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1.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611771

RESUMO

To explore the composition of anthocyanins and expand their biological activities, anthocyanins were systematically isolated and purified from tubers of Solanum tuberosum L., and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity was investigated. In this study, two new anthocyanin degradation compounds, norpetanin (9) and 4-O-(p-coumaryl) rhamnose (10), along with 17 known anthocyanins and their derivatives, were isolated and purified from an acid-ethanolic extract of fresh purple potato tubers. Their structures were elucidated via 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS and compared with those reported in the literature. The extracts were evaluated for anthocyanins and their derivatives using a tyrosinase inhibitor screening kit and molecular docking technology, and the results showed that petanin, norpetanin, 4-O-(p-coumaryl) rhamnose, and lyciruthephenylpropanoid D/E possessed tyrosinase inhibitory activity, with 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) values of 122.37 ± 8.03, 115.53 ± 7.51, 335.03 ± 12.99, and 156.27 ± 11.22 µM (Mean ± SEM, n = 3), respectively. Furthermore, petanin was validated against melanogenesis in zebrafish; it was found that it could significantly inhibit melanin pigmentation (p < 0.001), and the inhibition rate of melanin was 17% compared with the normal group. This finding may provide potential treatments for diseases with abnormal melanin production, and high-quality raw materials for whitening cosmetics.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Melaninas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ramnose , Peixe-Zebra
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130503, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442847

RESUMO

Targeted regulation of composting to convert organic matter into humic acid (HA) holds significant importance in compost quality. Owing to its low carbon content, chicken manure compost often requires carbon supplements to promote the humification progress. The addition of lignite can increase HA content through biotic pathways, however, its structure was not explored. The Parallel factor analysis revealed that lignite can significantly increase the complexity of highly humified components. The lignite addition improved phenol oxidase activity, particularly laccase, during the thermophilic and cooling phases. The abundance and transformation functions of core bacteria also indicated that lignite addition can influence the activity of microbial transformation of HA components. The structural equation model further confirmed that lignite addition had a direct and indirect impact on enhancing the complexity of HA components through core bacteria and phenol oxidase. Therefore, lignite addition can improve HA structure complexity during composting through biotic pathways.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas , Animais , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Esterco , Galinhas , Carvão Mineral , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Carbono
3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(5): 1688-1704, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481807

RESUMO

Background: Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a receptor of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), is exclusively present in melanocytes where α-MSH/MC1R stimulate melanin pigmentation through microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M (MITF-M). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a receptor of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is distributed in immune and other cell types including melanocytes where LPS/TLR4 activate transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB to express cytokines in innate immunity. LPS/TLR4 also up-regulate MITF-M-target melanogenic genes in melanocytes. Here, we propose a molecular target of antimelanogenic activity through elucidating inhibitory mechanism on α-MSH-induced melanogenic programs by benzimidazole-2-butanol (BI2B), an inhibitor of LPS/TLR4-activated transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Methods: Ultraviolet B (UV-B)-irradiated skins of HRM-2 hairless mice and α-MSH-activated melanocyte cultures were employed to examine melanogenic programs. Results: Topical treatment with BI2B ameliorated UV-B-irradiated skin hyperpigmentation in mice. BI2B suppressed the protein or mRNA levels of melanogenic markers, such as tyrosinase (TYR), MITF-M and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), in UV-B-exposed and pigmented skin tissues. Moreover, BI2B inhibited melanin pigmentation in UV-B-irradiated co-cultures of keratinocyte and melanocyte cells and that in α-MSH-activated melanocyte cultures. Mechanistically, BI2B inhibited the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in α-MSH-induced melanogenic programs and suppressed the expression of MITF-M at the promoter level. As a molecular target, BI2B primarily inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3 (MKK3)-catalyzed kinase activity on p38MAPK. Subsequently, BI2B interrupted downstream pathway of p38MAPK-mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1)-CREB-MITF-M, and suppressed MITF-M-target melanogenic genes, encoding enzymes TYR, TYR-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) in melanin biosynthesis, and encoding proteins PMEL17 and Rab27A in the transfer of pigmented melanosomes to the overlaying keratinocytes in the skin. Conclusion: Targeting the MKK3-p38MAPK-MSK1-CREB-MITF-M pathway was suggested as a rationale to inhibit UV-B- or α-MSH-induced facultative melanogenesis and as a strategy to prevent acquired pigmentary disorders in the skin.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Hiperpigmentação , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , alfa-MSH/farmacologia , alfa-MSH/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpigmentação/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6884, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519561

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne diseases represent a growing health challenge over time. Numerous potential phytochemicals are target-specific, biodegradable, and eco-friendly. The larvicidal activity of essential oils, a jasmine blend consisting of Jasmine oil and Azores jasmine (AJ) (Jasminum sambac and Jasminum azoricum) and peppermint (PP) Mentha arvensis and their nanoformulations against 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens, was evaluated after subjecting to different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm). Two forms of phase-different nanodelivery systems of layered double hydroxide LDH and oil/water nanoemulsions were formulated. The synthesized nanoemulsions showed particle sizes of 199 and 333 nm for AJ-NE and PP-NE, with a polydispersity index of 0.249 and 0.198, respectively. Chemical and physiochemical analysis of TEM, SEM, XRD, zeta potential, drug loading capacity, and drug release measurements were done to confirm the synthesis and loading efficiencies of essential oils' active ingredients. At high concentrations of AJ and PP nanoemulsions (2000 ppm), O/W nanoemulsions showed higher larval mortality than both LDH conjugates and crude oils. The mortality rate reached 100% for 2nd and 4th instar larvae. The relative toxicities revealed that PP nanoemulsion (MA-NE) was the most effective larvicide, followed by AJ nanoemulsion (AJ-NE). There was a significant increase in defensive enzymes, phenoloxidase, and α and ß-esterase enzymes in the treated groups. After treatment of L4 with AJ, AJ-NE, PP, and PP-NE, the levels of phenoloxidase were 545.67, 731.00, 700.00, and 799.67 u/mg, respectively, compared with control 669.67 u/mg. The activity levels of α-esterase were 9.71, 10.32, 8.91, and 10.55 mg α-naphthol/min/mg protein, respectively. It could be concluded that the AJ-NE and PP-NE nanoformulations have promising larvicidal activity and could act as safe and effective alternatives to chemical insecticides.


Assuntos
Culex , Inseticidas , Jasminum , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Mentha piperita , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Esterases , Larva
5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 597-612, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436040

RESUMO

Purpose: New bioactive anthraquinone derivatives are investigated for antibacterial, tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant cytotoxic activity, and molecular docking. Methods: The compounds were produced using the grindstone method, yielding 69 to 89%. These compounds were analyzed using IR, 1H, and 13C NMR and elemental and mass spectral methods. Additionally, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of all the synthesised compounds were evaluated. Results: Compound 2 showed remarkable tyrosinase inhibition activity, with an (IC50: 13.45 µg/mL), compared to kojic acid (IC50: 19.40 µg/mL). It also exhibited moderate antioxidant and antibacterial activities with respect to the references BHT and ampicillin, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of compound 2 was non-competitive and competitive, whereas that of compound 1 was low. All compounds (1-8) were significantly less active than doxorubicin (LC50: 0.74±0.01µg/mL). However, compound 2 affinity for the 2Y9X protein was lower than kojic acid, with a lower docking score (-8.6 kcal/mol compared to (-4.7 kcal/mol), making it more effective. Conclusion: All synthesized compounds displayed remarkable antibacterial, tyrosinase inhibitory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, with compound 2 showing exceptional potency as a multitarget agent. Anthraquinone substituent groups may offer the potential for the development of treatments. The derivatives were synthesized using the grindstone method, and their antibacterial, antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibitory, and cytotoxic activities were inspected. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed using compound 2 and kojic acid to validate the results and confirm the stability of the compounds.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antineoplásicos , Ciclopentanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antraquinonas/farmacologia
6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1298: 342415, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyramine is an important index of food freshness degree, and tyrosinase that can specifically oxidized monophenolamine to catecholamine plays a crucial part in the occurrence and development of melanin-related skin diseases. Therefore, it is crucial to develop sensitive and efficient methods for the detection of tyramine and tyrosinase. RESULTS: In this work, encouraged by tyrosinase-triggered specific oxidation of tyramine to dopamine and the unique fluorescent reaction between dopamine and amino silane, we have developed a one-step synthetic strategy of silicon containing nanoparticles (Si CNPs) for "turn-on" detection of tyramine and tyrosinase. The Si CNPs formed with thoroughly studied mechanism exhibit uniform structure and robust yellow-green fluorescence. The low detection limits for tyramine (1.87 µM) and tyrosinase (0.0029 U/mL) demonstrate admirable sensitivity outstripping most methods. The proposed assay achieves satisfactory results in the determination of tyramine and tyrosinase activity in real samples. Furthermore, we leverage this new fluorescent assay to enable the fabrication of an "AND" Boolean logic gate. SIGNIFICANCE: The entire process can be completed at easily available temperature and pressure with rapid response, convenient operation and visual observation. This fluorescent assay featured with excellent sensitivity, selectivity and stability has considerable prospects in the application of biosensors and disease diagnosis.


Assuntos
Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Nanopartículas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Dopamina/química , Silício , Tiramina , Nanopartículas/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473981

RESUMO

As the aging population increases, so has interest among emerging seniors in anti-aging ingredients that enhance functionality by incorporating fermentation with natural materials. In this study, fermentation conditions for enhancing the functionality of Hermetia illucens larvae oil (HIO) were established, and its anti-aging potential was evaluated. First, the lipase activity and amount of lipid degradation products of the fermentation strains were measured in order to select Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum as the strains with high fermentation ability. A fermentation period of 28 d and a fermentation method that uses only the strain culture medium were established by evaluating the fermentation degree after fermenting HIO with the selected strains. The whitening functionality test results of fermented HIO (FHIO) showed an increase of approximately 20% in extracellular tyrosinase inhibition activity compared with HIO. Additionally, within melanocytes, there was a 12% increase in tyrosinase inhibition activity and a 26% enhancement in melanin production inhibition ability. For wrinkle-improving functionality, it was observed that, for fibroblasts, there was a 10% increase in collagen production, a 9% increase in collagenase inhibition ability, and an 8% increase in elastase inhibition ability. Therefore, FHIO was confirmed to be an effective cosmetic raw material, with high functionality for anti-aging within the senior generation. This is achieved through increased whitening and wrinkle-improving functionality.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Dípteros , Envelhecimento da Pele , Animais , Larva/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Cosméticos/farmacologia
8.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474645

RESUMO

Fruit peels might be a valuable source of active ingredients for cosmetics, leading to more sustainable usage of plant by-products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical content and selected biological properties of hydroglycolic extracts from peels and pulps of Annona cherimola, Diospyros kaki, Cydonia oblonga, and Fortunella margarita as potential cosmetic ingredients. Peel and pulp extracts were compared for their antiradical activity (using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays), skin-lightening potential (tyrosinase inhibitory assay), sun protection factor (SPF), and cytotoxicity toward human fibroblast, keratinocyte, and melanoma cell lines. The total content of polyphenols and/or flavonoids was significantly higher in peel than in pulp extracts, and the composition of particular active compounds was also markedly different. The HPLC-MS fingerprinting revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin and rutoside in the peel of D. kaki, whereas kaempferol glucoside and procyanidin A were present only in the pulp. In A. cherimola, catechin, epicatechin and rutoside were identified only in the peel of the fruit, whereas procyanidins were traced only in the pulp extracts. Quercetin and luteolinidin were found to be characteristic compounds of F. margarita peel extract. Naringenin and hesperidin were found only in the pulp of F. margarita. The most significant compositional variety between the peel and pulp extracts was observed for C. oblonga: Peel extracts contained a higher number of active components (e.g., vicenin-2, kaempferol rutinoside, or kaempferol galactoside) than pulp extract. The radical scavenging potential of peel extracts was higher than of the pulp extracts. D. kaki and F. margarita peel and pulp extracts inhibited mushroom and murine tyrosinases at comparable levels. The C. oblonga pulp extract was a more potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor than the peel extract. Peel extract of A. cherimola inhibited mushroom tyrosinase but activated the murine enzyme. F. margarita pulp and peel extracts showed the highest in vitro SPF. A. cherimola, D. kaki, and F. margarita extracts were not cytotoxic for fibroblasts and keratinocytes up to a concentration of 2% (v/v) and the peel extracts were cytotoxic for A375 melanoma cells. To summarize, peel extracts from all analyzed fruit showed comparable or better cosmetic-related properties than pulp extracts and might be considered multifunctional active ingredients of skin lightening, anti-aging, and protective cosmetics.


Assuntos
Annona , Catequina , Diospyros , Melanoma , Rosaceae , Rutaceae , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Catequina/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diospyros/química , Quempferóis/análise , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Polegar , Frutas/química , Rosaceae/química , Rutina/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Bioorg Chem ; 146: 107298, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503025

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR) is a copper-containing oxidase that affects the synthesis of melanin in the human body, which is regulate to the pigmentation of the skin. Nevertheless, abnormal expression of TYR can lead to albinism, vitiligo and other skin diseases. Excessive accumulation of TYR is a marker of melanoma cancer and an important factor leading to pigmentation during wound healing, freckles and browning of fruits and vegetables. Efficient tracking of TYR is of significance for studying its pathophysiological mechanism. Herein, we synthesized a benzindole-based fluorescent probe Pro-OH to detect TYR in living cells and zebrafish. The probe displayed a high selectivity and sensitivity in distinguishing TYR from other analytes with the low detection limit of 1.024 U/mL. Importantly, Pro-OH was successfully used to imagine TYR at the wound site of broken tail of zebrafish.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Animais , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Fluorescência , Melanoma/metabolismo
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 707: 149785, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503150

RESUMO

Melanoma, originating from melanocytes, is a highly aggressive tumor. Tyrosinase is involved in melanin production in melanocytes, and its overexpression is noted in malignant melanomas. However, the role of tyrosinase in melanomas remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the potential functions of tyrosinase in the human melanoma cell line A375. The expression level of tyrosinase in A375 cells was undetectable. However, markedly increased expression level was observed in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 and the human melanoma cell line WM266-4. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of ectopic tyrosinase expression on A375 cell motility using wound-healing assay. The overexpression of tyrosinase resulted in enhanced cell migration in both stable and transient tyrosinase expression cells. The levels of filamentous actin were decreased in tyrosinase-expressing A375 cells, suggesting that tyrosinase regulates cell motility by modulating actin polymerization. Histidine residues in tyrosinase are important for its enzymatic activity for synthesizing melanin. Substitution of these histidine residues to alanine residues mitigated the promotion of tyrosinase-induced A375 cell metastasis. Furthermore, melanin treatment enhanced A375 cell metastasis and phosphorylation of Cofilin. Thus, our findings suggest that tyrosinase increases the migration of A375 cells by regulating actin polymerization through its enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Melanoma Experimental , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Histidina/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Melanócitos/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542347

RESUMO

Tyrosinase serves as the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, catalyzing the initial steps of the pathway, the hydroxylation of the amino acid L-tyrosine into L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), followed by the subsequent oxidation of L-DOPA into dopaquinone (DQ), and it facilitates the conversion of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) into 5,6-indolequinone-2-carboxylic acid (IQCA) and 5,6-dihydroxy indole (DHI) into indolequinone (IQ). Despite its versatile substrate capabilities, the precise mechanism underlying tyrosinase's multi-substrate activity remains unclear. Previously, we expressed, purified, and characterized the recombinant intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (rTyr). Here, we demonstrate that rTyr mimics native human tyrosinase's catalytic activities in vitro and in silico. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, based on rTyr's homology model, reveal variable durability and binding preferences among tyrosinase substrates and products. Analysis of root mean square deviation (RMSD) highlights the significance of conserved residues (E203, K334, F347, and V377), which exhibit flexibility during the ligands' binding. Additionally, in silico analysis demonstrated that the OCA1B-related P406L mutation in tyrosinase substantially influences substrate binding, as evidenced by the decreased number of stable ligand conformations. This correlation underscores the mutation's impact on substrate docking, which aligns with the observed reduction in rTyr activity. Our study highlights how rTyr dynamically adjusts its structure to accommodate diverse substrates and suggests a way to modulate rTyr ligand plasticity.


Assuntos
Indolquinonas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Levodopa , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligantes
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130503, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428783

RESUMO

Mannose-binding lectin plays an essential role in bacteria or virus-triggered immune response in mammals. Previous proteomic data revealed that in Eriocheir sinensis, the mannose-binding protein was differentially expressed after Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection. However, the function of mannose-binding protein against pathogen infection in invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, a crab mannose-binding protein (EsMBP) was characterized and enhanced the host resistance to S. eriocheiris infection. The application of recombinant C-type carbohydrate recognition domain (CTLD) of EsMBP led to increased crab survival and decreased S. eriocheiris load in hemocytes. Meanwhile, the overexpression of CTLD of EsMBP in Raw264.7 cells inhibited S. eriocheiris intracellular replication. In contrast, depletion of EsMBP by RNA interference or antibody neutralization attenuated phenoloxidase activity and hemocyte phagocytosis, rendering host more susceptible to S. eriocheiris infection. Furthermore, miR-381-5p in hemocytes suppressed EsMBP expression and negatively regulated phenoloxidase activity to exacerbate S. eriocheiris invasion of hemocytes. Taken together, our findings revealed that crab mannose-binding protein was involved in host defense against S. eriocheiris infection and targeted by miR-381-5p, providing further insights into the control of S. eriocheiris spread in crabs.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Catecol Oxidase , Precursores Enzimáticos , Lectina de Ligação a Manose , MicroRNAs , Spiroplasma , Animais , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Proteômica , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fagocitose , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética
13.
Talanta ; 273: 125931, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518716

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR) is an essential oxidase that is responsible for the regulation of multiple physiological processes and diseases. Achieving the trace and reliable detection of TYR in complex biological samples is of great significance for the diagnosis of TYR-related diseases, but which faces a great challenge. In this study, we developed an ingenious and powerful method for the ultrasensitive detection of TYR by click reaction-combined dark-field microscopy. This method begins with the formation of cuprous ions (Cu+) based on the reduction of copper ions (Cu2+) by ascorbic acid (AA). Subsequently, the formed Cu+ can catalyze the crosslinking between azide- and alkyne-functionalized gold nanoparticles, causing a significant red-shift in the scattering spectrum. However, AA can chelate with TYR, which inhibits the generation of Cu+ and subsequent click reaction, thus achieving TYR-controlled scattering spectral shift. The proposed sensing platform shows a good linear detection range of 0.01-0.8 U/L with a low detection limit of 0.003 U/L, which is three orders of magnitude lower than the best performance of TYR sensing probes reported to date. Most importantly, the strategy has the ability to reliably and accurately detect TYR in serum sample, suggesting its potential clinical application in diagnosing TYR-related diseases. This visual sensing platform offers promising prospects for future research in enzymatic analysis and biomedical diagnostics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Cobre/análise , Ouro , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ácido Ascórbico , Íons , Química Click/métodos
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5535, 2024 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448547

RESUMO

New coumarin derivatives were designed using a 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetic acid scaffold conjugated with amino acid esters or tyramine. The anti-tyrosinase and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated. Coumarin derivatives 7,9, 11-13, 15-18 showed strong anti-lipid peroxidation activity. Compound 13 exhibited uncompetitive tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 68.86 µM. Compound 14 (% activity = 123.41) showed stronger tyrosinase activating activity than 8-methoxypsolaren (8-MOP, % activity = 109.46). In silico studies revealed different poses between the inhibitors and activators near the tyrosinase catalytic site. Compounds 13 (25-50 µM) and 14 (25-100 µM) did not show cytotoxicity against B16F10 cells. In contrast to the tyrosinase inhibition assay, compound 13 (50 µM) suppressed melanogenesis in B16F10 cells with two times higher potency than KA (100 µM). Compound 14 at 100 µM showed melanogenesis enhancement in B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner, however, inferior to the 8-MOP. Based on the findings, compound 13 and 14 offer potential for development as skin-lightening agents and vitiligo therapy agents, respectively.


Assuntos
60451 , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metoxaleno , Cumarínicos/farmacologia
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(11): 7515-7523, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38445591

RESUMO

Characterizing the protein constituents of a specific organelle and protein neighbors of a protein of interest (POI) is essential for understanding the function and state of the organelle and protein networks associated with the POI. Proximity labeling (PL) has emerged as a promising technology for specific and efficient spatial proteomics. Nevertheless, most enzymes adopted for PL still have limitations: APEX requires cytotoxic H2O2 for activation and thus is poor in biocompatibility for in vivo application, BioID shows insufficient labeling kinetics, and TurboID suffers from high background biotinylation. Here, we introduce a bacterial tyrosinase (BmTyr) as a new PL enzyme suitable for H2O2-free, fast (≤10 min in living cells), and low-background protein tagging. BmTyr is genetically encodable and enables subcellular-resolved PL and proteomics in living cells. We further designed a strategy of ligand-tethered BmTyr for in vivo PL, which unveiled the surrounding proteome of a neurotransmitter receptor (Grm1 and Drd2) in its resident synapse in a live mouse brain. Overall, BmTyr is one promising enzyme that can improve and expand PL-based applications and discoveries.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Animais , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Biotinilação
16.
Pharm Biol ; 62(1): 296-313, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555860

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hyperpigmentation, a common skin condition marked by excessive melanin production, currently has limited effective treatment options. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the effects of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction (THSWD) on hyperpigmentation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed network pharmacology, Mendelian randomization, and molecular docking to identify THSWD's hub targets and mechanisms against hyperpigmentation. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay determined suitable THSWD treatment concentrations for PIG1 cells. These cells were exposed to graded concentrations of THSWD-containing serum (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) and treated with α-MSH (100 nM) to induce an in vitro hyperpigmentation model. Assessments included melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and Western blotting. RESULTS: ALB, IL6, and MAPK3 emerged as primary targets, while quercetin, apigenin, and luteolin were the core active ingredients. The CCK-8 assay indicated that concentrations between 2.5% and 20% were suitable for PIG1 cells, with a 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of 32.14%. THSWD treatment significantly reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-induced PIG1 cells, along with downregulating MC1R and MITF expression. THSWD increased ALB and p-MAPK3/MAPK3 levels and decreased IL6 expression in the model cells. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: THSWD mitigates hyperpigmentation by targeting ALB, IL6, and MAPK3. This study paves the way for clinical applications of THSWD as a novel treatment for hyperpigmentation and offers new targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hiperpigmentação , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Melaninas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-MSH , Farmacologia em Rede , Interleucina-6 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338377

RESUMO

A novel water-soluble Amygdalus persica L. flowers polysaccharide (APL) was successfully isolated and purified from Amygdalus persica L. flowers by hot water extraction. Its chemical components and structure were analyzed by IR, GC-MS, and HPLC. APL consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 0.17:0.034:1.0:0.17 with an average molecular weight of approximately 208.53 kDa and 15.19 kDa. The antioxidant activity of APL was evaluated through radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), Hydroxyl radical scavenging, Superoxide radical scavenging, and the reducing power activity was also determined in vitro. Besides, in vivo antioxidant experiment, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were treated with different concentrations of APL and then exposed to LPS to induce oxidative stress. Treatment with APL at 50 or 100 µg/mL significantly reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress in the zebrafish, demonstrating the strong antioxidant activity of APL. Moreover, the effect of APL on zebrafish depigmentation was tested by analyzing the tyrosinase activity and melanin content of zebrafish embryos. APL showed a potential reduction in the total melanin content and tyrosinase activity after treatment. This work provided important information for developing a potential natural antioxidant in the field of cosmetics and food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Lipopolissacarídeos , Melaninas/análise , Flores/química , Água/análise
18.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338474

RESUMO

Biological activities of six under-utilized medicinal leafy vegetable plants indigenous to Africa, i.e., Basella alba, Crassocephalum rubens, Gnetum africanum, Launaea taraxacifolia, Solanecio biafrae, and Solanum macrocarpon, were investigated via two independent techniques. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined, and six microtiter plate assays were applied after extraction and fractionation. Three were antioxidant in vitro assays, i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reduction antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, and the others were enzyme (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase) inhibition assays. The highest TPC and antioxidant activity from all the methods were obtained from polar and medium polar fractions of C. rubens, S. biafrae, and S. macrocarpon. The highest acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition was exhibited by polar fractions of S. biafrae, C. rubens, and L. taraxacifolia, the latter comparable to galantamine. The highest tyrosinase inhibition was observed in the n-butanol fraction of C. rubens and ethyl acetate fraction of S. biafrae. In vitro assay results of the different extracts and fractions were mostly in agreement with the bioactivity profiling via high-performance thin-layer chromatography-multi-imaging-effect-directed analysis, exploiting nine different planar assays. Several separated compounds of the plant extracts showed antioxidant, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase-inhibiting, Gram-positive/-negative antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activities. A prominent apolar bioactive compound zone was tentatively assigned to fatty acids, in particular linolenic acid, via electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detected antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticholinesterase, cytotoxic, and genotoxic potentials of these vegetable plants, in particular C. rubens, S. biafrae, and S. macrocarpon, may validate some of their ethnomedicinal uses.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Plantas Medicinais , Antioxidantes/química , Butirilcolinesterase , Verduras , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Acetilcolinesterase , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Plantas Medicinais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/análise
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 397: 130507, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423483

RESUMO

Major challenge in biorefineries is the use of all lignocellulosic components, particularly lignins. In this study, Thermobacillus xylanilyliticus grew on kraft lignin, steam-exploded and native wheat straws produced different sets of phenoloxidases and xylanases, according to the substrate. After growth, limited lignin structural modifications, mainly accompanied by a decrease in phenolic acids was observed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The depletion of p-coumaric acid, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde combined to vanillin production in the culture media indicated that the bacterium can transform some phenolic compounds. Proteomic approaches allowed the identification of 29 to 33 different hemicellulases according to the substrates. Twenty oxidoreductases were differentially expressed between kraft lignin and steam-exploded wheat straw. These oxidoreductases may be involved in lignin and aromatic compound utilization and detoxification. This study highlights the potential value of Thermobacillus xylanilyticus and its enzymes in the simultaneous valorization of hemicellulose and phenolic compounds from lignocelluloses.


Assuntos
Bacillales , Benzaldeídos , Lignina , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Lignina/química , Vapor , Proteômica , Fenóis , Triticum/química
20.
Phytomedicine ; 126: 155442, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pursuit for safe and efficacious skin-whitening agents has prompted a dedicated exploration of plant-derived compounds. Notably, Tagetes erecta L. flowers have been used as a medicinal extract and possessed in vitro mushroom tyrosinase activity. However, whether polyphenol-enriched fraction extracted from T. erecta L. flowers (TE) regulates melanogenesis within cellular and animal models has not yet been investigated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of TE as a prospective inhibitor of melanogenesis. METHODS: Through advanced UPLC-QTof/MS analysis, the components of TE were analyzed. Anti-melanogenic effects of TE were evaluated in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16F10 melanoma cells by measuring cell viability assay, extracellular and intracellular melanin biosynthesis, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, and melanogenesis-related gene and protein expression. Zebrafish larvae were employed for in vivo studies, assessing both heart rate and melanogenesis. Furthermore, molecular docking analyses were employed to predict the interaction between TE components and the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). Direct binding activity of TE components to MC1R was compared with [Nle4, d-Phe7]-MSH (NDP-MSH). RESULTS: TE was found to contain significant phenolic compounds such as patulitrin, quercetagetin, kaempferol, patuletin, and isorhamnetin. This study revealed that TE effectively inhibits melanin biosynthesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. This inhibition was attributed to interference of TE with the cAMP-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)-tyrosinase pathway, which plays a pivotal role in regulating melanogenesis. Importantly, TE exhibited the remarkable ability to curtail α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in zebrafish larvae without impacting heart rates. Molecular docking analyses predicted that the components of TE possibly interact with the melanocortin 1 receptor, suggesting their role as potential inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis. However, through the direct binding activity compared with NDP-MSH, any TE components did not directly bind to MC1R, suggesting that TE inhibits α-MSH-induced melanogenesis by inhibiting the cAMP-mediated intracellular signaling pathway. The assessment of anti-melanogenic activity, conducted both in vitro and in vivo, revealed that patulitrin and patuletin exhibited significant inhibitory effects on melanin formation, highlighting their potency as major contributors. DISCUSSION: This investigation demonstrated the considerable potential of TE as a natural remedy endowed with remarkable anti-melanogenic properties. The demonstrated capacity of TE to attenuate melanin production by modulating the cAMP-CREB-MITF-tyrosinase pathway underscores its central role in management of disorders associated with excessive pigmentation. Importantly, the implications of these findings extend to the cosmetics industry, where TE emerges as a prospective and valuable ingredient for the formulation of skin-whitening products. The elucidated interactions between TE components and MC1R not only provide insight into a potential mechanism of action but also elevate the significance of this study. In summary, this study not only contributes to our comprehension of pigmentation-related conditions but also firmly establishes TE as a secure and natural strategy for the regulation of melanin production. The innovative aspects of TE propel it into the forefront of potential interventions, marking a noteworthy advancement in the pursuit of effective and safe solutions for pigmentation disorders.


Assuntos
Melanoma Experimental , Tagetes , Animais , Melaninas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , alfa-MSH/farmacologia , alfa-MSH/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Tagetes/metabolismo , 60451 , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo
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