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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 274, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of termination of pregnancy with live fetuses in the second trimester (14-28 weeks), using misoprostol 400 mcg intravaginal every 6 h, between women with previous cesarean section (PCS) and no previous cesarean section (no PCS). METHODS: A comparative study was conducted on a prospective database of pregnancy termination in the second trimester, Chiang Mai university hospital. Inclusion criteria included: (1) singleton pregnancy; (2) gestational age between 14 and 28 weeks; and (3) pregnancy with a live fetus and medically indicated for termination. The participants were categorized into two groups; PCS and no PCS group. All were terminated using misoprostol 400 mcg intravaginal every 6 h. The main outcomes were induction to fetal delivery interval and success rate, defined as fetal delivery within 48 h. RESULTS: A total of 238 women, including 80 PCS and 158 no PCS, were recruited. The success rate of fetal delivery within 48 h between both groups was not significantly different (91.3% vs. 93.0%; p-value 0.622). The induction to fetal delivery interval were not significantly different (1531 vs. 1279 min; p-value > 0.05). Gestational age was an independent factor for the success rate and required dosage of misoprostol. The rates of most adverse effects of misoprostol were similar. One case (1.3%) in the PCS group developed uterine rupture during termination, ending up with safe and successful surgical removal and uterine repair. CONCLUSION: Intravaginal misoprostol is highly effective for second trimester termination of pregnancy with PCS and those with no PCS, with similar success rate and induction to fetal delivery interval. Gestational age was an independent factor for the success rate and required dosage of misoprostol. Uterine rupture could occur in 1.3% of PCS, implying that high precaution must be taken for early detection and proper management. SYNOPSIS: Intravaginal misoprostol is highly effective for termination of second trimester pregnancy with a live fetus, with a comparable success rate between women with and without previous cesarean section, with a 1.3% risk of uterine rupture among women with previous cesarean section.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ruptura Uterina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Ruptura Uterina/induzido quimicamente , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Feto
3.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 37(1): 2327573, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the safety and efficacy of misoprostol administered orally and vaginally in obese pregnant women at term with either gestational hypertension or diabetes. METHODS: A total of 264 pregnant women were enrolled and categorized into two groups based on their primary condition: hypertension (134 cases) or diabetes mellitus (130 cases) and were further divided into subgroups for misoprostol administration: orally (Oral group) or vaginally (Vaginal group). The primary outcomes measured were changes in the Bishop score following treatment, induction of labor (IOL) success rates, requirement for oxytocin augmentation, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and cesarean section rates. RESULTS: Significant enhancements in Bishop scores, decreased cesarean section rates and increased success rates of IOL were noted in both administration groups. The incidence of vaginal delivery within 24 h was significantly higher in the Vaginal group compared to the Oral group. Adverse effects, including nausea, uterine overcontraction, hyperfrequency of uterine contraction and uterine hyperstimulation without fetal heart rate deceleration, were significantly more prevalent in the Vaginal group than in the Oral group. CONCLUSION: Misoprostol administration, both orally and vaginally, proves effective for labor induction in obese pregnant women with hypertension or diabetes. However, the oral route presents a lower risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, suggesting its preference for safer labor induction in this demographic.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Gestantes , Administração Intravaginal , Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Administração Oral , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 79(1): 54-63, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306292

RESUMO

Importance: Several medications have been used to achieve medical abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. The most commonly used is the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol; however, different doses and routes of administration have been proposed. Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize published data on the effectiveness, adverse effects, and acceptability of the various combinations of mifepristone and misoprostol in medical abortion protocols in the first trimester of pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: This was a comprehensive review, synthesizing the findings of the literature on the current use of mifepristone and misoprostol for first-trimester abortion. Results: The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol seems to be more effective than misoprostol alone. Regarding the dosages and routes, mifepristone is administered orally, and the optimal dose is 200 mg. The route of administration of misoprostol varies; the sublingual and buccal routes are more effective; however, the vaginal route (800 µg) is associated with fewer adverse effects. Finally, the acceptability rates did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Different schemes for first-trimester medical abortion have been described so far. Future research needs to focus on identifying the method that offers the best trade-off between efficacy and safety in first-trimester medical abortion.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Abortivos não Esteroides/efeitos adversos
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(2): 159-166, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine foetal death (IUFD) is an unpleasant pregnancy outcome and prompt delivery of the dead foetus is usually desired by mothers. Unfortunately, spontaneous labour and delivery may not occur early and prolonged retention of the dead foetus in utero is life-threatening. Many of the agents currently used for the induction of labour may result in a prolonged delivery process. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of mifepristone and misoprostol versus misoprostol alone for induction of labour in women with intrauterine foetal death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a triple-blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty women were randomized into two groups. The intervention group received a single oral dose of 200 mg mifepristone, followed by 6-hourly 50 µg misoprostol vaginal insertion, after 24-hour intervals. The control group received a placebo, followed by 6-hourly 50 µg misoprostol vaginal insertion, after 24-hour intervals. The primary outcome measure was the induction to delivery interval. RESULTS: Maternal age, gestational age, parity and pre-induction bishop's score were comparable between the two groups. The mean induction to the delivery interval in the intervention group was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (18.78 ± 6.51 hours versus 37.10 ± 10.10; P < 0.001). The total dose of misoprostol required for induction of labour; the need for oxytocin augmentation of labour; and the observed side effects of misoprostol were all significantly less in intervention group than control group (P < 0.001; P < 0.01; and P = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSION: The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol has greater efficacy and better safety profile than the use of misoprostol alone for induction of labour. This combination should be considered when induction of labour is indicated for IUFD.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Administração Intravaginal , Morte Fetal , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Resultado da Gravidez , Combinação de Medicamentos
6.
Contraception ; 132: 110364, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare effectiveness and safety of cervical preparation with osmotic dilators plus same-day misoprostol or overnight mifepristone prior to dilation and evacuation (D&E). STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 664 patients initiating abortion between 18 and 22 weeks at an ambulatory health center. We abstracted medical record data from two consecutive 12-month periods in 2017 to 2019. All patients received overnight dilators plus: 600 mcg buccal misoprostol 90 minutes before D&E (period 1); 200 mg oral mifepristone at time of dilators (period 2). Our primary outcome was procedure time. We report frequency of patients experiencing any acute complication, defined as unplanned procedure (i.e., reaspiration, cervical laceration repair, uterine balloon tamponade) or hospital transfer and bleeding complications. RESULTS: We observed higher mean procedure time in the mifepristone group (9.7 ± 5.3 minutes vs 7.9 ± 4.4, p = 0.004). After adjusting for race, ethnicity, insurance, body mass index, parity, prior cesarean, prior uterine surgery, gestational age, provider, trainee participation, and long-acting reversible contraception initiation, the difference remained statistically significant (relative change 1.09, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17) but failed to reach our threshold for clinical significance. The use of additional misoprostol was more common in the mifepristone group, but the use of an additional set of dilators was not different between groups. Acute complications occurred at a frequency of 4.1% in misoprostol group and 4.3% in mifepristone group (p = 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: We found procedure time to be longer with adjunctive mifepristone compared to misoprostol; however, this difference is unlikely to be clinically meaningful. Furthermore, the frequency of acute complications was similar between groups. IMPLICATIONS: Overnight mifepristone at the time of cervical dilator placement is a safe and effective alternative to adjuvant same-day misoprostol for cervical preparation prior to D&E and may offer benefits for clinic flow and patient experience.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Mifepristona , Dilatação , Abortivos não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
7.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 309(4): 1459-1466, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol for second-trimester termination between pregnancies with a dead fetus in utero and those with a live fetus and to identify factors associated with the success rate. METHODS: Singleton pregnancies with live fetuses and dead fetuses, between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation, with an unfavorable cervix, were recruited to have pregnancy termination with intravaginal misoprostol 400 mcg every 6 h. RESULTS: Misoprostol was highly effective for termination, with a low failure rate of 6.3%. The effectiveness was significantly higher in pregnancies with a dead fetus (log-rank test; p: 0.008), with a median delivery time of 11.2 vs. 16.7 h. Fetal viability, fetal weight or gestational age, and an initial Bishop score were significantly associated with the total amount of misoprostol dosage used for induction. Fetal viability and gestational age/fetal weight were still independent factors after adjustment for other co-factors on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Vaginal misoprostol is highly effective for second-trimester termination, with significantly higher effectiveness in pregnancies with a dead fetus. Also, the effectiveness is significantly associated with birth weight/gestational age, and initial Bishop score.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Viabilidade Fetal , Abortivos não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravaginal
8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 292: 107-111, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare twice-daily versus once-daily administration of intravaginal PGE2 for induction of labor at term. Efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: For this single-center, randomized, comparative, open-label, two-arm, and parallel study, pregnant women with term singleton live pregnancies ≥ 37 weeks of gestation, medical indications for induction of labor, and Bishop score ≤ 6 were randomized to either the control group (induction of labor with PGE2 gel with repeat dose after 24 h) or the experimental group (repeat dose after 12 h). The primary outcome was induction-to-delivery interval time. Secondary outcomes were maternal and neonatal outcomes and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: In total, 246 women were randomized to the control (n = 121) or experimental groups (n = 125). The mean time for initiation of induction to delivery was 9.4 h shorter in the experimental group compared to controls (p = 0.007). For control vs experimental, there were no differences in tachysystole (19/121, 15.7 % vs 21/124, 16.9 %, respectively; p = 0.79), cesarean section rate (18/121, 14.9 % vs 28/124, 22.6 % respectively; p = 0.12), or other main obstetrical or neonatal outcomes. Patients in the experimental group reported higher satisfaction with their induction (48/96, 50 % with once-daily vs 60/86, 69.8 % with twice-daily; p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Among women admitted for induction of labor at term, closer interval of vaginal PGE2 administration was associated with a significantly shorter induction-to-delivery time without increasing maternal or neonatal morbidity. Furthermore, the reduction in induction time was associated with improved patient experience of delivery.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Administração Intravaginal , Maturidade Cervical , Cesárea , Dinoprostona , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais
9.
Contraception ; 131: 110340, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of asynchronous screening for medication abortion eligibility using a programmed questionnaire. STUDY DESIGN: For this study, we developed an informational website about medication abortion with a linked questionnaire programmed to produce a conclusion regarding eligibility according to standard criteria. We enrolled people in Colorado and Minnesota who submitted questionnaires indicating eligibility. A study physician reviewed each questionnaire and medical records if available and determined whether the responses warranted treatment without a synchronous clinical consultation or ultrasound. If so, the physician prescribed a standard regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol. We collected posttreatment data on abortion outcome, adverse events, and satisfaction. RESULTS: We received questionnaires from 197 individuals, of whom 160 remained in the study until the physician made a final treatment decision. Physicians prescribed medication abortion to 156 (97.5%) individuals based on the questionnaire responses, whereas four needed further assessment to confirm eligibility. Of the 156 individuals, 130 had sufficient follow-up to assess abortion outcome, and 123 (95%) had complete medication abortions without additional treatment. One participant was hospitalized for bleeding, and one expelled a 15-week fetus; however, it is not clear that conventional synchronous history-based screening would have averted these events. Of the 197 questionnaires, 42% were submitted outside business hours. On satisfaction questionnaires, 134 (96%) of 144 participants said they would recommend the study to a friend who needed an abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this pilot project suggest that providing medication abortion based only on a self-administered, programmed questionnaire is likely to be effective, safe, efficient, and acceptable. IMPLICATIONS: A programmed self-administered patient questionnaire to assess eligibility for medication abortion could reduce the cost of the service, augment clinic efficiency, improve quality of care, and enhance access to abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Colorado
10.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164(2): 482-498, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37401143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol is widely used for cervical ripening and labour induction as it is heat-stable and inexpensive. Oral misoprostol 25 µg given 2-hourly is recommended over vaginal misoprostol 25 µg given 6-hourly, but the need for 2-hourly fetal monitoring makes oral misoprostol impractical for routine use in high-volume obstetric units in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral misoprostol initiated at 25 or 50 µg versus 25 µg vaginal misoprostol given at 4- to 6-hourly intervals for labor induction in women at or beyond term (≥ 37 weeks) with a single viable fetus and an unscarred uterus. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified eligible randomized, parallel-group, labor-induction trials from recent systematic reviews. We additionally searched PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Epistemonikos, and clinical trials registries from February 1, 2020 to December 31, 2022 without language restrictions. Database-specific keywords for cervical priming, labor induction, and misoprostol were used. SELECTION CRITERIA: We excluded labor-induction trials exclusively in women with ruptured membranes, in the third trimester, and those that initiated misoprostol at doses not specified in the review's objectives. The primary outcomes were vaginal birth within 24 h, cesarean section, perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and maternal morbidity. The secondary outcomes were uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes, and oxytocin augmentation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two or more authors selected studies independently, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We derived pooled weighted risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome, subgrouping trials by the dose and frequency of misoprostol regimens. We used the I2 statistic to quantify heterogeneity and the random-effects model for meta-analysis when appropriate. We used the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess certainty (confidence) in the effect estimates. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen trials, from Canada, India, Iran, and the US, randomizing 2941 women at ≥37 weeks of gestation with an unfavorable cervix (Bishop score <6), met the eligibility criteria. Five misoprostol regimens were compared: 25 µg oral versus 25 µg vaginal, 4-hourly (three trials); 50 µg oral versus 25 µg vaginal, 4-hourly (five trials); 50 µg followed by 100 µg oral versus 25 µg vaginal, 4-hourly (two trials); 50 µg oral, 4-hourly versus 25 µg vaginal, 6-hourly (one trial); and 50 µg oral versus 25 µg vaginal, 6-hourly (two trials). The overall certainty in the evidence ranged from moderate to very low, due to high risk of bias in 11/13 trials (affecting all outcomes), unexplained heterogeneity (1/7 outcomes), indirectness (1/7 outcomes), and imprecision (4/7 outcomes). Vaginal misoprostol probably increased vaginal deliveries within 24 h compared with oral misoprostol (risk ratio [RR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.96; 11 trials, 2721 mothers; moderate-certainty evidence); this was more likely with 4-hourly than with 6-hourly vaginal regimens. The risk of cesarean sections did not appreciably differ (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.80-1.26; 13 trials, 2941 mothers; very low-certainty evidence), although oral misoprostol 25 µg 4-hourly probably increased this risk compared with 25 µg vaginal misoprostol 4-hourly (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.21-2.36; three trials, 515 mothers). The risk of perinatal mortality (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.11-3.90; one trial, 196 participants; very low-certainty evidence), neonatal morbidity (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.06; 13 trials, 2941 mothers; low-certainty evidence), and maternal morbidity (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.48-1.44; 6 trials; 1945 mothers; moderate-certainty evidence) did not differ appreciably. The risk of uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes may be lower with oral misoprostol (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.95; 10 trials, 2565 mothers; low-certainty evidence). Oxytocin augmentation was probably more frequent with oral compared with vaginal misoprostol (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51; 13 trials, 2941 mothers; moderate-certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose, 4- to 6-hourly vaginal misoprostol regimens probably result in more vaginal births within 24 h and less frequent oxytocin use compared with low-dose, 4- to 6-hourly, oral misoprostol regimens. Vaginal misoprostol may increase the risk of uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart changes compared with oral misoprostol, without increasing the risk of perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, or maternal morbidity. Indirect evidence indicates that 25 µg vaginal misoprostol 4-hourly may be more effective and as safe as the recommended 6-hourly vaginal regimen. This evidence could inform clinical decisions in high-volume obstetric units in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Morte Perinatal , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina , Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Maturidade Cervical
11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 45(12): e808-e817, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of misoprostol in the treatment of incomplete miscarriage. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials databases (clinicaltrials.gov) were searched for the relevant articles, and search strategies were developed using a combination of thematic Medical Subject Headings terms and text words. The last search was conducted on July 4, 2022. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION OF STUDIES: Randomized clinical trials with patients of gestational age up to 6/7 weeks with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion and who were managed with at least 1 of the 3 types of treatment studied were included. A total of 8,087 studies were screened. DATA COLLECTION: Data were synthesized using the statistical package Review Manager V.5.1 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). For dichotomous outcomes, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived for each study. Heterogeneity between the trial results was evaluated using the standard test, I2 statistic. DATA SYNTHESIS: When comparing misoprostol with medical vacuum aspiration (MVA), the rate of complete abortion was higher in the MVA group (OR = 0.16; 95%CI = 0.07-0.36). Hemorrhage or heavy bleeding was more common in the misoprostol group (OR = 3.00; 95%CI = 1.96-4.59), but pain after treatment was more common in patients treated with MVA (OR = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.52-0.80). No statistically significant differences were observed in the general acceptability of the treatments. CONCLUSION: Misoprostol has been determined as a safe option with good acceptance by patients.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia, segurança e aceitabilidade do misoprostol no tratamento do aborto incompleto. FONTES DE DADOS: Os bancos de dados PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library e bancos de dados de Ensaios Clínicos (clinicaltrials.gov) foram pesquisados para os artigos relevantes, e estratégias de busca foram desenvolvidas usando uma combinação de termos temáticos de Medical Subject Headings e palavras de texto. A última pesquisa foi realizada em 4 de julho de 2022. Nenhuma restrição de idioma foi aplicada. SELEçãO DOS ESTUDOS: Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados com pacientes com idade gestacional até 6/7 semanas com diagnóstico de aborto incompleto e que foram manejadas com pelo menos um dos três tipos de tratamento estudados. Um total de 8.087 estudos foram selecionados. COLETA DE DADOS: Os dados foram sintetizados usando o pacote estatístico Review Manager V.5.1 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Para resultados dicotômicos, o odds ratio (OR, na sigla em inglês) e o intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95% foram derivados para cada estudo. A heterogeneidade entre os resultados do ensaio foi avaliada usando o teste padrão, estatística I2. SíNTESE DOS DADOS: Ao comparar misoprostol com aspiração a vácuo médico (MVA, na sigla em inglês), a taxa de aborto completo foi maior no grupo MVA (OR = 0,16; IC95% = 0,07­0,36). Hemorragia ou sangramento intenso foi mais comum no grupo do misoprostol (OR = 3,00; 95%CI = 1,96­4,59), mas a dor após o tratamento foi mais comum em pacientes tratados com MVA (OR = 0,65; 95%CI = 0,52­0,80). Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas na aceitabilidade geral dos tratamentos. CONCLUSãO: O misoprostol tem se mostrado uma opção segura e com boa aceitação pelos pacientes.


Assuntos
Aborto Incompleto , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Aborto Incompleto/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Incompleto/etiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
12.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 25(12): 799-803, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cases of second trimester pregnancy loss can be treated either pharmacologically or by surgical evacuation. Misoprostol, an E1-prostaglandin analog, is used to facilitate the evacuation of the uterus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors associated with patients who were treated with five or more repeated doses of misoprostol. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated with vaginal misoprostol at our institution between December 2016 and October 2021 for second trimester pregnancy loss. RESULTS: In total, 114 patients were eligible for analysis; 83 were treated with < 5 doses and 31 with ≥ 5. We recorded each case in which repeated doses were administered, irrespective of predetermined conditions such as gravidity, parity, maternal age, or gestational age. Moreover, cases of five or more misoprostol dosing were not associated with an increased complications rate, except for the increased duration of hospitalization (3.1 vs. 2.2 days, P-value < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated dosing could not be predicted before treatment among those treated with vaginally administered misoprostol for second trimester pregnancy loss. However, low complication rates of repeated dosing may reassure both physicians and patients regarding safety, efficacy, and future fertility.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Abortivos não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitais de Ensino
13.
J Int Med Res ; 51(11): 3000605231213242, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37994048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Caesarean section is associated with higher blood loss than vaginal delivery. This study was performed to compare the safety and efficacy of preoperative versus postoperative rectal and sublingual misoprostol use for prevention of blood loss in women undergoing elective caesarean delivery. METHODS: Eligible patients in Southeast Nigeria were randomly classified into those that received 600 µg of preoperative rectal, postoperative rectal, preoperative sublingual, and postoperative sublingual misoprostol. All patients received 10 units of intravenous oxytocin immediately after delivery. Data were analysed with SPSS Version 23. RESULTS: Preoperative sublingual misoprostol use caused the highest postoperative packed cell volume, least change in the packed cell volume, and lowest intraoperative blood loss. Preoperative sublingual and rectal misoprostol use was associated with better haematological indices and maternal outcomes than postoperative use by these routes. However, preoperative sublingual and rectal use caused more maternal side effects than postoperative use by these routes. CONCLUSION: Preoperative sublingual misoprostol was associated with the most favourable haematological indices. Although preoperative sublingual and rectal misoprostol use caused more maternal side effects, these routes were associated with better haematological indices and maternal outcomes than postoperative sublingual and rectal misoprostol use.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Gestantes , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos
14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 142(6): 1357-1364, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37884011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk difference of uterine rupture when using current mifepristone and misoprostol regimens for second-trimester abortion among individuals with prior cesarean birth compared with those without prior cesarean birth. DATA SOURCES: We searched the terms second trimester, induction, mifepristone, and abortion in PubMed, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov , and Cochrane Library from inception until December 2022. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials and observational studies including a mixed cohort, with and without uterine scar, of individuals at 14-28 weeks of gestation who used mifepristone and misoprostol to end a pregnancy or to manage a fetal death. We excluded case reports, narrative reviews, and studies not published in English. Two reviewers independently screened studies. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Absolute risks with binomial CIs were calculated from pooled data. Using R software, we estimated total risk difference by the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method without continuity correction. For studies with zero events, a continuity correction of 0.5 was applied for individual risk differences and plotted graphically with forest plots. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Higgins I2 statistics. Funnel plot assessed for publication bias. Of 198 articles identified, 22 met the inclusion criteria: seven randomized trials (n=923) and 15 observational studies (n=6,195). Uterine rupture risk with prior cesarean birth was 1.1% (10/874) (95% CI 0.6-2.1) and without prior cesarean birth was 0.01% (2/6,244) (95% CI 0.0-0.12). The risk difference was 1.23% (95% CI 0.46-2.00, I2 =0%). Of the 12 reported uterine ruptures, three resulted in hysterectomy. CONCLUSION: Uterine rupture with mifepristone and misoprostol use during second-trimester induction abortion is rare, with the risk increased to 1% in individuals with prior cesarean birth. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42022302626.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Ruptura Uterina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Ruptura Uterina/induzido quimicamente , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 5(12): 101175, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37806650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies at high risk for maternal, fetal, or placental complications often necessitate induction of labor in the late preterm or early term period for delivery. Limited data exist on the safest method of induction to use in this specific patient population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the combination of oxytocin plus a Cook balloon vs misoprostol plus a Cook balloon for induction of labor in high-risk pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial at a single institution from July 2020 to May 2022. The study was approved by the institutional review board and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04492072). Individuals with a high-risk pregnancy, at least ≥22 weeks' gestation, with a singleton in cephalic presentation, Bishop score ≤6, and intact membranes were offered enrollment. A high-risk pregnancy was defined as a pregnancy with any of the following complications: hypertensive disease of pregnancy, fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, suspected placental abruption requiring delivery, uncontrolled pregestational diabetes, or abnormal biophysical profile or nonstress test requiring delivery. The primary outcome was the rate of cesarean delivery. Secondary maternal outcomes included induction to delivery interval, number of vaginal deliveries within 24 hours, rates of uterine tachysystole, intraamniotic infection, operative vaginal delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Secondary fetal outcomes included fetal heart rate abnormalities, stillbirth, Apgar scores <7 at 5 minutes, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, arterial umbilical blood pH <7.1, sepsis, and neonatal death. A subgroup analysis was planned for the primary outcome to assess the different indications for cesarean delivery. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the 22 months of the trial, a total of 150 patients were randomized, and 73 (49%) of those were induced with oxytocin and a Cook balloon and 77 (51%) were induced with misoprostol and a Cook balloon. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of cesarean delivery between the study groups, (21.9% vs 31.1%; relative risk, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.21), nor among those for which the cesarean delivery was performed for a specific indication. There were no differences in the secondary maternal and fetal or neonatal adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: In high-risk pregnancies, the rate of cesarean delivery and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes were similar for induction of labor with oxytocin and a Cook balloon and for induction with misoprostol and a Cook balloon.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Placenta , Maturidade Cervical
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 291: 61-69, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37832480

RESUMO

AIM: To conduct the first-ever systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the antihemorrhagic utility and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) versus misoprostol for management (prevention and/or treatment) of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS: Six databases were screened from inception until May 2023 and updated in September 2023. The RCTs were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. The endpoints were summarized as mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in a random-effects model. RESULTS: Ten RCTs with 2121 patients (TXA = 1061 and misoprostol = 1060) were analyzed. There was no significant difference between TXA and misoprostol groups regarding the mean intraoperative blood loss (n = 9 RCTs, MD = 17.32 ml, 95% CI [-40.43, 75.07], p = 0.56), mean change in hemoglobin (n = 6 RCTs, MD = 0.11 mg/dl, 95% CI [-0.1, 0.31], p = 0.30), mean hospital stay (n = 2 RCTs, MD = -0.3 day, 95% CI [-0.61, 0.01], p = 0.06), blood transfusion rate (n = 4 RCTs, RR = 0.49, 95% CI [0.16, 1.47], p = 0.2), and rate of additional uterotonic agents (n = 4 RCTs, RR = 1.05, 95% CI [0.72, 1.53], p = 0.81). Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis showed robustness of the results, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Regarding safety endpoints, there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the rates of minor side effects, such as diarrhea, fever, nausea, and vomiting. No patient developed thromboembolic events in the TXA group. CONCLUSION: There was no significant antihemorrhagic efficacy between adjunct TXA and misoprostol for the management of PPH. The safety profile was comparable between both agents.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Hemostáticos , Misoprostol , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Ácido Tranexâmico , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos
17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 289: 108-128, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37660506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological agents such as prostaglandins (dinoprostone and misoprostol) are commonly used to reduce the duration of labor and promote vaginal delivery. However, key safety considerations with its use include an increased risk of uterine rupture, tachysystole and hyperstimulation of pregnant women, which could potentially lead to a non-reassuring fetal heart rate and to fetal hypoxemia. The aim of this systematic review was to assess maternal and fetal outcomes between misoprostol group (PGE1) and dinoprostone group (PGE2) STUDY DESIGN: We search on MEDLINE (PubMed), CINHAL (EBSCOhost), EMBASE, Scopus (Ovid), CENTRAL (January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2022). Patients were eligible if they presented at greater than 36 weeks gestation with an indication for induction of labor and a single live cephalic fetus. We conducted a meta-analysis of data for both primary (cesarean section rate, instrumental deliveries rate, tachysystole, uterine rupture, post-partum haemorrage; chorionamiositis) and secondary outcomes (Apgar at 5 min <7, meconium-stained liquor, NICU admission, infant death) using odds-ratio (OR) as a measure of effect-size. Risk of bias assessment was performed with RoB-I. We performed statistical analyses using Cochrane RevMan version 5.4 software. RESULTS: We found 39 RCTs comparing the outcomes of interest between misoprostol and dinoprostone. The pooled effect showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of cesarean section rate [OR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.84-1.05], instrumental deliveries rate [OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.90-1.19; p = 0.62], tachysystole [OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.91-1.60; p = 0.19], post-partum hemorrhage [OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.62-1.15p = 0.30], chorioamnionitis [OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.76-1.17p = 0.59], Apgar at 5 min < 7 [OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.61-1.12, p = 0.21], meconium-stained liquor [OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.97-1.27p = 0.59], NICU admission group [OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.77-1.09], infant death [OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.22-1.44]. After performing a sub-group analysis based on the type of prostaglandins administrations (oral, vaginal gel, vaginal pessary), results did not change substantially. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that misoprostol and dinoprostone appear to have a similar safety profile.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Ruptura Uterina , Lactente , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Dinoprostona/efeitos adversos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Prostaglandinas , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Morte do Lactente , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos
18.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 289: 145-151, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37678127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of combined mifepristone and misoprostol compared to misoprostol alone in outpatient medical treatment of first trimester miscarriage. Additionally, the study intends to compare the rate of complications, adverse effects, and treatment acceptability between groups. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial including women with diagnosis of missed first trimester miscarriage up to 9 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: Between April 2019 and November 2021, 216 women diagnosed with first trimester miscarriage up to 9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to mifepristone group or to misoprostol-alone group. Data from 105 women in mifepristone group and 103 women in misoprostol-alone group were analyzed, with no differences in baseline characteristics. The median time between medications (oral mifepristone/placebo and vaginal misoprostol) was nearly 43 h in both groups (p = 0.906). The median time to first follow-up was 2.6 weeks (IQR 1.0) in mifepristone group and 2.4 weeks (IQR 1.0) in misoprostol-alone group (p = 0.855). The overall success rate of medical treatment was significantly higher in the mifepristone-group comparing to misoprostol-alone group (94.3% vs. 82.5%, RR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; p = 0.008). Accordingly, the rate of surgical treatment was significantly lower in the mifepristone-group (5.7% vs.14.6%, RR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.16-0.97; p = 0.034). The composite complication rate was similar and lower than 4% in both groups. No case of complicated pelvic infection, hemodynamic instability or inpatient supportive treatment was reported. There were no significant differences in the rates of adverse events, median score for vaginal bleeding intensity or analgesics use. Despite the same median value, the score of abdominal pain intensity was significantly higher in the mifepristone-group (p = 0.011). In both groups, more than 65% of the women classified the treatment as "good" and 92% would recommend it to a friend on the same clinical situation. CONCLUSION: The mifepristone plus vaginal misoprostol combined treatment for medical resolution of first trimester miscarriage resulted in significant higher success rate and lower rate of surgical uterine evacuation comparing to misoprostol-alone treatment, with no relevant differences in adverse events or treatment acceptability.


Assuntos
Aborto Retido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez
19.
Reprod Sci ; 30(12): 3507-3514, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37442883

RESUMO

This study compares the effectiveness and safety of oxytocin infusion against oral misoprostol for inducing labour in pregnant women with term prelabor membrane rupture. We randomized 173 pregnant women presenting with term prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital into Group A (underwent induction of labor (IOL) by 25µg misoprostol oral tablet every 4 h, for maximum 5 doses) and an identical Group B: (underwent IOL by oxytocin infusion according to the hospital protocol). Our primary outcome was rate of vaginal delivery within 24 h, while the secondary outcomes included the time till active phase, induction to delivery interval, maternal pyrexia, nausea and vomiting, fetal distress, Apgar score, birth weight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Both groups showed high rates of vaginal delivery (82.4% & 87.1% for misoprostol group and oxytocin group respectively) with no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.394). However, patients induced by misoprostol took significantly less time to reach active phase with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to patients induced with oxytocin. This difference was clear in multiparous women, but not observed in primiparous women when subgroup analysis was done. No significant difference was found as regards other outcomes. Our study showed that both oral misoprostol and oxytocin are effective and safe for IOL in patients with PROM, with shorter induction-delivery interval in patients induced by oral misoprostol, an effect that is clear in multiparous but not primiparous women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05215873, on 31/01/2022, "retrospectively registered".


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Gestantes , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/tratamento farmacológico , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos
20.
Contraception ; 126: 110134, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37524147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review clinical practice outcomes of early pregnancy loss (EPL) medical management using mifepristone and misoprostol outside of a clinical trial setting. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed a deidentified database of patients who received mifepristone-misoprostol for EPL from May 2018 to May 2021 at our academic center-based clinic, which was a study site for a multicenter mifepristone-misoprostol EPL trial completed in March 2018. All patients received mifepristone 200 mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally or buccally, with clinic follow-up typically scheduled within 1 week. The primary outcome was successful medical management, defined as management without the need for aspiration, and the secondary outcomes included additional interventions and indications, follow-up ultrasonography findings, and adverse events requiring treatment. RESULTS: We treated 90 patients with a median ultrasound-measured gestational size of 49 (range 30-80) days and median time from mifepristone to misoprostol of 24 (range 8-66) hours. Follow-up was completed in clinic by 80 (88.9%), completed remotely by five (5.6%), and not completed by five (5.6%) patients. Overall, 76 (95% CI 82.9%-96.0%) of 85 patients (89.4%) with follow-up were successfully managed without uterine aspiration. Eighty patients had initial follow-up ultrasonography interpreted as gestational sac expulsion; seven (8.8%) of these ultimately underwent aspiration, including one patient who had a previously undiagnosed cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Two patients had significant safety outcomes: one pelvic infection and one blood transfusion during aspiration in the patient with a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Outside of a clinical trial setting, medical management of EPL with mifepristone and misoprostol remains effective and safe. IMPLICATIONS: Medical management of EPL with mifepristone and misoprostol is effective and safe outside of a clinical trial setting. A standardized protocol based on the best available clinical trial evidence can be used in clinical practice for the medical management of EPL.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Abortivos Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Misoprostol , Gravidez Ectópica , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Abortivos não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Abortivos Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cicatriz/induzido quimicamente , Cicatriz/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
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