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1.
Langmuir ; 37(37): 10883-10889, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498463

RESUMO

In living organisms, tyrosinase selectively produces l-DOPA from l-tyrosine. Here, a bicomponent hydrogel is used as a template for tyrosinase-catalyzed selective generation of l-DOPA from tyrosine. An amphiphilic molecule 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) coassembles with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC) to form a self-supporting hydrogel. After alteration of complementary acids, DAN does not coassemble to form a hydrogel. The coassembly mechanism is investigated using spectroscopic techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal the morphology details. The l-DOPA is kept from being oxidized when the hydrogel is used as a template. The enzymatically synthesized l-DOPA can also be separated from the mixture by easy tuning of the bicomponent coassembly.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Levodopa , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Tirosina
2.
Life Sci ; 284: 119930, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480938

RESUMO

AIMS: Silk fibroin (SF), a natural product from silkworms, has been used to promote anti-inflammation, induce wound healing, and reduce melanin production. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of SF on melanin production remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the distinct regulatory mechanism of SF in B16 melanoma cells by applying quantitative proteomic approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B16 melanoma cells were treated with PBS, KA or SF for 48 h, respectively. Cell viability, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity were examined. A label-free quantitative proteomic approach was utilized to investigate the regulatory mechanism of SF. The differentially expressed proteins and their related biological processes were subsequently identified by bioinformatics methods. Furthermore, the identified differentially expressed proteins were validated by western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Both SF and KA were able to suppress the melanin synthesis of B16 melanoma cells without appreciable toxicity; yet, SF had a distinct effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro. Moreover, quantitative proteomic approach identified 141 proteins differentially expressed only in SF/Con group. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins revealed that oxidation-reduction process, RNA processing, fatty acid degradation, as well as melanin biosynthetic process were enriched with SF treatment. The proteins associated with melanin biosynthetic process, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase, were down-regulated in SF group, which was confirmed by western blot. SIGNIFICANCE: SF inhibited melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells via down-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase expression, which provides a rationale for future utilization of SF.


Assuntos
Fibroínas/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Proteômica , Animais , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Pironas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109884, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489037

RESUMO

Tyrosinase plays an essential role in melanin biosynthesis and inherently exhibits both monophenolase and diphenolase activity. A first derivative synchronous fluorometric assay was established for directly monitoring monophenolase activity. The zero-crossing point at 322 nm for the first-derivative under synchronous fluorescence with Δλ = 67 nm was utilized to selectively quantify tyrosine in the presence of the reaction product dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). The limit of detection (LOD) for tyrosine was 0.54 µM. The fluorescence intensity of tyrosine was monitored at intervals of 30 s to establish the time course of tyrosine consumption. The LOD for the monophenolase activity was 0.0706 U⋅ mL-1. The Michaelis-Menten e constant and maximum speed were 21.83 µM and 1.12 µM min-1, respectively. Zinc ions competitively inhibited the monophenolase activity, with an IC50 value of 14.36 µM. This assay is easily and rapidly executed and is of great significance for analyzing the kinetics of enzymatic reactions and in fundamental research on monophenolase. This approach has potential applications in the discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors for medicine and cosmetics, as well as in the industrial synthesis of substituted o-diphenol intermediates.


Assuntos
Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Oxirredutases , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502054

RESUMO

Equol (7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, EQ), one of the major intestinally derived metabolites of daidzein, the principal isoflavane found in soybeans and most soy foods, has recently attracted increased interest as a health-beneficial compound for estrogen-dependent diseases. However, based on its structure with two p-substituted phenols, this study aimed to examine whether EQ is a substrate for tyrosinase and whether it produces o-quinone metabolites that are highly cytotoxic to melanocyte. First, the tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of EQ was performed, which yielded three EQ-quinones. They were identified after being reduced to their corresponding catechols with NaBH4 or L-ascorbic acid. The binding of the EQ-quinones to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), and bovine serum albumin via their cysteine residues was then examined. NAC and GSH afforded two mono-adducts and one di-adduct, which were identified by NMR and MS analysis. It was also found that EQ was oxidized to EQ-di-quinone in cells expressing human tyrosinase. Finally, it was confirmed that the EQ-oligomer, the EQ oxidation product, exerted potent pro-oxidant activity by oxidizing GSH to the oxidized GSSG and concomitantly producing H2O2. These results suggest that EQ-quinones could be cytotoxic to melanocytes due to their binding to cellular proteins.


Assuntos
Equol/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes/toxicidade , Quinonas/toxicidade , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Quinonas/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495202

RESUMO

Phytochemical studies of Cespedesia spathulata (Ochnaceae) leaves using 1H, 13C NMR, and GC-MS have led to the isolation of some metabolites identified for the first time in these species such as cathechin, epicatechin, vitexin, orientin, 6''-O-acetyl-vitexin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, 4,5-dihydrovomifoliol and a mixture of aliphatic methyl esters, together with ochnaflavone, which was previously isolated from this plant. The modulating activity of some fractions and compounds from Cespedesia spathulata towards tyrosinase enzyme was assayed by spectroscopic and theoretical means/experiments. The dichloromethane fraction (133 µg mL-1) and ochnaflavone (333 µM) inhibited tyrosinase activity by 20 % and 2.0 %, respectively, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction (666 µg mL-1) and ±catechins (catechin and epicatechin - 800 µM) activated it by 104 % and 384 %, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations suggested that catechin and epicatechin are better activators than L-DOPA by interacting with Cu (II) ions. Molecular docking results suggested that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the main binding forces between each tyrosinase activator and the amino acid residues inside the active protein binding pocket.


Assuntos
Ochnaceae , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2889-2899, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467710

RESUMO

Sophorae Flavescentis Radix,derived from the root of Sophora flavescens in the Leguminosae family,has been widely used in the medicine,agriculture,animal husbandry,and daily chemical industry. A pharmacophore model-based method for rapid discovery of tyrosinase inhibitors( TIs) from S. flavescens was established by molecular docking under Lipinski rules,and verified by enzyme assays. Briefly,the chemical constituent database of S. flavescens( CDSF) was established based on the previous papers. Theoptimal pharmacophore model( OPM) was constructed by DS 2019 on the basis of known active TIs. Eighty-three hits predominated by flavonoids having higher fitting scores with OPM than the positive control were screened out,and subjected to molecular docking based on the three-dimensional structure of tyrosinase crystal protein. The potential TIs such as kurarinone and nor-kurarinone were rapidly discovered from the compounds with higher docking scores than the positive control under the Lipinski rules. The results were verified by the in vitro enzyme assays. The inhibition activities of tyrosinase from non-medicinal parts of S. flavescens were also tested to explore the relationship between the inhibition activity and chemical compositions. This study is expected to provide data support for the comprehensive application and development of S. flavescens and also a new method for the rapid discovery of active substances or functional constituents in the complex systems.


Assuntos
Sophora , Animais , Flavonoides , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas
7.
Life Sci ; 284: 119915, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453947

RESUMO

Age spots are a significant phenotypic marker of aging formed by lipofuscin. Melanin is another skin pigment molecule responsible for skin aging. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between melanin production and lipofuscin synthesis in normal mouse melanoma cell line B16F1 cells and Tyrosinase (TYR) gene knockout cells. TYR gene KO cells were successfully developed using CRISPR/Cas9 system and confirmed by Sanger DNA sequencing analysis. Furthermore, the melanin production and lipofuscin formation were validated through RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The expression levels of gene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), Tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosine-related protein-2 (TRP-2), and antioxidant proteins such as methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), Catalase and Glutathione reductase (GR) related to melanogenesis was found to be decreased in TYR gene KO cells compared with normal cells. Moreover, lipofuscin formation was increased in TYR gene KO cells compared to normal cells. Therefore, the above findings suggest that melanin production and lipofuscin formation could be linked by the TYR gene in melanocytes.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanócitos/enzimologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Raios Ultravioleta
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360963

RESUMO

The insect immune response is initiated by the recognition of invading microorganisms. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) function primarily as pattern recognition receptors by specifically binding to peptidoglycans expressed on microbial surfaces. We cloned a full-length cDNA for a PGRP from the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) and designated it as PGRP1. PGRP1 mRNA was mainly detected in the fat bodies and hemocytes. Its transcript levels increased significantly upon bacterial and fungal challenges. Purified recombinant PGRP1 exhibited binding activity to the gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, gram-negative Escherichia coli, entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, and yeast Pichia pastoris. The binding further induced their agglutination. Additionally, PGRP1 preferred to bind to Lys-type peptidoglycans rather than DAP-type peptidoglycans. The addition of recombinant PGRP1 to O. furnacalis plasma resulted in a significant increase in phenoloxidase activity. The injection of recombinant PGRP1 into larvae led to a significantly increased expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes. Taken together, our results suggest that O. furnacalis PGRP1 potentially recognizes the invading microbes and is involved in the immune response in O. furnacalis.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lepidópteros/genética , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Animais , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lepidópteros/imunologia , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Micrococcus luteus/patogenicidade , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/patogenicidade
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361043

RESUMO

Intravesicular pH plays a crucial role in melanosome maturation and function. Melanosomal pH changes during maturation from very acidic in the early stages to neutral in late stages. Neutral pH is critical for providing optimal conditions for the rate-limiting, pH-sensitive melanin-synthesizing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR). This dramatic change in pH is thought to result from the activity of several proteins that control melanosomal pH. Here, we computationally investigated the pH-dependent stability of several melanosomal membrane proteins and compared them to the pH dependence of the stability of TYR. We confirmed that the pH optimum of TYR is neutral, and we also found that proteins that are negative regulators of melanosomal pH are predicted to function optimally at neutral pH. In contrast, positive pH regulators were predicted to have an acidic pH optimum. We propose a competitive mechanism among positive and negative regulators that results in pH equilibrium. Our findings are consistent with previous work that demonstrated a correlation between the pH optima of stability and activity, and they are consistent with the expected activity of positive and negative regulators of melanosomal pH. Furthermore, our data suggest that disease-causing variants impact the pH dependence of melanosomal proteins; this is particularly prominent for the OCA2 protein. In conclusion, melanosomal pH appears to affect the activity of multiple melanosomal proteins.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/química , Melanossomas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Prótons , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Melanossomas/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360537

RESUMO

Human tyrosinase (Tyr) is a glycoenzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in melanin production, and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1). The mechanisms by which individual mutations contribute to the diverse pigmentation phenotype in patients with OCA1 have only began to be examined and remain to be delineated. Here, we analyze the temperature-dependent kinetics of wild-type Tyr (WT) and two OCA1B mutant variants (R422Q and P406L) using Michaelis-Menten and Van't Hoff analyses. Recombinant truncated human Tyr proteins (residues 19-469) were produced in the whole insect Trichoplusia Ni larvae. Proteins were purified by a combination of affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. The temperature dependence of diphenol oxidase protein activities and kinetic parameters were measured by dopachrome absorption. Using the same experimental conditions, computational simulations were performed to assess the temperature-dependent association of L-DOPA and Tyr. Our results revealed, for the first time, that the association of L-DOPA with R422Q and P406L followed by dopachrome formation is a complex reaction supported by enthalpy and entropy forces. We show that the WT has a higher turnover number as compared with both R422Q and P406L. Elucidating the kinetics and thermodynamics of mutant variants of Tyr in OCA1B helps to understand the mechanisms by which they lower Tyr catalytic activity and to discover novel therapies for patients.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo/patologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Temperatura , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/enzimologia , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/etiologia , Catálise , Humanos , Cinética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360580

RESUMO

Melanin causes melasma, freckles, age spots, and chloasma. Anti-melanogenic agents can prevent disease-related hyperpigmentation. In the present study, the dose-dependent tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Avenanthramide (Avn)-A-B-C was demonstrated, and 100 µM Avn-A-B-C produced the strongest competitive inhibition against inter-cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Avn-A-B-C inhibits the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as TRP1 and 2. Molecular docking simulation revealed that AvnC (-7.6 kcal/mol) had a higher binding affinity for tyrosinase than AvnA (-7.3 kcal/mol) and AvnB (-6.8 kcal/mol). AvnC was predicted to interact with tyrosinase through two hydrogen bonds at Ser360 (distance: 2.7 Å) and Asn364 (distance: 2.6 Å). In addition, AvnB and AvnC were predicted to be skin non-sensitizers in mammals by the Derek Nexus Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship system.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-MSH/farmacologia , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Hormônios/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360871

RESUMO

The root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) is a widely used herbal medicine worldwide, whereas the stem of the plant is discarded or used as feed for livestock. To reuse and exploit the stem of P. lobata as a resource, we investigated its potential as a skin-whitening agent. We found that the developed, enriched P. lobata stem (PLS) extract significantly inhibited melanin production in the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-induced B16/F10 cells at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. To further confirm the mechanism of the antimelanogenic effect of the enriched PLS extracts, we examined the mRNA expression of tyrosinase, which was suppressed by the extracts. To standardize and implement effective quality control of the enriched PLS extracts, its major chemical constituents were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In total, 12 constituents were identified. In silico analysis showed that the main constituents, puerarin and daidzin, had excellent binding affinities for human tyrosinase. Collectively, our results suggest that the PLS extracts could be used as anti-pigmentation agents.


Assuntos
Melaninas/biossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Pueraria/química , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361729

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR) is a type III copper oxidase present in fungi, plants and animals. The inhibitor of human TYR plays a vital role in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields by preventing synthesis of melanin in the skin. To search for an effective TYR inhibitor from various plant extracts, a kinetic study of TYR inhibition was performed with mushroom TYR. Among Panax ginseng, Alpinia galanga, Vitis vinifera and Moringa oleifera, the extracts of V. vinifera seed, A. galanga rhizome and M. oleifera leaf reversibly inhibited TYR diphenolase activity with IC50 values of 94.8 ± 0.2 µg/mL, 105.4 ± 0.2 µg/mL and 121.3 ± 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. Under the same conditions, the IC50 values of the representative TYR inhibitors of ascorbic acid and kojic acid were found at 235.7 ± 1.0 and 192.3 ± 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. An inhibition kinetics study demonstrated mixed-type inhibition of TYR diphenolase by A. galanga and V. vinifera, whereas a rare uncompetitive inhibition pattern was found from M. oleifera with an inhibition constant of Kii 73 µg/mL. Phytochemical investigation by HPLC-MS proposed luteolin as a specific TYR diphenolase ES complex inhibitor, which was confirmed by the inhibition kinetics of luteolin. The results clearly showed that studying TYR inhibition kinetics with plant extract mixtures can be utilized for the screening of specific TYR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Luteolina/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Moringa oleifera/química , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/enzimologia , Alpinia/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Ascórbico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Luteolina/química , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Pironas/química , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Pironas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Sementes/química , Vitis/química
14.
Fungal Biol ; 125(9): 667-678, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420694

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential functions of Pleurotus florida (an edible mushroom) in the biodegradation of gas oil at concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10% (V: V) for 30 days. The gas oil increased dry weight and protein concentration in all treatments (by an average of 19.5 and 108%, respectively). Moreover, the pH, surface tension (ST), and interfacial tension (IFT) were reduced by the mushroom supplementation. The lowest surface tension (31.9 mN m-1) and the highest biosurfactant production belonged to the 10% gas oil treatment (0.845 ± 0.03 mg mL-1). The results demonstrated that the adsorption isotherm agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity was calculated at 0.743 mg g-1 wet biomass of P. florida. The fungal supplementation efficiently remedied the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by an average of 55% after 30 days. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis revealed that P. florida effectively detoxified C13-C28 hydrocarbons, Pristane, and Phytane, implying its high mycoremediation function. The toxicity test showed that mycoremediation increased the germination by an average of 35.82% ± 8.89 after 30 days. Laccase activity increased significantly with increasing gas oil concentration in the treatments. The maximum laccase activity was obtained in the 10% gas oil treatment (142.25 ± 0.72 U L-1). The presence of pollutants was also associated with induction in the tyrosinase activity when compared to the control. These results underline the high mycoremediation capacity of P. florida through the involvement of biosurfactants, laccase, and tyrosinase.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Petróleo , Pleurotus , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Lacase/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Petróleo/toxicidade , Pleurotus/efeitos dos fármacos , Pleurotus/enzimologia , Pleurotus/metabolismo
15.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 207: 112006, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343910

RESUMO

Small organic molecules have been extensively applied to achieve enzymatic inhibition. Although numerous efforts have been made to deliver efficient inhibitors, small inhibitors applications are hindered by many drawbacks. Moreover, reporters comprising nanoparticle inhibitory activity against enzymes are very scarce in the literature. In this scenario, carbon nanodots (CDs) emerge as promising candidates for efficient enzyme inhibition due to their unique properties. Here, CDs specific molecular characteristics (core composition and chemical surface groups) have been investigated to produce a more potent enzyme inhibition. Mushroom tyrosinase (mTyr) has been adopted as an enzymatic prototype. The CDs revealed a high affinity to mTyr (Ka ≈ 106 M-1), mainly through hydrophobic forces and followed by slight mTyr structural alteration. CDs competitively inhibit mTyr, with low inhibition constant (KI = 517.7 ±â€¯17.0 nM), which is up 70 fold smaller then the commercial inhibitor (kojic acid) and the starch nanoparticles previously reported. The results expose that the CDs act as a hydrophobic agglomerate with carboxyl groups on its surface, mimicking characteristics found on small molecule inhibitors (but with superior performance). All these results highlight the CD excellent potential as an efficient low toxic Tyr inhibitor, opening the prospect of using these nanoparticles in the cosmetic and food industries.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nanopartículas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Amido
16.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443550

RESUMO

To confirm that the ß-phenyl-α,ß-unsaturated thiocarbonyl (PUSTC) scaffold, similar to the ß-phenyl-α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl (PUSC) scaffold, acts as a core inhibitory structure for tyrosinase, twelve (Z)-5-(substituted benzylidene)-4-thioxothiazolidin-2-one ((Z)-BTTZ) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Seven of the twelve derivatives showed stronger inhibitory activity than kojic acid against mushroom tyrosinase. Compound 2b (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.97 µM) exerted a 141-fold higher inhibitory potency than kojic acid. Kinetic studies' results confirmed that compounds 2b and 2f are competitive tyrosinase inhibitors, which was supported by high binding affinities with the active site of tyrosinase by docking simulation. Docking results using a human tyrosinase homology model indicated that 2b and 2f might potently inhibit human tyrosinase. In vitro assays of 2b and 2f were conducted using B16F10 melanoma cells. Compounds 2b and 2f significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited intracellular melanin contents, and the anti-melanogenic effects of 2b at 10 µM and 2f at 25 µM were considerably greater than the inhibitory effect of kojic acid at 25 µM. Compounds 2b and 2f similarly inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin contents, indicating that the anti-melanogenic effects of both were due to tyrosinase inhibition. A strong binding affinity with the active site of tyrosinase and potent inhibitions of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular tyrosinase activity, and melanin generation in B16F10 cells indicates the PUSTC scaffold offers an attractive platform for the development of novel tyrosinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361022

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is considered the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. However, whether GABA regulates melanogenesis has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this study, we reveal that GABA (20 mM) significantly inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced extracellular (from 354.9% ± 28.4% to 126.5% ± 16.0%) and intracellular melanin contents (from 236.7% ± 11.1% to 102.7% ± 23.1%) in B16F10 melanoma cells, without inducing cytotoxicity. In addition, α-MSH-induced hyperpigmentation in zebrafish larvae was inhibited from 246.3% ± 5.4% to 116.3% ± 3.1% at 40 mM GABA, displaying no apparent cardiotoxicity. We also clarify that the GABA-mediated antimelanogenic properties were related to the direct inhibition of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression by inhibiting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Furthermore, under α-MSH stimulation, GABA-related antimelanogenic effects were mediated through the GABAA and GABAB receptors, with subsequent inhibition of Ca2+ accumulation. In B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish larvae, pretreatment with bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, and CGP 46381, a GABAB receptor antagonist, reversed the antimelanogenic effect of GABA following α-MSH treatment by upregulating Ca2+ accumulation. In conclusion, our results indicate that GABA inhibits α-MSH-induced melanogenesis. Hence, in addition to the health benefits of GABA in the central nervous system, it could ameliorate hyperpigmentation disorders.


Assuntos
Melaninas/biossíntese , Receptores de GABA-B/metabolismo , alfa-MSH/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20191341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378634

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to exploit natural extracts from the spicy vegetables, which are rich in phenolic compounds as an initial treatment step in the cold storage process for shrimp. Firstly, 40 extracts from 10 types of spicy vegetables in Vietnam were prepared and tested for their bioactivities. Among samples, the extract from Persicaria Odorata leaves (E-4) exhibited the highest potential of scavenging DPPH free radical (IC50 of 7.54 µg.mL-1) and decreasing tyrosinase activity with the inhibition percentage of 54.2 % at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. Twenty-two out of a total of 36 chemical compounds in the E-4 extract identified using HPLC-MS technique were phenolic compounds, in which four compounds (morin, quercetin, fisetin, astragalin) are flavonoids. Shrimp (Litopenaus vannamei) samples were treated with the E-4 extract having lower gray values, lipid peroxidation values, and microbiological counts than those of the control samples after 7 days of storage at 2 oC. These results show the potential of using the natural extract as a safe and effective alternative for commercial chemical-derived preservatives in the shrimp storage process.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Conservação de Alimentos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Penaeidae , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Polygonaceae/química , Verduras , Vietnã
19.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299485

RESUMO

Oxyresveratrol has recently attracted much research attention due to its simple chemical structure and diverse therapeutic potentials. Previous reviews describe the chemistry and biological activities of this phytoalexin, but additional coverage and greater accessibility are still needed. The current review provides a more comprehensive summary, covering research from 1955 to the present year. Oxyresveratrol occurs in both gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, it has never been reported in plants in the subclass Sympetalae, and this point might be of both chemotaxonomic and biosynthetic importance. Oxyresveratrol can be easily obtained from plant materials by conventional methods, and several systems for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol contents in plant materials and plant products are available. Oxyresveratrol possesses diverse biological and pharmacological activities such as the inhibition of tyrosinase and melanogenesis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and protective effects against neurological disorders and digestive ailments. However, the unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties of oxyresveratrol, including low water solubility and poor oral availability and stability, have posed challenges to its development as a useful therapeutic agent. Recently, several delivery systems have emerged, with promising outcomes that may improve chances for the clinical study of oxyresveratrol.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacocinética , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
20.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(1): e21764, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272769

RESUMO

Melanization is mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation cascade and plays an important role in the arthropods immune system. Previously, we found that the hemolymph of the p50 strain does not perform melanization after infection with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). However, this mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the underlying mechanism of the inhibition of hemolymph melanization was investigated by analysing the AcMNPV-susceptible or -resistant silkworm strains after inoculation with AcMNPV. The results showed that the level of hemolymph melanization was higher in resistant strain C108 than in susceptible strain p50 at the late stage (72 to 120 h postinoculation). The PO activity decreased significantly at the late stage of infection (72 to 120 hpi), and the expression of BmPPO1 and BmPPO2 was downregulated in p50. However, the PO activity increased in the resistant strain C108, while the expression level of BmPPO1 and BmPPO2 displayed no significant changes. The expression of the BmPPAE gene was upregulated in two strains during viral infection. In addition, the hemolymph melanization can weaken the viral activity in vitro. Our results suggested that the silkworm hemolymph melanization response is related to defence against the AcMNPV infection.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Imunidade , Melaninas/metabolismo , Nucleopoliedrovírus/imunologia , Animais , Bombyx/imunologia , Bombyx/virologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Viroses/veterinária
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