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1.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(10): 1499-1504, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774348

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess myopia progression in Spanish children and whether treatment with low-dose atropine eye drops delays myopia progression and axial elongation. METHODS: 339 eyes of 339 Caucasian patients with myopia, aged 5 to 11 years, were examined. Participants were randomized to a treatment arm, receiving one atropine (0.01%) eye drop/day for two, and an untreated control arm. At the baseline and 2-year follow-up visits, we recorded: spherical equivalent (SE), axial length (AL), mean keratometry (Mean-K) and anterior chamber depth (ACD). We also examined the rate of children with higher myopia progression (change in SE >1 D/2 years) and identified risk factors for progression. RESULTS: In 339 eyes of the 339 children (age=7.61; SD 1.70; range 5-11 years), the mean baseline SE was-2.15 (SD 0.62) D, and AL was 24.24 (SD 0.79) mm. After 2 years, higher increases occurred in all variables except ACD in the untreated group vs. the atropine group, respectively: SE (-0.51 (SD 0.39) D vs. -0.76 (SD 0.37) D, P<0.001), AL (0.20 (SD 0.20) mm vs. 0.37 (SD 0.27) mm, P<0.001) and Mean-K (0.01 (0.28) D vs. 0.09 (0.32) D, P=0.018). Myopia progression was reduced by 32% in the treatment group. There were more progressors >1D/2y in the control group: 62/168 (36.9%) vs. 35/171 (20.5%) (P<0.001). Atropine was identified as a protective factor against myopia progression (B=1.12; 95% CI= 0.98-1.27; P=<0.001). CONCLUSION: Spanish children showed a low rate of myopia progression. Atropine 0.01% showed a significant effect in slowing the progression of both refractive error and axial elongation.


Assuntos
Atropina , Miopia , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Córnea , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Refração Ocular
2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 895-900, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841750

RESUMO

Based on the literature on myopia epidemiology, experiments of basic science, and clinical research, we have identified a number of major characteristics of the myopia problem. It was concluded that the student population of grades 1-12 showed high incidence of myopia and the problem was becoming increasingly more serious. Etiological investigations revealed the aggressive role played by environmental factors. Mature clinical correction methods were available, but there were still a multitude of uncertainties hampering the effort to slow the progression of myopia. Student myopia has become an issue of top concern in China's effort to prevent and control myopia. In order to approach the issue by dealing with problems in the educational environment and to explore for specific measures to prevent and control the onset and development of student myopia, it is important that we gain better understanding of the multiple effects on the onset and development of student myopia caused by the growing demand for education induced by high social development and the rapid changes in the educational environment caused by technological advancement. Approaching the problem from the perspective of the features of the eye and vision in the developmental stages of students of grades 1-12, and the study workload at each stage, this paper retrospectively reviewed the historical literature from the last 90 years and the data from cohort studies done before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Identifying the education environment as the primary factor causing the onset and progression of student myopia, the paper fully recognizes the scientific rationality of and the specific role served by education-medicine synergy in student myopia prevention and control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes
3.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 901-906, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841751

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies found that the incidence of myopia was increasing year by year and the age of onset of myopia was showing a trend of affecting increasingly younger children. Reducing the occurrence of myopia and controlling the increase of myopia diopter have always been the focus of research on the prevention and control of myopia. Large randomized controlled clinical trials have found that outdoor activities can effectively reduce the incidence of myopia and delay the progression of myopia. Basic experiments also revealed that there were certain connections between light exposure and myopia. We herein review the research progress, limitations and future directions of research on light exposure and myopia. From the perspective of light properties, increasing the intensity of light can slow the progression of myopia and reduce the occurrence of experimentally induced myopia. However, the actual mechanism of action is still unclear. The rhythmic changes of light exposure caused by the light/dark cycle may cause abnormalities in the secretion of melatonin and dopamine, and changes in the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure and choroidal thickness, thus affecting myopia. The red light, with relatively longer wavelength and forming images behind the retina, tends to induce myopia more easily, while the blue light, with medium and short wavelength and forming images before the retina, tends to delay myopia progression. However, different species respond differently to lights of different wavelengths, and the relationship between light wavelength and myopia needs further investigation. Future research can be done to further explore the mechanism of action of how light exposure changes the progression of myopia, including the following aspects: how light changes dopamine levels, causing changes in downstream signal pathways, and thus controlling the growth of the axial length of the eye; how retinal photoreceptor cells receive light signals of different wavelengths in order to adjust the refractive power of the eyes; and how to design artificial lighting of reasonable intensity, composition and properties, and apply the design in myopia prevention and control.


Assuntos
Miopia , Ritmo Circadiano , Dopamina , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Retina
4.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infancy is the of a child's visual development. Refractive errors, especially myopia, are a common vision disorder. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore refractive errors and risk factors for myopia among infants aged 1-18 months in Tianjin, China. METHODS: A total of 583 infants aged 1-18 months participated in this cross-sectional study at Tianjin Women's and Children's Health Center in China from February 2019 to November 2020. Each infant received a complete ophthalmologic examination, and myopia-related risk factors were investigated using a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 583 eligible infants participated in this study, including 312 (53.5%) boys and 271 (46.5%) girls. There were 164 (28.1%) premature born infants. The mean age was 6.59 ± 4.84 months (range, 1-18 months). The mean spherical equivalent (MSE) for the right eye was 1.81 D ± 1.56 D, with no difference related to sex (P = 0.104). Refractive state showed an average hyperopia of +2.74 ± 1.74 D at early ages, followed by a trend toward less hyperopia, finally reaching +1.35 ± 1.44 D at the age of 18 months (P ≤0.001). The overall prevalence rates of myopia (MSE ≤ -0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50 D

Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Saúde da Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
5.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(10): 749-756, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619945

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the longitudinal epidemiological characteristics of myopia in primary school students from grade one to grade three in Hubei province, and to analyze the main factors affecting the occurrence and development of myopia, so as to provide the direction and theoretical basis for the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents. Methods: Longitudinal study. A total of 13, 244 primary school students from grade one to grade three in 17 prefectures and forest districts of Hubei province were included in the study by means of random stratified cluster sampling. Among them, there were 7, 331 boys and 5, 913 girls with an age of (7.7±1.0) years. The same group of students were followed up for two years from October 2017 to October 2019 to complete three data collections. All included subjects underwent visual acuity examination, which required further automatic computer optometry after using cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops if the visual acuity was less than 1.0. In the questionnaire, the general situation and eye behavior of the included subjects were collected. The Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of myopia among different genders,different reproductive history and grades. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare the difference in the mean spherical equivalent refraction, and logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of myopia. Results: The prevalence of myopia was 23.10% at baseline in 2017, 28.67% after one year's follow-up and 33.26% after two years' follow-up among primary school students in grade one to grade three in Hubei province. The overall prevalence of myopia increased with time (χ²=307.47, P<0.05). It also increased with the increase of grades. After two years of follow-up, the myopia rate of students in grades one through three was 25.62%, 35.07% and 41.05%, respectively (χ²=200.98, P<0.05). In 2017, the prevalence of myopia was 21.62% in boys and 24.93% in girls, and it increased to 31.20% and 35.69% after 2 years of follow-up, respectively. Both the prevalence of myopia and the spherical equivalent refraction were higher in girls than in boys. Moreover, myopia was associated with parents' myopia (OR=1.17), less time for outdoor activities (OR=1.06), no rest after half an hour's study (OR=1.18), more time for daily exposure to electronic products (OR=1.07), longer time for extracurricular study (OR=1.09), and higher grades (OR=1.78). Children whose parents were more myopic and who ate sweets and fizzy drinks more often had greater levels of myopia. Conclusions: Myopia occurs early in primary school students of grade one to grade three in Hubei province and increases rapidly. More attention should be paid to good habits for eyes, regular screening, outdoor activities and girls. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 749-756).


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 650879, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646798

RESUMO

Background: The myopia is a public health issue that attracts much attention. However, limited attention has been paid to the effect of primary school students' acceptance of health messages. Previous studies have found that framing effects and evidence types influence the persuasive effect of messages. Purpose: This study explored whether framing effects and evidence type influence the persuasive effect of myopia prevention messages among elementary school students and the influence of children's myopia prevention cognition was considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,493 elementary school students aged 9 to 13 in China from May to July 2020 by convenience sampling. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and multinomial logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Significant differences were found in the persuasive effect between statistical and non-statistical evidence messages (p < 0.001). Among non-statistical evidence messages, gain-framed messages showed a greater persuasive effect than loss-framed messages (p < 0.001). Among statistical evidence messages, loss-framed messages performed better than gain-framed messages (p < 0.001). Children's myopia prevention cognition exerted no significant effect on the persuasive effect of the messages (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the influence of framing effect on the persuasive effect of myopia prevention messages among children aged 9 to 13 in China. Non-statistical evidence messages showed a better persuasive effect than statistical evidence messages. Different types of evidence influenced the persuasive effect of gain- and loss- framed messages. These findings have implications for strategies more or less likely to work in making myopia prevention messages for children.


Assuntos
Miopia , Estudantes , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(11): 3178-3183, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708767

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the relationship between the severity of myopia and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted using data from electronic medical records from a multicentric eyecare network located in various geographic regions of India. Individuals with type 1 or type 2 DM were classified according to their refractive status. Severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR), PDR, or presence of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) with any type of DR was considered as vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR). Results: A total of 472 individuals with type-1 DM (mean age 41 ± 10 years) and 9341 individuals with type-2 DM (52 ± 9 years) were enrolled. Individuals with a hyperopic refractive error had a significant positive association with the diagnosis of VTDR (odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95%CI 1.04-1.51, P = 0.01) and moderate nonproliferative DR (OR 1.27; 95%CI 1.02-1.59, P = 0.03) in type-2 DM; however, no significant association was found in type-1 DM. After adjusting for age, gender, anisometropia, and duration of diabetes, the presence of high myopia (< - 6 D) reduced the risk of VTDR in type 2 DM (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.04-0.77, P = 0.02), but no association was found in type 1 DM. Mild and moderate myopia had no significant association with any forms of DR in both type-1 and type-2 DM. Conclusion: Hyperopic refractive error was found to increase the risk of VTDR in persons with type 2 DM. High-myopic refractive error is protective for VTDR in type 2 DM, but not in type-1 DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Miopia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/complicações , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(10): 724-726, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619941

RESUMO

The prevalence of myopia in China is increasing. The early onset and rapid progression of myopia in younger children have attracted more attention. The establishment of standardized children's refractive development records is the basis of myopic prevention and control. It would be helpful to follow the refractive status and pay more attention to the refractive development of potential myopic children, so as to reduce the prevalence of myopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 724-726).


Assuntos
Miopia , Testes Visuais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
9.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(5): 735-741, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633945

RESUMO

This study assessed the causes of visual impairment over a decade in Buenos Aires City. This is a retrospective case series where we reviewed the database of visual disability certificates issued by the Buenos Aires City Ministry of Health between 2009 and 2017. In Argentina, visual disability is defined as a visual acuity = 20/200 in the better eye, or a corresponding visual field of less than 20 degrees in the less impaired eye. The database included the following variables: year of issue, age, gender, and cause of visual disability. Between 2009 and 2017 a total of 7656 subjects were certified as legally blind. The mean age of the sample was 57 ± 21 years and 52.1% were females. The emission was near 700 certificates per year. The age distribution showed that 62.8% of certificates were from patients older than 50 years and that only 6.6% were given to subjects under 20. The leading causes of visual disability in Buenos Aires City were age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) with a rate of 15.5%, degenerative myopia (14.4%), primary open-angle glaucoma (11.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (6.6%). In subjects younger than 50, degenerative myopia was the first cause of visual disability. Interestingly in Argentina, where the prevalence of myopia is low, degenerative myopia is found to be the major cause of visual disability in middle-aged adult subjects. Population and clinical methods to avoid this preventable disease should need to be implemented as a matter of urgency.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Miopia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos da Visão
10.
Rev Prat ; 71(5): 471-475, 2021 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553522

RESUMO

Myopia boom: how to slow the progress? Myopia is an optical defect linked to an excessive elongation of the eyeball resulting in a blurred vision from afar. The last few years have seen an emergence of this phenomenon, which although partly genetic, mainly presents environmental risk factors such as low exposure to sunlight or prolonged near reading. Current generations are more myopic than prior generations and are so at a younger age. Detected early, myopia control management can help slow its progression in children and ensure a better quality of life. Why is myopia soaring? How to slow its progression in our children? Several optical methods are now possible and it is essential to properly inform parents about these too little known possibilities.


Assuntos
Miopia , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/terapia , Pais
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused many children to stay indoors. Increased near work and insufficient outdoor activities are considered important risk factors for myopic progression. This study aimed to compare the changes in myopic progression before and after COVID-19 in children treated with low-concentration atropine. METHODS: The records of 103 eyes of 103 children who were treated with low-concentration atropine eye drops were retrospectively reviewed. We classified children according to the concentration of atropine eye drops and children's age. The beginning of the pre-COVID-19 period was set from January 2019 to May 2019, and the endpoint was set in March 2020. The beginning of the post-COVID-19 period was set in March 2020, and the endpoint was set from January 2021 to March 2021. We evaluated the questionnaires administered to children's parents. RESULTS: A significant myopic progression was observed in the post-COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period in the 0.05% and 0.025% atropine groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020, respectively). For children aged 5 to 7 and 8 to 10 years, the axial elongations were significantly faster in the post-COVID-19 period than in the pre-COVID-19 period (P = 0.022 and P = 0.005, respectively). However, the rates of axial elongation and myopic progression were not significantly different between pre- and post-COVID-19 in children aged 11 to 15 years (P = 0.065 and P = 0.792, respectively). The average time spent using computers and smartphones and reading time were significantly increased, and the times of physical and outdoor activity were significantly decreased in the post-COVID-19 period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of myopic progression have increased substantially after the spread of COVID-19 with an increase in the home confinement of children. Therefore, it is necessary to control the environmental risk factors for myopia, even in children undergoing treatment for the inhibition of myopic progression.


Assuntos
Atropina/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Atropina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Computadores , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Smartphone
12.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1126-1128, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500538

RESUMO

The study objective was to assess the correlation of time outdoors in sunlight hours with spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and other variables. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, between January and April 2019. A total of 110 Individuals were included via convenient sampling, with myopia defined as having at least -0.5 D (SER ≤ -0.5 D). Collection of Questionnaires with interviews regarding eye care behaviour along with auto-refraction was done, followed by calculation of spherical equivalent refraction. Those having high myopia of 6 D or more (SER ≤ - 6 D), hyperopia of 0.5 D or more (SER ≥ +0.5 D), and history significant for ocular trauma and surgeries, were excluded. After data cleaning and their entry, analyses were done using SPSS version 26. The mean age data, available for 105 individuals, was 15.4 ± 3.69 years. Spearman's correlation was used for right SER with time outdoors in summers (r= +0.25, p=0.008) and winters (r= +0.243, p=0.010), indicating an inverse relationship with myopia. Females had more myopic refraction than males, but the independent sample t-test was not significant. Logistic regression was used and a protective effect was found for both summer and winter time outdoors, while education level was associated with myopia. Key Words: Myopia, Spherical equivalent refraction (SER), Sunlight exposure.


Assuntos
Miopia , Luz Solar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais
13.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(11): 4, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473223

RESUMO

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required a shift to electronic devices for education and entertainment, with children more confined to home, which may affect eye growth and myopia. Our goal was to assess behaviors during COVID-19 in myopic and non-myopic children. Methods: Parents completed a questionnaire for their children (ages 8.3 ± 2.4 years, n = 53) regarding visual activity in summer 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during school time and the summer before COVID-19. Children also wore an Actiwatch for 10 days in summer 2020 for objective measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Subjective measures showed that during COVID-19, children exhibited increased electronic device use and decreased activity and time outdoors (P < 0.05 for all), while time spent doing near work was not different than during a typical school or summer session before COVID-19 (P > 0.05). Objective measures during COVID-19 showed that myopic children exhibited lower daily light exposure (P = 0.04) and less activity (P = 0.04) than non-myopic children. Conclusions: Children demonstrated increased electronic device use and decreased activity and time outdoors during COVID-19, with myopic children exhibiting lower light exposure and activity than non-myopes. Long-term follow-up is needed to understand if these behavioral changes ultimately contribute to myopia progression. Translational Relevance: Children's behaviors changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have implications in eye growth and myopia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Objetivos , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(10): 1115-1121, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529002

RESUMO

Importance: During the outbreak of COVID-19, outdoor activities were limited and digital learning increased. Concerns have arisen regarding the impact of these environmental changes on the development of myopia. Objective: To investigate changes in the development of myopia in young Chinese schoolchildren during the outbreak of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational study, 2 groups of students from 12 primary schools in Guangzhou, China, were prospectively enrolled and monitored from grade 2 to grade 3. Comparisons between the exposure and nonexposure groups were made to evaluate any association between environmental changes during the COVID-19 outbreak period and development of myopia. The exposure group received complete eye examinations in November and December 2019 and November and December 2020. The nonexposure group received examinations in November and December 2018 and November and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL) elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3. Results: Among the 2679 eligible students in grade 2 (mean [SD] age, 7.76 [0.32] years; 1422 [53.1%] male), 2114 (1060 in the nonexposure group and 1054 in the exposure group) were reexamined in grade 3. Compared with the period from November and December 2018 to November and December 2019, the shift of SER, AL elongation, and myopia incidence from grade 2 to grade 3 from November and December 2019 to November and December 2020 was 0.36 D greater (95% CI, 0.32-0.41; P < .001), 0.08 mm faster (95% CI, 0.06-0.10; P < .001), and 7.9% higher (95% CI, 5.1%-10.6%; P < .001), respectively. In grade 3 students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 13.3% (141 of 1060 students) in November and December 2019 to 20.8% (219 of 1054 students) in November and December 2020 (difference [95% CI], 7.5% [4.3-10.7]; P < .001); the proportion of children without myopia and with SER greater than -0.50 D and less than or equal to +0.50 D increased from 31.1% (286 of 919 students) to 49.0% (409 of 835 students) (difference [95% CI], 17.9% [13.3-22.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, development of myopia increased during the COVID-19 outbreak period in young schoolchildren in China. Consequently, myopia prevalence and the proportion of children without myopia who were at risk of developing myopia increased. Future studies are needed to investigate long-term changes in myopia development after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Miopia/epidemiologia , Visão Ocular , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Recreação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Fatores de Tempo
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 318, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of myopia among children in Chengdu is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia in 3- to 14-year-old Chinese children in Chengdu. METHODS: This study was a school-based cross-sectional study in children aged 3-14 years. Visual acuity (VA), spherical equivalent error (SER) with noncycloplegic autorefraction, axial length (AL) and corneal radius (CR) were measured. RESULTS: A total of 19,455 children were recruited for this study. The prevalence of myopia was 38.1 %; the prevalence of low myopia was 26.6 %, that of moderate myopia was 9.8 %, and that of high myopia was 1.7 %. The prevalence of myopia and SER increased with age from 6 years old. The prevalence of myopia was higher, and the SER indicated more severe myopia in the girls than in the boys (40.1 % vs. 36.2 %, χ2 = 30.67, df = 1, P < 0.001; -0.93 D ± 1.75 D vs. -0.84 D ± 1.74 D, t = 3.613, df=19,453, P < 0.001). The girls had a higher prevalence of myopia and myopic SER than did the boys aged 9 years and older (P < 0.05). Among the myopic children, the rates of uncorrected, undercorrected and fully corrected myopia were 54.8 %, 31.1 and 14.1 %, respectively. AL and AL/CR increased with age from 6 years old, but CR remained stable after 4 years old. The AL was longer, and the CR was flatter in the boys than in the girls aged 3 to 14 years old (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of myopia, AL and AL/CR increased, and the SER became more myopic with age from 6 years old. The girls had a higher prevalence of myopia and myopic SER than did the boys, but the boys had a longer AL, flatter CR and higher AL/CR ratio than did the girls. The rate of uncorrected myopia was very high in the myopic children. More actions need to be taken to decrease the prevalence of myopia, especially uncorrected myopia in children.


Assuntos
Miopia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(8): 959-970, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387583

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Evidence supporting the contributions of near work in myopia is equivocal. Findings from this pilot study suggest that a high prevalence of myopia in ultra-Orthodox boys may be attributed to intense near work at school and learning to read in preschool at an early age. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess factors that may influence myopia in three groups of Jewish boys with different educational demands. METHODS: Healthy ultra-Orthodox, religious, and secular Jewish boys (n = 36) aged 8 to 12 years participated. Refractive status, education, time spent reading and writing, and electronic device use were assessed using a questionnaire, and time outdoors and physical activity were assessed objectively using an Actiwatch. Data were analyzed with χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: Ultra-Orthodox (n = 14) and religious (n = 13) children had greater myopia prevalence compared with secular children (n = 9; P = .01), despite no differences in parental myopia. Actigraph data showed that there were no differences in activity (P = .52) or time spent outdoors (P = .48) between groups. Ultra-Orthodox children learned to read at a younger age and spent more hours at school (P < .001 for both). All groups engaged in a similar amount of near work while not in school (P = .52). However, ultra-Orthodox boys had less electronic device use than did religious (P = .007) and secular children (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that ultra-Orthodox, religious, and secular children have distinct educational demands but similar time outdoors, physical activity, and near work while not in school. The findings suggest that near work at school and/or learning to read in preschool at an early age may contribute to previously reported differences in refractive error between groups. However, conclusions should be confirmed in a larger sample size.


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Humanos , Judeus , Judaísmo , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Testes Visuais
17.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 299, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of myopia in school students in Urumqi, China, and explore the influence of the interaction between parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits on myopia to identify the at-risk population and provide evidence to help school students avoid developing myopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 6,883 school students aged 7-20 years in Urumqi in December 2019. The Standard Eye Chart and mydriatic optometry were used to determine whether students had myopia. Falconer's method was used to calculate the heritability of parental myopia. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for myopia and the additive and multiplicative interaction of parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits. RESULTS: After standardizing the age of the 6,883 students, the overall prevalence rate of myopia was 47.50 %. The heritability of parental myopia was 66.57 % for boys, 67.82 % for girls, 65.02 % for the Han group, and 52.71 % for other ethnicities. There were additive interactions between parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits; among them, parental myopia and poor eye habits when reading and writing (the distance between the eyes and book is less than 30 cm when reading and writing, fingers block the sight of one eye while holding the pen, and leaning one's body when reading and writing; habit 1) increased the risk of myopia by 10.99 times (odds ratio [OR] = 10.99, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 8.33-14.68), parental myopia and poor reading posture (reading while lying down, walking, or in the car; habit 2) increased the risk of myopia by 5.92 times (OR = 5.92, 95 % CI = 4.84-7.27). There was no multiplicative interaction between parental myopia and habit 1 or habit 2 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.44-1.08; OR = 0.89, 95 % CI = 0.66-1.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia among students in Urumqi, Xinjiang is relatively high. The risk of developing myopia is affected by parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits. In addition, parental myopia amplifies the harm caused by poor reading and writing habits, thereby increasing the risk of myopia. Students with parents who have myopia should be targeted during myopia prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Miopia , Leitura , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pais , Postura , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação
18.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(10): 37, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463719

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the effect of home quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic on myopia progression in children and its associated factors. Methods: Myopic children aged 7 to 12 years with regular follow-up visits every half a year from April 2019 to May 2020 were included. Cycloplegic refraction was measured at baseline and at two follow-up visits. The first follow-up visit (visit 1) was conducted before the COVID-19 home quarantine, whereas the second (visit 2) was four months after the home quarantine. Myopia progression at visits 1 and 2 were compared. Factors associated with changes in myopia progression were tested with a multiple regression analysis. Results: In total, 201 myopic children were enrolled. There was a significantly greater change in spherical equivalent at visit 2 (-0.98 ± 0.52 D) than at visit 1 (-0.39 ± 0.58 D; P < 0.001). Students were reported to have spent more time on digital devices for online learning (P < 0.001) and less time on outdoor activities (P < 0.001) at visit 2 than at visit 1. Children using television and projectors had significantly less myopic shift than those using tablets and mobile phones (P < 0.001). More time spent on digital screens (ß = 0.211, P < 0.001), but not less time on outdoor activities (ß = -0.106, P = 0.110), was associated with greater myopia progression at visit 2. Conclusions: Changes in behavior and myopic progression were found during the COVID-19 home quarantine. Myopic progression was associated with digital screen use for online learning, but not time spent on outdoor activities. The projector and television could be better choices for online learning.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Computadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Terminais de Computador , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Considering that time spent outdoors is protective for myopia, we investigated how ambient light levels reaching the eye varies across 9 outdoor and 4 indoor locations in 5 different environmental conditions. METHODS: Illuminance (lux) was recorded using a lux meter under conditions of weather (sunny/cloudy), time of a day (7:00,10:00,13:00, and 16:00 hours), seasons (summer/winter), and sun protection (hat and cap) in outdoor and indoor locations. Nine outdoor locations were "open playground", "under a translucent artificial-shade", "under a porch facing east", "under a porch facing south", "under a big tree", "between three buildings", "within 4 buildings", and "canopy". As a ninth outdoor location, "Under a glass bowl" in the outdoor location was used as a simulation for "glass classroom model" and measurement was taken at the floor level only to determine in overall the illuminance conditions with glass covered on all sides. The 4 indoor locations included "room with multiple large windows", "room with combination light source", "room with multiple artificial lights", and "room with single artificial light". RESULTS: The overall median illuminance level (median; Q1-Q3) recorded in 9 outdoor locations was 8 times higher than that of all indoor locations (1175;197-5400 lux vs. 179;50-333 lux). Highest illuminance in outdoor locations was recorded in "open playground" (9300;4100-16825 lux), followed by "under a translucent artificial shade (8180;4200-13300 lux) and the lowest in "within 4 buildings" (11;6-20 lux). Illuminance under 'Canopy', 'between three buildings' and 'within four buildings' was similar to that of indoor locations (<1000 lux). Time of the day, weather, season, sensor position and using sun protection did not alter illuminance to change from high to low level (>1000 to <1000 lux). Among indoor locations, illuminance in "room with multiple large windows" crossed 1000 lux at a specific time points on both sunny and cloudy days. CONCLUSIONS: Illuminance levels in outdoors and indoors varied with location type, but not with other conditions. Given the variation in illuminance in different locations, and the impact it may have on myopia control, appropriate detailed recommendations seems necessary while suggesting time outdoors as an anti-myopia strategy to ensure desired outcomes.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Luz , Miopia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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