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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18941, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000413

RESUMO

The abnormal inter-segmental coordination of the spine during lifting could be used to monitor disease progression and rehabilitation efficacy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study aimed to compare the inter-segmental coordination patterns and variability of the spine during lifting between patients with AS (n = 9) and control (n = 15) groups.Continuous relative (CRP) and deviation (DP) phases between each segment of the spine (two lumbar and three thorax segments) and lumbosacral joint were calculated. The CRP and DP curves among participants were decomposed into few functional principal components (FPC) via functional principal component analysis (FPCA). The FPC score of CRP or DP of the two groups were compared, and its relationship with the indexes of spinal mobility was investigated.Compared with the control group, the AS patients showed more anti-phase coordination patterns in each relative upper spine segment and lumbosacral joint. In addition, either less or more variation was found in the coordination of each relative lower spine segment and lumbosacral joint during different time periods of lifting for these patients. Some cases were considerably related to spinal mobility.the inter-segmental coordination of the spine was altered during lifting in AS patients to enable movement, albeit inefficient and might cause spinal mobility impairment.


Assuntos
Remoção , Movimento/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 21-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613188

RESUMO

Subjective evaluations of balance performance, like the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS), are highly popular. Alternatively, quantitative measures may offer additional clarity in identifying balance dysfunction. A novel measure to define balance impairments is time to boundary (TTB), which represents the amount of time available to make corrective postural adjustments prior to the centre of pressure (CoP) reaching the edge of the base of support. The purpose of this investigation was to assess TTB and traditional measures of CoP displacement of young adults performing the mBESS on a BTrackS balance plate. Path length and TTB were calculated in anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions, respectively. AP and ML path lengths were largest in Single stance (109.2 & 118.1 cm, respectively) and smallest in Dual stance (27.1 & 36.4 cm, respectively). The average AP and ML TTBs were higher in Dual (10.67 & 7.27 s, respectively) compared to Single (3.54 & 1.20 s, respectively) or Tandem (10.11 & 1.94 s, respectively) stances, and lower in Single stance compared to Tandem. Given the effect sizes for TTB were greater than those of path length in both directions, TTB more adequately differentiates these stance conditions than path length or subjective scores.


Assuntos
Ergometria/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 46-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658889

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pelvis and torso angular jerk on a performance indicator of hitting, specifically hand velocity. Eighteen softball athletes were analysed (20.3 ± 1.6 years; 164.9 ± 24.9 cm; 74.4 ± 14.0 kg). Participants were instructed to execute 3 maximum effort swings off a stationary tee at the middle "strike-zone" location. Angular jerk data were analysed during the acceleration phase of the swing, the time between foot contact and ball contact. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship of minimal pelvis angular jerk and minimal torso angular jerk to angular hand velocity at ball contact. No significant relationship was found between pelvis angular jerk and angular hand velocity at ball contact (r = 0.192, p = 0.754). The curvilinear regression model for pelvis angular jerk produced: R2 = 0.037; F (2, 17) = 0.288; p = 0.754. Lack of significant findings suggests a relationship between jerk and angular hand velocity does not exist within female softball hitting. Future research should investigate the timing of minimal jerk through the acceleration phase as a predictor of angular hand velocity, rather than the value of jerk itself.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beisebol/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 150-158, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699000

RESUMO

Application of machine learning techniques has the potential to yield unseen insights into movement and permits visualisation of complex behaviours and tangible profiles. The aim of this study was to identify profiles of relative motor competence (MC) and movement behaviours in pre-school children using novel analytics. One-hundred and twenty-five children (4.3 ± 0.5y, 1.04 ± 0.05 m, 17.8 ± 3.2 kg, BMI: 16.2 ± 1.9 kg.m2) took part in this study. Measures included accelerometer-derived 24-h activity, MC (Movement Assessment Battery for Children second edition), height, weight and waist circumference, from which zBMI were derived. Self-Organised Map (SOM) analysis was used to classify participants' profiles and a k-means cluster analysis was used to classify the neurons into larger groups according to the input variables. These clusters were used to describe the individuals' characteristics according to their MC and PA compositions. The SOM analysis indicated five profiles according to MC and PA. One cluster was identified as having both the lowest MC and MVPA (profile 2), whilst profiles 4 and 5 show moderate-high values of PA and MC. We present a novel pathway to profiling complex tenets of human movement and behaviour, which has never previously been implemented in pre-school children, highlighting that the focus should change from obesity monitoring, to "moving well".Abbreviations: MC: Motor competence; PA: Physical activity; MVPA: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; SOM: Self-organized map; BMI: Body mass index; MABC2: Movement assessment battery for children 2nd edition; MANOVA: Multiple analysis of variance.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 6-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603027

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the characteristics of electromyography (EMG) and kinematics of the supporting leg affecting energy cost while running at incline, level, and decline slopes. Twelve male Japanese middle- and long-distance runners volunteered for this study. The subjects were asked to run at 13.5 km·h-1 on a treadmill under three slope conditions. Sagittal plane kinematics and the EMG of the lower limb muscles, respiratory gases were recorded. Energy cost differed significantly between slopes, being the lowest in decline slope and the greatest in incline slope. Integrated EMG (iEMG) of leg extensor muscles was greater in the incline slope than in the decline slope, and iEMG of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles correlated positively with energy cost. The knee and ankle joint kinematics were associated with energy cost during running. In incline slope, the knee and ankle joints were more extended (plantarflexed) to lift the body. These movements may disturb the coordination between the ankle and knee joints. The gastrocnemius muscle would do greater mechanical work to plantarflex the ankle joint rather than transfer mechanical energy as well as greater mechanical work of mono-articular muscles. These muscular activities would increase energy cost.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 62-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623527

RESUMO

This study investigated whether using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) can identify different walking conditions, including level walking (LW), descent (DC) and ascent (AC) slope walking as well as downstairs (DS) and upstairs (US) walking. Thirty healthy participants performed walking under five conditions. The IMU was stabilised on the exterior of the left shoe. The data from IMU were used to establish a customised prediction model by cut point and a prediction model by using deep learning method. The accuracy of both prediction models was evaluated. The customised prediction model combining the angular velocity of dorsi-plantar flexion in the heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) phases can distinctly determine real conditions during DC and AC slope, DS, and LW (accuracy: 86.7-96.7%) except for US walking (accuracy: 60.0%). The prediction model established by deep learning using the data of three-axis acceleration and three-axis gyroscopes can also distinctly identify DS, US, and LW with 90.2-90.7% accuracy and 84.8% and 82.4% accuracy for DC and AC slope walking, respectively. In conclusion, inertial measurement units can be used to identify walking patterns under different conditions such as slopes and stairs with customised prediction model and deep learning prediction model.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Aprendizado Profundo , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 76-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902127

RESUMO

A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. The search identified 183 unique articles. Five of these articles met our eligibility criteria. Two of the studies incorporated fatigue protocols where athletes progressed to exhaustion and found that the effects of decision-making on mechanics were more pronounced with fatigue. The nature of the results appears to indicate that fatigue may compromise an athlete's cognitive processing in a manner that diminishes their ability to control movement when rapid decision-making is required. However, three subsequent studies utilised fatigue protocols designed to mimic sports participation and found that fatigue did not influence the effects of decision-making on mechanics. In general, these findings appear to indicate that fatigue may only affect the cognitive processing associated with decision-making when athletes approach a state of exhaustion.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Fadiga/psicologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Antecipação Psicológica , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(6): 452-459, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688329

RESUMO

It has been well documented that a prepared response can be triggered at short latency following the presentation of a loud acoustic stimulus that evokes a reflexive startle response. Different hypotheses have been proposed for this so-called "StartReact" effect, although there is still much debate surrounding the physiological mechanisms involved in the observed reduction in reaction time (RT). In this review, we outline the various neurophysiological explanations underlying the StartReact effect and summarize the data supporting, and at times opposing, each possibility. Collectively, the experimental results do not unequivocally support a single explanation and we suggest the most parsimonious mechanism may involve a hybrid framework involving a distribution of neural pathways. Specifically, we propose that multiple node networks at the cortical, brainstem, and spinal levels are involved in response preparation and initiation, and the relative contributions of these structures depends on the type of stimulus delivered and the type of movement required. This approach may lead to greater understanding of the pathways involved in response preparation, initiation, and execution for both healthy and motor disordered populations.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia
9.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1067-1073, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633412

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Previous research has indicated that throwing sports expose athletes to overuse injuries and that specialization in sport is linked to injury. However, the effect of overexposure to a throwing sport on a dynamic movement task is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if sport specialization in youth throwing athletes affected performance on the single-legged squat (SLS). DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. SETTING: University research laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 49 youth baseball and softball athletes (23 baseball, 26 softball; age = 12.96 ± 2.32 years, height = 165.01 ± 13.05 cm, mass = 61.42 ± 13.04 kg) were recruited. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Participants were grouped into 3 categories based on specialization definitions: (1) 8 months or longer in season, (2) 8 months or longer in training, or (3) 8 months or longer in season and previously quit another sport. We measured SLS kinematics and used a set of 1-way multivariate analyses of variances to determine if trunk kinematics differed by group. RESULTS: Athletes who spent 8 months or more in sport-specific training exhibited significantly more trunk control, revealed by less trunk lateral flexion (Λ = 0.69, F6,38 = 2.89, P = .020) and less trunk flexion (Λ = 0.69, F6,38 = 2.88, P = .021) throughout an SLS. CONCLUSIONS: These results agree with the principle of specific adaptation to imposed demands. Surprisingly, athletes who spent 8 months or more playing a unilateral sport showed no differences in SLS performance. Clinicians should emphasize that neuromuscular adaptations of the lumbopelvic-hip complex for dynamic movement, such as an SLS, may be achieved through training instead of strict sport participation. Future researchers should consider how much of the training protocol is actually specialized for sport training.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beisebol , Movimento/fisiologia , Especialização , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Beisebol/lesões , Beisebol/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1871-1882, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591558

RESUMO

Sensorimotor control during overt movements is characterized in terms of three building blocks: a controller, a simulator and a state estimator. We asked whether the same framework could explain the control of internal states in the absence of movements. Recently, it was shown that the brain controls the timing of future movements by adjusting an internal speed command. We trained monkeys in a novel task in which the speed command had to be dynamically controlled based on the timing of a sequence of flashes. Recordings from the frontal cortex provided evidence that the brain updates the internal speed command after each flash based on the error between the timing of the flash and the anticipated timing of the flash derived from a simulated motor plan. These findings suggest that cognitive control of internal states may be understood in terms of the same computational principles as motor control.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505727

RESUMO

With the development of wearable devices, strain sensors have attracted large interest for the detection of human motion, movement, and breathing. Various strain sensors consisting of stretchable conductive materials have been investigated based on resistance and capacitance differences according to the strain. However, this method requires multiple electrodes for multipoint detection. We propose a strain sensor capable of multipoint detection with a single electrode, based on the ultrasound pulse-echo method. It consists of several transmitters of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single polyvinylidene fluoride receiver. The strain sensor was fabricated using CNTs embedded in stretchable polydimethylsiloxane. The received data are characterized by the different times of transmission from the CNTs of each point depending on the strain, i.e., the sensor can detect the positions of the CNTs. This study demonstrates the application of the multipoint strain sensor with a single electrode for measurements up to a strain of 30% (interval of 1%). We considered the optical and acoustic energy losses in the sensor design. In addition, to evaluate the utility of the sensor, finger bending with three-point CNTs and flexible phantom bending with six-point CNTs for the identification of an S-curve having mixed expansion and compression components were carried out.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Entorses e Distensões/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Capacitância Elétrica , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento/fisiologia , Respiração , Entorses e Distensões/fisiopatologia
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1554-1564, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551595

RESUMO

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) create closed-loop control systems that interact with the brain by recording and modulating neural activity and aim to restore lost function, most commonly motor function in paralyzed patients. Moreover, by precisely manipulating the elements within the control loop, motor BMIs have emerged as new scientific tools for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying control and learning. Beyond motor BMIs, recent work highlights the opportunity to develop closed-loop mood BMIs for restoring lost emotional function in neuropsychiatric disorders and for probing the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation. Here we review significant advances toward functional restoration and scientific discovery in motor BMIs that have been guided by a closed-loop control view. By focusing on this unifying view of BMIs and reviewing recent work, we then provide a perspective on how BMIs could extend to the neuropsychiatric domain.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Movimento/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1677-1686, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551604

RESUMO

When experts are immersed in a task, do their brains prioritize task-related activity? Most efforts to understand neural activity during well-learned tasks focus on cognitive computations and task-related movements. We wondered whether task-performing animals explore a broader movement landscape and how this impacts neural activity. We characterized movements using video and other sensors and measured neural activity using widefield and two-photon imaging. Cortex-wide activity was dominated by movements, especially uninstructed movements not required for the task. Some uninstructed movements were aligned to trial events. Accounting for them revealed that neurons with similar trial-averaged activity often reflected utterly different combinations of cognitive and movement variables. Other movements occurred idiosyncratically, accounting for trial-by-trial fluctuations that are often considered 'noise'. This held true throughout task-learning and for extracellular Neuropixels recordings that included subcortical areas. Our observations argue that animals execute expert decisions while performing richly varied, uninstructed movements that profoundly shape neural activity.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuroimagem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008041, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553770

RESUMO

Filariae are parasitic nematodes that are transmitted to their definitive host as third-stage larvae by arthropod vectors like mosquitoes. Filariae cause diseases including: lymphatic filariasis with distressing and disturbing symptoms like elephantiasis; and river blindness. Filarial diseases affect millions of people in 73 countries throughout the topics and sub-tropics. The drugs available for mass drug administration, (ivermectin, albendazole and diethylcarbamazine), are ineffective against adult filariae (macrofilariae) at the registered dosing regimen; this generates a real and urgent need to identify effective macrofilaricides. Emodepside, a veterinary anthelmintic registered for treatment of nematode infections in cats and dogs, is reported to have macrofilaricidal effects. Here, we explore the mode of action of emodepside using adult Brugia malayi, one of the species that causes lymphatic filariasis. Whole-parasite motility measurement with Worminator and patch-clamp of single muscle cells show that emodepside potently inhibits motility by activating voltage-gated potassium channels and that the male is more sensitive than the female. RNAi knock down suggests that emodepside targets SLO-1 K channels. We expressed slo-1 isoforms, with alternatively spliced exons at the RCK1 (Regulator of Conductance of Potassium) domain, heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We discovered that the slo-1f isoform, found in muscles of males, is more sensitive to emodepside than the slo-1a isoform found in muscles of females; and selective RNAi of the slo-1a isoform in female worms increased emodepside potency. In Onchocerca volvulus, that causes river blindness, we found two isoforms in adult females with homology to Bma-SLO-1A and Bma-SLO-1F at the RCK1 domain. In silico modeling identified an emodepside binding pocket in the same RCK1 region of different species of filaria that is affected by these splice variations. Our observations show that emodepside has potent macrofilaricidal effects and alternative splicing in the RCK1 binding pocket affects potency. Therefore, the evaluation of potential sex-dependent effects of an anthelmintic compound is of importance to prevent any under-dosing of one or the other gender of nematodes once given to patients.


Assuntos
Brugia Malayi/efeitos dos fármacos , Brugia Malayi/fisiologia , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Brugia Malayi/genética , Feminino , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose/parasitologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/química , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/genética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/fisiologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Gait Posture ; 74: 135-141, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The main role of the upper limb is to position the hand in order to carry out varied activities requiring coordinated multi-joint movement, which requires mobility and stability at the glenohumeral joint. This is made possible by the interaction between active and passive structures as well as the integration of information coming from multiple systems. This interaction can be compromised by factors such as muscle fatigue and lack of visual feedback, leading to decreased performance. Several studies have investigated their isolated effect without looking at their combined effect. OBJECTIVE: To measure the specific and the combined effects of shoulder muscles fatigue and of lack of visual feedback on shoulder motor control during a reaching task with the arm in an elevated position. METHODS: 60 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: 1) control with visual feedback; 2) control without visual feedback; 3) fatigue with visual feedback; 4) fatigue without visual feedback. Subjects had to perform 10 trials of a reaching task in the KINARM robotic arm. Kinematic variables of interest were time taken to complete the task, final error, initial angle of deviation and area under curve. Non-parametric ANOVAs were used. RESULTS: Analyses showed that there were statistically significant differences (p < 0,01) for the time taken to complete the task (1.15 s compared to 0.70 s), the area under the curve (0.015m2 compared to 0.009m2) and the final error (0.025 m compared to 0,011 m) between those who had visual feedback and those who did not. No statistically significant fatigue or feedback X fatigue interaction effects were found for all kinematic variables. CONCLUSION: Findings show that lack of visual feedback had an impact on the reaching task performance while fatigue did not. In addition, fatigue did not increase the effect of the lack of visual feedback.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
18.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 23(6): 2276-2285, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478880

RESUMO

Mental illnesses are vast and cause a lot of individual and social discomfort, with significant healthcare costs associated in terms of diagnosis and treatment. They can be triggered by a number of factors including stress, fatigue or anxiety. The associated physiological, cardiac and autonomic changes can be assessed, centrally, through brain imaging or, peripherally, by other signal recording modalities. With recent advances in wearable devices, these parameters can now be assessed in natural living conditions as associated mood disorders such as obsessive/compulsive behavior or depression are difficult to be examined in controlled settings. In this paper, we present a low-powered and flexible device with electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), temperature and bio-motion detection channels, with signal accuracies of 62 µV for ECG, 6.6 kΩ for GSR, 0.13 °C for temperature and 0.04 g for acceleration. Potential applications include mental health assessment of patients during daily activities at home and/or work through non-continuous and multimodal sensing as demonstrated in this paper during exercise, rest and mental activities performed by healthy individuals only, achieving an overall accuracy of 89% in the classification of the different tasks executed by volunteers.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Movimento/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Termometria/instrumentação
19.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102514, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Foam Rolling (FR), aims to mimic the effects of manual therapy and tackle dysfunctions of the skeletal muscle and connective tissue. It has been shown to induce improvements in flexibility, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the acute, systemic and tissue-specific responses evoked by FR. METHODS: In a crossover study, 16 (34 ±â€¯6y, 6f) participants received all of the following interventions in a random order: a) 2 × 60 seconds of FR at the anterior thigh, b) 2 × 60 seconds of passive static stretching of the anterior thigh (SS), and c) no intervention (CON). Maximal active and passive knee flexion range of motion (ROM), passive stiffness, sliding of fascial layers, as well as knee flexion angle of first subjectively perceived stretch sensation (FSS) were evaluated before and directly after each intervention. RESULTS: Flexibility increased only after, FR (active (+1.8 ±â€¯1.9%) and passive ROM (+3.4 ±â€¯2.7%), p = .006, respectively) and SS (passive ROM (+3.2 ±â€¯3.5%), p = .002). Angle of FSS was altered following FR (+4.3° (95% CI: 1.4°-7.2°)) and SS (+6.7° (3.7°-9.6°)), while tissue stiffness remained unchanged after any intervention compared to baseline. Movement of the deepest layer (-5.7 mm (-11.3 mm to -0.1 mm)) as well as intrafascial sliding between deep and superficial layer (-4.9 mm (-9.mm to -0.7 mm)) decreased only after FR. CONCLUSION: FR improved knee flexion ROM without altering passive stiffness, but modified the perception of stretch as well as the mobility of the deep layer of the fascia lata. The mechanisms leading to altered fascial sliding merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102515, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499387

RESUMO

A substantial body of research has examined the speed-accuracy tradeoff captured by Fitts' law, demonstrating increases in movement time that occur as aiming tasks are made more difficult by decreasing target width and/or increasing the distance between targets. Yet, serial aiming movements guided by internal spatial representations, rather than by visual views of targets have not been examined in this manner, and the value of confirmatory feedback via different sensory modalities within this paradigm is unknown. Here we examined goal-directed serial aiming movements (tapping back and forth between two targets), wherein targets were visually unavailable during the task. However, confirmatory feedback (auditory, haptic, visual, and bimodal combinations of each) was delivered upon each target acquisition, in a counterbalanced, within-subjects design. Each participant performed the aiming task with their pointer finger, represented within an immersive virtual environment as a 1 cm white sphere, while wearing a head-mounted display. Despite visual target occlusion, movement times increased in accordance with Fitts' law. Though Fitts' law captured performance for each of the sensory feedback conditions, the slopes differed. The effect of increasing difficulty on movement times was least influential in the haptic condition, suggesting more efficient processing of confirmatory haptic feedback during aiming movements guided by internal spatial representations.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Metas , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Movimento/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
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