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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18941, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000413

RESUMO

The abnormal inter-segmental coordination of the spine during lifting could be used to monitor disease progression and rehabilitation efficacy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study aimed to compare the inter-segmental coordination patterns and variability of the spine during lifting between patients with AS (n = 9) and control (n = 15) groups.Continuous relative (CRP) and deviation (DP) phases between each segment of the spine (two lumbar and three thorax segments) and lumbosacral joint were calculated. The CRP and DP curves among participants were decomposed into few functional principal components (FPC) via functional principal component analysis (FPCA). The FPC score of CRP or DP of the two groups were compared, and its relationship with the indexes of spinal mobility was investigated.Compared with the control group, the AS patients showed more anti-phase coordination patterns in each relative upper spine segment and lumbosacral joint. In addition, either less or more variation was found in the coordination of each relative lower spine segment and lumbosacral joint during different time periods of lifting for these patients. Some cases were considerably related to spinal mobility.the inter-segmental coordination of the spine was altered during lifting in AS patients to enable movement, albeit inefficient and might cause spinal mobility impairment.


Assuntos
Remoção , Movimento/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
2.
J Oral Sci ; 62(1): 18-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996517

RESUMO

This study used 320-row area detector computed tomography (320-ADCT) to determine whether kinematic swallowing events and bolus movement through the oropharynx are affected by bolus consistency and angle of recline. Fourteen healthy adults (4 men, 10 women; age, 22-90 years) underwent 320-ADCT assessment during three 10-mL barium swallow tests, with honey-thick liquid at 60° recline (60°thick), thin liquid at 60° recline (60°thin), and thin liquid at 45° recline (45°thin). The times of swallowing events were measured and compared among the different tests. Bolus propulsion, onset time of true vocal cord (TVC) closure, and upper esophageal sphincter opening were significantly earlier for 60°thin than for 60°thick. Onset time did not significantly differ between 60°thin and 45°thin; however, greater variability was noted for onset of TVC closure with 45°thin, as the TVC started to close before onset of swallowing in 30% of participants. Modulation of TVC closure depends on bolus transport in different reclining positions. The 45° reclining position elicited pre-swallow TVC closure in some participants, which suggests that excessive recline can increase perceived risk of airway invasion during swallowing.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 21-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613188

RESUMO

Subjective evaluations of balance performance, like the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS), are highly popular. Alternatively, quantitative measures may offer additional clarity in identifying balance dysfunction. A novel measure to define balance impairments is time to boundary (TTB), which represents the amount of time available to make corrective postural adjustments prior to the centre of pressure (CoP) reaching the edge of the base of support. The purpose of this investigation was to assess TTB and traditional measures of CoP displacement of young adults performing the mBESS on a BTrackS balance plate. Path length and TTB were calculated in anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions, respectively. AP and ML path lengths were largest in Single stance (109.2 & 118.1 cm, respectively) and smallest in Dual stance (27.1 & 36.4 cm, respectively). The average AP and ML TTBs were higher in Dual (10.67 & 7.27 s, respectively) compared to Single (3.54 & 1.20 s, respectively) or Tandem (10.11 & 1.94 s, respectively) stances, and lower in Single stance compared to Tandem. Given the effect sizes for TTB were greater than those of path length in both directions, TTB more adequately differentiates these stance conditions than path length or subjective scores.


Assuntos
Ergometria/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107779, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634474

RESUMO

Here, we report enhanced the in vitro effect of potassium usnate on coupled adult Schistosoma mansoni worms at different time intervals and concentrations. The evaluated schistosomicidal parameters were the following: motility, mortality, fecundity and integumentary changes, as viewed in photomicrographs. Potassium usnate was able to cause 100 and 50% mortality at 100 and 50 µM concentrations, respectively, after 24 h of exposure, while 25 and 12.5 µM concentrations caused changes in motility at 48 and 72 h, and lethality at 96 and 120 h respectively. Eggs were not detected at any of the concentrations analyzed. Photomicrographs revealed morphological tegument alterations within all periods of observation, such as swelling, blisters, dorsoventral contraction, short and curved worms. In conclusion, our results indicate that potassium usnate represents a possible candidate for a new drug in the control of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotomicrografia , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 94-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648607

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that providing learners with self-control over some aspect of practice enhances motor learning (for a review see Wulf, 2007). One explanation for the self-control effect is that learners engage in deeper information processing when they are allowed to make choices during practice. Recent research has supported this line of thinking by showing that the self-control effect was eliminated for learners who engaged in a cognitive load task during the interval following completion of discrete task trials (Carter & Ste-Marie, 2017). The current study tested the effects of imposing a cognitive load task during the completion of continuous task trials. Participants (N = 48) were divided into self-control (SC), self-control with load (SCL), and two corresponding yoked (YK, YKL) groups. Participants learned a continuous tracing task and then performed 24-hour retention and transfer tests. Retention and transfer test movement times were significantly faster for SC compared to YK participants within the No Load condition but did not differ between these participants within the Load condition. Errors were similar among all groups in retention and transfer. These results provide support for the importance of information processing in regards to the self-controlled learning benefit.


Assuntos
Cognição , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 46-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658889

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pelvis and torso angular jerk on a performance indicator of hitting, specifically hand velocity. Eighteen softball athletes were analysed (20.3 ± 1.6 years; 164.9 ± 24.9 cm; 74.4 ± 14.0 kg). Participants were instructed to execute 3 maximum effort swings off a stationary tee at the middle "strike-zone" location. Angular jerk data were analysed during the acceleration phase of the swing, the time between foot contact and ball contact. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship of minimal pelvis angular jerk and minimal torso angular jerk to angular hand velocity at ball contact. No significant relationship was found between pelvis angular jerk and angular hand velocity at ball contact (r = 0.192, p = 0.754). The curvilinear regression model for pelvis angular jerk produced: R2 = 0.037; F (2, 17) = 0.288; p = 0.754. Lack of significant findings suggests a relationship between jerk and angular hand velocity does not exist within female softball hitting. Future research should investigate the timing of minimal jerk through the acceleration phase as a predictor of angular hand velocity, rather than the value of jerk itself.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beisebol/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(2): 170-179, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697853

RESUMO

Most sleep bruxism (SB) episodes are accompanied by an increase in sympathetic tone and heart rate (HR). To characterise heart rate (HR) changes in relation to rhythmic masticatory muscle activities (RMMAs) in SB patients, polysomnographic recordings were performed on 10 SB patients and 11 normal controls. The duration of movement events, amplitude and duration of HR increases, and time to reach HR peak associated with RMMAs and limb movements (LMs) were determined, and the relationships of the parameters of HR increases with types of movements and RMMAs were analysed. All of the parameters of HR increases associated with three types of movements (RMMAs, RMMAs + LMs and LMs) and masseter activities (phasic, tonic and mixed) were significantly different (two-way ANOVA, P < .001 for all) in both SB patients and controls. The duration of RMMAs/LMs was positively correlated with the parameters (SB patients: R2  = .24-.85, P < .0001; controls: R2  = .23-.68, P < .0001). The amplitude of HR increases was also positively correlated with respiration changes in the SB patients (R2  = .3258, P < .0001) and controls (R2  = .09469, P < .05). The proportions of phasic RMMAs associated with awakenings, microarousals and no cortical arousals were significantly different and so were the proportions of tonic and mixed RMMAs (Friedman's tests, P < .05-.001). The HR increases associated with RMMAs may be intrinsic to the cortical arousal response and autonomic activation, and differences in HR increases associated with different types of movements and RMMAs might be related to the changes in respiration and differences in cortical arousal levels.


Assuntos
Bruxismo do Sono , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Músculos da Mastigação , Movimento , Polissonografia
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 150-158, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699000

RESUMO

Application of machine learning techniques has the potential to yield unseen insights into movement and permits visualisation of complex behaviours and tangible profiles. The aim of this study was to identify profiles of relative motor competence (MC) and movement behaviours in pre-school children using novel analytics. One-hundred and twenty-five children (4.3 ± 0.5y, 1.04 ± 0.05 m, 17.8 ± 3.2 kg, BMI: 16.2 ± 1.9 kg.m2) took part in this study. Measures included accelerometer-derived 24-h activity, MC (Movement Assessment Battery for Children second edition), height, weight and waist circumference, from which zBMI were derived. Self-Organised Map (SOM) analysis was used to classify participants' profiles and a k-means cluster analysis was used to classify the neurons into larger groups according to the input variables. These clusters were used to describe the individuals' characteristics according to their MC and PA compositions. The SOM analysis indicated five profiles according to MC and PA. One cluster was identified as having both the lowest MC and MVPA (profile 2), whilst profiles 4 and 5 show moderate-high values of PA and MC. We present a novel pathway to profiling complex tenets of human movement and behaviour, which has never previously been implemented in pre-school children, highlighting that the focus should change from obesity monitoring, to "moving well".Abbreviations: MC: Motor competence; PA: Physical activity; MVPA: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; SOM: Self-organized map; BMI: Body mass index; MABC2: Movement assessment battery for children 2nd edition; MANOVA: Multiple analysis of variance.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia
9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 6-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603027

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the characteristics of electromyography (EMG) and kinematics of the supporting leg affecting energy cost while running at incline, level, and decline slopes. Twelve male Japanese middle- and long-distance runners volunteered for this study. The subjects were asked to run at 13.5 km·h-1 on a treadmill under three slope conditions. Sagittal plane kinematics and the EMG of the lower limb muscles, respiratory gases were recorded. Energy cost differed significantly between slopes, being the lowest in decline slope and the greatest in incline slope. Integrated EMG (iEMG) of leg extensor muscles was greater in the incline slope than in the decline slope, and iEMG of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles correlated positively with energy cost. The knee and ankle joint kinematics were associated with energy cost during running. In incline slope, the knee and ankle joints were more extended (plantarflexed) to lift the body. These movements may disturb the coordination between the ankle and knee joints. The gastrocnemius muscle would do greater mechanical work to plantarflex the ankle joint rather than transfer mechanical energy as well as greater mechanical work of mono-articular muscles. These muscular activities would increase energy cost.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 62-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623527

RESUMO

This study investigated whether using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) can identify different walking conditions, including level walking (LW), descent (DC) and ascent (AC) slope walking as well as downstairs (DS) and upstairs (US) walking. Thirty healthy participants performed walking under five conditions. The IMU was stabilised on the exterior of the left shoe. The data from IMU were used to establish a customised prediction model by cut point and a prediction model by using deep learning method. The accuracy of both prediction models was evaluated. The customised prediction model combining the angular velocity of dorsi-plantar flexion in the heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) phases can distinctly determine real conditions during DC and AC slope, DS, and LW (accuracy: 86.7-96.7%) except for US walking (accuracy: 60.0%). The prediction model established by deep learning using the data of three-axis acceleration and three-axis gyroscopes can also distinctly identify DS, US, and LW with 90.2-90.7% accuracy and 84.8% and 82.4% accuracy for DC and AC slope walking, respectively. In conclusion, inertial measurement units can be used to identify walking patterns under different conditions such as slopes and stairs with customised prediction model and deep learning prediction model.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Aprendizado Profundo , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
12.
Dentomaxillofac Radiol ; 49(1): 20190240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of movement and motion-artefact correction systems on CBCT image quality and interpretability of simulated diagnostic tasks for aligned and lateral-offset detectors. METHODS: A human skull simulating three diagnostic tasks (implant planning in the anterior maxilla, implant planning in the left-side-mandible and mandibular molar furcation assessment in the right-side-mandible) was mounted on a robot performing six movement types. Four CBCT units were used: Cranex 3Dx (CRA), Ortophos SL (ORT), Promax 3D Mid (PRO), and X1. Protocols were tested with aligned (CRA, ORT, PRO, and X1) and lateral-offset (CRA and PRO) detectors and two motion-artefact correction systems (PRO and X1). Movements were performed at one moment-in-time (t1), for units with an aligned detector, and three moments-in-time (t1-first-half of the acquisition, t2-second-half, t3-both) for the units with a lateral-offset detector. 98 volumes were acquired. Images were scored by three observers, blinded to the unit and presence of movement, for motion-related stripe artefacts, overall unsharpness, and interpretability. Fleiss' κ was used to assess interobserver agreement. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was substantial for all parameters (0.66-0.68). For aligned detectors, in all diagnostic tasks a motion-artefact correction system influenced image interpretability. For lateral-offset detectors, the interpretability varied according to the unit and moment-in-time, in which the movement was performed. PRO motion-artefact correction system was less effective for the offset detector than its aligned counterpart. CONCLUSION: Motion-artefact correction systems enhanced image quality and interpretability for units with aligned detectors but were less effective for those with lateral-offset detectors.


Assuntos
Movimento , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Artefatos , Humanos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral/normas
13.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 76-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902127

RESUMO

A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. The search identified 183 unique articles. Five of these articles met our eligibility criteria. Two of the studies incorporated fatigue protocols where athletes progressed to exhaustion and found that the effects of decision-making on mechanics were more pronounced with fatigue. The nature of the results appears to indicate that fatigue may compromise an athlete's cognitive processing in a manner that diminishes their ability to control movement when rapid decision-making is required. However, three subsequent studies utilised fatigue protocols designed to mimic sports participation and found that fatigue did not influence the effects of decision-making on mechanics. In general, these findings appear to indicate that fatigue may only affect the cognitive processing associated with decision-making when athletes approach a state of exhaustion.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Fadiga/psicologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Antecipação Psicológica , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(1): 27-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A functional integration between the jaw and neck regions during purposive jaw movements is well described in adults, but there is a lack of knowledge of such integration during jaw function in children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the movement integration between the jaw and neck during jaw motor tasks in 6-year-olds, whether there is a difference between children and adults. METHODS: Jaw and neck movements were recorded with an optoelectronic 3D system in 25 healthy 6-year-olds (12 girls, 13 boys) and 24 healthy adults (12 women, 12 men) during paced jaw opening-closing and self-paced gum chewing. Jaw and neck movement amplitudes, intra-individual variation in movement amplitude, ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes and movement cycle time were analysed. Differences between children and adults were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. RESULTS: Compared to adults, 6-year-old children showed larger neck movement amplitudes (P = .008) during chewing, higher intra-individual variability in amplitudes of jaw (P = .008) and neck (P = .001) movements, higher ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes for jaw opening-closing (P = .026) and chewing (P = .003), and longer jaw movement cycle time (P ≤ .0001) during the jaw opening-closing task. CONCLUSION: Despite integrated jaw-neck movements in 6-year-old children, the movement pattern differs from that of adults and may be interpreted as an immature programming of jaw-neck motor behaviour. The well-integrated movements observed in adults most likely develop over years, perhaps into adolescence, and needs further research including well-controlled longitudinal studies to map this development in order to provide appropriate age-related clinical treatment for functional disorders.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Cabeça , Músculos do Pescoço , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária , Masculino , Mandíbula , Mastigação , Movimento , Pescoço
15.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 34(4): 179-190, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800669

RESUMO

AIMS: High string players (violin and viola) often suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. Although 3D motion analysis has proved helpful in diagnosing different musculoskeletal syndromes and identifying injurious movement patterns in violin and viola performance, more detailed analyses of upper body movement strategies and especially of the shoulder complex have not yet been recorded. The use of spherical surface markers on some anatomical landmarks is, however, inappropriate when an instrument is being played. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel marker-based method for analyzing upper body kinematics of high string players using conditions specific to violin and viola playing. METHODS: A custom upper body marker set was developed and a biomechanical model applied to 3D motion capture data of the pelvis, thorax, spine, head, and both upper limbs (scapula, upper arm, forearm, hand) of 12 professional violinists, to assess its clinical feasibility. FINDINGS: Lumbar and thoracic spine, thorax, neck, and left upper limb were quite static, while extensive motion occurred in the right upper limb. Most rotation angles showed a reasonable intersubject variability except for glenohumeral and wrist joints. Significant differences were observed between G- and D-string bowing, especially in the left wrist and right shoulder joints. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that the proposed method is a valid tool for quantifying upper body movements in violin and viola performance. With the extended upper body model, it will improve understanding of the motor strategies adopted by high string players and may contribute to injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento , Música , Braço , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
16.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1409-1417, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787629

RESUMO

Lateralized behaviors are key movements of symmetrically organized animals. These behaviors are controlled by asymmetric activity of the bilateral brain. The neural mechanisms underlying these activities were recently revealed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Movimento , Animais , Comportamento Animal
17.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 20(4): 315-319, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850776

RESUMO

AIM: Determine, whether the UPAT could be used as an extra tool to collect data on functional TMJ pain and to assess orofacial pain levels related to temporomandibular disorder(s) (TMD) in youngsters. METHODS: Patients were screened at the N1 Dental Clinic of Tbilisi State Medical University. The clinical scores of possible functional jaw pain were collected using the UPAT, to indicate pain severity on a visual scale during different jaw movements (opening, closing and lateral). STATISTICS: Comparisons of categorised data have been performed by chi-square test and Fisher's Exact test (where expected values were less than 5). The P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-one youngsters were screened by calibrated dentists. The majority (59%) of participants were male; age distribution ranged from 8 to 15 years (mean 11.46 ± 2.11). The results of the UPAT demonstrated the existence of functional TMJ pain in 15.46% (n=45) of the patients without significant prevalence (P > 0.05) in this survey group. CONCLUSION: According to the results of the present study, the UPAT demonstrated that it could be an additional tool to detect the existence of functional jaw pain possibly associated with TMD and also a valid instrument to score pain intensity associated with TMD in youngster patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Dor Facial , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Medição da Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3)set-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046203

RESUMO

A mobilidade diafragmática é essencial para a ventilação pulmonar. Pela ultrassonografia sua mensuração é direta, porém o processamento das medidas encontra-se em divergência na literatura. Indica-se pelo valor médio das três incursões respiratórias máximas ou o maior valor dentre elas restringindo à variações de 10%. Dessa forma, não existe um consenso em relação ao processamento da medida de mobilidade diafragmática máxima. Objetivo: Comparar dois diferentes processamentos das medidas pela ultrassonografia para o maior valor de mobilidade diafragmática. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional transversal. Avaliou-se a mobilidade diafragmática pela ultrassonografia, com um transdutor convexo (3 MHz) posicionado anteriormente na região subcostal e leve inclinação cranial, em decúbito dorsal. Visualizou-se o hemidiafragma direito pelo ponto médio entre a linha médio clavicular e axilar anterior. Para visualizar a janela do diafragma e mensurar sua mobilidade foi utilizado o modo B, seguido do modo M. Os participantes realizaram inspirações máximas e os maiores valores com diferença máxima de 10% entre eles mensurados e registrados. Para análise, o maior valor e o valor médio obtido das três medidas foram considerados. Para normalidade dos dados foi realizado o teste de Shapiro Wilk. Para diferenças entre os registros, o teste de t student. Resultados: 30 indivíduos (30,33 ± 9,7 anos), 16 mulheres e 14 homens. A medida da mobilidade diafragmática pelo maior valor em comparação ao valor médio apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante (8,11 ± 1,43 cm versus 7,79 ± 1,43 cm; p<0,001). Conclusão: O valor máximo da mobilidade diafragmática foi obtido por meio da análise do maior valor. Ao escolher a média, a mobilidade diafragmática pode ser subestimada. 


Diaphragmatic mobility is essential to pulmonary ventilation. It can be directly measured by using ultrasonography, but the processing of the measurements can be found described differently in the literature. It can be measured as the average of at least three different cycles or from the greatest value among them resticting it to a 10% variation. Thus, there is no consensus about the processing of the maximum measurement of diaphragmatic mobility. Objective: Comparisson of two differents ultrasound measurement processings aiming at the diaphragmatic mobility maximum value. Methodology: Cross-sectional observational study. The diaphragmatic mobility was assessed by ultrasonography with convex transducer (3MHz) placed on the subcostal region between the midclavicular and anterior axillary. In order to explore the right diaphragmatic window and mobility, the B mode was used, followed by the M mode. The participants made maximum inspiration, and the highest value with a maximum difference of 10% was recorded. For statistical analysis, the mean and the highest value of three measurements were considered. The data distribution was analyzed with a Shapiro Wilk test and differences among records by the t student test. Results: 30 participants (30.33 ± 9.7 years) - 16 women and 14 men. The measurement of the diaphragmatic mobility obtained by the highest value compared against the mean value presented a statistically significant difference (8.11 ± 1.43 cm vs 7.79 ± 1.43 cm; p<0.001). Conclusions: The maximum value of diaphragmatic mobility was obtained by the analysis of the highest value. By choosing to use the mean value, diaphragmatic mobility may be underestimated.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Diafragma , Ultrassonografia , Respiração , Movimento
20.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(6): 452-459, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688329

RESUMO

It has been well documented that a prepared response can be triggered at short latency following the presentation of a loud acoustic stimulus that evokes a reflexive startle response. Different hypotheses have been proposed for this so-called "StartReact" effect, although there is still much debate surrounding the physiological mechanisms involved in the observed reduction in reaction time (RT). In this review, we outline the various neurophysiological explanations underlying the StartReact effect and summarize the data supporting, and at times opposing, each possibility. Collectively, the experimental results do not unequivocally support a single explanation and we suggest the most parsimonious mechanism may involve a hybrid framework involving a distribution of neural pathways. Specifically, we propose that multiple node networks at the cortical, brainstem, and spinal levels are involved in response preparation and initiation, and the relative contributions of these structures depends on the type of stimulus delivered and the type of movement required. This approach may lead to greater understanding of the pathways involved in response preparation, initiation, and execution for both healthy and motor disordered populations.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia
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