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1.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 27(1): 3-9, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722114

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgeries often result in significant postoperative pain, leading to considerable use of opioids for pain management. However, excessive opioid use can lead to undesirable side effects and chronic opioid use. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether preoperative intrathecal morphine could reduce postoperative opioid consumption in patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring sternotomy. We conducted a systematic search of Cochrane, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases from inception to May 2022 for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of intrathecal morphine in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Studies that evaluated intrathecal administration of other opioids or combinations of medications were excluded. The primary outcome was postoperative morphine consumption at 24 h. Secondary outcomes included time to extubation and hospital length of stay. The final analysis included ten randomized controlled trials, with a total of 402 patients. The results showed that postoperative morphine consumption at 24 h was significantly lower in the intervention group (standardized mean difference -1.43 [-2.12, -0.74], 95% CI, P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in time to extubation and hospital length of stay. Our meta-analysis concluded that preoperative intrathecal morphine is associated with lower postoperative morphine consumption at 24 h following cardiac surgeries, without prolonging the time to extubation. The use of preoperative intrathecal morphine can be considered part of a multimodal analgesic and opioid-sparing strategy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Injeções Espinhais , Morfina , Dor Pós-Operatória , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
BMC Emerg Med ; 24(1): 80, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ketamine is recognized as an alternative for pain management; however, concerns about emergent adverse reactions have limited its widespread adoption. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a short infusion of low-dose ketamine (LDK) compared to intravenous morphine (MOR) as adjunctive analgesia for acute long bone fracture pain. METHODS: This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a single emergency department. Patients with acute long bone fractures and numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores ≥ 6 following an initial dose of intravenous morphine were assigned to receive either a LDK (0.3 mg/kg) over 15 min or intravenous MOR at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg administered over 5 min. Throughout a 120-min observation period, patients were regularly evaluated for pain level (0-10), side effects, and the need for additional rescue analgesia. RESULTS: A total of 58 subjects participated, with 27 in the MOR group and 31 in the LDK group. Demographic variables and baseline NRS scores were comparable between the MOR (8.3 ± 1.3) and LDK (8.9 ± 1.2) groups. At 30 min, the LDK group showed a significantly greater mean reduction in NRS scores (3.1 ± 2.03) compared to the MOR group (1.8 ± 1.59) (p = 0.009). Similarly, at 60 min, there were significant differences in mean NRS score reductions (LDK 3.5 ± 2.17; MOR mean reduction = 2.4, ± 1.84) with a p-value of 0.04. No significant differences were observed at other time intervals. The incidence of dizziness was higher in the LDK group at 19.4% (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Short infusion low-dose ketamine, as an adjunct to morphine, is effective in reducing pain during the initial 30 to 60 min and demonstrated comparability to intravenous morphine alone in reducing pain over the subsequent 60 min for acute long bone fractures. However, it was associated with a higher incidence of dizziness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NMRR17318438970 (2 May 2018; www.nmrr.gov.my ).


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fraturas Ósseas , Ketamina , Morfina , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto , Infusões Intravenosas , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Medição da Dor , Quimioterapia Combinada , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Idoso
3.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 32(1): 41, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the development of various analgesic concepts, prehospital oligoanalgesia remains very common. The present work examines prehospital analgesia by paramedics using morphine vs. nalbuphine + paracetamol. METHODS: Patients with out-of-hospital-analgesia performed by paramedics from the emergency medical services of the districts of Fulda (morphine) and Gütersloh (nalbuphine + paracetamol) were evaluated with regards to pain intensity at the beginning and the end of prehospital treatment using the Numeric-Rating-Scale for pain (NRS), sex, age, and complications. The primary endpoint was achievement of adequate analgesia, defined as NRS < 4 at hospital handover, depending on the analgesics administered (nalbuphine + paracetamol vs. morphine). Pain intensity before and after receiving analgesia using the NRS, sex, age and complications were also monitored. RESULTS: A total of 1,808 patients who received out-of-hospital-analgesia were evaluated (nalbuphine + paracetamol: 1,635 (90.4%), NRS-initial: 8.0 ± 1.4, NRS-at-handover: 3.7 ± 2.0; morphine: 173(9.6%), NRS-initial: 8.5 ± 1.1, NRS-at-handover: 5.1 ± 2.0). Factors influencing the difference in NRS were: initial pain intensity on the NRS (regression coefficient (RK): 0.7276, 95%CI: 0.6602-0.7950, p < 0.001), therapy with morphine vs. nalbuphine + paracetamol (RK: -1.2594, 95%CI: -1.5770 - -0.9418, p < 0.001) and traumatic vs. non-traumatic causes of pain (RK: -0.2952, 95%CI: -0.4879 - -0.1024, p = 0.002). Therapy with morphine (n = 34 (19.6%)) compared to nalbuphine + paracetamol (n = 796 (48.7%)) (odds ratio (OR): 0.274, 95%CI: 0.185-0.405, p < 0.001) and the initial NRS score (OR:0.827, 95%CI: 0.771-0.887, p < 0.001) reduced the odds of having an NRS < 4 at hospital handover. Complications occurred with morphine in n = 10 (5.8%) and with nalbuphine + paracetamol in n = 35 (2.1%) cases. Risk factors for complications were analgesia with morphine (OR: 2.690, 95%CI: 1.287-5.621, p = 0.008), female sex (OR: 2.024, 95%CI: 1.040-3.937, p = 0.0379), as well as age (OR: 1.018, 95%CI: 1.003-1.034, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to morphine, prehospital analgesia with nalbuphine + paracetamol yields favourable effects in terms of analgesic effectiveness and a lower rate of complications and should therefore be considered in future recommendations for prehospital analgesia.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Analgésicos Opioides , Morfina , Nalbufina , Medição da Dor , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Nalbufina/administração & dosagem , Nalbufina/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Paramédico
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012361, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a selective alpha-2 agonist with minimal impact on the haemodynamic profile. It is thought to be safer than morphine or stronger opioids, which are drugs currently used for analgesia and sedation in newborn infants. Dexmedetomidine is increasingly being used in children and infants despite not being licenced for analgesia in this group. OBJECTIVES: To determine the overall effectiveness and safety of dexmedetomidine for sedation and analgesia in newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation compared with other non-opioids, opioids, or placebo. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and two trial registries in September 2023. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine compared with other non-opioids, opioids, or placebo for sedation and analgesia in neonates (aged under four weeks) requiring mechanical ventilation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were level of sedation and level of analgesia. Our secondary outcomes included days on mechanical ventilation, number of infants requiring additional medication for sedation or analgesia (or both), hypotension, neonatal mortality, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We identified no eligible studies for inclusion. We identified four ongoing studies, two of which appear to be eligible for inclusion; they will compare dexmedetomidine with fentanyl in newborn infants requiring surgery. We listed the other two studies as awaiting classification pending assessment of full reports. One study will compare dexmedetomidine with morphine in asphyxiated newborns undergoing hypothermia, and the other (mixed population, age up to three years) will evaluate dexmedetomidine versus ketamine plus dexmedetomidine for echocardiography. The planned sample size of the four studies ranges from 40 to 200 neonates. Data from these studies may provide some evidence for dexmedetomidine efficacy and safety. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing use of dexmedetomidine, there is insufficient evidence supporting its routine use for analgesia and sedation in newborn infants on mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, data on dexmedetomidine safety are scarce, and there are no data available on its long-term effects. Future studies should address the efficacy, safety, and long-term effects of dexmedetomidine as a single drug therapy for sedation and analgesia in newborn infants.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Respiração Artificial , Humanos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2411389, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748421

RESUMO

Importance: At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the government of British Columbia, Canada, released clinical guidance to support physicians and nurse practitioners in prescribing pharmaceutical alternatives to the toxic drug supply. These alternatives included opioids and other medications under the risk mitigation guidance (RMG), a limited form of prescribed safer supply, designed to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and harms associated with illicit drug use. Many clinicians chose to coprescribe opioid medications under RMG alongside opioid agonist treatment (OAT). Objective: To examine whether prescription of hydromorphone tablets or sustained-release oral morphine (opioid RMG) and OAT coprescription compared with OAT alone is associated with subsequent OAT receipt. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted from March 27, 2020, to August 31, 2021, included individuals from 10 linked health administrative databases from British Columbia, Canada. Individuals who were receiving OAT at opioid RMG initiation and individuals who were receiving OAT and eligible but unexposed to opioid RMG were propensity score matched at opioid RMG initiation on sociodemographic and clinical variables. Data were analyzed between January 2023 and February 2024. Exposure: Opioid RMG receipt (≥4 days, 1-3 days, or 0 days of opioid RMG dispensed) in a given week. Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcome was OAT receipt, defined as at least 1 dispensed dose of OAT in the subsequent week. A marginal structural modeling approach was used to control for potential time-varying confounding. Results: A total of 4636 individuals (2955 [64%] male; median age, 38 [31-47] years after matching) were receiving OAT at the time of first opioid RMG dispensation (2281 receiving ongoing OAT and 2352 initiating RMG and OAT concurrently). Opioid RMG receipt of 1 to 3 days in a given week increased the probability of OAT receipt by 27% in the subsequent week (adjusted risk ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.25-1.30), whereas receipt of opioid RMG for 4 days or more resulted in a 46% increase in the probability of OAT receipt in the subsequent week (adjusted risk ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.43-1.49) compared with those not receiving opioid RMG. The biological gradient was robust to different exposure classifications, and the association was stronger among those initiating opioid RMG and OAT concurrently. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study, which acknowledged the intermittent use of both medications, demonstrated that individuals who were coprescribed opioid RMG had higher adjusted probability of continued OAT receipt or reengagement compared with those not receiving opioid RMG.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Masculino , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Hidromorfona/uso terapêutico , Hidromorfona/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Risco e Mitigação , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Addict Biol ; 29(5): e13393, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706098

RESUMO

Opioid addiction is a relapsing disorder marked by uncontrolled drug use and reduced interest in normally rewarding activities. The current study investigated the impact of spontaneous withdrawal from chronic morphine exposure on emotional, motivational and cognitive processes involved in regulating the pursuit and consumption of food rewards in male rats. In Experiment 1, rats experiencing acute morphine withdrawal lost weight and displayed somatic signs of drug dependence. However, hedonically driven sucrose consumption was significantly elevated, suggesting intact and potentially heightened reward processing. In Experiment 2, rats undergoing acute morphine withdrawal displayed reduced motivation when performing an effortful response for palatable food reward. Subsequent reward devaluation testing revealed that acute withdrawal disrupted their ability to exert flexible goal-directed control over reward seeking. Specifically, morphine-withdrawn rats were impaired in using current reward value to select actions both when relying on prior action-outcome learning and when given direct feedback about the consequences of their actions. In Experiment 3, rats tested after prolonged morphine withdrawal displayed heightened rather than diminished motivation for food rewards and retained their ability to engage in flexible goal-directed action selection. However, brief re-exposure to morphine was sufficient to impair motivation and disrupt goal-directed action selection, though in this case, rats were only impaired in using reward value to select actions in the presence of morphine-paired context cues and in the absence of response-contingent feedback. We suggest that these opioid-withdrawal induced deficits in motivation and goal-directed control may contribute to addiction by interfering with the pursuit of adaptive alternatives to drug use.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Morfina , Motivação , Recompensa , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Animais , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Morfina/farmacologia , Ratos , Dependência de Morfina/psicologia , Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(18): e2307090121, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648487

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce the effects of many neuromodulators including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, acetylcholine, and opioids. The localization of synthetic or endogenous GPCR agonists impacts their action on specific neuronal pathways. In this paper, we show a series of single-protein chain integrator sensors that are highly modular and could potentially be used to determine GPCR agonist localization across the brain. We previously engineered integrator sensors for the mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists called M- and K-Single-chain Protein-based Opioid Transmission Indicator Tool (SPOTIT), respectively. Here, we engineered red versions of the SPOTIT sensors for multiplexed imaging of GPCR agonists. We also modified SPOTIT to create an integrator sensor design platform called SPOTIT for all GPCRs (SPOTall). We used the SPOTall platform to engineer sensors for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (B2AR), the dopamine receptor D1, and the cholinergic receptor muscarinic 2 agonists. Finally, we demonstrated the application of M-SPOTIT and B2AR-SPOTall in detecting exogenously administered morphine, isoproterenol, and epinephrine in the mouse brain via locally injected viruses. The SPOTIT and SPOTall sensor design platform has the potential for unbiased agonist detection of many synthetic and endogenous neuromodulators across the brain.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Animais , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Células HEK293 , Receptores de Dopamina D1/agonistas , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Receptor Muscarínico M2/agonistas , Receptor Muscarínico M2/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides mu/agonistas , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Morfina/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores Opioides kappa/agonistas , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos
8.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611824

RESUMO

Pain affects one-third of the global population and is a significant public health issue. The use of opioid drugs, which are the strongest painkillers, is associated with several side effects, such as tolerance, addiction, overdose, and even death. An increasing demand for novel, safer analgesic agents is a driving force for exploring natural sources of bioactive peptides with antinociceptive activity. Since the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in pain modulation, the discovery of new peptide ligands for GPCRs is a significant challenge for novel drug development. The aim of this review is to present peptides of human and animal origin with antinociceptive potential and to show the possibilities of their modification, as well as the design of novel structures. The study presents the current knowledge on structure-activity relationship in the design of peptide-based biomimetic compounds, the modification strategies directed at increasing the antinociceptive activity, and improvement of metabolic stability and pharmacodynamic profile. The procedures employed in prolonged drug delivery of emerging compounds are also discussed. The work summarizes the conditions leading to the development of potential morphine replacements.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Peptídeos , Animais , Humanos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Morfina , Dor , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612817

RESUMO

Diverse chemical and pharmacological strategies are currently being explored to minimize the unwanted side effects of currently used opioid analgesics while achieving effective pain relief. The use of multitarget ligands with activity at more than one receptor represents a promising therapeutic approach. We recently reported a bifunctional peptide-based hybrid LENART01 combining dermorphin and ranatensin pharmacophores, which displays activity to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in rat brains and spinal cords. In this study, we investigated the in vitro binding and functional activities to the human MOR and the in vivo pharmacology of LENART01 in mice after subcutaneous administration. In vitro binding assays showed LENART01 to bind and be selective to the human MOR over the other opioid receptor subtypes and delta, kappa and nociceptin receptors. In the [35S]GTPγS binding assay, LENART01 acted as a potent and full agonist to the human MOR. In mice, LENART01 produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in formalin-induced inflammatory pain, with increased potency than morphine. Antinociceptive effects were reversed by naloxone, indicating MOR activation in vivo. Behavioral studies also demonstrated LENART01's properties to induce less adverse effects without locomotor dysfunction and withdrawal syndrome compared to conventional opioid analgesics, such as morphine. LENART01 is the first peptide-based MOR-D2R ligand known to date and the first dual MOR-dopamine D2R ligand for which in vivo pharmacology is reported with antinociceptive efficacy and reduced opioid-related side effects. Our current findings may pave the way to new pain therapeutics with limited side effects in acute and chronic use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Oligopeptídeos , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Receptores Opioides , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Ligantes , Morfina , Peptídeos Opioides/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
10.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 133, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) guided by laparoscopy and ultrasound showed promise in enhancing the multimodal analgesic approach following several abdominal procedures. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between Laparoscopic (LAP) TAP block (LTAP) and ultrasound-guided TAP block (UTAP) block in patients undergoing LAP bariatric surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This non-inferiority randomized controlled single-blind study was conducted on 120 patients with obesity scheduled for LAP bariatric surgeries. Patients were allocated into two equal groups: LTAP and UTAP, administered with 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine on each side. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the total morphine consumption, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score at all times of measurements, and time to the first rescue analgesia (p > .05) between both groups. The duration of anesthesia and duration of block performance were significantly shorter in the LTAP group than in the UTAP group (p < .001). Both groups had comparable post-operative heart rate, mean arterial pressure, adverse effects, and patient satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: In LAP bariatric surgery, the analgesic effect of LTAP is non-inferior to UTAP, as evidenced by comparable time to first rescue analgesia and total morphine consumption with similar safety blocking through the low incidence of post-operative complications and patient satisfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) (ID: PACTR202206871825386) on June 29, 2022.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Laparoscopia/métodos , Morfina , Músculos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(4): 872-877, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658360

RESUMO

The formalin test is one approach to studying acute pain in rodents. Similar to formalin, injection with glutamate and veratrine can also produce a nociceptive response. This study investigated whether opioid-related compounds could suppress glutamate- and veratrine-induced nociceptive responses in mice at the same dose. The administration of morphine (3 mg/kg), hydromorphone (0.4 mg/kg), or fentanyl (0.03 mg/kg) suppressed glutamate-induced nociceptive response, but not veratrine-induced nociceptive response at the same doses. However, high doses of morphine (10 mg/kg), hydromorphone (2 mg/kg), or fentanyl (0.1 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in the veratrine-induced nociceptive response. These results indicate that high doses are required when using morphine, hydromorphone, or fentanyl for sodium channel-related neuropathic pain, such as ectopic activity. As a result, concerns have arisen about overdose and abuse if the dose of opioids is steadily increased to relieve pain. In contrast, trimebutine (100 mg/kg) and fentanyl analog isobutyrylfentanyl (iBF; 0.1 mg/kg) suppressed both glutamate- and veratrine-induced nociceptive response. Furthermore, nor-isobutyrylfentanyl (nor-iBF; 1 mg/kg), which is a metabolite of iBF, suppressed veratrine-induced nociceptive response. Besides, the optimal antinociceptive dose of iBF, unlike fentanyl, only slightly increased locomotor activity and did not slow gastrointestinal transit. Cancer pain is a complex condition driven by inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer-specific mechanisms. Thus, iBF may have the potential to be a superior analgesic than fentanyl.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Fentanila , Animais , Fentanila/farmacologia , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Masculino , Camundongos , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Morfina/farmacologia
12.
J Clin Anesth ; 95: 111452, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the gastrectomy, the reduction in pulmonary function is partly attributed to postoperative pain. Subcostal quadratus lumborum block (QLB) has recently emerged as a promising component in multimodal analgesia. We aimed to assess the impact of intermittent boluses of subcostal QLB on pulmonary function recovery and analgesic efficacy after gastrectomy. METHODS: Sixty patients scheduled for gastrectomy were randomly assigned to either control group (multimodal analgesia) or intervention group (intermittent boluses of subcostal QLB plus multimodal analgesia). Two primary outcomes included the preservation of forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the pain scores (0-10 cm visual analog score) on coughing 24 h postoperatively. We assessed the pulmonary function parameters, pain score, morphine consumption and number of rescue analgesia at a 24-h interval up to 72 h (Day1, Day2, Day3 respectively) as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: 59 patients were analyzed in a modified intention-to-treat set. The preservation of FEV1 (median difference: 4.0%, 97.5% CI: -5.7 to 14.9, P = 0.332) and pain scores on coughing (mean difference: 0.0 cm, 97.5% CI: -1.1 to 1.2, P = 0.924) did not differ significantly between two groups. In the intervention group, the recovery of forced vital capacity (FVC) was faster 72 h after surgery (interaction effect of group*(Day3-Day0): estimated effect (ß) =0.30 L, standard error (SE) =0.13, P = 0.025), pain scores at rest were lower in the first 3 days (interaction effect of group*(Day1-Day0): ß = - 0.8 cm, SE = 0.4, P = 0.035; interaction effect of group*(Day2-Day0): ß = - 1.0 cm, SE = 0.4, P = 0.014; and interaction effect of group*(Day3-Day0): ß = - 1.0 cm, SE = 0.4, P values = 0.009 respectively), intravenous morphine consumption was lower during 0-24 h (median difference: -3 mg, 95% CI -6 to -1, P = 0.014) and in total 72 h (median difference: -5 mg, 95% CI -10 to -1, P = 0.019), and the numbers of rescue analgesia was fewer during 24-48 h (median difference: 0, 95% CI 0 to 0, P = 0.043). Other outcomes didn't show statistical differences. CONCLUSION: Postoperative intermittent boluses of subcostal QLB did not confer advantages in terms of the preservation of FEV1 or pain scores on coughing 24 h after gastrectomy. However, notable effects were observed in analgesia at rest and FVC recovery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Gastrectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
J Clin Anesth ; 95: 111468, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599160

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Following robot assisted abdominal surgery, the pain can be moderate in severity. Neuraxial analgesia may decrease the activity of the detrusor muscle, reduce the incidence of bladder spasm and provide effective somatic and visceral analgesia. In this systematic review, we assessed the role of neuraxial analgesia in robot assisted abdominal surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTINGS: Robot assisted abdominal surgery. PATIENTS: Adults. INTERVENTIONS: Subsequent to a search of the electronic databases, observational studies and randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of neuraxial analgesia instituted at induction of anesthesia or intraoperatively in adult and robot assisted abdominal surgery were considered for inclusion. The outcomes of observational studies as well as randomized controlled trials which were not subjected to meta-analysis were presented in descriptive terms. Meta-analysis was conducted if an outcome of interest was reported by two or more randomized controlled trials. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 and 11 studies that investigated spinal and epidural analgesia in adults, respectively. The coprimary outcomes were the pain score at rest at 24 h and the cumulative intravenous morphine consumption at 24 h. Spinal analgesia with long acting neuraxial opioid did not decrease the pain score at rest at 24 h although it reduced the cumulative intravenous morphine consumption at 24 h by a mean difference (95%CI) of 14.88 mg (-22.13--7.63; p < 0.0001, I2 = 50%) with a low and moderate quality of evidence, respectively, on meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Spinal analgesia with long acting neuraxial opioid had a beneficial effect on analgesic indices till the second postoperative day and a positive influence on opioid consumption up to and including the 72 h time point. The majority of studies demonstrated the use of spinal analgesia with long acting neuraxial opioid to lead to no difference in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and the occurrence of pruritus was found to be increased with spinal analgesia with long acting neuraxial opioid in recovery but not at later time points. No difference was revealed in the incidence of urinary retention. The evidence in regard to the quality of recovery-15 score at 24 h and hospital length of stay was not fully consistent, although most studies indicated no difference between spinal analgesia and control for these outcomes. Epidural analgesia in robot assisted abdominal surgery was shown to decrease the pain on movement at 12 h but it had not been studied with respect to its influence on the pain score at rest at 24 h or the cumulative intravenous morphine consumption at 24 h. It did not reduce the pain on movement at later time points and the evidence related to the hospital length of stay was inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal analgesia with long acting neuraxial opioid had a favourable effect on analgesic indices and opioid consumption, and is recommended by the authors, but the evidence for spinal analgesia with short acting neuraxial opioid and epidural analgesia was limited.


Assuntos
Abdome , Analgesia Epidural , Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Pós-Operatória , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Abdome/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Medição da Dor , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Raquianestesia/métodos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Adulto
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(5): 2748-2756, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629538

RESUMO

It is a new approach to identify legal or illegal use of morphine through information on municipal wastewater. However, the sources of morphine in wastewater are complex, and distinguishing the contribution of different sources has become a key issue. A total of 262 influent samples from 61 representative wastewater treatment plants in a typical city were collected from October 2022 to March 2023. The concentrations of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, noscapine, and monoacetylmorphine were analyzed in wastewater and poppy straws. Combined with the proportion of alkaloids in poppy straws, the source analysis of alkaloids in wastewater was analyzed using the ratio method and positive matrix factorization model (PMF). Only five alkaloids were detected in wastewater, and monoacetylmorphine, a metabolite of heroin, was not detected. The concentrations of morphine and codeine were significantly higher than those of noscapine, papaverine, and thebaine. By constructing the ratios of codeine/(morphine + codeine) and noscapine/(noscapine + codeine), the source of poppy straw could be qualitatively distinguished. The PMF results showed that three sources of morphine for medical use, poppy straw, and codeine contributed 44.9%, 43.7%, and 9.4%, respectively. The different sources varied in these months due to the COVID-19 and influenza A outbreaks, in which the use of drugs containing poppy straws and codeine was the main source, whereas the use of morphine analgesics remained relatively stable. Inventory analysis further demonstrated the reliability of the source contributions from the PMF model, and morphine was not abused in this city.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Noscapina , Papaver , Morfina/análise , Águas Residuárias , Papaverina/análise , Tebaína/análise , Noscapina/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Codeína/análise , Derivados da Morfina/análise , Alcaloides/análise
15.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557666

RESUMO

Adequate management of acute pain in the older population is crucial. However, it is inherently complex because of multiple physiological changes that significantly impact both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications. Current guidelines promote paracetamol as the first-line analgesic for acute pain in older adults, whereas opioids are advised cautiously for moderate to severe acute pain. However, opioids come with a significant array of side effects, which can be more pronounced in older individuals. Ketamine administered via intranasal (IN) and nebulised inhalation in the emergency department for managing acute pain in older patients shows promising potential for improving pain management and reducing opioid reliance Kampan, Thong-on, Sri-on (2024, Age Ageing, 53, afad255). Nebulised ketamine appears superior in terms of adverse event incidence. However, the adoption of IN or nebulised ketamine in older adult acute pain management remains unclear because of the lack of definitive conclusions and clear guidelines. Nevertheless, these modalities can be valuable options for patients where opioid analgesics are contraindicated or when intravenous morphine titration is impractical or contraindicated. Here, we review these concepts, the latest evidence and propose avenues for research.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Ketamina , Dor Musculoesquelética , Humanos , Idoso , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Dor Musculoesquelética/induzido quimicamente , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
16.
FASEB J ; 38(8): e23603, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648368

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to opioid analgesics such as morphine disrupts the intestinal epithelial layer and causes intestinal dysbiosis. Depleting gut bacteria can preclude the development of tolerance to opioid-induced antinociception, suggesting an important role of the gut-brain axis in mediating opioid effects. The mechanism underlying opioid-induced dysbiosis, however, remains unclear. Host-produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are critical for the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier as they prevent the pathogenesis of the enteric microbiota. Here, we report that chronic morphine or fentanyl exposure reduces the antimicrobial activity in the ileum, resulting in changes in the composition of bacteria. Fecal samples from morphine-treated mice had increased levels of Akkermansia muciniphila with a shift in the abundance ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) from morphine-naïve mice or oral supplementation with butyrate restored (a) the antimicrobial activity, (b) the expression of the antimicrobial peptide, Reg3γ, (c) prevented the increase in intestinal permeability and (d) prevented the development of antinociceptive tolerance in morphine-dependent mice. Improved epithelial barrier function with FMT or butyrate prevented the enrichment of the mucin-degrading A. muciniphila in morphine-dependent mice. These data implicate impairment of the antimicrobial activity of the intestinal epithelium as a mechanism by which opioids disrupt the microbiota-gut-brain axis.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Disbiose , Fentanila , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfina , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Fentanila/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Proteínas Associadas a Pancreatite/metabolismo , Akkermansia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9432, 2024 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658766

RESUMO

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent a broad class of drugs new to the illicit market that often allow passing drug-screening tests. They are characterized by a variety of structures, rapid transience on the drug scene and mostly unknown metabolic profiles, thus creating an ever-changing scenario with evolving analytical targets. The present study aims at developing an indirect screening strategy for NPS monitoring, and specifically for new synthetic opioids (NSOs), based on assessing changes in endogenous urinary metabolite levels as a consequence of the systemic response following their intake. The experimental design involved in-vivo mice models: 16 animals of both sex received a single administration of morphine or fentanyl. Urine was collected before and after administration at different time points; the samples were then analysed with an untargeted metabolomics LC-HRMS workflow. According to our results, the intake of opioids resulted in an elevated energy demand, that was more pronounced on male animals, as evidenced by the increase in medium and long chain acylcarnitines levels. It was also shown that opioid administration disrupted the pathways related to catecholamines biosynthesis. The observed alterations were common to both morphine and fentanyl: this evidence indicate that they are not related to the chemical structure of the drug, but rather on the drug class. The proposed strategy may reinforce existing NPS screening approaches, by identifying indirect markers of drug assumption.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Fentanila , Metabolômica , Morfina , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Metabolômica/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/urina , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Fentanila/urina , Fentanila/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Morfina/urina , Psicotrópicos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 84(1): 89-97, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587320

RESUMO

Opioid addiction is critically dependent on the activation of N­methyl­D­aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are widely found in the mesocorticolimbic system. Meanwhile, opioid addiction may affect the expression level of NMDA receptor subunits. The existence of GluN3 subunits in the NMDA receptor's tetramer structure reduces the excitatory current of the receptor channel. We evaluated the changes in the mRNA expression pattern of the GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor in rat brains following acute and chronic exposure to morphine. Chronic, escalating intraperitoneal doses of morphine or saline were administered twice daily to male Wistar rats for six days. Two other groups were injected with a single acute dose of morphine or saline. The mRNA level of the GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor in the striatum, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens (NAc) was measured by real­time PCR. mRNA expression of the GluN3B subunit was considerably augmented (3.15 fold) in the NAc of animals chronically treated with morphine compared to the control group. The difference between rats that were chronically administered morphine and control rats was not statistically significant for other evaluated brain areas. In rats acutely treated with morphine, no significant differences were found for GluN3B subunit expression in the examined brain regions compared to the control group. It was concluded that chronic exposure to morphine notably increased the GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor in NAc. The extent of the impact of this finding on opioid addiction and its features requires further evaluation in future studies.


Assuntos
Morfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Ratos Wistar , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 84(1): 26-34, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587327

RESUMO

Morphine changes neurotransmitter release, including norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Decynium­22 (D22) inhibits an alternative neurotransmitter removal pathway, namely uptake­2. Uptake­2 includes plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) and organic cation transporters that have a low affinity, but high capacity for uptake of various monoamines such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. This study was done to assess the effect of uptake­2 inhibition on morphine­induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and analgesia. In this study, the effects of morphine and/or D22 on CPP were evaluated following intraperitoneal injection in mice. Afterward, changes in motor activity were evaluated by the open field test. Using the tail­flick model, the effects of D22 and/or morphine were evaluated on the pain threshold. The results showed that 20 mg/kg of morphine induced a place preference response. D22, at the dose of 0.03 mg/kg, caused place avoidance, while at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg, it produced a notable place preference response. Co­administration of D22 and morphine showed that morphine reversed the CPP aversion induced by D22 at the lowest dose. Motor activity did not alter. In the tail­flick test, morphine, at the dose of 3 mg/kg but not 1 mg/kg, increased the pain threshold. D22 induced significant analgesic responses. Co­administration of D22 and morphine caused considerable analgesic effects. The findings revealed that D22 induced both conditioned aversion and preference depending on the dose while morphine induced CPP. Both drugs produced analgesia.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Morfina , Camundongos , Animais , Morfina/farmacologia , Serotonina , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos , Norepinefrina , Neurotransmissores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8099, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582770

RESUMO

The simultaneous identification of drugs has considerable difficulties due to the intricate interplay of analytes and the interference present in biological matrices. In this study, we introduce an innovative electrochemical sensor that overcomes these hurdles, enabling the precise and simultaneous determination of morphine (MOR), methadone (MET), and uric acid (UA) in urine samples. The sensor harnesses the strategically adapted carbon nanotubes (CNT) modified with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets to ensure exceptional precision and sensitivity for the targeted analytes. Through systematic optimization of pivotal parameters, we attained accurate and quantitative measurements of the analytes within intricate matrices employing the fast Fourier transform (FFT) voltammetry technique. The sensor's performance was validated using 17 training and 12 test solutions, employing the widely acclaimed machine learning method, partial least squares (PLS), for predictive modeling. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) values for morphine, methadone, and uric acid were significantly low, measuring 0.1827 µM, 0.1951 µM, and 0.1584 µM, respectively, with corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 0.1925 µM, 0.2035 µM, and 0.1659 µM. These results showcased the robust resiliency and reliability of our predictive model. Our sensor's efficacy in real urine samples was demonstrated by the narrow range of relative standard deviation (RSD) values, ranging from 3.71 to 5.26%, and recovery percentages from 96 to 106%. This performance underscores the potential of the sensor for practical and clinical applications, offering precise measurements even in complex and variable biological matrices. The successful integration of g-C3N4-CNT nanocomposites and the robust PLS method has driven the evolution of sophisticated electrochemical sensors, initiating a transformative era in drug analysis.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Morfina , Ácido Úrico/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos
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