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1.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 184: 341-355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034747

RESUMO

Movement disorders encompass a variety of conditions affecting the nervous system at multiple levels. The pathologic processes underlying movement disorders alter the normal neural functions and could lead to aberrant neuroplastic changes and to clinical phenomenology that is not expressed only through mere motor symptoms. Given this complexity, the responsiveness to pharmacologic and surgical therapies is often disappointing. Growing evidence supports the efficacy of neurorehabilitation for the treatment of movement disorders. Specific form of training involving both goal-based practice and aerobic training could drive and modulate neuroplasticity in order to restore the circuitries dysfunctions and to achieve behavioral gains. This chapter provides an overview of the alterations expressed in some movement disorders in terms of clinical signs and symptoms and plasticity, and suggests which ones and why tailored rehabilitation strategies should be adopted for the management of the different movement disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos dos Movimentos , Reabilitação Neurológica , Humanos , Movimento , Transtornos dos Movimentos/terapia , Plasticidade Neuronal
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3046116, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035455

RESUMO

Research in robotics is one of the promising areas in mobile robot development, which is planned to be implemented in extreme dangerous conditions of areas explored by humans. This article aims at developing and improving a prototype of zoomorphic mobile robots that are designed to repeat the existing biological objects in nature. The authors performed a detailed analysis on the structure and dynamics of the geometrical family caterpillar movement, which is passed on a practical design implemented to perform the dynamic movement on uneven vertical surfaces. Based on the obtained analysis, the design and kinematic scheme of the movement is developed. Also, the structural control scheme via the Internet technologies that allow carrying out remote control is presented in this paper, considering the dangerous mobile robot work zones. To test the recommended solutions, the authors developed detailed 3D printed models of the mobile robot constructions for the implemented hardware. The model of the mobile robot is constructed, and the control system with examples of the user program code implementations is performed. Several experiments were performed, which showed the efficiency of the achieved mobile robot for solving problems of vertical movement on uneven metal surfaces. Moreover, the obtained slow motion of the designed robot proves that the simulated robot behaves similarly to the natural behavior of caterpillar movement.


Assuntos
Robótica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009888

RESUMO

As a result of the development of wireless indoor positioning techniques such as WiFi, Bluetooth, and Ultra-wideband (UWB), the positioning traces of moving people or objects in indoor environments can be tracked and recorded, and the distances moved can be estimated from these data traces. These estimates are very useful in many applications such as workload statistics and optimized job allocation in the field of logistics. However, due to the uncertainties of the wireless signal and corresponding positioning errors, accurately estimating movement distance still faces challenges. To address this issue, this paper proposes a movement status recognition-based distance estimating method to improve the accuracy. We divide the positioning traces into segments and use an encoder-decoder deep learning-based model to determine the motion status of each segment. Then, the distances of these segments are calculated by different distance estimating methods based on their movement statuses. The experiments on the real positioning traces demonstrate the proposed method can precisely identify the movement status and significantly improve the distance estimating accuracy.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009943

RESUMO

Motion recognition has a wide range of applications at present. Recently, motion recognition by analyzing the channel state information (CSI) in Wi-Fi packets has been favored by more and more scholars. Because CSI collected in the wireless signal environment of human activity usually carries a large amount of human-related information, the motion-recognition model trained for a specific person usually does not work well in predicting another person's motion. To deal with the difference, we propose a personnel-independent action-recognition model called WiPg, which is built by convolutional neural network (CNN) and generative adversarial network (GAN). According to CSI data of 14 yoga movements of 10 experimenters with different body types, model training and testing were carried out, and the recognition results, independent of bod type, were obtained. The experimental results show that the average correct rate of WiPg can reach 92.7% for recognition of the 14 yoga poses, and WiPg realizes "cross-personnel" movement recognition with excellent recognition performance.


Assuntos
Atividades Humanas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento , Reconhecimento Psicológico
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2146168, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019980

RESUMO

Importance: The association of COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization with functional mobility in community-dwelling adults above and beyond the impact of the pandemic control measures implemented in 2020 remains to be elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association between a COVID-19 diagnosis and change in mobility and physical function of adults in Canada aged 50 years or older during the initial pandemic lockdown. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 study. This study was launched on April 15, 2020, and the exit questionnaires were completed between September and December 2020. Prepandemic data from the first CLSA follow-up (2015-2018) were also used. Respondents included middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants residing in Canadian provinces. Data were analyzed from February to May 2021. Exposures: The assessment for self-reported COVID-19 status was adapted from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition available at the time of data collection; cases were classified as confirmed or probable, suspected, or non-COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in mobility since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using global rating of change in mobility scales at the COVID-19 exit questionnaire. Participant-reported new onset of difficulty in 3 physical function tasks was also examined. Results: Among 51 338 participants at baseline, 21 491 participants (41.9%) were 65 years or older and 26 155 participants (51.0%) were women and 25 183 (49.1%) were men. Of 2748 individuals with confirmed or probable or suspected COVID-19, 113 (94.2%) were not hospitalized. Individuals with confirmed or probable COVID-19 had higher odds of worsening mobility in terms of ability to engage in household activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.11-3.22), physical activity (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.76), and standing up after sitting in a chair (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.11) compared with adults without COVID-19 during the same pandemic time period. Similar results were found for suspected COVID-19 status (eg, household activity: OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.82-2.41). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among older adults in Canada found that receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis was significantly associated with worse mobility and functioning outcomes even in the absence of hospitalization. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 who do not require hospitalization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Exercício Físico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Vida Independente , Limitação da Mobilidade , Pandemias , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste para COVID-19 , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato
6.
Sports Health ; 14(1): 57-68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth populations benefit from neuromuscular training; however, the extent to which training frequency, baseline fitness, and maturity status moderate the response to long-term neuromuscular training in male youth remains unclear. HYPOTHESIS: Twice-weekly training (G2x) would induce larger improvements in movement competency and strength and power kinetics compared with once-weekly training (G1x). Maturity status and baseline fitness would also moderate the training response in strength and power kinetics. STUDY DESIGN: Nonrandomized, repeated-measures design. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Ninety-five male athletes of varying maturity status (pre- or post-peak height velocity) were divided into G2x, G1x, or control (CON) groups. Training groups received G2x or G1x for 28 weeks. Back squat assessment (BSA) movement competency and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ) kinetics were measured pre- and postintervention. RESULTS: The G2x achieved significantly greater adaptations in BSA total score, IMTP allometrically scaled peak force (PFallo), IMTP peak rate-of-force development (PRFD), SJ PFallo and PRFD compared with G1x and CON (P < 0.05; d = 0.3-0.9). Baseline fitness, training frequency and maturity status were significant predictors of IMTP PFallo (R2 = 27.5%) and PRFD (R2 = 42.9%), while a combination of training frequency and baseline fitness explained a small amount of variance in SJ PFallo (R2 = 12.2%) and SJ PRFD (R2 = 6.5%). There were no significant predictors of CMJ kinetics. CONCLUSION: G2x achieved significantly larger improvements in movement competency, isometric strength and concentric jump variables compared with G1x, with the training response greater in those youth with lower baseline fitness and more advanced maturity status. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Exposure to neuromuscular training twice-weekly elicits a greater response than G1x in young male athletes. Practitioners should take maturity status, training frequency, and baseline fitness levels of young male athletes into account when interpreting testing data, as these variables appear to moderate training responsiveness.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Força Muscular , Adolescente , Atletas , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Músculo Esquelético
7.
Sports Health ; 14(1): 69-76, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex-based differences in neuromuscular characteristics relevant to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk may arise as compensation for divergent strength development during puberty. Strength training during this period may prevent the development of these undesirable neuromuscular characteristics. HYPOTHESIS: Strength-trained middle school girls will have improved jump-landing biomechanics compared with control participants. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Maximum voluntary isometric contraction in hip extension and abduction and knee extension and flexion as well as Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores were collected for healthy female middle school students of grades 6 to 8. Strength-training participants (STR: N = 30; height, 1.63 ± 0.07 m; mass, 48.1 ± 7.6 kg; age, 12.5 ± 1.0 y) were matched with control participants (CON: N = 30; height, 1.60 ± 0.09 m; mass, 47.2 ± 8.9 kg; age, 12.6 ± 0.9 y). The training consisted of a 6-month strength-training program administered through a gym class curriculum that targeted the lower extremity. A repeated-measures mixed-model analysis of variance was used for comparisons between groups and across time (α = 0.05). Stepwise linear regression was used to examine the relationship between strength change and LESS score change. RESULTS: Strength values (N·m/kg) increased across time and to a greater degree in STR for hip extension (baseline 3.98 ± 1.15 vs follow-up 4.77 ± 1.80), hip abduction (4.22 ± 1.09 vs 5.13 ± 2.55), and knee flexion (3.27 ± 0.62 vs 3.64 ± 1.40) compared with CON. LESS grades significantly decreased across time in STR (5.58 ± 1.21 vs 4.86 ± 1.44) and were significantly lower than CON (5.98 ± 1.42) at follow-up (P < 0.001). The change in hip extension and knee extension strength explained 67% of the variance (P < 0.001) in the LESS change score in the STR group. CONCLUSION: A school-based strength-training program that focused on hip and knee musculature significantly improved jump-landing biomechanics (as determined by LESS) relevant to ACL injury risk. Further investigation using different strength-training approaches in this age group is warranted. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Strength training during adolescence holds promise as an injury prevention program. The use of a school-based approach is novel and may represent a robust opportunity for injury prevention programs, as physical education class is often mandatory in this age group.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Treinamento de Força , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Movimento
8.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103600, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628045

RESUMO

A key to the development of more effective interventions to promote movement and reduce physical inactivity in office workplaces may be to measure and locate individual's spatial movement. Using an activity space estimation method, high resolution location data collected from 15 office workers over 12 days were used to estimate and analyse the location and extent of their daily spatial movement whilst in an office work-based setting. The results indicated that the method, kernel density estimation, combined with location data offers significant opportunities to not only measure and compare spatial movement behaviours but also simultaneously identify the locations where the behaviours occur. Combined with other data streams, this method will allow researchers to further investigate the influence of different environmental characteristics on these behaviours, potentially leading the development of more effective, longer lasting interventions to promote movement and reduce stationary behaviour, ultimately improving the health of office workers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Movimento , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103601, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634583

RESUMO

This study examined whether a repetitive light assembly task could be performed according to different movement sequences identified as ways of doing (WoD), and whether the age of the participants or the work pace affected the number of WoDs selected by each participant, or the kinematic parameters for each WoDs. For two work paces, 62 right-handed men in 3 age-groups were asked to fix a handle on a base with 2 nuts without discontinuity for a period of 20 min; no assembly procedure was demonstrated. The WoDs were characterized by a cross tabulation video coding method, and by measuring vertical force applied and the parameters of upper limb kinematics, as well as these measures' approximate entropy (ApEN). Five main different WoDs were used. Although most participants varied their WoD, neither participant age nor work pace affected the number of WoD they used. However, the WoDs differed from each other by the sequence of movements and by the level of ApEn of their kinematic variables without interfering with the production rate. Allowing operators to vary their WoDs when performing repetitive tasks could reduce strain on the locomotor system.


Assuntos
Sistema Musculoesquelético , Extremidade Superior , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento
10.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103612, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743974

RESUMO

Manual handling training may be improved if it relied on the provision of individualized, augmented feedback about key movement features. The purpose of this study was to compare the reduction in sagittal spine motion during manual lifting tasks following two training approaches: didactic (DID) and augmented feedback (AUG). Untrained participants (n = 26) completed lifting tests (box, medication bag, and paramedic backboard) and a randomly-assigned intervention involving 50 practice box lifts. Lifting tests were performed immediately before and after training, and one-week after interventions. Both groups exhibited reductions in spine motions immediately and one-week after the interventions. However, the AUG intervention group elicited significantly greater reductions in 5 of 12 between-group comparisons (3 tasks × 4 spine motion variables). The results of the current study support the use of augmented feedback-based approaches to manual handling training over education-based approaches.


Assuntos
Remoção , Coluna Vertebral , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento
11.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103639, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753097

RESUMO

This study compares human climbing performance, including climbing speed and movement and force patterns, between rail- and rung-climbing styles for a moderate aerial ladder slope (52.5°). Hand and foot movements and forces were recorded for 9 male and 10 female firefighters as they ascended and descended a 3.4-m ladder using elevated handrails (rail-climbing) or rungs (rung-climbing) for hand support. The results indicated that climbers used three or more points of contact 54% of the time for rung-climbing and 100% of the time for rail-climbing. Furthermore, rail-climbing was 10% faster than rung-climbing. In rail-climbing, the lateral hand forces were mostly directed away from the body; while during rung-climbing, they were alternated in lateral and medial directions. Overall, the results suggested that rail-climbing provides better control over body positioning and faster climbing speed. Furthermore, the continuous contact of both hands in rail-climbing may reduce the fall risk by facilitating the recovery from a slip or perturbation.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento
12.
ISA Trans ; 119: 1-16, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653511

RESUMO

The article concerns the automation of vessel movement anomaly detection for maritime and coastal traffic safety services. Deep Learning techniques, specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), were used to solve this problem. Three variants of the datasets, containing samples of vessel traffic routes in relation to the prohibited area in the form of a grayscale image, were generated. 1458 convolutional neural networks with different structures were trained to find the best structure to classify anomalies. The influence of various parameters of network structures on the overall accuracy of classification was examined. For the best networks, class prediction rates were examined. Activations of selected convolutional layers were studied and visualized to present how the network works in a friendly and understandable way. The best convolutional neural network for detecting vessel movement anomalies has been proposed. The proposed CNN is compared with multiple baseline algorithms trained on the same dataset.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Automação , Movimento
13.
Hum Mov Sci ; 81: 102913, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairments of the upper limb (UL) are common after a stroke and may affect bilateral coordination. A better understanding of UL bilateral coordination is required for designing innovative rehabilitation strategies. OBJECTIVE: To assess bilateral coordination after stroke using time-distance, velocity and force parameters during an UL bilateral task performed by simultaneously pushing handles on a bilateral exerciser at two levels of force. METHODS: Two groups were included to assess bilateral coordination on a newly designed bimanual exerciser- One group of individuals at least 3 months post-stroke (n = 19) with moderate impairment and one group of healthy individuals (n = 20). Participants performed linear movements by pushing simultaneously with both hands on instrumented handles. The task consisted of two one-minute trials performed in sitting at two levels of participants' maximum force (MF): 30% and 15%, with visual feedback. Time-distance parameters, spatial, velocity and force profiles were compared between groups, between levels of resistance and the first part (0-50%) and entire duration of the pushing cycles (0-100%). RESULTS: The mean pushing time was longer at 30% MF compared to 15% MF in the stroke group. Spatial profiles, represented by hand positions on the rail, revealed that the paretic hand lagged slightly behind throughout the cycle. For velocity, both groups displayed good coordination. It was less coupled at 30% than 15% MF and a trend was observed toward more lag occurrence in the stroke group. Except for lower forces on the paretic side in the stroke group, the shape of the force profiles was similar between groups, sides and levels of resistance. For all parameters, the coordination was good up to 75% of the pushing cycle and decreased toward the end of the cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals after stroke presented with overall spatial and temporal coupling of the UL during bilateral pushing movements. The relay of information at different levels of the nervous system might explain the coordinated pushing movements and might be interesting for training UL coordination.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Mãos , Humanos , Movimento , Extremidade Superior
14.
Hum Mov Sci ; 81: 102917, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954624

RESUMO

The accuracy and precision of target-directed aiming is contingent upon the availability of online visual feedback. The present study aimed to examine the visual regulation of aiming with blurred vision. The aiming task was executed using a stylus on a graphics digitizing board, which was translated onto a screen in the form of a cursor (representing the moving limb) and target. The vision conditions involved the complete disappearance or blur of the cursor alone, target alone, and cursor+target. These conditions involved leaving the screen uncovered or covering with a diffusing sheet to induce blur. The distance between the screen and sheet was increased to make the blur progressively more severe (0 cm, 3 cm). Results showed significantly less radial and variable error under blurred compared to no vision of the cursor and cursor+target. These findings were corroborated by the movement kinematics including a shorter proportion of time to peak velocity, more negative within-participant correlation between the distances travelled to and after peak velocity, and lower spatial variability from peak velocity to the end of the movement under blurred vision. The superior accuracy and precision under the blurred compared to no vision conditions is consistent with functioning visual regulation of aiming, which is primarily contingent upon the online visual feedback of the moving limb. This outcome may be attributed to the processing of low spatial-high temporal frequencies. Potential implications for low vision diagnostics are discussed.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Movimento , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual
15.
Hum Mov Sci ; 81: 102918, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968877

RESUMO

Understanding how athletes reduce motor variability in redundant tasks contributes to improving sports performance and elucidating human motor control mechanisms. This study aimed to clarify how experienced basketball players use two hierarchical redundancies, ball-level and body-level, for accurate free-throw shooting as no study has simultaneously examined how these hierarchical redundancies are used. Experienced basketball players (intermediate-level and top-level) participated in a free-throw shooting experiment using a motion capture system under two conditions: with feedback (FB) and no-feedback (NF) conditions. To quantify the coordination, the solution manifold and tolerance, noise, and covariation analysis were used for the ball-level redundancy, while uncontrolled manifold analysis and the covariation by randomization method were used for the body-level redundancy. The ball-level analysis revealed that the covariation and noise components were related to the performance, and that the noise component showed a larger contribution to performance than the covariation component, indicating that the reproducibility of the release parameters has a larger room for improvement than coordination. The coordination of release parameters was not significantly different between the FB and NF conditions, indicating that the effect of performance feedback on coordination is unclear. The body-level analysis revealed that interjoint coordination reduced the variability of the longitudinal positions of the hand and fingertip, showing that interjoint coordination improves the reproducibility of the ball-release position, especially in the direction that strongly affects the motor performance. In conclusion, interjoint coordination improved the reproducibility of ball-release parameters, which enhanced motor performance in basketball free-throw shooting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Mãos , Humanos , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964840

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Scapular protraction and retraction are often essential for occupational performance; however, clinical assessment of these movements is uniquely challenging. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the interrater reliability of a novel goniometric method to measure scapular protraction and retraction. DESIGN: An observational, descriptive design was implemented to evaluate interrater reliability between two experienced occupational therapists who were also certified hand therapists. SETTING: Academic institution. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of graduate students (N = 80). Outcomes and Measures: The hypothesis, developed before study implementation, was that the technique would demonstrate clinically acceptable interrater reliability, defined as a standard error of measurement (SEM) <8°. Goniometric measurements of the scapula at rest, in maximal protraction, and in maximal retraction were independently obtained from each participant by each evaluator. The goniometer was aligned on the scapula using the superior angle as the axis of motion to measure the movement of the acromion relative to the frontal plane. The SEM was calculated in each position using the intraclass correlation coefficient values and the average of the standard deviations from the two raters. RESULTS: The SEM values between the two evaluators for the resting, protracted, and retracted positions were 3.46°, 2.93°, and 2.74°, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The SEM between the two evaluators for each scapular position was <4°, suggesting that the technique may be clinically reliable. However, additional research regarding the reliability and validity of the technique is recommended. What This Article Adds: The findings of this study support the use of goniometry to measure scapular protraction and retraction in relation to occupational performance. The technique provides a way to quantify baseline scapular mobility and track progress.


Assuntos
Movimento , Escápula , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2393: 863-876, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837216

RESUMO

Swallowing is a critical function that enables humans to sustain life. When swallowing is compromised, the consequences can be devastating and include malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory compromise, and even death. Swallowing disorders (i.e., dysphagia) are very common in many disorders and diseases, such as stroke, ALS, Parkinson disease, and more, and in fact millions of people across the world are diagnosed with oropharyngeal swallowing disorders every year. Current rehabilitative interventions for dysphagia can be effective, but require daily performance of swallowing exercises that primarily rely on expensive biofeedback devices (e.g., oral manometers, electromyographic (EMG) devices, and endoscopic devices). These types of devices are often only available in medical facilities. However, it is not feasible or economically viable for patients to make multiple visits per day or week to a clinic to receive intensive treatment, especially given mobility limitations that many affected patients often experience. This can reduce treatment adherence and result in decreased rehabilitation potential, re-hospitalizations, and increased healthcare costs. To address this gap, we designed a novel specialized portable skin-mounted flexible sensor system that allows remote signal acquisition of swallowing-related signals. Herein, we report technical details for the fabrication of the skin-mounted flexible sensor patch that is tailored for the human submental (under the chin) area, enabling the continuous, reliable monitoring of both muscles' activity (i.e., EMG signals) and laryngeal movements during swallowing events. The sensor patch is wired to a portable reusable wireless (Bluetooth) unit compatible with smart watches, phones, and tablets for post-data analysis and reporting through a cloud server, which would potentially enable telemonitoring of patients with dysphagia.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Movimento , Doença de Parkinson
18.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103553, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428619

RESUMO

This study assessed the influence of different types of flooring on infants' crawling motion patterns and performance. Each participating infant (range: 8.7-12.4 months) was encouraged to crawl on a tatami mat made of woven straw as well as other flooring types such as hardwood, carpet, and joint mat. Material tests were conducted to quantify the friction and shock absorption of the flooring. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to measure spatiotemporal and kinematic variables during hands-and-knees crawling. An increased crawling rate was associated with a faster cadence of cyclic arm movements, but not with crawling stride length. Hardwood flooring had a significantly lower crawling rate and longer duration of hand-floor contact than tatami, while the crawling stride length and range of motion of joint movements were hardly affected by flooring type. The results of this study suggest a drawback of hardwood flooring in terms of infants' effective quadrupedal locomotion.


Assuntos
Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Mãos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Lactente , Joelho , Locomoção , Movimento
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150034, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500279

RESUMO

Land use change alters wildlife critical animal behaviours such as movement, becoming the main driver threatening wildlife ecological functions (WEF) and nature's contribution to people (NCP) provided by terrestrial species. Despite the negative impacts of current rates of terrestrial fragmentation on WEF, many ecological processes can be still occurring through aerial habitats. Here, we propose and discuss that the movement capabilities of aerial species, as well their functional redundancy with non-flying wildlife, are the mechanisms by which some ecological processes can be still occurring. We show examples of how the movements of aerial wildlife may be masking the loss of important functions and contributions by compensating for the lost ecosystem functions previously provided by terrestrial wildlife. We also highlight the implications of losing aerial wildlife in areas where that functional redundancy was already lost due to the impacts of land use change on terrestrial wildlife. We suggest to consider flying wildlife as a biological insurance against the loss of WEF and NCP due to terrestrial fragmentation and proposed some aeroconservation measures.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esportes , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Movimento
20.
Hum Mov Sci ; 81: 102914, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923206

RESUMO

Fall related injuries in older adults are a major healthcare concern. During a fall, the hands and arms play an important role in minimizing trauma from ground impact. Although older adults are able to orient the hands and arms into a protective orientation after falling and prior to ground impact, an inability to avoid increased body impact occurs with age. Previous investigations have generally studied rapid arm movements in the pre-impact phase or absorbing energy in the post-impact phase. There are no known studies that have directly examined both the pre-impact and post-impact phase in sequence in a forward fall. The aim of this study was to identify age-related biomechanical and neuromuscular changes in evoked arm reactions in response to forward falls that may increase fall injury risk. Fourteen younger and 15 older adults participated. Falls were simulated while standing with torso and legs restrained via a moving pendulum system from 4 different initial lean angles. While there was not a significant age-related difference in the amount of energy absorbed post-impact (p = 0.68), older adults exhibited an 11% smaller maximum vertical ground reaction force when normalized to body weight (p = 0.031), and 8 degrees less elbow extension at impact (p = 0.045). A significant interaction between age and initial lean angle (p = 0.024), indicated that older adults required 54%, 54%, 41%, and 57% greater elbow angular displacement after impact at the low, medium, medium-high, and high initial lean angles compared to younger adults. These results suggested older adults may be at greater risk of increased body impact due to increased elbow flexion angular displacement after impact when the hands and arms are able to contact the ground first. Both groups exhibited robust modulation to the initial lean angle with no observed age-related differences in the initial onset timing or amplitude of muscle activation levels. There were no significant age-related differences in the EMG timing, amplitude or co-activation of muscle activation preceding impact or following impact indicating comparable neuromotor response patterns between older and younger adults. These results suggest that aging changes in muscular elements may be more implicated in the observed differences than changes in neuromuscular capacity. Future work is needed to test the efficacy of different modalities (e.g. instruction, strength, power, perturbation training, fall landing techniques) aimed at reducing fall injury risk.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Mãos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Cinética , Movimento
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