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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301285, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564594

RESUMO

Increasing awareness of gender barriers and biases in academic institutions is an essential component of institutional change strategies to promote equity and inclusion. There is an established perception gap in recognizing gender inequities in the workplace, whereby men faculty under acknowledge the stressors, barriers, and biases faced by their women faculty colleagues. This study explored the gender gap in faculty perceptions of institutional diversity climate at a rural comprehensive regional university in the United States. In addition to gender, differences across academic discipline and time were explored using 2 (men and women) x 2 (STEM and other) x 2 (2017 and 2022) between-groups ANOVAs. Results revealed a gender gap that persisted across time and perceptions of stressors, diversity climate, student behavior, leadership, and fairness in promotion/tenure procedures, with marginalized (women) faculty consistently reporting greater barriers/concern for women faculty relative to the perceptions of their men faculty colleagues. These findings are largely consistent with the extant literature and are discussed both with regard to future research directions and recommendations for reducing the perception gap and addressing institutional barriers to gender equity.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Docentes de Medicina , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Fatores Sexuais , Faculdades de Medicina , Liderança , Mobilidade Ocupacional
5.
JAMA Surg ; 159(4): 383-388, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353990

RESUMO

Introduction: Efforts have been made to increase the number of women and physicians who are underrepresented in medicine (UIM). However, surgery has been slow to diversify, and there are limited data surrounding the impact of intersectionality. Objective: To assess the combined association of race and ethnicity and sex with rates of promotion and attrition among US academic medical department of surgery faculty. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study using faculty roster data from the Association of American Medical Colleges. All full-time academic department of surgery faculty with an appointment any time from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2020, were included. Study data were analyzed from September 2022 to February 2023. Exposures: Full-time academic faculty in a department of surgery with a documented self-reported race, ethnicity, and sex within the designated categories of the faculty roster of Association of American Medical Colleges. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in race and ethnicity and sex, rates of promotion, and rates attrition from 2010 to 2020 were assessed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox time-to-event analyses. Results: A total of 31 045 faculty members (23 092 male [74%]; 7953 female [26%]) from 138 institutions were included. The mean (SD) program percentage of UIM male faculty increased from 8.4% (5.5%) in 2010 to 8.5% (6.2%) in 2020 (P < .001), whereas UIM female faculty members increased from 2.3% (2.6%) to 3.3% (2.5%) over the 10-year period (P < .001). The mean program percentage of non-UIM females increased at every rank (percentage point increase per year from 2010 to 2020 in instructor: 1.1; 95% CI, 0.73-1.5; assistant professor: 1.1; 95% CI, 0.93-1.3; associate professor: 0.55; 95% CI, 0.49-0.61; professor: 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41-0.60; all P < .001). There was no change in the mean program percentage of UIM female instructors or full professors. The mean (SD) percentage of UIM female assistant and associate professors increased from 3.0% (4.1%) to 5.0% (4.0%) and 1.6% (3.2%) to 2.2% (3.4%), respectively (P =.002). There was no change in the mean program percentage of UIM male instructors, associate, or full professors. Compared with non-Hispanic White males, Hispanic females were 32% less likely to be promoted within 10 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.86; P <.001), non-Hispanic White females were 25% less likely (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78; P <.001), Hispanic males were 15% less likely (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96; P =.007), and Asian females were 12% less likely (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P =.03). Non-UIM males had the shortest median (IQR) time to promotion, whereas non-UIM females had the longest (6.9 [6.8-7.0] years vs 7.2 [7.0-7.6] years, respectively; P < .001). After 10 years, 79% of non-UIM males (13 202 of 16 299), 71% of non-UIM females (3784 of 5330), 68% of UIM males (1738 of 2538), and 63% of UIM females (625 of 999) remained on the faculty. UIM females had a higher risk of attrition compared with non-UIM females (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; P = .001) and UIM males (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4; P = .05). The mean (SE) time to attrition was shortest for UIM females and longest for non-UIM males (8.2 [0.14] years vs 9.0 [0.02] years, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion and Relevance: Results of this cohort study suggest that intersectionality was associated with promotion and attrition, with UIM females least likely to be promoted and at highest risk for attrition. Further efforts to understand these vulnerabilities are essential.


Assuntos
Enquadramento Interseccional , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina
6.
AORN J ; 119(2): 143-151, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275255

RESUMO

Postpartum hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. With the use of appropriate screening tools and treatment modalities, most of these deaths are preventable. Various interventions are used to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage, though intraoperative cell salvage historically has been contraindicated in the obstetric setting. This article explores the implementation of intraoperative cell salvage in the obstetric setting at two campuses of a health care system with the assistance of nurses participating in a professional nurses advancement program (ie, a clinical ladder). The initiative comprised a literature review, interdisciplinary collaboration, and education planning and execution. The educational approach focused on adult learners and included both self-directed and instructor-led elements. Including clinical nurses in clinical education is beneficial because they are highly motivated to share evidence-based practice with their peers to elevate patient safety and quality measures, making them ideal education partners.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Atenção à Saúde
7.
Nat Metab ; 6(1): 2-5, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233680
10.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 88(1): 100585, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37673177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to identify and characterize the relative likelihood of women and racially minoritized pharmacy faculty being promoted, advancing within leadership roles, and earning comparable salaries. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2021 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Profile of Pharmacy Faculty surveys were analyzed to compare odds ratios for promotion, leadership roles, and salary gaps of pharmacy faculty according to race and gender. Changes in the odds ratios over time were characterized by linear regression and predictions about when and if equality would be achieved according to current trends were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to White male counterparts, faculty identifying as women, Black, Hispanic, or Asian had a significantly lower odds ratio of promotion to associate or full professor. Women and Asian faculty also had a lower likelihood of promotion from assistant to associate or Chief Executive Officer (CEO) dean. No demographics studied were more likely than White men to advance in rank or attain associate or CEO dean leadership positions. Furthermore, negative salary gaps for women emerge after promotion from assistant professor, becoming significant and continuing to widen at the associate (-$20,419) and CEO dean (-$37,495) level. CONCLUSION: Despite attention to matters of diversity, equity, and inclusion, female and racially minoritized faculty continue to experience lower rates of promotion, leadership advancement, and wages compared to White male colleagues. These results have negative consequences for recruiting and retaining talented faculty and students, and compromise the benefits that a diverse faculty is known to provide on student learning outcomes.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Docentes de Farmácia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Docentes de Medicina , Salários e Benefícios , Estudantes , Mobilidade Ocupacional
11.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 88(1): 100590, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37714303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Policies related to prepromotion/tenure reviews and postpromotion/tenure reviews are critical to faculty advancement and retention. The objective of this study is to describe the utilization, timing, and application of such policies as described within promotion and/or tenure documents from US colleges/schools of pharmacy. METHODS: PT documents were collected from internet searches and/or contact with administrators at each institution. Qualitative content analysis was used to systematically review policies related to pre and postpromotion/tenure reviews. Policies were reviewed for required vs optional status, timing, possible outcomes, and other characteristics. RESULTS: PT documents were analyzed from 121 (85%) colleges/schools. Of these, 26% included policies for prepromotion review of nontenure-track faculty, while 45% included pretenure reviews for tenure-track faculty. The majority of prereviews were required (65% and 91%, respectively) and conducted after 3 years in rank on average. Only 22 (18%) included postpromotion/tenure reviews, with most (17, 77%) conducting reviews after a prespecified time in advanced rank (mean 3.9 years). Potential negative consequences of postpromotion/tenure reviews were more frequently described than potential rewards. CONCLUSION: This analysis of promotion and/or tenure documents revealed that pre/posttenure reviews were more commonly employed than pre/postpromotion reviews. Documents most frequently described potential negative consequences that may result from unsatisfactory postpromotion/tenure reviews. Academic leaders should consider the implications of these trends within their own institutions and how their own policies may be improved to create clearly articulated, fair, and parallel processes for both tenure-track and nontenure-track faculty.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Faculdades de Farmácia , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Docentes , Políticas , Docentes de Medicina , Mobilidade Ocupacional
12.
Ann Surg ; 279(2): 231-239, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37916404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create a blueprint for surgical department leaders, academic institutions, and funding agencies to optimally support surgeon-scientists. BACKGROUND: Scientific contributions by surgeons have been transformative across many medical disciplines. Surgeon-scientists provide a distinct approach and mindset toward key scientific questions. However, lack of institutional support, pressure for increased clinical productivity, and growing administrative burden are major challenges for the surgeon-scientist, as is the time-consuming nature of surgical training and practice. METHODS: An American Surgical Association Research Sustainability Task Force was created to outline a blueprint for sustainable science in surgery. Leaders from top NIH-sponsored departments of surgery engaged in video and in-person meetings between January and April 2023. A strength, weakness, opportunities, threats analysis was performed, and workgroups focused on the roles of surgeons, the department and institutions, and funding agencies. RESULTS: Taskforce recommendations: (1) SURGEONS: Growth mindset : identifying research focus, long-term planning, patience/tenacity, team science, collaborations with disparate experts; Skill set : align skills and research, fill critical skill gaps, develop team leadership skills; DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY (DOS): (2) MENTORSHIP: Chair : mentor-mentee matching/regular meetings/accountability, review of junior faculty progress, mentorship training requirement, recognition of mentorship (eg, relative value unit equivalent, awards; Mentor: dedicated time, relevant scientific expertise, extramural funding, experience and/or trained as mentor, trusted advisor; Mentee : enthusiastic/eager, proactive, open to feedback, clear about goals; (3) FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY: diversification of research portfolio, identification of matching funding sources, departmental resource awards (eg, T-/P-grants), leveraging of institutional resources, negotiation of formalized/formulaic funds flow investment from academic medical center toward science, philanthropy; (4) STRUCTURAL/STRATEGIC SUPPORT: Structural: grants administrative support, biostats/bioinformatics support, clinical trial and research support, regulatory support, shared departmental laboratory space/equipment; Strategic: hiring diverse surgeon-scientist/scientists faculty across DOS, strategic faculty retention/ recruitment, philanthropy, career development support, progress tracking, grant writing support, DOS-wide research meetings, regular DOS strategic research planning; (5) COMMUNITY AND CULTURE: Community: right mix of faculty, connection surgeon with broad scientific community; Culture: building research infrastructure, financial support for research, projecting importance of research (awards, grand rounds, shoutouts); (6) THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS: Foundation: research space co-location, flexible start-up packages, courses/mock study section, awards, diverse institutional mentorship teams; Nurture: institutional infrastructure, funding (eg, endowed chairs), promotion friendly toward surgeon-scientists, surgeon-scientists in institutional leadership positions; Expectations: RVU target relief, salary gap funding, competitive starting salaries, longitudinal salary strategy; (7) THE ROLE OF FUNDING AGENCIES: change surgeon research training paradigm, offer alternate awards to K-awards, increasing salary cap to reflect market reality, time extension for surgeon early-stage investigator status, surgeon representation on study section, focused award strategies for professional societies/foundations. CONCLUSIONS: Authentic recommitment from surgeon leaders with intentional and ambitious actions from institutions, corporations, funders, and society is essential in order to reap the essential benefits of surgeon-scientists toward advancements of science.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Mentores , Docentes , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 33(2): 132-140, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38061049

RESUMO

Purpose: Research about academic medicine women faculty has focused on comparisons of men and women or specific groups who achieved leadership. To better understand the low percentages of women in academic medicine leadership, attention should be paid to the career continuum within genders. Study findings will inform policies and programs to support women in building careers and acquiring leadership positions. Materials and Methods: Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) StandPoint Faculty Engagement Survey data are used to describe and compare women assistant, associate and full professors' perceptions of (1) career development and advancement opportunities, and (2) a culture and climate that fosters diversity, equity, and inclusion. Specific similarities and differences with men are highlighted. Results: Fifty-nine percent of women respondents were assistant, 25% associate, and 16% full professors. Associate professors of both genders were the least satisfied on the main measures. Women were less satisfied than men at each career stage across the majority of variables. Among women, fewer than half of full and associate professors, and 52% of assistant professors believe they can express their opinions without fear of retribution. While the majority at all ranks (69%-75%) report feeling respected in the workplace, among those who did not, the highest percentage of disrespect based on gender was among associate professors. Conclusions: The perceptions of >7,500 academic medicine women faculty, representing different generations and ranks, underscore the need to broadly address gender inequity and sexism throughout the career continuum. It identifies the mid-career stage as a challenging experience for both men and women. Women, especially at the associate professor rank, remain a critically dissatisfied and underresourced group that is at risk for underutilization and potentially exit from academic medicine. All ranks of women need career development and equitable policies to support their sense of belonging and career advancement.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina , Sexismo , Liderança , Satisfação Pessoal
15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 39(3): 470-480, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38055164

RESUMO

Sponsorship describes a set of actions wherein an influential champion (sponsor) uses their position to actively support a colleague's career by helping them gain visibility, recognition, and/or positions. There is growing awareness of the importance of sponsorship for career advancement in academic medicine, particularly for women and those who are historically underrepresented and excluded in medicine (UIM). This scoping review examines the current landscape of evidence, and knowledge gaps, on sponsorship as it relates to career advancement in academic medicine for women and UIM faculty. We searched peer-reviewed literature in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (WoS) over the past 50 years (from 1973 through July 2023). Sixteen studies were included in the final review. We found relative consensus on sponsorship definition and value to career advancement. Heterogeneity in study design limited our ability to directly compare study outcomes. All included studies focused on gender differences in sponsorship: two of four quantitative studies found men were more likely to receive sponsorship, one reported no gender differences, and one was insufficiently powered. All but one of the qualitative studies reported gender differences, with women less likely to access or be identified for sponsorship. The mixed-methods studies suggested sponsorship may vary by career stage. Only two studies analyzed sponsorship for UIM populations. The existing data are inconclusive regarding best ways to measure and assess sponsorship, what institutional support (e.g., structured programs, formal recognition, or incentives for sponsorship) should look like, and at what career stage sponsorship is most important. Addressing this knowledge gap will be critically important for understanding what sponsorship best practices, if any, should be used to promote equity in career advancement in academic medicine. We advocate for commitment at the institutional and national levels to develop new infrastructure for transparently and equitably supporting women and UIM in career advancement.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Médicas , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Liderança , Docentes de Medicina , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos
16.
J Physician Assist Educ ; 35(1): 94-100, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37878608

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The majority of Physician assistant (PA) educators are women, yet men proportionately publish more and advance further in academic rank. This study examined if research interest, promotion goals, and perceptions of institutional support differed between PA educators with different gender identities. METHODS: This is a subset analysis of a previously published cross-sectional study. PA programs were stratified by region and Carnegie classification and were sampled by a stratified random sampling method. PA faculty from selected programs were invited to participate in an anonymous survey. Data were analyzed to account for the stratified sample design. Means and proportions with associated 95% confidence intervals are described. RESULTS: There was a 51% response rate (N = 110). Sixty-three percent of respondents identified as female and 36% as male. Men had a mean of 5.67 (0.17, 11.16) career research articles and women had 1.56 (0.68, 2.44) articles. Fifteen percent (3.7%, 26.3%) of men were full professor compared to 4.3% (0, 9.1%) of women. When transitioning to a faculty role, 72.5% (58.4%, 86.6%) of men and 52.9% (41%, 64.7%) of women felt supported by their institution. Both genders valued promotion, but 80% (67.6%, 92.4%) of men reported having clear 5-year goals compared to 58.8% (46.6%, 71%) of women (P = .034). CONCLUSION: There was no statistical difference in publications between men and women in this study. Women felt less supported when transitioning to a faculty role compared to men. Both men and women valued promotion equally, but men reported working towards that goal more intentionally. This study found few consistent differences in the attitudes and behaviors towards scholarship between men and women.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Assistentes Médicos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina , Assistentes Médicos/educação
18.
Am J Surg ; 228: 5-9, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women comprise nearly half of all residents in training, yet there is a significant disparity of women in academic leadership. Surgical subspecialties are dominated by men in both percentages of physicians and leadership positions. We sought to examine the association of advanced non-medical degrees with academic rank and gender in academic surgery departments. METHODS: Faculty from 126 ACGME-accredited academic medical centers were analyzed to identify faculty gender as described in online biographical information, advanced non-medical degrees, academic rank, and additional leadership positions held. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: 4536 surgeons were identified, 69.3% men, 27.3% female, and 3.3% unlisted. Female surgeons were more likely to hold advanced non-doctoral degrees than men (18.2% vs. 13.8%, p â€‹< â€‹0.002). Among those with advanced degrees, PhDs were held by 3.3% of women and 5.7% of men (p â€‹< â€‹0.001). Female surgeons were less likely to hold the rank of Professor than male surgeons (15.8% vs 30.3%, p â€‹< â€‹0.001), and more likely to hold the rank of Assistant Professor than male surgeons (51.9% vs 36.1%, p â€‹< â€‹0.001). This likelihood remained true when analyzing only surgeons with one or more advanced non-medical degrees. Men were more likely to be Chair of Surgery (3.0%), Division Chief (9.6%), and Research Chair (0.5%); compared to women (1.3%; 4.8%; 0.2%; p â€‹= â€‹0.001, <0.001, 0.21 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There continues to be a significant male predominance in general surgery. Gender discrepancy is also seen in professional rank and academic title despite women holding more advanced degrees. Advanced degrees are currently considered academic qualifications, but this does not reflect surgical academic leadership roles or rank.


Assuntos
Médicas , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Docentes de Medicina , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Liderança
19.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 258: 1-7, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37757997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examines the rates and trends of faculty promotions within the field of ophthalmology, with comparative emphasis on the rates of promotion among underrepresented in medicine (URiM) faculty. DESIGN: A retrospective panel study was conducted using the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster database. METHODS: We used the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster data to assess trends in academic faculty promotions within U.S. ophthalmology departments. Full-time assistant and associate professors appointed between 2000 and 2010 were included in the analysis, and tracked until November 2021 to determine promotion rates. Pearson χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to evaluate differences in promotion and retention rates based on gender, race and ethnicity, advanced degree, and tenure status. RESULTS: The demographics of 1436 assistant and 680 associate faculty members were obtained for analysis through the Association of American Medical Colleges. Black faculty had lower promotion rates when compared with White faculty (20% vs 37%, P < .001). Faculty with MD and PhD degrees demonstrated higher promotion rates than faculty with MD degrees alone (59% vs 36%, P < .001). In addition, faculty not on tenure track had lower rates of promotion than those on tenure track (35% vs 48%, P < .001). With respect to faculty retention, among assistant and associate professors combined, Black faculty and faculty without tenure track appointments were more likely to leave academic medicine (46% vs 33%, P < .001) and (36% vs 27%, P < .001), respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, promotion rates varied significantly by race/ethnicity. Specifically, Black faculty had lower rates of promotion and retention in academic medicine. These findings underscore the need to explore and implement strategies and policies to address equity in promotion rates and retention of URiM faculty within academic ophthalmology.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina
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