This study used myopia, the most common vision problem among junior high school students, and tried to analyze whether myopia was corrected with eyeglasses as indicator variables of vision health. The impact of parental migration on vision health was assessed using an instrumental variables approach. RESULTS: The results show that parental migration reduced the likelihood of myopia in left-behind children and decreased the possibility of myopic left-behind children being corrected. This result passed a series of robustness tests. The mechanism analysis indicated that compared to non-left-behind children, left-behind children spent more time on outdoor activities and less time on after-school classes, reducing their risk of being myopic. Further, because left-behind children live apart from their parents, their myopia problem is more difficult for parents to notice, and left-behind children are less likely to inform their parents of their myopia than non-left-behind children actively. This helps to explain why left-behind children have a lower correction rate with eyeglasses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that parental migration, while not increasing the prevalence of myopia in left-behind children, has led to inequity in myopic left-behind children's correction. Given the severe consequences of uncorrected myopia, action is required to enhance the correction rate of myopic left-behind children.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Miopia , Humanos , Criança , Pais , Miopia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 4, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of mental disorders (MDs) has been reported among children and adolescents. However, only few studies have conducted ocular examinations, including those on refractive status, in these groups of patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the refractive status and ocular findings in children and adolescents with MDs compared with matched controls with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: A total of 178 participants with MDs and 200 controls were recruited between April 2021 and May 2022. All the children and adolescents underwent cycloplegic or noncycloplegic autorefraction and retinoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and dilated fundus examinations. Ocular alignment was assessed using Hirschberg, Krimsky, or prism cover tests. The prevalence of refractive errors and ocular findings was the main outcome. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of patients with MDs and 8% of controls had ocular findings, the most common of which were conjunctivitis, keratitis, and trichiasis. For refractive status, 70% (124/178) of patients with MDs had myopia ≤-1.00 DS, and 2% (4/178) had hyperopia ≥+2.00 DS. In the control group, 70% (140/200) of patients had myopia ≤-1.00 DS, and 1% (2/200) had hyperopia ≥+2.00 DS. No differences were observed between the MD and control groups. However, the patients in the MD group (14.25±2.69 years) were significantly more susceptible to strabismus (P<0.05) and amblyopia (P<0.01) than those in the control group (13.65±3.04 years). There was a substantial difference between the two groups in the time spent on screen-based devices (P<0.001). Furthermore, mental retardation (OR=3.286, P<0.01), emotional disorders (OR=2.003, P<0.01), and adjustment disorders (OR=2.629, P<0.01) were associated with an increased risk of amblyopia. Depression (OR =1.362, P<0.01) and emotional disorders (OR=2.205, P<0.01) were associated with a higher prevalence of strabismus. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmological examinations should be performed in children and adolescents with MDs because MDs are associated with a high prevalence of refractive errors and ocular diseases. Detection and intervention of ocular and refractive findings in children and adolescents with MDs are necessary and effective in alleviating the economic burden in healthcare and improving individuals' quality of life.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Hiperopia , Deficiência Intelectual , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Estrabismo , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Ambliopia/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hiperopia/complicações , Acuidade Visual , Qualidade de Vida , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Refração Ocular , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Prevalência
10.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 12(1): 29-37, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors (REs) and the effective spectacle coverage in Emiratis and non-Emiratis in Dubai. DESIGN: The Dubai Eye Health Survey was a population-based cross-sectional study of participants aged 40 years or older. METHODS: Distance and near visual acuity (VA), and noncycloplegic automated refraction were tested according to a standardized protocol. Distance VA was tested using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) logMAR chart at 3 m and near VA was measured using the near vision logMAR chart at 40 cm under ambient lighting. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent of refraction of less than -0.50 diopters (D), and hypermetropia as spherical equivalent of more than +0.50 D. Astigmatism was defined as cylinder power of 0.5 D or greater. Effective spectacle coverage for distance vision was computed as met need/(met need+unmet need+under-met need)×100%. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between sociodemographic factors and RE. RESULTS: The authors included 892 participants (446 Emiratis and 446 non-Emiratis) in the analysis. The prevalence of hypermetropia was 20.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.8%-24.4%] in Emiratis and 20.6% (95% CI: 20.0%-24.7%) in non-Emiratis. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia was 27.4% (95% CI: 23.3%-31.7%) and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8%-3.5%) in Emiratis, and 19.5% (95% CI: 15.9%-23.5%) and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.2%-2.3%) in non-Emiratis, respectively. High education (P=0.02) and not currently working (P=0.002) were risk factors of myopia in non-Emiratis only. The prevalence of astigmatism was 7.4% (95% CI: 5.1%-10.2%) in Emiratis and 1.6% (95% CI: 0.6%-3.2%) in non-Emiratis. This prevalence was higher in individuals aged over 60 years (P<0.001) and men (P=0.014) among Emiratis. The prevalence of anisometropia and uncorrected presbyopia was 11.4% (95% CI: 8.6%-14.8%) and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1%-2.0%) in Emiratis, and 9.2% (95% CI: 6.7%-12.3%) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.05%-1.6%) in non-Emiratis, respectively. The effective spectacle coverage was 62.3% (95% CI: 54.0%-70.6%) and 69% (95% CI: 60.5%-77.5%) in Emiratis and non-Emiratis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of Emiratis and non-Emiratis was affected by RE without optimal effective spectacle coverage, highlighting the imperativeness of intervention to alleviate the burden. The findings may help facilitate evidence-based policymaking concerning the delivery of eye care services and allocation of medical resources in Dubai.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Óculos , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 23(1): 38, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707798

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of myopia and hyperopia and their associated demographic and ocular factors in people 60 years of age and above. METHODS: The sampling was performed using a multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method. The complete demographic and case history information were collected through an interview. Then, all participants underwent optometric examinations including measurement of uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, objective, and subjective refraction. Myopia and hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) refraction worse than -0.50 diopters (D) and + 0.50 D, respectively. RESULTS: Three thousand three hundred ten of 3791 invitees participated, and the data of 3263 individuals were analyzed for this report. The mean age of participants was 68.25 ± 6.53 (60 to 97) years, and 1895 (58.1%) of them were female (number of male/female participants = 1368/1895). The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 31.65% (95% CI: 29.68 -33.61) and 45.36% (95% CI: 43.36 -47.37), respectively. The prevalence of severe myopia and hyperopia was 1.14% (95% CI: 0.73 -1.55) and 2.27% (95% CI: 1.57 -2.97), respectively. Based on the results of multiple logistic regression, the prevalence of myopia had a statistically significant direct relationship with age (OR: 1.04; p < 0.001), history of glaucoma surgery (OR:2.75; p < 0.001), pseudophakia (OR: 2.27; p < 0.001), axial length (OR:3.05; p < 0.001), and mean keratometry (OR:1.61; p < 0.001). The education level was significantly inversely related to the myopia prevalence. Moreover, a history of glaucoma surgery (OR:0.44; p < 0.001), pseudophakia (OR = 0.15; p < 0.001), axial length (OR:35; p < 0.001) and mean keratometry (OR:0.62; p < 0.001) were significantly inversely related to the prevalence of hyperopia. 19% and 40.02% of myopic and hyperopic patients had complete visual acuity after correction of refractive error, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of refractive errors was high in the Iranian elderly population. A large percentage of the elderly still did not have complete visual acuity after the correction of refractive errors indicating the necessity for attention to other ocular diseases in this age group. The history of cataract and glaucoma surgery could be associated with a myopic shift of refractive error.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Prevalência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pseudofacia , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Córnea
12.
Optom Vis Sci ; 100(1): 31-32, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705713

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Practitioners commonly prescribe the 20/20/20 rule with hopes that, if patients follow it, they will reduce their myopic progression. This clinical perspective provides evidence that 20-second break from nearwork every 20 minutes are not enough time to impact ocular growth.The ongoing myopia epidemic is a major public health crisis. Although the correlation between nearwork tasks such as reading, computers, and smartphones and myopia development is controversial, multiple lines of research suggest that sustained nearwork contributes to myopia development. Clinicians have proposed that children should take short breaks from nearwork with a 20-second break every 20 minutes being a common suggestion. Animal model data do strongly support the idea that multiple short breaks across time can cancel out the effects of longer periods of myopia-promoting activities. However, the animal model data also suggest that repeated episodes of 20 seconds are ineffective at reducing myopia development and instead indicate that sustained breaks of 5 minutes or more every hour are needed to negate myopiagenic effects.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular , Miopia , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Olho , Leitura , Refração Ocular
13.
Optom Vis Sci ; 100(1): 105-110, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705720

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: In this comprehensive assessment of environmental associations with refractive status among schoolchildren in India, outdoor time was the key modifiable risk factor associated with myopia rather than time spent on near work. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the environmental risk factors associated with myopia among adolescent schoolchildren in South India. METHODS: Children in grades 8 to 10 from 11 schools in Tamil Nadu, South India, underwent eye examination and risk factor assessments through a modified version of the Sydney myopia questionnaire. Time spent on near work and outdoors was analyzed after division into three groups based on tertiles. Mixed-effects logistic regression was performed to assess the factors associated with myopia. RESULTS: A total of 3429 children (response rate, 78.4%) provided both questionnaire and refraction data. The mean (standard deviation) age was 14 (0.93) years with an equal distribution of sexes. Myopia was present among 867 children (noncycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction, ≤-0.75 D). Refraction was not associated with near work tertiles ( P = .22), whereas less time outdoors was associated with higher myopic refractions ( P = .01). Refraction shifted toward increased myopia with an increase in the near-work/outdoor time ratio ( P = .005). Children living in apartment housing had a higher prevalence of myopia compared with other types of housing ( P < .001). In multivariate analysis, increased time outdoors was a protective factor against myopia (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.99; P = .04), whereas living in apartment housing (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.55; P = .02) was a significant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Indian children, outdoor time, increased near-work/outdoor time ratio, and type of housing were the factors associated with myopia. Policies should target implementing a balance between near-work and outdoor time among children.


Assuntos
Habitação , Miopia , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Testes Visuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Optom Vis Sci ; 100(1): 82-90, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705718

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The ethnic differences in myopia rates, ocular dimensions, and risk factors between Han and non-Han schoolchildren observed in this study may help fill the knowledge gap about ethnic minorities and are important for China and other countries to address vision-related health inequalities among different ethnic groups. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of juvenile myopia and elucidate the disparities of risk factors among Han and non-Han school students in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 876 schoolchildren from grades 1 to 9 was conducted in the Anjihai Middle School in Shawan, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Visual acuity and ocular biometry were assessed, and personal information, including behavior, birth status, and familial factors, was collected using self-made standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: The myopia rate among students of Han ethnicity (50.5%) was the highest, followed by Hui (41.3%) and Uygur et al. (32.0%, P < .001). Similar patterns were observed for mean axial length. The mean axial lengths are 23.7, 23.4, and 23.3 mm, respectively ( P = .01). Overall, performing high-quality eye exercises, longer sleep duration, being born in summer, parental smoking, and consuming more food containing anthocyanins were all associated with a lower incidence of myopia. Meanwhile, Han ethnicity, intensive near task, bad eye habits, and myopic mothers were associated with higher odds of myopia. After adjusting for environmental influences pertaining to myopia, the variation in myopia prevalence between Han and Uygur et al. remained significant, whereas it changed to not significant between Han and Hui ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Significant disparities were found in the prevalence of myopia among various ethnic groups in Shawan, Xinjiang. Life habits, birth status, and familial factors may contribute to such variance and play different roles in the occurrence of juvenile myopia among various ethnicities.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Miopia , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Miopia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Etnicidade , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
Optom Vis Sci ; 100(1): 117-124, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542468

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: As the myopia epidemic unfolds, there is growing urgency to identify and implement effective interventions to slow myopia progression. This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based myopia treatment algorithm in a clinical setting among 342 consecutive children. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of a clinical treatment algorithm for myopia progression in children. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data from myopic children treated for at least 1 year with a defined treatment algorithm incorporating orthokeratology, multifocal lenses, and atropine. The main outcome measures were the percentage of children experiencing ≤0.25 D of myopic cycloplegic spherical equivalent autorefraction (CSER) progression and ≤0.10 mm of axial elongation at 1, 2, and 3 years. The secondary outcome measures were the cumulative absolute reduction of axial elongation values derived from age- and ethnicity-matched virtual control data at 1, 2, and 3 years. RESULTS: Mean annual CSER change values (excluding orthokeratology) were -0.30, -0.20, and -0.13 D at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, with 59, 56, and 60% of patients demonstrating ≤0.25 D of change over the prior year. Mean annual axial elongation values were 0.13, 0.12, and 0.09 mm at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, with 52, 46, and 65% of patients demonstrating ≤0.10 mm of change over the prior year. The cumulative absolute reduction of axial elongation values were 0.11, 0.20, and 0.29 mm for 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment algorithm demonstrated effective control of CSER and axial length in a diverse group of progressive myopic children, supporting its use for the clinical management of childhood myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Refração Ocular , Atropina/uso terapêutico , Midriáticos , Progressão da Doença , Comprimento Axial do Olho
16.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 100(4): 376-387, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622560

RESUMO

After decades of investigation, the role of near work in myopia remains unresolved, with some studies reporting no relationship and others finding the opposite. This systematic review is intended to summarize classic and recent literature investigating near work and the onset and progression of myopia, potential mechanisms and pertinent clinical recommendations. The impact of electronic device use is considered. PubMed and Medline were used to find peer-reviewed cross-sectional and longitudinal studies related to near work and myopia from 1980 to July 2020 using the PRISMA checklist. Studies were chosen using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, with a focus on studies with a sample size greater than 50. Studies were independently evaluated; conclusions were drawn per these evaluations. Numerous cross-sectional studies found increased odds ratio of myopia with increased near work. While early longitudinal studies failed to find this relationship, more recent longitudinal studies have found a relationship between myopia and near work. Rather than daily duration of near work, interest has increased regarding absolute working distance and duration of continuous near viewing. Several reports have found that shorter working distances (<30 cm) and continuous near-work activity (>30 min) are risk factors for myopia onset and progression. Novel objective continuously measuring rangefinding devices have been developed to better address these questions. The literature is conflicting, likely due to the subjective and variable nature in which near work has been quantified and a paucity of longitudinal studies. We conclude that more precise objective measures of near viewing behaviour are necessary to make definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between myopia and near work. Focus should shift to utilizing objective and continuously measuring instruments to quantify near-work behaviours in children, followed longitudinally, to understand the complex factors related to near work. A better understanding of the roles of absolute working distance, temporal properties, viewing breaks and electronic device use on myopia development and progression will aid in the development of evidence-based clinical recommendations for behavioural modifications to prevent and slow myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
17.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 100(4): e950-e956, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal changes in myopia from onset to stabilization in school-aged children with single-vison lenses (SVLs). METHODS: The medical records of patients wearing SVLs with long-term follow-up data between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients who were 6-10 years old at the initial visit and 16 years old at the last assessment were included and analysed. The periods of progression and stabilization of myopia were evaluated by plotting fitted curves of the changes in spherical equivalent (SE). RESULTS: Seven hundred and seventy-three patients (median initial age 9 years) were accessed over an average of 7 years (IQR, 6-7 years). The initial mean SE was -1.92 ± 1.57 D and increased to -6.05 ± 2.14 D at 16 years old. The average age at myopia stabilization was 14.6 years, and girls slightly stabilized earlier than boys. 73.7% of the 6-year-olds and 85.7% of the 7-year-olds had high myopia at 16 years old, and the risk decreased each year from 7 to 10 years old. Children who had SE greater than -4 D up to 10 years had 89.0% risk of high myopia at 16 years old. Children with SE between -0.5 D and -2 D still had 34% risk of developing high myopia at 16 years old. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive picture of myopia progression from onset to stabilization in school-aged children with SVLs in China. All children who have myopia onset below 10 years of age were at risk for high myopia, and children who have myopia onset below 8 years of age require more attention.


Assuntos
Óculos , Miopia , Adolescente , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 29(4): 435-442, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546856

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Association between gene-environment interaction and myopia/spherical equivalent has not been systematically reported. This paper reviewed nine studies concerning gene-environment interaction in myopia. METHODS: We obtained relevant studies concerning gene-environment interaction in myopia by systematically searching the MEDLINE(PubMed), Cochrane, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang databases before 31 March 2020. Data were analyzed by STATA version 16.0 software, and figures were drawn by ArcGIS V.10.0 software. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in this review concerning gene-environment interaction. Gene and education interaction in adult cohorts suggested a more significant genetic effect in higher education levels than lower education levels, using both candidate genes and PRS approaches. Several interacted genetic variants, including ZMAT4(rs2137277), GJD2(rs524952), TJP2 (rs11145488) from adult study and ZMAT4(rs7829127) from child study are pinpointed out, but the replication attempts were limited. Besides, the genetic effect was associated with a significant shift at a higher educational level (Pooled ß = -0.15,95%CI = -0.19-0.11) towards myopia than that at a lower education level (Pooled ß = -0.10,95%CI = -0.11-0.09). CONCLUSION: This study summarizes the relationship between gene-environment interaction and myopia, and interaction effect of the gene or genetic risk score with the environment could be found in these studies. The effect of gene-environment (higher education) interaction substantially impacts myopia in adult studies. Evidence that environmental factors (Increased near-work time/decreased outdoor activities) increase the genetic risk is still limited, and specific SNPs contributing to gene-environment effect are not determined yet.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Miopia , Adulto , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Refração Ocular
19.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(12): 9, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515964

RESUMO

Purpose: To estimate the effects of school closures and associated lifestyle changes on myopia in Chinese children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: Two cross-sectional surveys recruited 14,296 Chinese students aged 7 to 18 years in November 2019 and June 2020 from which an open cohort study (nested queue design) was derived and used to assess myopia prevalence, incidence, and progression rates (defined as students with progression in myopia severity at the second survey wave among those with myopia at baseline). The severity of myopia was determined by measurements of visual acuity (<5.0) and noncycloplegic refraction (spherical equivalent <-0.50 diopters). Twenty-three myopia-influencing factors were divided into three categories: eye-use habits, lifestyle, and family and subjective factors. Responses to each of these 23 factors were labeled as either positive or negative options and then combined to generate a comprehensive score. Results: Boys and girls were equally represented (50%) and had the same average age (11.5 years) at each wave. The myopia prevalence increased from 48.2% to 60.0%, with 27.1% myopia incidence and 13.2% myopia progression rates for Chinese children and adolescents. Each of the 23 factors was associated with myopia prevalence but had no significant effect on myopia incidence or progression. However, these 23 factors had a cumulative effect on myopia risks; higher scores were associated with more positive factors and lower risk ratios of myopia and vice versa. Except for the progression rate, the myopia prevalence and incidence and risk ratios decreased with higher comprehensive scores. Conclusions: School closures during the COVID-19 pandemic increased the risk of myopia in Chinese children and adolescents due to the accumulation of poor eyesight habits, unhealthy lifestyles, and excessive screen time. Translational Relevance: Rather than focusing on single risk factors for myopia, future myopia prevention strategies should focus on integrating multiple comprehensive approaches across schools, families, and communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Incidência , Prevalência , Pandemias , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 519, 2022 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of myopia and high myopia and the associated risk factors in key schools in Xi'an, China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study started in September 2021 and was conducted for one month. A total of 11,011 students from 10 key primary schools, five key junior high schools and five key high schools in Xi'an were randomly selected to undergo visual acuity measurement and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. The questionnaire was completed by the students and their parents together. RESULTS: The prevalence of myopia and high myopia in key schools were 75.7% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia rose significantly as grade or age increased (all P < 0.001), and the prevalence of myopia and high myopia in females was higher than that in males (P < 0.001, P < 0.5). According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age (OR=1.42), female compared with male (OR=1.43), having one myopic parent (OR=1.64), having two myopic parent (OR=2.30) and often taking extracurricular tuition (OR=1.35) were more likely to be associated with develop myopia (P < 0.001). Older age (OR=1.39), having one myopic parent (OR=2.29), having two myopic parent (OR= 3.69), and often taking extracurricular tuition (OR=1.48) were more likely to be associated with high myopia (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall rate of myopia and high myopia in key schools in Xi'an, China, is extremely high. Myopia and high myopia are associated with increasing age, parents' myopia, few outdoor exercises, and extracurricular tuition. Myopia is also associated with female and not having the habit of "one punch, one foot, one inch (when reading and writing, 10 cm from the chest to the table, 33 cm from the eye to the book and 3.3 cm from the tip of the pen to the finger)".


Assuntos
Miopia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Miopia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Refração Ocular
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