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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-13198

RESUMO

Informações sobre mortalidade por Região de Saúde, no Estado de São Paulo, no período de 2018-2023.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Mortalidade Materna
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12596, 2024 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824152

RESUMO

Neonatal mortality, which refers to the death of neonates during the first 28 completed days of life, is a critical global public health concern. The neonatal period is widely recognized as one of the most precarious phases in human life. Research has indicated that maternal extreme ages during reproductive years significantly impact neonatal survival, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Consequently, this study aims to evaluate the neonatal mortality rate and determinants among neonates born to mothers at extreme reproductive ages within these countries. A secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys conducted between 2015 and 2022 in 43 low- and middle-income countries was performed. The study included a total sample of 151,685 live births. Researchers utilized a multilevel mixed-effects model to identify determinants of neonatal mortality. The measures of association were evaluated using the adjusted odds ratio within a 95% confidence interval. The neonatal mortality rate among neonates born to mothers at extreme ages of reproductive life in low- and middle-income countries was 28.96 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births (95% CI 28.13-29.82). Factors associated with higher rates of neonatal mortality include male gender, low and high birth weight, maternal education (no or low), home deliveries, multiple births, short preceding birth intervals, lack of postnatal checkups, and countries with high fertility and low literacy rates. This study sheds light on the neonatal mortality rates among neonates born to mothers at extreme ages of reproductive life in low- and middle-income countries. Notably, we found that neonatal mortality was significantly higher in this group compared to neonatal mortality rates reported regardless of maternal ages. Male babies, low and high birth-weighted babies, those born to mothers with no or low education, delivered at home, singletons, babies born with a small preceding birth interval, and those without postnatal checkups faced elevated risks of neonatal mortality. Additionally, neonates born in countries with high fertility and low literacy rates were also vulnerable. These findings underscore the urgent need for targeted interventions tailored to mothers at extreme ages. Policymakers and healthcare providers should prioritize strategies that address specific risk factors prevalent in these vulnerable populations. By doing so, we can improve neonatal outcomes and ensure the survival of these newborns during the critical neonatal period.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto , Lactente , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Mães , Adolescente
3.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 716-723, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To predict trends in fertility, neonatal and perinatal mortality, and stillbirth rates to ascertain future perinatal care requirements during the post-war reconstruction in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The study uses the data from the Centre for Medical Statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, covering the years 2012 to 2022. The data analysis was by a univariate linear regression model. The quality of these models was evaluated using the coefficient of determination, R2. RESULTS: Results: In 2022, the birth rate in Ukraine had declined to 2.5 times lower than that of 2011. The period was characterized by a notable increase in the incidence of premature births and in neonates with birth weights under 1000 grams and between 1000 to 2499 grams. While the neonatal mortality rate decreased by 3.7 times, there remains a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in the mortality rates of premature infants and neonates weighing less than 1000 grams. The stillbirth rate in Ukraine remains constant; however, it exceeds that of the European Union. Predictions indicate a rise in antenatal mortality and a reduction in both intranatal and perinatal mortality. As of 2022, the perinatal mortality rate in Ukraine made up 7.72 per 1000 live births, which is significantly higher than the rate in the European Union. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The optimization of the network of healthcare facilities and resources should be prioritized, in response to the reliable decline in the birth rate. This necessitates improvements in the medical care for premature and low birth weight infants, and efforts for preventing stillbirths.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Assistência Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Natimorto , Humanos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Lactente , Fertilidade , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13480, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866837

RESUMO

The long-term trends in maternal and child health (MCH) in China and the national-level factors that may be associated with these changes have been poorly explored. This study aimed to assess trends in MCH indicators nationally and separately in urban and rural areas and the impact of public policies over a 30‒year period. An ecological study was conducted using data on neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR), under-five mortality rate (U5MR), and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) nationally and separately in urban and rural areas in China from 1991 to 2020. Joinpoint regression models were used to estimate the annual percentage changes (APC), average annual percentage changes (AAPC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and mortality differences between urban and rural areas. From 1991 to 2020, maternal and child mortalities in China gradually declined (national AAPC [95% CI]: NMRs - 7.7% [- 8.6%, - 6.8%], IMRs - 7.5% [- 8.4%, - 6.6%], U5MRs - 7.5% [- 8.5%, - 6.5%], MMRs - 5.0% [- 5.7%, - 4.4%]). However, the rate of decline nationally in child mortality slowed after 2005, and in maternal mortality after 2013. For all indicators, the decline in mortality was greater in rural areas than in urban areas. The AAPCs in rate differences between rural and urban areas were - 8.5% for NMRs, - 8.6% for IMRs, - 7.7% for U5MRs, and - 9.6% for MMRs. The AAPCs in rate ratios (rural vs. urban) were - 1.2 for NMRs, - 2.1 for IMRs, - 1.7 for U5MRs, and - 1.9 for MMRs. After 2010, urban‒rural disparity in MMR did not diminish and in NMR, IMR, and U5MR, it gradually narrowed but persisted. MCH indicators have declined at the national level as well as separately in urban and rural areas but may have reached a plateau. Urban‒rural disparities in MCH indicators have narrowed but still exist. Regular analyses of temporal trends in MCH are necessary to assess the effectiveness of measures for timely adjustments.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Saúde Materna , Mortalidade Materna , População Rural , População Urbana , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Feminino , Lactente , Saúde Materna/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
5.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 44-49, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is mixed evidence on the extent of association between the allocation of public revenue for healthcare and its indicators of need. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the relationship between allocations through state health financing (SHF) and the Central Government with infant mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: District-wise infant mortality rate (IMR) was computed using National Family Health Survey-4 data. State-wise data for health budgets through SHF and National Health Mission (NHM, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme), were obtained for the year 2015-16. We used a multivariable analysis through generalized linear model method using identity-link function. RESULTS: We found per capita SHF (₹3169) to be more than 12 times that of public health spending per capita through NHM (₹261). IMR was lower in districts with higher SHF allocation, although statistically insignificant. The allocation through NHM was higher in districts with higher IMR, which is statistically significant. Every unit percentage increase in per capita net state domestic product and female literacy led to 0.31% and 0.54% decline, while a 1% increase in under-five diarrhoea prevalence led to 0.17% increase in IMR. CONCLUSION: The NHM has contributed to enhancing vertical equity in health-care financing. The States' need to be more responsive to the differences in districts while allocating health-care resources. There needs to be a focus on spending on social determinants, which should be the cornerstone for any universal health coverage strategy.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Transversais , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Despesas Públicas , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302665, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The largest risk of child mortality occurs within the first week after birth. Early neonatal mortality remains a global public health concern, especially in sub-Saharan African countries. More than 75% of neonatal death occurs within the first seven days of birth, but there are limited prospective follow- up studies to determine time to death, incidence and predictors of death in Ethiopia particularly in the study area. The study aimed to determine incidence and predictors of early neonatal mortality among neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Addis Ababa public hospitals, Ethiopia 2021. METHODS: Institutional prospective cohort study was conducted in four public hospitals found in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia from June 7th, 2021 to July 13th, 2021. All early neonates consecutively admitted to the corresponding neonatal intensive care unit of selected hospitals were included in the study and followed until 7 days-old. Data were coded, cleaned, edited, and entered into Epi data version 3.1 and then exported to STATA software version 14.0 for analysis. The Kaplan Meier survival curve with log- rank test was used to compare survival time between groups. Moreover, both bi-variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify the predictors of early neonatal mortality. All variables having P-value ≤0.2 in the bi-variable analysis model were further fitted to the multivariable model. The assumption of the model was checked graphically and using a global test. The goodness of fit of the model was performed using the Cox-Snell residual test and it was adequate. RESULTS: A total of 391 early neonates with their mothers were involved in this study. The incidence rate among admitted early neonates was 33.25 per 1000 neonate day's observation [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.22, 42.17]. Being preterm birth [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 6.0 (95% CI 2.02, 17.50)], having low fifth minute Apgar score [AHR: 3.93 (95% CI; 1.5, 6.77)], low temperatures [AHR: 2.67 (95%CI; 1.41, 5.02)] and, resuscitating of early neonate [AHR: 2.80 (95% CI; 1.51,5.10)] were associated with increased hazard of early neonatal death. However, early neonatal crying at birth [AHR: 0.48 (95%CI; 0.26, 0.87)] was associated with reduced hazard of death. CONCLUSIONS: Early neonatal mortality is high in Addis Ababa public Hospitals. Preterm birth, low five-minute Apgar score, hypothermia and crying at birth were found to be independent predictors of early neonatal death. Good care and attention to neonate with low Apgar scores, premature, and hypothermic neonates.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos , Mortalidade Infantil , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Masculino , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
7.
Lakartidningen ; 1212024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895759

RESUMO

Despite improved survival of extremely preterm infants born at <28 weeks gestational age (GA) since the 1990s, only few reports on long-term outcomes have been published. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors among mothers and outcomes for their children born at the limit of viability (GA 22 + 0 - 23 + 6 weeks) at the Karolinska university hospital in 2009-19, before and after the introduction of new national interventionist guidelines in 2016. We hypothesized that infant survival, morbidity and cognitive functions at 2 years' corrected age had improved after the new clinical practice. Maternal risk factors were identified, which emphasize the need of standardized follow-up and counseling for women at increased risk of extreme preterm birth. The intrauterine fetal death rates were unchanged. Among births at 22 weeks, the neonatal mortality tended to decrease 96 vs. 76 percent of live births (p = 0,05), and the 2-year survival tended to increase 4 vs 24 percent (p = 0,05). At 23 weeks, the neonatal mortality decreased 56 vs 27 percent of live births (p = 0,01), and the 2-year survival increased 42 vs 64 percent (p = 0,03). In contrast, the morbidity and cognitive disability at 2 years' corrected age were unchanged. Our results were in accordance with previous reports where no substantial improvement in cognitive functions are reported among infants born at GA <24 weeks since the 1990s. They highlight the importance of comprehensive ethical considerations before active interventions at threatening preterm birth < 24 weeks.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco , Gravidez , Lactente , Suécia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Adulto , Viabilidade Fetal
8.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304065, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal mortality during the first week of life is a global issue that is responsible for a large portion of deaths among children under the age of five. There are, however, very few reports about the issue in sub-Saharan Africa. For the sake of developing appropriate policies and initiatives that could aid in addressing the issue, it is important to study the prevalence of mortality during the early neonatal period and associated factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of and pinpoint the contributing factors to early neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: Data from recent demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan African countries was used for this study. The study included 262,763 live births in total. The determinants of early newborn mortality were identified using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model. To determine the strength and significance of the association between outcome and explanatory variables, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed. Independent variables were deemed statistically significant when the p-value was less than the significance level (0.05). RESULT: Early neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa was 22.94 deaths per 1,000 live births. It was found to be significantly associated with maternal age over 35 years (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.34-2.33), low birth weight (AOR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.16, 4.94), less than four ANC visits (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.33), delivery with caesarean section (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30-2.5), not having any complications during pregnancy (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 94), and community poverty (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05-1.65). CONCLUSION: This study found that about twenty-three neonates out of one thousand live births died within the first week of life in sub-Saharan Africa. The age of mothers, birth weight, antenatal care service utilization, mode of delivery, multiple pregnancy, complications during pregnancy, and community poverty should be considered while designing policies and strategies targeting early neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Adulto , Gravidez , Masculino , Lactente , Idade Materna , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Razão de Chances
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 410, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision-to-delivery time (DDT), a crucial factor during the emergency caesarean section, may potentially impact neonatal outcomes. This study aims to assess the association between DDT and various neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases was conducted. A total of 32 eligible studies that reported on various neonatal outcomes, such as Apgar score, acidosis, neonatal intensive unit (NICU) admissions and mortality were included in the review. Studies were selected based on predefined eligibility criteria, and a random-effects inverse-variance model with DerSimonian-Laird estimate of tau² was used for meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using I² statistics and Egger's test, respectively. RESULTS: The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between DDT < 30 min and increased risk of Apgar score < 7 (OR 1.803, 95% CI: 1.284-2.533) and umbilical cord pH < 7.1 (OR 4.322, 95% CI: 2.302-8.115), with substantial heterogeneity. No significant association was found between DDT and NICU admission (OR 0.982, 95% CI: 0.767-1.258) or neonatal mortality (OR 0.983, 95% CI: 0.565-1.708), with negligible heterogeneity. Publication bias was not detected for any outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the association between shorter DDT and increased odds of adverse neonatal outcomes such as low Apgar scores and acidosis, while no significant association was found in terms of NICU admissions or neonatal mortality. Our findings highlight the complexity of DDT's impact, suggesting the need for nuanced clinical decision-making in cases of emergency caesarean sections.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Cesárea , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidose/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Mortalidade Infantil , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
10.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 82, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849864

RESUMO

This study assesses the impact of a voucher project that targeted vulnerable and poor pregnant women in Uganda. Highly subsidised vouchers gave access to a package of safe delivery services consisting of four antenatal visits, safe delivery, one postnatal visit, the treatment and management of selected pregnancy-related medical conditions and complications, and emergency transport. Vouchers were sold during the project's operational period from 2016 to 2019. This study covers 8 out of 25 project-benefiting districts in Uganda and a total of 1,881 pregnancies, including both beneficiary and non-beneficiary mothers. Using a matching design, the results show a positive effect on the survival of new-born babies. The difference in the survival rate between the control group and the treatment group is 5.4% points, indicating that the voucher project reduced infant mortality by more than 65 per cent.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Humanos , Feminino , Uganda , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Mortalidade Infantil , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Lactente , Financiamento Governamental
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303454, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most neonatal deaths occur among low birth weight infants. However, in resource-limited settings, these infants are commonly discharged early which further exposes them to mortality. Previous studies on morbidity and mortality among low birth weight infants after early discharge mainly focused on very low birth weight infants, and none described post-discharge neonatal mortality. This study aimed to determine the proportion and predictors of mortality among low birth weight neonates discharged from the Special Care Baby Unit at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 220 low birth weight neonates discharged from the Special Care Baby Unit at Mulago National Referral Hospital. These were followed up to 28 completed days of life, or death, whichever occurred first. Proportions were used to express mortality. To determine the predictors of mortality, Cox hazards regression was performed. RESULTS: Of the 220 enrolled participants, 216 (98.1%) completed the follow-up. The mean gestational age of study participants was 34 ±3 weeks. The median weight at discharge was 1,650g (IQR: 1,315g -1,922g) and 46.1% were small for gestational age. During follow-up, 14/216 (6.5%) of neonates died. Mortality was highest (7/34, 20.6%) among neonates with discharge weights less than 1,200g. The causes of death included presumed neonatal sepsis (10/14, 71.4%), suspected aspiration pneumonia (2/14, 14.3%), and suspected cot death (2/14, 14.3%). The median time to death after discharge was 11 days (range 3-16 days). The predictors of mortality were a discharge weight of less than 1,200g (adj HR: 23.47, p <0.001), a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 7 (adj HR: 4.25, p = 0.016), and a diagnosis of neonatal sepsis during admission (adj HR: 7.93, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Post-discharge mortality among low birth weight neonates at Mulago National Referral Hospital is high. A discharge weight of less than 1,200g may be considered unsafe among neonates. Caregiver education about neonatal danger signs, and measures to prevent sepsis, aspiration, and cot death should be emphasized before discharge and during follow-up visits.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Alta do Paciente , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Idade Gestacional
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1635, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal mortality is a significant public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Somalia, where limited data exists about this. Mogadishu, the densely populated capital, faces a high rate of neonatal mortality, but this has not been widely studied on a national level. Healthcare providers and policymakers are working to reduce newborn deaths, but a comprehensive understanding of the contributing factors is crucial for effective strategies. Therefore, this study aims to determine the magnitude of neonatal death and identify factors associated with it in Mogadishu, Somalia. METHOD: A multicenter hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from participants at 5 purposively selected hospitals in Mogadishu, Somalia. A well-structured, reliable, self-developed, validated questionnaire containing socio-demographic, maternal, and neonatal characteristics was used as a research tool. Descriptive statistics were used for categorical and continuous variables presented. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with neonatal mortality at a significant level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 513 participants were recruited for the study. The prevalence of neonatal mortality was 26.5% [95%CI = 22.6-30.2]. In a multivariable model, 9 variables were found: female newborns (AOR = 1.98, 95%CI = 1.22-3.19), those their mothers who did not attend ANC visits (AOR = 2.59, 95%CI = 1.05-6.45), those their mothers who did not take tetanus toxoid vaccination (AOR = 1.82, 95%CI = 1.01-3.28), those their mothers who delivered in instrumental assistant mode (AOR = 3.01, 95%CI = 1.38-6.56), those who had neonatal sepsis (AOR = 2.24, (95%CI = 1.26-3.98), neonatal tetanus (AOR = 16.03, 95%CI = 3.69-69.49), and pneumonia (AOR = 4.06, 95%CI = 1.60-10.31) diseases during hospitalization, premature (AOR = 1.99, 95%CI = 1.00-3.94) and postmature (AOR = 4.82, 95%CI = 1.64-14.16) neonates, those with a birth weight of less than 2500 gr (AOR = 4.82, 95%CI = 2.34-9.95), those who needed resuscitation after delivery (AOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.51-5.13), and those who did not initiate early breastfeeding (AOR = 2.28, 95%CI = 1.12-4.66), were significantly associated with neonatal mortality compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: In this study, neonatal mortality was high prevalence. Therefore, the intervention efforts should focus on strategies to reduce maternal and neonatal factors related to neonatal mortality. Healthcare workers and health institutions should provide appropriate antenatal, postnatal, and newborn care.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Somália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Lactente , Gravidez
13.
Lancet ; 403(10441): 2307-2316, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO, as requested by its member states, launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974 to make life-saving vaccines available to all globally. To mark the 50-year anniversary of EPI, we sought to quantify the public health impact of vaccination globally since the programme's inception. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used a suite of mathematical and statistical models to estimate the global and regional public health impact of 50 years of vaccination against 14 pathogens in EPI. For the modelled pathogens, we considered coverage of all routine and supplementary vaccines delivered since 1974 and estimated the mortality and morbidity averted for each age cohort relative to a hypothetical scenario of no historical vaccination. We then used these modelled outcomes to estimate the contribution of vaccination to globally declining infant and child mortality rates over this period. FINDINGS: Since 1974, vaccination has averted 154 million deaths, including 146 million among children younger than 5 years of whom 101 million were infants younger than 1 year. For every death averted, 66 years of full health were gained on average, translating to 10·2 billion years of full health gained. We estimate that vaccination has accounted for 40% of the observed decline in global infant mortality, 52% in the African region. In 2024, a child younger than 10 years is 40% more likely to survive to their next birthday relative to a hypothetical scenario of no historical vaccination. Increased survival probability is observed even well into late adulthood. INTERPRETATION: Since 1974 substantial gains in childhood survival have occurred in every global region. We estimate that EPI has provided the single greatest contribution to improved infant survival over the past 50 years. In the context of strengthening primary health care, our results show that equitable universal access to immunisation remains crucial to sustain health gains and continue to save future lives from preventable infectious mortality. FUNDING: WHO.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Criança , Saúde Global , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Adolescente , História do Século XX , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e083546, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38803254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Burundian emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) programme, which was initiated in 2017 and supported by a specific policy, does not appear to reverse maternal and newborn mortality trends. Our study examined the capacity challenges facing participating EmONC facilities and developed alternative investment proposals to improve their readiness paying particular attention to EmONC professionals, physical infrastructure, and capital equipment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Burundian EmONC facilities (n=112). PARTICIPANTS: We examined EmONC policy documents, consulted 12 maternal and newborn health experts and 23 stakeholders and policymakers, surveyed all EmONC facilities (n=112), and collected cost data from the Ministry of Health and local suppliers in Burundi. We developed three context-specific EmONC resource benchmark standards by facility type; the Burundian policy norms and the expert minimum and maximum suggested thresholds; and used these alternatives to estimate EmONC resource gaps. We forecasted three corresponding budget estimates needed to address prevailing deficits taking a government perspective for a 5-year EmONC investment strategy. Additionally, we explored relationships between EmONC professionals and selected measures of service delivery using bivariate analyses and graphically. RESULTS: The lowest EmONC resource benchmark revealed that 95% of basic EmONC and all comprehensive EmONC facilities lack corresponding sets of human resources and 90% of all facilities need additional physical infrastructure and capital equipment. Assessed against the highest benchmark which proposes the most progressive set of standards for the prevailing workloads, Burundi would require 162 more medical doctors, 1005 midwives and nurses, 132 delivery rooms, 191 delivery tables, 678 and 156 maternity and newborn care beds, and 395 incubators amounting to US$32.9 million additional budget for 5 years. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that Burundian EmONC facilities face enormous capacity challenges equivalent to US$32.9 million funding gap for 5 years; averagely approximating to 5.96% total health budget increase annually.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Recém-Nascido , Burundi , Feminino , Gravidez , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Orçamentos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/economia , Lactente , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1431, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals both underscore the critical need to reduce the under-five mortality rate globally. China has made remarkable progress in decreasing the mortality rate of children under five. This study aims to examine the trends in child mortality rates from 2002 to 2022 and the causes of deaths among neonates, infants, and children under 5 years of age from 2013 to 2022 in Huangshi. METHODS: The data resource was supported and provided by the Huangshi Health Commission, Huangshi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, and the Huangshi Statistics Bureau. Figures were drawn using Origin 2021. RESULTS: The mortality rate among children under 5 years old significantly decreased, from 21.38 per 1,000 live births in 2002 to 3.53 per 1,000 live births in 2022. The infant mortality rate also saw a significant decline, to 15.06 per 1,000 live births. Among the 1,929 recorded child deaths from 2013 to 2022, the top three causes were: F2 (Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight), accounting for 17.26% (333 deaths); I1 (Accidental drowning and submersion), for 14.83% (286 deaths); and I3 (Other accidental threats to breathing), for 12.29% (237 deaths). Of the 1,929 deaths, 1,117 were male children, representing 57.91%. The gender disparity in the Under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) was calculated to be 1.38 (boys to girls). The leading causes of death under the age of five shifted from F2 (Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight) to I1 (Accidental drowning and submersion) as children aged, highlighting the need for policymakers and parents to intensify care and vigilance for children. CONCLUSIONS: Huangshi has achieved significant progress in lowering child mortality rates over the past two decades. The study calls for policymakers to enact more effective measures to further reduce the mortality rate among children under 5 years of age in Huangshi. Furthermore, it advises parents to dedicate more time and effort to supervising and nurturing their children, promoting a safer and healthier development.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Lactente , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Causas de Morte/tendências
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 109, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The work of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health has been fundamental to provide a conceptual framework of the social determinants of health. Based on this framework, this study assesses the relationship of income inequality as a determinant of neonatal mortality in the Americas and relates it to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal target 3.2 (reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 deaths per 1,000 live births). The rationale is to evaluate if income inequality may be considered a social factor that influences neonatal mortality in the Americas. METHODS: Yearly data from 35 countries in the Americas during 2000-2019 was collected. Data sources include the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the neonatal mortality rate (measured as neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births) and the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research for the Gini index (measured in a scale from 0 to 100). This is an ecological study that employs a linear regression model that relates the neonatal mortality rate (dependent variable) to the Gini index (independent variable), while controlling for other factors that influence neonatal mortality. Coefficient estimates and their robust standard errors were obtained using panel data techniques. RESULTS: A positive relationship between income inequality and neonatal mortality is found in countries in the Americas during the period studied. In particular, the analysis suggests that a unit increase in a country's Gini index during 2000-2019 is associated with a 0.27 (95% CI [- 0.04, 0.57], P =.09) increase in the neonatal mortality rate. CONCLUSION: The analysis suggests that income inequality may be positively associated with the neonatal mortality rate in the Americas. Nonetheless, given the modest magnitude of the estimates and Gini values and trends during 2000-2019, the findings suggest a potential limited scope for redistributive policies to support reductions in neonatal mortality in the region. Thus, policies and interventions that address higher coverage and quality of services provided by national health systems and reductions in socio-economic inequalities in health are of utmost importance.


Assuntos
Renda , Mortalidade Infantil , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , América/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
17.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 24(3): E47-E55, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neonatal phase is vital for child survival, with a substantial portion of deaths occurring in the first month. Neonatal mortality rates differ significantly between Vietnam (10.52/1000 live births) and the United States (3.27/1000). In response to these challenges, interventions such as the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) program have emerged, aiming to enhance the quality of care provided during childbirth, and the postpartum period in low-resource settings. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholder perceptions of the HBB program in Vietnam postpandemic, aiming to identify requisites for resuming training. METHODS: Utilizing qualitative content analysis, 19 in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with diverse stakeholders in 2 provinces of Central Vietnam. RESULTS: The content analysis revealed following 5 main themes: (1) the pandemic's impact on HBB training; (2) resource needs for scaling up HBB training as the pandemic abates; (3) participants' perceptions of the pandemic's effect on HBB skills and knowledge; (4) the pandemic's influence on a skilled neonatal resuscitation workforce; and (5) future prospects and challenges for HBB training in a postpandemic era. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: This research highlights the importance of sustainable post-HBB training competencies, including skill assessment, innovative knowledge retention strategies, community-based initiatives, and evidence-based interventions for improved healthcare decision-making and patient outcomes. Healthcare institutions should prioritize skill assessments, refresher training, and collaborative efforts among hospitals, authorities, non-government organizations, and community organizations for evidence-based education and HBB implementation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ressuscitação , Humanos , Vietnã , Recém-Nascido , Ressuscitação/educação , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Mortalidade Infantil , Lactente
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10833, 2024 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734835

RESUMO

Our aim was to develop a machine learning-based predictor for early mortality and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very-low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in Taiwan. We collected retrospective data from VLBW infants, dividing them into two cohorts: one for model development and internal validation (Cohort 1, 2016-2021), and another for external validation (Cohort 2, 2022). Primary outcomes included early mortality, severe IVH, and early poor outcomes (a combination of both). Data preprocessing involved 23 variables, with the top four predictors identified as gestational age, birth body weight, 5-min Apgar score, and endotracheal tube ventilation. Six machine learning algorithms were employed. Among 7471 infants analyzed, the selected predictors consistently performed well across all outcomes. Logistic regression and neural network models showed the highest predictive performance (AUC 0.81-0.90 in both internal and external validation) and were well-calibrated, confirmed by calibration plots and the lowest two mean Brier scores (0.0685 and 0.0691). We developed a robust machine learning-based outcome predictor using only four accessible variables, offering valuable prognostic information for parents and aiding healthcare providers in decision-making.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Lactente , Prognóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Idade Gestacional , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Peso ao Nascer , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade
19.
J Perinatol ; 44(6): 844-850, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the causal effect of sex on outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using Vermont Oxford Network data to compare NICU outcomes for VLBW males versus females. Odds ratios (OR) for outcomes that differed significantly by sex were computed using standard unweighted analysis and inverse probability weighted (IPW) analysis to correct for selection bias. RESULTS: Using standard analysis, males were significantly more likely to die before discharge and experience six other adverse outcomes. From IPW analysis, male sex caused a 56% increase in the odds of death before discharge (OR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.94). Standard unweighted results were significantly biased towards increased risk of adverse outcomes for males (p = 0.005) compared to IPW results for which three outcomes were no longer significantly associated with male sex. CONCLUSION: Standard statistical methods generally overestimate the casual effect of sex among VLBW infants.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Mortalidade Infantil , Razão de Chances , Lactente , Vermont
20.
Lancet ; 403(10443): 2520-2532, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years worldwide. WHO recommends kangaroo mother care (KMC); however, its effects on mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and its relative costs remain unclear. We aimed to compare the effectiveness, safety, costs, and cost-effectiveness of KMC initiated before clinical stabilisation versus standard care in neonates weighing up to 2000 g. METHODS: We conducted a parallel-group, individually randomised controlled trial in five hospitals across Uganda. Singleton or twin neonates aged younger than 48 h weighing 700-2000 g without life-threatening clinical instability were eligible for inclusion. We randomly assigned (1:1) neonates to either KMC initiated before stabilisation (intervention group) or standard care (control group) via a computer-generated random allocation sequence with permuted blocks of varying sizes, stratified by birthweight and recruitment site. Parents, caregivers, and health-care workers were unmasked to treatment allocation; however, the independent statistician who conducted the analyses was masked. After randomisation, neonates in the intervention group were placed prone and skin-to-skin on the caregiver's chest, secured with a KMC wrap. Neonates in the control group were cared for in an incubator or radiant heater, as per hospital practice; KMC was not initiated until stability criteria were met. The primary outcome was all-cause neonatal mortality at 7 days, analysed by intention to treat. The economic evaluation assessed incremental costs and cost-effectiveness from a disaggregated societal perspective. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02811432. FINDINGS: Between Oct 9, 2019, and July 31, 2022, 2221 neonates were randomly assigned: 1110 (50·0%) neonates to the intervention group and 1111 (50·0%) neonates to the control group. From randomisation to age 7 days, 81 (7·5%) of 1083 neonates in the intervention group and 83 (7·5%) of 1102 neonates in the control group died (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0·97 [95% CI 0·74-1·28]; p=0·85). From randomisation to 28 days, 119 (11·3%) of 1051 neonates in the intervention group and 134 (12·8%) of 1049 neonates in the control group died (RR 0·88 [0·71-1·09]; p=0·23). Even if policy makers place no value on averting neonatal deaths, the intervention would have 97% probability from the provider perspective and 84% probability from the societal perspective of being more cost-effective than standard care. INTERPRETATION: KMC initiated before stabilisation did not reduce early neonatal mortality; however, it was cost-effective from the societal and provider perspectives compared with standard care. Additional investment in neonatal care is needed for increased impact, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials scheme of the Department of Health and Social Care, Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, UKRI Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Mortalidade Infantil , Método Canguru , Humanos , Uganda , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Masculino , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactente
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