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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107881

RESUMO

Human mobility in urban environments is a central part of urbanization and has determined the layout of how cities are projected, built and renovated. One of the most problematic issues of urbanization is how to properly dispose of used tires, considering the worldwide annual production of approximately 1.4 billion units every year. Despite the efforts to properly dispose of used tires, they still represent a major problem for public health, notably serving as potential breeding sites for vector mosquitoes. Miami-Dade County, Florida has been suffering from arbovirus outbreaks for decades, including dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. The objective of this study was to survey tire shops inserted in the urban matrix across Miami-Dade County for the presence of vector mosquitoes. This study used a cross-sectional design to survey the production of vector mosquitoes at 12 tires shops. Mosquitoes were found in all but one of the tires shops surveyed. We collected a total of 1,110 mosquitoes comprising 528 adults and 582 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were abundantly found in both their immature and adult forms, constituting 99.99% of the mosquito samples collected. Aedes aegypti was the most abundant species recorded displaying the highest values in the Shannon and Simpson indices. The findings of this study demonstrate that vector mosquitoes, primarily Ae. aegypti, are being produced in tires shops in Miami indicating these habitats are highly favorable breeding environments for the production of vector mosquitoes and emphasizing the need to address how the abundance and presence of mosquitoes may vary seasonally in these environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/patogenicidade , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190076, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND In Brazil, the Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is endemic in the Amazon, from where it eventually expands into epidemic waves. Coastal south-eastern (SE) Brazil, which has been a YFV-free region for eight decades, has reported a severe sylvatic outbreak since 2016. The virus spread from the north toward the south of the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) state, causing 307 human cases with 105 deaths during the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 transmission seasons. It is unclear, however, whether the YFV would persist in the coastal Atlantic Forest of RJ during subsequent transmission seasons. OBJECTIVES To conduct a real-time surveillance and assess the potential persistence of YFV in the coastal Atlantic Forest of RJ during the 2018-2019 transmission season. METHODS We combined epizootic surveillance with fast diagnostic and molecular, phylogenetic, and evolutionary analyses. FINDINGS Using this integrative strategy, we detected the first evidence of YFV re-emergence in the third transmission season (2018-2019) in a dying howler monkey from the central region of the RJ state. The YFV detected in 2019 has the molecular signature associated with the current SE YFV outbreak and exhibited a close phylogenetic relationship with the YFV lineage that circulated in the same Atlantic Forest fragment during the past seasons. This lineage circulated along the coastal side of the Serra do Mar mountain chain, and its evolution seems to be mainly driven by genetic drift. The potential bridge vector Aedes albopictus was found probing on the recently dead howler monkey in the forest edge, very close to urban areas. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our data revealed that YFV transmission persisted at the same Atlantic Forest area for at least three consecutive transmission seasons without the need of new introductions. Our real-time surveillance strategy permitted health authorities to take preventive actions within 48 h after the detection of the sick non-human primate. The local virus persistence and the proximity of the epizootic forest to urban areas reinforces the concern with regards to the risk of re-urbanisation and seasonal re-emergence of YFV, stressing the need for continuous effective surveillance and high vaccination coverage in the SE region, particularly in RJ, an important tourist location.


Assuntos
Febre Amarela/terapia , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Alouatta , Filogeografia
3.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571764

RESUMO

Urbanization is increasing globally, and construction sites are an integral part of the urbanization process. It is unknown to what extent construction sites create favorable breeding conditions for mosquitoes. The main objectives of the present study were to identify what species of mosquitoes are present at construction sites and the respective physical features associated with their production. Eleven construction sites were cross-sectionally surveyed for the presence of mosquitoes in Miami-Dade County, Florida including in areas previously affected by the Zika virus outbreak in 2016. A total of 3.351 mosquitoes were collected; 2.680 adults and 671 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus comprised 95% of all collected mosquitoes and were the only species found in their immature forms breeding inside construction sites. Results for the Shannon and Simpson indices, considering both immature and adult specimens, yielded the highest values for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The individual rarefaction curves indicated that sampling sufficiency was highly asymptotic for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, and the plots of cumulative species abundance (ln S), Shannon index (H) and log evenness (ln E) (SHE) revealed the lack of heterogeneity of species composition, diversity and evenness for the mosquitoes found breeding in construction sites. The most productive construction site breeding features were elevator shafts, Jersey plastic barriers, flooded floors and stair shafts. The findings of this study indicate that vector mosquitoes breed in high numbers at construction sites and display reduced biodiversity comprising almost exclusively Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Such findings suggest that early phase construction sites have suitable conditions for the proliferation of vector mosquitoes. More studies are needed to identify modifiable worker- and organizational-level factors to improve mosquito control practices and guide future mosquito control strategies in urban environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Culex/patogenicidade , Culex/virologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Urbanização , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
4.
J Vis Exp ; (138)2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148488

RESUMO

Vector competence is defined as the potential of a mosquito species to transmit a mosquito-borne virus (mobovirus) to a vertebrate host. Viable virus particles are transmitted during a blood meal via the saliva of an infected mosquito. Forced salivation assays allow determining the vector potential on the basis of single mosquitoes, avoiding the use of animal experiments. The method is suitable to analyze a large number of mosquitoes in one experiment within a short period of time. Forced salivation assays were used to analyze 856 individual mosquitoes trapped in Germany, including two different Culex pipiens pipiens biotypes, Culex torrentium as well as Aedes albopictus, which were experimentally infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) and incubated at 18 °C or 27 °C for two and three weeks. The results indicated the lack of vector competence of the different Culex taxa for ZIKV. In contrast, Aedes albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV, but only at 27 °C, with transmission rates similar to an Aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel.


Assuntos
Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Salivação/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Animais , Insetos Vetores/virologia
5.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 152, 2018 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of transmission dynamics are routinely fitted to epidemiological time series, which must inevitably be aggregated at some spatial scale. Weekly case reports of chikungunya have been made available nationally for numerous countries in the Western Hemisphere since late 2013, and numerous models have made use of this data set for forecasting and inferential purposes. Motivated by an abundance of literature suggesting that the transmission of this mosquito-borne pathogen is localized at scales much finer than nationally, we fitted models at three different spatial scales to weekly case reports from Colombia to explore limitations of analyses of nationally aggregated time series data. METHODS: We adapted the recently developed Disease Transmission Kernel (DTK)-Dengue model for modeling chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission, given the numerous similarities of these viruses vectored by a common mosquito vector. We fitted versions of this model specified at different spatial scales to weekly case reports aggregated at different spatial scales: (1) single-patch national model fitted to national data; (2) single-patch departmental models fitted to departmental data; and (3) multi-patch departmental models fitted to departmental data, where the multiple patches refer to municipalities within a department. We compared the consistency of simulations from fitted models with empirical data. RESULTS: We found that model consistency with epidemic dynamics improved with increasing spatial granularity of the model. Specifically, the sum of single-patch departmental model fits better captured national-level temporal patterns than did a single-patch national model. Likewise, multi-patch departmental model fits better captured department-level temporal patterns than did single-patch departmental model fits. Furthermore, inferences about municipal-level incidence based on multi-patch departmental models fitted to department-level data were positively correlated with municipal-level data that were withheld from model fitting. CONCLUSIONS: Our model performed better when posed at finer spatial scales, due to better matching between human populations with locally relevant risk. Confronting spatially aggregated models with spatially aggregated data imposes a serious structural constraint on model behavior by averaging over epidemiologically meaningful spatial variation in drivers of transmission, impairing the ability of models to reproduce empirical patterns.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Animais , Colômbia , Humanos , Análise Espacial
6.
J Travel Med ; 25(suppl_1): S16-S26, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718435

RESUMO

Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral disease predominantly located in South East Asia and commonly associated with transmission between amplifying hosts, such as pigs, and the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus, where human infection represents a dead end in the life cycle of the virus. The expansion of JE beyond an Asiatic confine is dependent on a multitude of complex factors that stem back to genetic subtype variation. A complex interplay of the genetic variation and vector competencies combine with variables such as geography, climate change and urbanization. Methods: Our understanding of JE is still at an early stage with long-term longitudinal vector surveillance necessary to better understand the dynamics of JE transmission and to characterize the role of potential secondary vectors such as Cx. pipiens and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus. The authors review the vectors indicated in transmission and the ecological, genetic and anthropological factors that affect the disease's range and epidemiology. Conclusion: Monitoring for the presence of JE virus in mosquitoes in general can be used to estimate levels of potential JE exposure, intensity of viral activity and genetic variation of JEV throughout surveyed areas. Increased surveillance and diagnosis of viral encephalitis caused by genotype 5 JE virus is required in particular, with the expansion in epidemiology and disease prevalence in new geographic areas an issue of great concern. Additional studies that measure the impact of vectors (e.g. bionomics and vector competence) in the transmission of JEV and that incorporate environmental factors (e.g. weekly rainfall) are needed to define the roles of Culex species in the viral pathogenesis during outbreak and non-outbreak years.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática , Culex/classificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/patogenicidade , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Genoma , Humanos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Aves Domésticas , Prevalência , Suínos
7.
J Vector Ecol ; 43(1): 110-116, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757510

RESUMO

Culex pipiens, the endemic mosquito vector of West Nile virus in eastern North America, is responsible for maintenance of the virus in avian reservoir hosts, the most important of which appears to be the American robin. One reason for the greater involvement of robins is believed to be the feeding preference of Cx. pipiens, however, the basis of this preference is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that the species-specific chemical profile of avian uropygial gland secretions are used by Cx. pipiens as cues to locate birds and, therefore, may contribute to the observed feeding preferences. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the semi-volatile components of the uropygial gland secretions of American robins and two other common reservoir host species, the house sparrow and European starling. We found that the chemical composition of the robin secretions was different from those of the sparrows and starlings. Through behavioral choice trials conducted in a dual-port olfactometer, we also found that Cx. pipiens did not prefer the secretions of robins over the other two species. Surprisingly, however, we found that Cx pipiens were more often attracted to live starlings over robins and to the secretions of starlings over those of robins.


Assuntos
Culex/patogenicidade , Culex/virologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/parasitologia , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade
9.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_1): 450-458, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635625

RESUMO

Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares/diagnóstico , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/fisiopatologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Culicidae , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Infecções Oculares/fisiopatologia , Francisella tularensis/patogenicidade , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/fisiopatologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/diagnóstico , Febre do Vale de Rift/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/patogenicidade , Tularemia/diagnóstico , Tularemia/fisiopatologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/fisiopatologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/fisiopatologia
10.
J Math Biol ; 76(7): 1907-1950, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429122

RESUMO

Wolbachia-based biocontrol has recently emerged as a potential method for prevention and control of dengue and other vector-borne diseases. Major vector species, such as Aedes aegypti females, when deliberately infected with Wolbachia become less capable of getting viral infections and transmitting the virus to human hosts. In this paper, we propose an explicit sex-structured population model that describes an interaction of uninfected (wild) male and female mosquitoes and those deliberately infected with wMelPop strain of Wolbachia in the same locality. This particular strain of Wolbachia is regarded as the best blocker of dengue and other arboviral infections. However, wMelPop strain of Wolbachia also causes the loss of individual fitness in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our model allows for natural introduction of the decision (or control) variable, and we apply the optimal control approach to simulate wMelPop Wolbachia infestation of wild Aedes aegypti populations. The control action consists in continuous periodic releases of mosquitoes previously infected with wMelPop strain of Wolbachia in laboratory conditions. The ultimate purpose of control is to find a tradeoff between reaching the population replacement in minimum time and with minimum cost of the control effort. This approach also allows us to estimate the number of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes to be released in day-by-day control action. The proposed method of biological control is safe to human health, does not contaminate the environment, does not make harm to non-target species, and preserves their interaction with mosquitoes in the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Wolbachia/patogenicidade
11.
Transgenic Res ; 27(1): 51-60, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349579

RESUMO

Anopheline mosquitoes are major vectors of malaria parasites. When the gametocytes of the malaria parasite are transferred from a vertebrate to mosquitoes, they differentiate into gametes, and are fertilized in the midguts of mosquitoes. Xanthurenic acid (XA), a waste product of the ommochrome synthesis pathway, has been shown to induce exflagellation during microgametogenesis in vitro; however, it currently remains unclear whether endogenous XA affects the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo due to the lack of appropriate experimental systems such as a XA-deficient line. In the present study, we produced a XA-deficient line in Anopheles stephensi using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting (knockout) of the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (kmo) gene, which encodes an enzyme that participates in the ommochrome synthesis pathway. The knockout of kmo resulted in the absence of XA, and oocyst formation was inhibited in the midguts of these XA-deficient mosquitoes, which, in turn, reduced sporozoite numbers in their salivary glands. These results suggest that endogenous XA stimulates exflagellation, and enhances the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo. The XA-deficient line of the anopheline mosquito provides a useful system for analyzing and understanding the associated factors of malaria gametogenesis in the mosquito midgut.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Plasmodium berghei/patogenicidade , Xanturenatos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anopheles/metabolismo , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Quinurenina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Plasmodium berghei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia , Esporozoítos/patogenicidade , Nucleases dos Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição
12.
Math Biosci ; 295: 36-47, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031707

RESUMO

The efficiency of spatial repellents and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) is a key research topic in malaria control. Insecticidal nets reduce the mosquito-human contact rate and simultaneously decrease mosquito populations. However, LLINs demonstrate dissimilar efficiency against different species of malaria mosquitoes. Various factors have been proposed as an explanation, including differences in insecticide-induced mortality, flight characteristics, or persistence of attack. Here we present a discrete agent-based approach that enables the efficiency of LLINs, baited traps and Insecticide Residual Sprays (IRS) to be examined. The model is calibrated with hut-level experimental data to compare the efficiency of protection against two mosquito species: Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. We show that while such data does not allow an unambiguous identification of the details of how LLINs alter the vector behavior, the model calibrations quantify the overall impact of LLINs for the two different mosquito species. The simulations are generalized to community-scale scenarios that systematically demonstrate the lower efficiency of the LLINs in control of An. arabiensis compared to An. gambiae.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/patogenicidade , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Cadeias de Markov , Conceitos Matemáticos , Método de Monte Carlo , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(2): 410-419, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016330

RESUMO

Three novel insect-specific flaviviruses, isolated from mosquitoes collected in Peru, Malaysia (Sarawak), and the United States, are characterized. The new viruses, designated La Tina, Kampung Karu, and Long Pine Key, respectively, are antigenically and phylogenetically more similar to the mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens, than to the classical insect-specific viruses like cell fusing agent and Culex flavivirus. The potential implications of this relationship and the possible uses of these and other arbovirus-related insect-specific flaviviruses are reviewed.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Virologia/tendências , Animais , Flavivirus/genética , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Florida , Humanos , Malásia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Peru , Filogenia , Virologia/métodos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(5): 1009-1014, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255013

RESUMO

The spread of blood-borne pathogens by mosquitoes relies on their taking a blood meal; if there is no bite, there is no disease transmission. Although many species of mosquitoes never take a blood meal, identifying genes that distinguish blood feeding from obligate nonbiting is hampered by the fact that these different lifestyles occur in separate, genetically incompatible species. There is, however, one unique extant species with populations that share a common genetic background but blood feed in one region and are obligate nonbiters in the rest of their range: Wyeomyia smithii Contemporary blood-feeding and obligate nonbiting populations represent end points of divergence between fully interfertile southern and northern populations. This divergence has undoubtedly resulted in genetic changes that are unrelated to blood feeding, and the challenge is to winnow out the unrelated genetic factors to identify those related specifically to the evolutionary transition from blood feeding to obligate nonbiting. Herein, we determine differential gene expression resulting from directional selection on blood feeding within a polymorphic population to isolate genetic differences between blood feeding and obligate nonbiting. We show that the evolution of nonbiting has resulted in a greatly reduced metabolic investment compared with biting populations, a greater reliance on opportunistic metabolic pathways, and greater reliance on visual rather than olfactory sensory input. W. smithii provides a unique starting point to determine if there are universal nonbiting genes in mosquitoes that could be manipulated as a means to control vector-borne disease.


Assuntos
Culicidae/genética , Culicidae/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Sangue , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Culicidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177575

RESUMO

A mediados del 2015 se detectó en el noroeste de Brasil un incremento en el número de casos de microcefalia en recién nacidos y de alteraciones neurológicas, que se asociaron con una posible infección por el virus Zika y que más adelante comenzaría a observarse en otros países de Latinoamérica. En febrero de 2016 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró esta situación como una Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional (ESPII) y desde ese momento se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas para el control de la epidemia tanto a nivel internacional, como nacional en los diferentes países. La OMS lanzó un Plan de respuesta estratégico basado en la detección de casos, control de la infección y tratamiento, así como en la investigación y desarrollo de herramientas para el control de mosquitos, test diagnósticos y vacunas. En Europa se reforzaron los sistemas de vigilancia así como de control de los vectores, siendo los países que más casos notificaron: Francia, España y el Reino Unido. En España debido a la alta probabilidad de importación de casos por la estrecha relación con Latinoamérica, se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas que permitieron una rápida respuesta y un óptimo control, que incluyeron: la puesta en marcha de una vigilancia activa en la que colaboraron diversos profesionales, organismos y sociedades científicas; el refuerzo de actividades de vigilancia entomológica; el desarrollo de actividades de comunicación y la elaboración de recomendaciones dirigidas a profesionales sanitarios y a la población general


By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population


Assuntos
Humanos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Aedes/patogenicidade , Saúde do Viajante , Complicações na Gravidez , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17283, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229938

RESUMO

Mosquito surveillance and control are at the heart of efforts to eliminate malaria, however, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of mosquito behaviour that impede innovation. We hypothesised that a combination of human-associated stimuli could be used to attract and kill malaria vectors more successfully than individual stimuli, and at least as well as a real human. To test this in the field, we quantified Anopheles responses to olfactory, visual and thermal stimuli in Burkina Faso using a simple adhesive trap. Traps baited with human odour plus high contrast visual stimuli caught more Anopheles than traps with odour alone, showing that despite their nocturnal habit, malaria vectors make use of visual cues in host-seeking. The best performing traps, however, combined odour and visual stimuli with a thermal signature in the range equivalent to human body temperature. When tested against a human landing catch during peak mosquito abundance, this "host decoy" trap caught nearly ten times the number of Anopheles mosquitoes caught by a human collector. Exploiting the behavioural responses of mosquitoes to the entire suite of host stimuli promises to revolutionise vector surveillance and provide new paradigms in disease control.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Odorantes , Estimulação Luminosa , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Anopheles/patogenicidade , Comportamento Animal , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade
17.
Medisan ; 21(2)feb. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-841663

RESUMO

Teniendo en cuenta que en los momentos actuales existen emergencias y reemergencias de enfermedades infecciosas, fundamentalmente en zonas tropicales, se impone advertir a los profesionales de la salud y autoridades sanitarias, sobre la amenaza que representa el virus del Zika. A tales efectos se realizó una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva donde se analizan algunos aspectos de interés, tales como: vectores y reservorios, modos de transmisión, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico diferencial y tratamiento, entre otros, lo cual ayudará a elevar y nivel de conocimientos al respecto y estar preparados ante cualquier epidemia


Taking into account that nowadays emergencies and reemergencies of infectious diseases exist, fundamentally in tropical areas, it is necessary to advice health professionals and health authorities, about the threat that represents the Zika virus. To such effects an exhaustive literature review was carried out where some aspects of interest are analyzed, such as: vectors and pouches, transmission ways, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment, among others, which will help to increase the knowledge level in this respect and be prepared to face any epidemic disease of this nature


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Aedes , Infecção por Zika virus , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 146(6): 714-721, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664029

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulations are presently being used for insect control. In this study, a water dispersible powder (WDP) formulation using fly ash (FA) as a carrier material was developed and studied for its activity against the larval stages of major mosquito vector species. Methods: An indigenous isolate Bti (Vector Control Research Centre B17) was mass produced using a 100 l fermentor in soya-based medium. The bacterial biomass was mixed with lignite FA and made into WDP formulations. The most effective formulation was used for determining 50 per cent lethal concentration (LC50) against the larval stages of major mosquito vector species, effect on non-target organisms and mammalian systems using standard protocols. Results: Sixteen types of WDP formulations were prepared, of which the formulation containing bacterial biomass, FA and carboxymethyl cellulose was found to be the most effective. The LC50values of the formulation against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae were 0.0417, 0.0462 and 0.1091 mg/l, respectively. The formulation was found to be safe to non-target organisms found associated with the mosquito larval stages and also to mammalian systems. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that FA can be effectively used to replace commercially available carrier materials used in biopesticidal formulations.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Controle de Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/farmacologia , Cinza de Carvão/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Pós/química , Pós/farmacologia , Soja/parasitologia , Água/química
19.
Indian J Med Res ; 146(5): 572-575, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512599

RESUMO

With confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV) presence in India, screening of a large number of febrile illness samples yielded only four positive cases. In this review, we address the current concern with context to India. The possible reasons for low level of Zika prevalence in India have been discussed, by extracting some probable explanations from previous experience of chikungunya virus-vector model/studies. In the current context, it is hypothesized that Indian mosquito strains have lower susceptibility gradient/threshold for ZIKV. The very low positivity in the humans also indicates low levels of mosquito-human-mosquito transmission cycle. There is also a need to look for the existence of any such animal cycle/sylvatic involvement in India. The recently detected four cases in India show local transmission of ZIKV suggesting that ZIKV might have been present in India since long time. The earlier vector-virus relationship studies with chikungunya suggested that in due course of time, ZIKV might become a major public health concern in the future.


Assuntos
Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Saliva/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
20.
Med Parazitol (Mosk) ; (2): 37-42, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721601

RESUMO

West Nile fever (WNF) is a natural focal vector-borne disease; the main vectors are mosquitoes. Specific means for its prevention are not available; therefore, one of the main areas of WNF epidemiological surveillance is entomological monitoring that encompasses the control of the size ofvector populations arid the determination of infection rate of mos- quitoes with the virus in order to predict the epidemic situation. An analysis of normative documents on the collection and control of mosquito populations showed it necessary to improve entomological monitoring. Based on the literary and their own data, the authors propose to catch only Culix mosquitoes in the foci of WNF and to analyze their infection rates. The mosquitoes should be caught in mid-June to mid-September in the stationary points of urban and rural biotopes once every 7-10 days, by using automatic traps with CO2 as an attractant. At least 500 specimens should be examined for virus RNA by PCR every 7-10 days to predict the epidemic situation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Densidade Demográfica , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia
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