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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e15, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been widely adopted in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) to minimise low birthweight infants' (LBWIs) adverse outcomes. However, the burden of neonatal and child mortality remains disproportionately high in LMICs. AIM: Thus, this scoping review sought to map evidence on the barriers, challenges and facilitators of KMC utilisation by parents of LBWIs (parent of low birthweight infant [PLBWI]) in LMICs. METHODS: We searched for studies conducted in LMICs and published in English between January 1990 and August 2020 from SciELO, Google Scholar, JSTOR, LILACS, Academic search complete, PubMed, CINAHL with full text, and Medline databases. We adopted Arksey and O'Malley's framework for conducting scoping reviews. Potential studies were exported to Endnote X7 reference management software for abstract and full article screening. Two independent reviewers did a parallel abstract and full article screening using a standardised form. The results were analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: We generated 22 040 studies and after duplicate removal, 42 studies were eligible for full-text screening and 22 studies, most form sub-Saharan Africa, were included in the content analysis. Eight themes emerged from the analysis: access, buy-in, co-ordination and collaboration, medical issues, motivation, social support-gender obligation and empowerment, time and timing and traditional/cultural norms. CONCLUSION: Identifying factors affecting KMC may optimise KMC utilisation. Additional studies aiming at identifying influencing factors that affect KMC utilisation amongst PLBWIs' in LMICs need to be conducted to provide evidence-based strategies to enhance practice, inform policy and decision-makers in KMC utilisation amongst the PLBWIs in LMICs and beyond.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido
2.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 378-385, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474707

RESUMO

Background: Infectious diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of 2018, the total world population of children < 5 years of age was roughly estimated at 679 million. Of these children, an estimated 5.3 million died of all causes in 2018, with an estimated 700,000 who died of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases; 99% of the children who died had lived in low- and middle-income countries. The infectious diseases that remain major causes of mortality for which vaccines have been shown to provide proven preventive success include, in order of prevalence, are those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, Bordetella pertussis, measles virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to address the global burden of these six vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in children < 5 years of age, together with implications for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in children. Methods: The current immunization strategies for the prevention of the six vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in children are reviewed as a framework for new strategies of vaccine prevention of COVID-19 in children. Results: The burden of addressing vaccine prevention of future infectious disease in children can be effectively pursued through knowledge gained from past experiences with vaccine usage in these six vaccine-preventable childhood infectious diseases. Conclusion: Issues with regard to the burden of disease mortality, disease transmission, and available vaccines as well as vaccine successes and shortcomings for specific pathogens can serve as important landmarks for effective use of future vaccines. Although much success has been made globally in preventing these childhood deaths, much remains to be done.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação em Massa , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mortalidade da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Recusa de Vacinação , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 390, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high. Many studies successful at reducing neonatal mortality have failed to realise similar gains at scale. Effective implementation and scale-up of interventions designed to tackle neonatal mortality is a global health priority. Multifaceted programmes targeting the continuum of neonatal care, with sustainability and scalability built into the design, can provide practical insights to solve this challenge. Cambodia has amongst the highest neonatal mortality rates in South-East Asia, with rural areas particularly affected. The primary objective of this study is the design, implementation, and assessment of the Saving Babies' Lives programme, a package of interventions designed to reduce neonatal mortality in rural Cambodia. METHODS: This study is a five-year stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial conducted in a rural Cambodian province with an estimated annual delivery rate of 6615. The study is designed to implement and evaluate the Saving Babies' Lives programme, which is the intervention. The Saving Babies' Lives programme is an iterative package of neonatal interventions spanning the continuum of care and integrating into the existing health system. The Saving Babies' Lives programme comprises two major components: participatory learning and action with community health workers, and capacity building of primary care facilities involving facility-based mentorship. Standard government service continues in control arms. Data collection covering the whole study area includes surveillance of all pregnancies, verbal and social autopsies, and quality of care surveys. Mixed methods data collection supports iteration of the complex intervention, and facilitates impact, outcome, process and economic evaluation. DISCUSSION: Our study uses a robust study design to evaluate and develop a holistic, innovative, contextually relevant and sustainable programme that can be scaled-up to reduce neonatal mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04663620 . Registered on 11th December 2020, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , População Rural , Camboja , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 772-785, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stillbirths are a major public health issue and a sensitive marker of the quality of care around pregnancy and birth. The UN Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health (2016-30) and the Every Newborn Action Plan (led by UNICEF and WHO) call for an end to preventable stillbirths. A first step to prevent stillbirths is obtaining standardised measurement of stillbirth rates across countries. We estimated stillbirth rates and their trends for 195 countries from 2000 to 2019 and assessed progress over time. METHODS: For a systematic assessment, we created a dataset of 2833 country-year datapoints from 171 countries relevant to stillbirth rates, including data from registration and health information systems, household-based surveys, and population-based studies. After data quality assessment and exclusions, we used 1531 datapoints to estimate country-specific stillbirth rates for 195 countries from 2000 to 2019 using a Bayesian hierarchical temporal sparse regression model, according to a definition of stillbirth of at least 28 weeks' gestational age. Our model combined covariates with a temporal smoothing process such that estimates were informed by data for country-periods with high quality data, while being based on covariates for country-periods with little or no data on stillbirth rates. Bias and additional uncertainty associated with observations based on alternative stillbirth definitions and source types, and observations that were subject to non-sampling errors, were included in the model. We compared the estimated stillbirth rates and trends to previously reported mortality estimates in children younger than 5 years. FINDINGS: Globally in 2019, an estimated 2·0 million babies (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 1·9-2·2) were stillborn at 28 weeks or more of gestation, with a global stillbirth rate of 13·9 stillbirths (90% UI 13·5-15·4) per 1000 total births. Stillbirth rates in 2019 varied widely across regions, from 22·8 stillbirths (19·8-27·7) per 1000 total births in west and central Africa to 2·9 (2·7-3·0) in western Europe. After west and central Africa, eastern and southern Africa and south Asia had the second and third highest stillbirth rates in 2019. The global annual rate of reduction in stillbirth rate was estimated at 2·3% (90% UI 1·7-2·7) from 2000 to 2019, which was lower than the 2·9% (2·5-3·2) annual rate of reduction in neonatal mortality rate (for neonates aged <28 days) and the 4·3% (3·8-4·7) annual rate of reduction in mortality rate among children aged 1-59 months during the same period. Based on the lower bound of the 90% UIs, 114 countries had an estimated decrease in stillbirth rate since 2000, with four countries having a decrease of at least 50·0%, 28 having a decrease of 25·0-49·9%, 50 having a decrease of 10·0-24·9%, and 32 having a decrease of less than 10·0%. For the remaining 81 countries, we found no decrease in stillbirth rate since 2000. Of these countries, 34 were in sub-Saharan Africa, 16 were in east Asia and the Pacific, and 15 were in Latin America and the Caribbean. INTERPRETATION: Progress in reducing the rate of stillbirths has been slow compared with decreases in the mortality rate of children younger than 5 years. Accelerated improvements are most needed in the regions and countries with high stillbirth rates, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention of stillbirths needs increased efforts to raise public awareness, improve data collection, assess progress, and understand public health priorities locally, all of which require investment. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez
5.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With Nigeria being one of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rate globally, identifying the risk factors associated with neonatal mortality is essential as we strive to proffer sustainable solutions. AIM: This retrospective hospital-based survey aimed to bridge this gap by evaluating the trends and risk factors associated with neonatal mortality in a teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: Records of newborns admitted at the special care baby unit from January 2018 to December 2019 (n = 1098) were accessed, and available data were extracted. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were performed at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The mortality rate was determined to be 16.9% (inborn babies- 12.9% and out-born babies- 22.3%), with 83.3% of the newborns dying within the first week. Some of the factors associated with neonatal mortality were proximity of newborns' mothers home to the hospital [p = 0.041; Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.670; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.455-0.985], maturity of the baby at delivery (p < 0.001; OR = 0.514; CI = 0.358-0.738), place of delivery-inborn or out-born (p < 0.001; OR = 0.515; CI = 0.375-0.709), place of delivery-in a hospital or a non-hospital setting (p = 0.048; OR = 0.633; CI = 0.401-0.999), and baby's weight (p < 0.001; CI = -0.684 to -0.411). CONCLUSION: Findings from the study indicate that newborns delivered at home, traditional birth attendant centres or hospitals without essential healthcare facilities have a higher mortality risk. This suggests that measures to improve the accessibility of pregnant women to essential healthcare services are a prerequisite to reducing the neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Mortalidade Infantil , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of risk factors on infant mortality in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo according to maternal and neonate characteristics, as well as mode of delivery. METHODS: An ecological, quantitative study based on secondary data retrieved from infant mortality and live birth data systems. Data from 39 municipalities located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo were analyzed. Newborn and maternal variables were extracted from the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System. Absolute and relative frequencies were presented, as well as linear regression and Pearson´s correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The following maternal profile prevailed from 2006 to 2016: 8 to 11 years of education (ß=73.58; p=0.023), age between 30 and 34 years (ß=19.04; p=0.015) and delivery by cesarean section (ß=39.59; p=0.009) after full-term pregnancy (ß=-14.20; p=0.324). Mortality rates decreased in neonates compared to other age groups (ß=-25.30; p<0.001). Infant mortality rates tended to be higher among women experiencing pre-term (r=0.86; p<0.001) or post-term (r=0.95; p<0.001) gestation. CONCLUSION: Maternal age and level of education increased among women giving birth in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo from 2006 to 2016. These were relevant factors for infant mortality rate reduction.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Mortalidade Infantil , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Gravidez
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 69, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422192

RESUMO

Introduction: globally, almost half of all deaths in children under five years of age occur among neonates. We investigated the predictors of mortality within 28 days among preterm infants at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: we reviewed admission records linked to birth, mortality, and hospital discharge from 1st January 2018 to 30th September 2019. Information was retrieved with a follow-up period of 28 days post-delivery to discharge/mortality. We used the Weibull hazards regression to establish the best predictor model for mortality among the neonates. Results: a total of 3237 case records of women with a median age of 27 years (IQR, 22-33) were included in the study, of which 971 (30%) delivered term infants and 2267 (70%) preterm infants. The overall median survival time of the infants was 98 hours (IQR, 34-360). Preterm birth was not associated with increased hazards of mortality compared to term birth (p=0.078). Being in the Kangaroo Mother Care compared to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and a unit increase in birth weight were independently associated with reduced hazards of mortality. On the other hand, having hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, experiencing difficulty in feeding and vaginal delivery compared to caesarean section independently increased the hazards of mortality. Conclusion: having hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, vaginal delivery, and experiencing difficulty in feeding increases the risk of mortality among neonates. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality should be directed on these factors in this setting.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Mortalidade Infantil , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Método Canguru/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1577, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India has achieved impressive gains in child survival over the last two decades; however, it was not successful in attaining MDG 2015 goals. The study's objective is to inquire how the survival status of the preceding child affects the survival of the next born child. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data from the National Family Health Survey, 2015-16. Analysis was restricted to women with second or higher-order births because women with first-order births do not have a preceding child. Proportional hazards regression, also called the Cox regression model, has been used to carry out the analysis. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival curves were also generated, with a focus on preceding birth intervals. RESULTS: Results found that female children were more likely to experience infant mortality than their male counterparts. Children born after birth intervals of 36+ months were least likely to experience infant mortality. Mother's education and household wealth are two strong predictors of child survival, while the place of residence and caste did not show any effect in the Cox proportional model. Infant and child deaths are highly clustered among those mothers whose earlier child is dead. CONCLUSION: Maternal childbearing age is still low in India, and it poses a high risk of infant and child death. Education is a way out, and there is a need to focus on girl's education. The government shall also focus on raising awareness of the importance of spacing between two successive births. There is also a need to create a better health infrastructure catering to the needs of rich and poor people alike.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Mortalidade da Criança , Criança , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 870-905, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. METHODS: We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. FINDINGS: Global U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3-74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2-41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8-29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3-19·8) in 2019. In 2019, 136 (67%) of 204 countries had a U5MR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030, 154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9·65 million (95% UI 9·05-10·30) in 2000 and 5·05 million (4·27-6·02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3·76 million [95% UI 3·53-4·02]) in 2000 to 48% (2·42 million; 2·06-2·86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0·80 (95% UI 0·71-0·86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1·44 (95% UI 1·27-1·58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1·87 million (95% UI 1·35-2·58; 37% [95% UI 32-43]) of 5·05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. INTERPRETATION: Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve U5MR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Glob Health ; 11: 14001, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386217

RESUMO

Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an evidence-based intervention with large protective effects on neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially among small babies. Despite the available evidence, KMC adoption, implementation and scale-up has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to inform current and future KMC implementation by identifying achievements and challenges in countries that are in the process of scaling up KMC. Methods: We collected and analyzed information to track the status of facility-based KMC in countries identified by the KMC Acceleration Partnership. We assessed the status of the scale-up in six priority countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria and Rwanda in Africa, and Bangladesh and India in Asia) for three periods: 2014 and prior, 2015-2017 and 2017-2019 across six strategic areas: national policy, country implementation, research, knowledge management, monitoring and evaluation and advocacy. We collected information through in-depth interviews with key participants, quantitative data extraction from the Demographic Health Survey and secondary data extraction from policies, briefs, program reports and other documents. Results: Progress in terms of national policy and advocacy appeared to occur quite quickly and evenly across the six priority countries, despite being at different stages during the first assessment. In the areas of country implementation support and research, progress occurred more slowly and results were more variable across countries. It was noted that the number of health facilities offering KMC services increased in all six priority countries, but coverage of KMC was difficult to estimate, demonstrating the ongoing challenges in the area of monitoring and evaluation despite progress made in integrating KMC indicators into national health information systems in five countries. Among the six priority countries - Malawi and Bangladesh had fully achieved at least four the first time six conditions were introduced. Conclusions: We documented notable achievements in the dimensions of policy and country implementation across the six countries, which were likely driven by government engagement to prioritize newborn care services and the promotion of KMC as a core intervention for small babies. We noted challenges in critical areas such as ambulatory KMC, follow-up, and monitoring and evaluation. Addressing these gaps while securing funding to allocate human resources adequately, promoting acceptance of KMC for demand creation and facilitating the use of data for decision making will be vital to ensure effective coverage at scale.


Assuntos
Método Canguru , Ásia , Criança , Etiópia , Humanos , Índia , Mortalidade Infantil
11.
CMAJ ; 193(30): E1164-E1172, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting reports have emerged for rates of preterm births and stillbirths during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of these reports did not account for natural variation in these rates. We aimed to evaluate variations in preterm birth and stillbirth rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked population health administrative databases of pregnant people giving birth in any hospital in Ontario between July 2002 and December 2020. We calculated preterm birth and stillbirth rates. We assessed preterm birth at 22-28, 29-32 and 33-36 weeks' gestation, and stillbirths at term and preterm gestation. We used Laney control P' charts for the 18-year study period (6-mo observation periods) and interrupted time-series analyses for monthly rates for the most recent 4 years. RESULTS: We evaluated 2 465 387 pregnancies, including 13 781 that resulted in stillbirth. The mean preterm birth rate for our cohort was 7.96% (range 7.32%-8.59%). From January to December 2020, we determined that the preterm birth rate in Ontario was 7.87%, with no special cause variation. The mean stillbirth rate for the cohort was 0.56% (range 0.48%-0.70%). From January to December 2020, the stillbirth rate was 0.53%, with no special cause variation. We did not find any special cause variation for preterm birth or stillbirth subgroups. We found no changes in slope or gap between prepandemic and pandemic periods using interrupted time-series analyses. INTERPRETATION: In Ontario, Canada, we found no special cause variation (unusual change) in preterm birth or stillbirth rates, overall or by subgroups, during the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the previous 17.5 years.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Ontário , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1493, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing knowledge has established the connection between maternal education and child survival, but little is known about how educational assortative mating (EAM), relates to childhood mortality. We attempt to examine this association in the context of Nigeria. METHODS: Data was obtained from the 2008, 2013, and 2018 waves of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, which is a cross-sectional study. The sample includes the analysis of 72,527 newborns within the 5 years preceding each survey. The dependent variables include the risk of a newborn dying before 12 months of age (infant mortality), or between the age of 12-59 months (child mortality). From the perspective of the mother, the independent variable, EAM, includes four categories (high-education homogamy, low-education homogamy, hypergamy, and hypogamy). The Cox proportional hazard regression was employed for multivariate analyses, while the estimation of mortality rates across the spectrum of EAM was obtained through the synthetic cohort technique. RESULTS: The risk of childhood mortality varied across the spectrum of EAM and was particularly lowest among those with high-education homogamy. Compared to children of mothers in low-education homogamy, children of mothers in high-education homogamy had 25, 31 to 19% significantly less likelihood of infant mortality, and 34, 41, and 57% significantly less likelihood of child mortality in 2008, 2013 and 2018 survey data, respectively. Also, compared to children of mothers in hypergamy, children of mothers in hypogamous unions had 20, 12, and 11% less likelihood of infant mortality, and 27, 36, and 1% less likelihood of child mortality across 2008, 2013 and 2018 surveys, respectively, although not significant at p < 0.05. Both infant and child mortality rates were highest in low-education homogamy, as expected, lowest in high-education homogamy, and lower in hypogamy than in hypergamy. Furthermore, the trends in the rate declined between 2008 and 2018, and were higher in 2018 than in 2013. CONCLUSION: This indicates that, beyond the absolute level of education, the similarities or dissimilarities in partners' education may have consequences for child survival, alluding to the family system theory. Future studies could investigate how this association varies when marital status is put into consideration.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045506, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to investigate how the direction and strength of the association between infant mortality and its predictors are changing over time in Bangladesh using a nationally representative sample for the period 2011-2014. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from two repeatedly cross-sectional Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHSs) for the years 2011 and 2014 were used. A total of 7664 (with 312 infant death) and 7048 (with 264 infant death) complete cases, respectively, from BDHS 2011 and 2014 datasets were included in the study. METHODS: Cox's proportional hazard model with robust standard error (SE) that adjusts for the complex survey design characteristics was implemented to assess how the risk factors associated with infant mortality change their paths. RESULTS: Results reflected that administrative division remained as a potential risk factor of infant death for both periods. Household's socioeconomic status, father's employment status, age difference between parents turned out to be potential risk factors in 2014, though they did not show any significant association with infant death in the year 2011. In contrast to 2011, mothers' individual-level characteristics such as age at childbirth, education, media exposure, employment status did not remain as significant risk factors for infant death in 2014. Younger fathers increased the burden of death among infants of adolescent mothers. At higher order births, the burden of infant death significantly shifted from rural to urban areas. From the year 2011 to 2014, urban areas achieved socioeconomic equity in infant survival, while the extent of inequity was increased in rural areas. CONCLUSION: Community-based programmes should be designed for urban mothers who are expecting higher order births. To eradicate the socioeconomic inequity in infant survival, the government should design strong and sustainable maternal and child healthcare facilities, especially for rural areas.


Assuntos
Morte do Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMJ ; 374: n1857, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the addition of placental growth factor (PlGF) measurement to current clinical assessment of women with suspected pre-eclampsia before 37 weeks' gestation would reduce maternal morbidity without increasing neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Stepped wedge cluster randomised control trial from 29 June 2017 to 26 April 2019. SETTING: National multisite trial in seven maternity hospitals throughout the island of Ireland PARTICIPANTS: Women with a singleton pregnancy between 20+0 to 36+6 weeks' gestation, with signs or symptoms suggestive of evolving pre-eclampsia. Of the 5718 women screened, 2583 were eligible and 2313 elected to participate. INTERVENTION: Participants were assigned randomly to either usual care or to usual care plus the addition of point-of-care PlGF testing based on the randomisation status of their maternity hospital at the time point of enrolment. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Co-primary outcomes of composite maternal morbidity and composite neonatal morbidity. Analysis was on an individual participant level using mixed-effects Poisson regression adjusted for time effects (with robust standard errors) by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: Of the 4000 anticipated recruitment target, 2313 eligible participants (57%) were enrolled, of whom 2219 (96%) were included in the primary analysis. Of these, 1202 (54%) participants were assigned to the usual care group, and 1017 (46%) were assigned the intervention of additional point-of-care PlGF testing. The results demonstrate that the integration of point-of-care PlGF testing resulted in no evidence of a difference in maternal morbidity-457/1202 (38%) of women in the control group versus 330/1017 (32%) of women in the intervention group (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.01 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.36), P=0.92)-or in neonatal morbidity-527/1202 (43%) of neonates in the control group versus 484/1017 (47%) in the intervention group (adjusted RR 1.03 (0.89 to 1.21), P=0.67). CONCLUSIONS: This was a pragmatic evaluation of an interventional diagnostic test, conducted nationally across multiple sites. These results do not support the incorporation of PlGF testing into routine clinical investigations for women presenting with suspected preterm pre-eclampsia, but nor do they exclude its potential benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02881073.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/metabolismo , Testes Imediatos/normas , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etnologia , Gravidez
15.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(10): 2780-2789, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265122

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the factors associated with the risk of neonatal mortality following caesarean births at country-level in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We used meta-analytic procedure to synthesize the results of most recent nationally representative cross-sectional Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets for 33 sub-Saharan Africa countries conducted between 2010 and 2018. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for all countries. RESULTS: The overall caesarean section (CS) rate was 4.9%, neonatal mortality was 2.8% and Post-CS neonatal mortality was 4.3%. The rates of CS were generally low and only five countries had CS rates at or above 10%. The overall pooled result showed a statistically significant increase in the odds of neonatal mortality after a caesarean section (CS) OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.53 -1.89; I2  = 39.3%, p < 0.012); such that children delivered via CS were 70% more likely not to survive beyond the first 30 days. Geographical variations existed in the measure of association between caesarean section and neonatal mortality. CONCLUSION: This paper has provided evidence on the low rates of CS and the associated neonatal mortality risk compared to normal deliveries in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Mortalidade Infantil , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 322, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent decreases in neonatal mortality have been slower than expected for most countries. This study aims to predict the risk of neonatal mortality using only data routinely available from birth records in the largest city of the Americas. METHODS: A probabilistic linkage of every birth record occurring in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2012 e 2017 was performed with the death records from 2012 to 2018 (1,202,843 births and 447,687 deaths), and a total of 7282 neonatal deaths were identified (a neonatal mortality rate of 6.46 per 1000 live births). Births from 2012 and 2016 (N = 941,308; or 83.44% of the total) were used to train five different machine learning algorithms, while births occurring in 2017 (N = 186,854; or 16.56% of the total) were used to test their predictive performance on new unseen data. RESULTS: The best performance was obtained by the extreme gradient boosting trees (XGBoost) algorithm, with a very high AUC of 0.97 and F1-score of 0.55. The 5% births with the highest predicted risk of neonatal death included more than 90% of the actual neonatal deaths. On the other hand, there were no deaths among the 5% births with the lowest predicted risk. There were no significant differences in predictive performance for vulnerable subgroups. The use of a smaller number of variables (WHO's five minimum perinatal indicators) decreased overall performance but the results still remained high (AUC of 0.91). With the addition of only three more variables, we achieved the same predictive performance (AUC of 0.97) as using all the 23 variables originally available from the Brazilian birth records. CONCLUSION: Machine learning algorithms were able to identify with very high predictive performance the neonatal mortality risk of newborns using only routinely collected data.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Perinatal , Declaração de Nascimento , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizado de Máquina , Gravidez
17.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1938871, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing neonatal mortality rates (NMR) in developing countries is a key global health goal, but weak registration systems in the region stifle public health efforts. OBJECTIVE: To calculate NMRs, investigate modifiable risk factors, and explore neonatal deaths by place of birth and death, and cause of death in two administrative areas in Ghana. METHODS: Data on livebirths were extracted from the health and demographic surveillance systems in Navrongo (2004-2012) and Kintampo (2005-2010). Cause of death was determined from neonatal verbal autopsy forms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse factors associated with neonatal death. Multiple imputations were used to address missing data. RESULTS: The overall NMR was 18.8 in Navrongo (17,016 live births, 320 deaths) and 12.5 in Kintampo (11,207 live births, 140 deaths). The annual NMR declined in both areas. 54.7% of the births occurred in health facilities. 70.9% of deaths occurred in the first week. The main causes of death were infection (NMR 4.3), asphyxia (NMR 3.7) and prematurity (NMR 2.2). The risk of death was higher among hospital births than home births: Navrongo (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.25, p = 0.01); Kintampo (adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.55-2.00, p < 0.01). However, a majority of deaths occurred at home (Navrongo 61.3%; Kintampo 50.7%). Among hospital births dying in hospital, the leading cause of death was asphyxia; among hospital and home births dying at home, it was infection. CONCLUSION: The NMR in these two areas of Ghana reduced over time. Preventing deaths by asphyxia and infection should be prioritised, centred respectively on improving post-delivery care in health facilities and subsequent post-natal care at home.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Causas de Morte , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 163, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The capacity for health comparisons, including the accurate comparison of indicators, is necessary for a comprehensive evaluation of well-being in places where people live. An important issue is the assessment of within-country heterogeneity for geographically extensive countries. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal changes in health status in Russia and to compare these regional changes with global trends. METHODS: The index, which considers the infant mortality rate and the male and female life expectancy at birth, was used for this purpose. Homogeneous territorial groups were identified using principal component analysis and multivariate ranking procedures. Trend analysis of individual indicators included in the index was also performed to assess the changes over the past 20 years (1990-2017). RESULTS: The study indicated a trend towards convergence in health indicators worldwide, which is largely due to changes in infant mortality. It also revealed that the trend of increasing life expectancy in many regions of Russia is not statistically significant. Significant interregional heterogeneity of health status in Russia was identified according to the application of typological ranking. The regions were characterized by similar index values until the mid-1990s. CONCLUSIONS: The strong spatial inequality in health of population was found in Russia. While many regions of Russia were comparable to the countries in the high-income group in terms of GDP, the progress in health was less pronounced. Perhaps this can be explained by intraregional inequality, expressed by significant fluctuations in income levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Renda , Expectativa de Vida , Demografia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Environ Int ; 156: 106739, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and infant mortality in developing countries, especially for the health effects of specific PM2.5 constituents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents with infant mortality in 15 African countries from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Based on the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) dataset, we included birth history records from 15 countries in Africa and conducted a multicountry cross-sectional study to examine the associations between specific PM2.5 constituents and infant mortality. We estimated annual residential exposure using satellite-derived PM2.5 for mass and a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) for its six constituents, including organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and soil dust (DUST). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed by fitting single-constituent models, the constituent-PM2.5 models, and the constituent-residual models. We also conducted stratified analyses by potential effect modifiers and examined the specific associations for each country. RESULTS: We found positive and significant associations between PM2.5 total mass and most of its constituents with infant mortality. In the single-constituent model, for an IQR increase in pollutant concentrations, the odds ratio (OR) of infant mortality was 1.03 (95 %CI; 1.01, 1.06) for PM2.5 total mass, and was 1.04 (95 %CI: 1.02, 1.06), 1.04 (95 %CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.02 (95 %CI: 1.00, 1.03), 1.04 (1.01, 1.06) for BC, OM, SO42-, and DUST, respectively. The associations of BC, OM, and SO42- remained significant in the other two models. We observed larger estimates in subgroups with older maternal age, living in urban areas, using unclean cooking energy, and with access to piped water. The associations varied among countries, and by different constituents. CONCLUSIONS: The carbonaceous fractions and sulfate play a major important role among PM2.5 constituents on infant mortality. Our findings have certain policy implications for implementing effective measures for targeted reduction in specific sources (fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning) of PM2.5 constituents against the risk of infant mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , África/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD009326, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal complications, including psychological/mental health problems and neonatal morbidity, have commonly been observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic, with long-term effects. This is an update of a review last published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the effects of different home-visiting schedules on maternal and newborn mortality during the early postpartum period. The review focuses on the frequency of home visits (how many home visits in total), the timing (when visits started, e.g. within 48 hours of the birth), duration (when visits ended), intensity (how many visits per week), and different types of home-visiting interventions. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (19 May 2021), and checked reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (including cluster-, quasi-RCTs and studies available only as abstracts) comparing different home-visiting interventions that enrolled participants in the early postpartum period (up to 42 days after birth) were eligible for inclusion. We excluded studies in which women were enrolled and received an intervention during the antenatal period (even if the intervention continued into the postnatal period), and studies recruiting only women from specific high-risk groups (e.g. women with alcohol or drug problems). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 randomised trials with data for 12,080 women. The trials were carried out in countries across the world, in both high- and low-resource settings. In low-resource settings, women receiving usual care may have received no additional postnatal care after early hospital discharge. The interventions and controls varied considerably across studies. Trials focused on three broad types of comparisons, as detailed below. In all but four of the included studies, postnatal care at home was delivered by healthcare professionals. The aim of all interventions was broadly to assess the well-being of mothers and babies, and to provide education and support. However, some interventions had more specific aims, such as to encourage breastfeeding, or to provide practical support. For most of our outcomes, only one or two studies provided data, and results were inconsistent overall. All studies had several domains with high or unclear risk of bias. More versus fewer home visits (five studies, 2102 women) The evidence is very uncertain about whether home visits have any effect on maternal and neonatal mortality (very low-certainty evidence). Mean postnatal depression scores as measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) may be slightly higher (worse) with more home visits, though the difference in scores was not clinically meaningful (mean difference (MD) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 1.79; two studies, 767 women; low-certainty evidence). Two separate analyses indicated conflicting results for maternal satisfaction (both low-certainty evidence); one indicated that there may be benefit with fewer visits, though the 95% CI just crossed the line of no effect (risk ratio (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.02; two studies, 862 women). However, in another study, the additional support provided by health visitors was associated with increased mean satisfaction scores (MD 14.70, 95% CI 8.43 to 20.97; one study, 280 women; low-certainty evidence). Infant healthcare utilisation may be decreased with more home visits (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.64; four studies, 1365 infants) and exclusive breastfeeding at six weeks may be increased (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36; three studies, 960 women; low-certainty evidence). Serious neonatal morbidity up to six months was not reported in any trial. Different models of postnatal care (three studies, 4394 women) In a cluster-RCT comparing usual care with individualised care by midwives, extended up to three months after the birth, there may be little or no difference in neonatal mortality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.12; one study, 696 infants). The proportion of women with EPDS scores ≥ 13 at four months is probably reduced with individualised care (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86; one study, 1295 women). One study suggests there may be little to no difference between home visits and telephone screening in neonatal morbidity up to 28 days (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.12; one study, 696 women). In a different study, there was no difference between breastfeeding promotion and routine visits in exclusive breastfeeding rates at six months (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.69; one study, 656 women). Home versus facility-based postnatal care (eight studies, 5179 women) The evidence suggests there may be little to no difference in postnatal depression rates at 42 days postpartum and also as measured on an EPDS scale at 60 days. Maternal satisfaction with postnatal care may be better with home visits (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.62; three studies, 2368 women). There may be little to no difference in infant emergency health care visits or infant hospital readmissions (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.38; three studies, 3257 women) or in exclusive breastfeeding at two weeks (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18; 1 study, 513 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of home visits on maternal and neonatal mortality. Individualised care as part of a package of home visits probably improves depression scores at four months and increasing the frequency of home visits may improve exclusive breastfeeding rates and infant healthcare utilisation. Maternal satisfaction may also be better with home visits compared to hospital check-ups. Overall, the certainty of evidence was found to be low and findings were not consistent among studies and comparisons. Further well designed RCTs evaluating this complex intervention will be required to formulate the optimal package.


Assuntos
Visita Domiciliar , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Viés , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Satisfação do Paciente , Mortalidade Perinatal , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
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