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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 28: 281-319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066830

RESUMO

Extraocular motoneurons are located in three brainstem nuclei: the abducens, trochlear and oculomotor. They control all types of eye movements by innervating three pairs of agonistic/antagonistic extraocular muscles. They exhibit a tonic-phasic discharge pattern, demonstrating sensitivity to eye position and sensitivity to eye velocity. According to their innervation pattern, extraocular muscle fibers can be classified as singly innervated muscle fiber (SIF), or the peculiar multiply innervated muscle fiber (MIF). SIF motoneurons show anatomical and physiological differences with MIF motoneurons. The latter are smaller and display lower eye position and velocity sensitivities as compared with SIF motoneurons.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores , Músculos Oculomotores , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/inervação , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia
2.
J Vis ; 22(10): 13, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107125

RESUMO

Traditional visual search tasks in the laboratories typically involve looking for targets in 2D displays with exemplar views of objects. In real life, visual search commonly entails 3D objects in 3D spaces with nonperpendicular viewing and relative motions between observers and search array items, both of which lead to transformations of objects' projected images in lawful but unpredicted ways. Furthermore, observers often do not have to memorize a target before searching, but may refer to it while searching, for example, holding a picture of someone while looking for them from a crowd. Extending the traditional visual search task, in this study, we investigated the effects of image transformation as a result of perspective change yielded by discrete viewing angle change (Experiment 1) or continuous rotation of the search array (Experiment 2) and of having external references on visual search performance. Results showed that when searching from 3D objects with a non-zero viewing angle, performance was similar to searching from 2D exemplar views of objects; when searching for 3D targets from rotating arrays in virtual reality, performance was similar to searching from stationary arrays. In general, discrete or continuous perspective change did not affect the search outcomes in terms of accuracy, response time, and self-rated confidence, or the search process in terms of eye movement patterns. Therefore, visual search does not require the exact match of retinal images. Additionally, being able to see the target during the search improved search accuracy and observers' confidence. It increased search time because, as revealed by the eye movements, observers actively checked back on the reference target. Thus, visual search is an embodied process that involves real-time information exchange between the observers and the environment.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção Visual , Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
3.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 48(10): 1083-1098, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107658

RESUMO

Efficient decoding of facial expressions and gaze direction supports reactions to social environments. Although both cues are processed fast and accurately, when and how these cues are integrated is still debated. We investigated the temporal integration of gaze and emotion cues. Participants responded to letters that were randomly presented on four faces. Two of these faces initially showed direct gaze, two showed averted gaze. Upon target presentation, two faces changed gaze direction (from averted to direct and vice versa). Simultaneously, facial expressions changed from neutral to either an approach- or an avoidance-oriented emotion expression (Experiment 1a: angry/fearful; Experiment 1b: happy/disgusted). Although angry and fearful expressions diminished any effects of gaze direction (Experiment 1a), a direct gaze advantage was found for happy and an averted gaze advantage for disgusted faces (Experiment 1b). This pattern is consistent with hypotheses suggesting a processing benefit when emotion expression and gaze information are congruent in terms of approach- or avoidance-orientation. In Experiment 2, we tracked eye movements and, again, found evidence for an approach-avoidance-congruency advantage for happy and disgusted faces both in performance and gaze behavior. Gaze behavior analyses suggested an integration of gaze and emotion information that was already visible from 300 ms after target onset. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Ira , Movimentos Oculares , Felicidade , Humanos
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7822847, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118833

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on the esteem, anxiety, depression, posttrauma stress disorder (PTSD), and posttraumatic growth in patients with facial trauma. Methods: A total of 92 facial trauma patients in Wenzhou People's Hospital from January 2017 to December 2019 were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n = 46) and intervention group (n = 46). Both of the control group and the intervention group received routine treatment, while the intervention group further received CBT combined with EMDR. Questionnaires were used to explore and record the general patient information. The Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Self-Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Depression Scale (SDS), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief (WHOQOL-BREF) scores between the two groups were compared. Results: After CBT combined with EMDR intervention, the SDS and SAS scores in the intervention group were significantly decreased compared with the scores before intervention with statistically significance (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the PCL-C score in the intervention group showed significant decrease in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001), while the PTGI score in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001). The WHOQOL-BREF scores were increased after treatment in the two groups compared with the scores before treatment, and the scores in the intervention group were higher than those in the control group after treatment (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Psychological intervention therapy can effectively alleviate the anxiety, depression, and PTSD and improve the life quality and the recovery of facial trauma patients.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
5.
Physiol Rep ; 10(17): e15455, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065854

RESUMO

People with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) are likely to experience chronic intermittent hypoxia while sleeping. The physiological effects of intermittent hypoxia on the respiratory system during spontaneous sleep in individuals with chronic cervical SCI are unknown. We hypothesized that individuals with cervical SCI would demonstrate higher short- and long-term ventilatory responses to acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) exposure than individuals with thoracic SCI during sleep. Twenty participants (10 with cervical SCI [9 male] and 10 with thoracic SCI [6 male]) underwent an AIH and sham protocol during sleep. During the AIH protocol, each participant experienced 15 episodes of isocapnic hypoxia using mixed gases of 100% nitrogen (N2 ) and 40% carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to achieve an oxygen saturation of less than 90%. This was followed by two breaths of 100% oxygen (O2 ). Measurements were collected before, during, and 40 min after the AIH protocol to obtain ventilatory data. During the sham protocol, participants breathed room air for the same amount of time that elapsed during the AIH protocol and at approximately the same time of night. Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) during the AIH protocol was significantly higher in participants with cervical SCI than those with thoracic SCI. There was no significant difference in minute ventilation (V.E. ), tidal volume (V.T. ), or respiratory frequency (f) during the recovery period after AIH in cervical SCI compared to thoracic SCI groups. Individuals with cervical SCI demonstrated a significant short-term increase in HVR compared to thoracic SCI. However, there was no evidence of ventilatory long-term facilitation following AIH in either group.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Hipóxia , Masculino , Quadriplegia , Sono/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações
6.
J Vis ; 22(10): 5, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069941

RESUMO

Fixational eye movements are a hallmark of human gaze behavior, yet little is known about how they interact between fellow eyes. Here, we designed, built and validated a split-field binocular scanning laser ophthalmoscope to record high-resolution eye motion traces from both eyes of six observers during fixation in different binocular vergence conditions. In addition to microsaccades and drift, torsional eye motion could be extracted, with a spatial measurement error of less than 1 arcmin. Microsaccades were strongly coupled between fellow eyes under all conditions. No monocular microsaccade occurred and no significant delay between microsaccade onsets across fellow eyes could be detected. Cyclotorsion was also firmly coupled between both eyes, occurring typically in conjugacy, with gradual changes during drift and abrupt changes during saccades.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Lasers , Oftalmoscopia , Movimentos Sacádicos
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 365, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the eye movement functions in children with amblyopia and recovered amblyopia by a binocular eye-tracking paradigm. METHODS: Eye movements of 135 pediatric subjects (age range: 4-14 years), including 45 amblyopic children, 45 recovered amblyopic children and 45 age-similar normal controls, were recorded under binocular viewing with corrected refractive errors (if any). The deviation of gaze positions relative to the target location was recorded as the mean from both eyes. Main outcome measures included fixation deviations (degree) along horizontal and vertical axes in the sustained fixation test (Fix-X, Fix-Y) and visually guided saccade test (Sac-X, Sac-Y), which were compared across the three groups and between each two groups. RESULTS: All the four deviations were significantly larger in the amblyopia group compared to the other two groups, indicating increased inaccuracy of sustained and post-saccadic fixations in amblyopia. However, there was no significant difference in deviations between recovered amblyopic children and normal controls. Repeated measures showed similar results overall and within each group. Mild to moderate amblyopes and severe amblyopes did not differ in the four deviations. No significant interaction was found between subject groups and clinical characteristics (age, refractive status, and anisometropia). CONCLUSION: Amblyopic children have poor eye movement functions with increased inaccuracy of sustained and post-saccadic fixations, which appear to be restored in children with recovered amblyopia. Binocular assessment of eye movements provides valuable indicators of functional recovery in amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Anisometropia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Movimentos Sacádicos , Acuidade Visual
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 2194-2198, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085625

RESUMO

Objective measurement of gaze pattern and eye movement during untethered activity has important applications for neuroscience research and neurological disease detection. Current commercial eye-tracking tools rely on desk-top devices with infrared emitters and conventional frame-based cameras. Although wearable options do exist, the large power-consumption from their conventional cameras limit true long-term mobile usage. The query-driven Dynamic Vision Sensor (qDVS) is a neuromorphic camera which dramatically reduces power consumption by outputting only intensity-change threshold events, as opposed to full frames of intensity data. However, such hardware has not yet been implemented for on-body eye-tracking, but the feasibility can be demonstrated using a mathematical simulator to evaluate the eye-tracking ca-pabilities of the qDVS under controlled conditions. Specifically, a framework utilizing a realistic human eye model in the 3D graphics engine, Unity, is presented to enable the controlled and direct comparison of image-based gaze tracking methods. Eye-tracking based on qDVS frames was compared against two different conventional frame eye-tracking methods - the traditional ellipse pupil-fitting algorithm and a deep learning neural network inference model. Gaze accuracy from qDVS frames achieved an average of 93.2% for movement along the primary horizontal axis (pitch angle) and 93.1 % for movement along the primary vertical axis (yaw angle) under 4 different illumination conditions, demonstrating the feasibility for using qDVS hardware cameras for such applications. The quantitative framework for the direct comparison of eye tracking algorithms presented here is made open-source and can be extended to include other eye parameters, such as pupil dilation, reflection, motion artifact, and more.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento , Pupila
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 1078-1081, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085916

RESUMO

Creativity can be divided into four factors, namely, mini c, little c, Pro C and Big C. Little c measures creativity required in doing daily activities which are essential for stable living. In this study little c is categorized into three levels of high, medium and low and its relationship with occulometric is studied to see if higher values obtained in the test also reflect in their eye movement patterns. Occulometric is studied using eye movement patterns such as fixations, saccades, and pupil diameter. Analysis by One way Anova shows differences in the three groups. It is found that high creativity group has higher number of fixations, low peak velocity, higher saccadic duration and larger mean pupil duration in comparison to its other counterparts. Clinical Relevance- Creativity is an important aspect of everyday living. Understanding this cognitive process through a bio-marker would help in validating a mental capability through eye parameters.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Sacádicos , Análise de Variância
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 3342-3345, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086116

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) signals can effectively measure the level of human decision confidence. However, it is difficult to acquire EEG signals in practice due to the ex-pensive cost and complex operation, while eye movement signals are much easier to acquire and process. To tackle this problem, we propose a cross-modality deep learning method based on deep canoncial correlation analysis (CDCCA) to transform each modality separately and coordinate different modalities into a hyperspace by using specific canonical correlation analysis constraints. In our proposed method, only eye movement signals are used as inputs in the test phase and the knowledge from EEG signals is learned in the training stage. Experimental results on two human decision confidence datasets demonstrate that our proposed method achieves advanced performance compared with the existing single-modal approaches trained and tested on eye movement signals and maintains a competitive accuracy in comparison with multimodal models.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Movimentos Oculares , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Processos Mentais
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4274-4277, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086283

RESUMO

Eye blinks can be used to perform monitoring tasks such as drowsiness detection, attention measurement or other biological measurement mainly using video data. With the developement of brain computer interfaces (BCI) eye movements and blinks could be used to perform control tasks such as pointer activation or communications. This work aims to prove that it is possible to characterize eye blinks for each eye separately using only electroencephalography (EEG) signal acquired through non invasive portable device and dry electroencephalography.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Vigília
12.
PLoS Biol ; 20(9): e3001798, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103550

RESUMO

Sensory pathways provide complex and multifaceted information to the brain. Recent advances have created new opportunities for applying our understanding of the brain to sensory prothesis development. Yet complex sensor physiology, limited numbers of electrodes, and nonspecific stimulation have proven to be a challenge for many sensory systems. In contrast, the vestibular system is uniquely suited for prosthesis development. Its peripheral anatomy allows site-specific stimulation of 3 separate sensory organs that encode distinct directions of head motion. Accordingly, here, we investigated whether implementing natural encoding strategies improves vestibular prosthesis performance. The eye movements produced by the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which plays an essential role in maintaining visual stability, were measured to quantify performance. Overall, implementing the natural tuning dynamics of vestibular afferents produced more temporally accurate VOR eye movements. Exploration of the parameter space further revealed that more dynamic tunings were not beneficial due to saturation and unnatural phase advances. Trends were comparable for stimulation encoding virtual versus physical head rotations, with gains enhanced in the latter case. Finally, using computational methods, we found that the same simple model explained the eye movements evoked by sinusoidal and transient stimulation and that a stimulation efficacy substantially less than 100% could account for our results. Taken together, our results establish that prosthesis encodings that incorporate naturalistic afferent dynamics and account for activation efficacy are well suited for restoration of gaze stability. More generally, these results emphasize the benefits of leveraging the brain's endogenous coding strategies in prosthesis development to improve functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Animais , Movimentos Oculares , Macaca mulatta , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular/fisiologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia
13.
J Vis ; 22(10): 4, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069942

RESUMO

Degraded viewing conditions caused by either natural environments or visual disorders lead to slow reading. Here, we systematically investigated how eye movement patterns during reading are affected by degraded viewing conditions in terms of spatial resolution, contrast, and background luminance. Using a high-speed eye tracker, binocular eye movements were obtained from 14 young normally sighted adults. Images of text passages were manipulated with varying degrees of background luminance (1.3-265 cd/m2), text blur (severe blur to no blur), or text contrast (2.6%-100%). We analyzed changes in key eye movement features, such as saccades, microsaccades, regressive saccades, fixations, and return-sweeps across different viewing conditions. No significant changes were observed for the range of tested background luminance values. However, with increasing text blur and decreasing text contrast, we observed a significant decrease in saccade amplitude and velocity, as well as a significant increase in fixation duration, number of fixations, proportion of regressive saccades, microsaccade rate, and duration of return-sweeps. Among all, saccade amplitude, fixation duration, and proportion of regressive saccades turned out to be the most significant contributors to reading speed, together accounting for 90% of variance in reading speed. Our results together showed that, when presented with degraded viewing conditions, the patterns of eye movements during reading were altered accordingly. These findings may suggest that the seemingly deviated eye movements observed in individuals with visual impairments may be in part resulting from active and optimal information acquisition strategies operated when visual sensory input becomes substantially deprived.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Adulto , Humanos , Movimentos Sacádicos
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5060, 2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030280

RESUMO

Motor circuits develop in sequence from those governing fast movements to those governing slow. Here we examine whether upstream sensory circuits are organized by similar principles. Using serial-section electron microscopy in larval zebrafish, we generated a complete map of the gravity-sensing (utricular) system spanning from the inner ear to the brainstem. We find that both sensory tuning and developmental sequence are organizing principles of vestibular topography. Patterned rostrocaudal innervation from hair cells to afferents creates an anatomically inferred directional tuning map in the utricular ganglion, forming segregated pathways for rostral and caudal tilt. Furthermore, the mediolateral axis of the ganglion is linked to both developmental sequence and neuronal temporal dynamics. Early-born pathways carrying phasic information preferentially excite fast escape circuits, whereas later-born pathways carrying tonic signals excite slower postural and oculomotor circuits. These results demonstrate that vestibular circuits are organized by tuning direction and dynamics, aligning them with downstream motor circuits and behaviors.


Assuntos
Vestíbulo do Labirinto , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Movimentos Oculares , Sensação Gravitacional , Larva
15.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 39(4): 833-840, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008348

RESUMO

The eye-computer interaction technology based on electro-oculogram provides the users with a convenient way to control the device, which has great social significance. However, the eye-computer interaction is often disturbed by the involuntary eye movements, resulting in misjudgment, affecting the users' experience, and even causing danger in severe cases. Therefore, this paper starts from the basic concepts and principles of eye-computer interaction, sorts out the current mainstream classification methods of voluntary/involuntary eye movement, and analyzes the characteristics of each technology. The performance analysis is carried out in combination with specific application scenarios, and the problems to be solved are further summarized, which are expected to provide research references for researchers in related fields.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Movimento , Computadores , Eletroculografia/métodos
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14136, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986076

RESUMO

During recall of visual information people tend to move their eyes even though there is nothing to see. Previous studies indicated that such eye movements are related to the spatial location of previously seen items on 2D screens, but they also showed that eye movement behavior varies significantly across individuals. The reason for these differences remains unclear. In the present study we used immersive virtual reality to investigate how individual tendencies to process and represent visual information contribute to eye fixation patterns in visual imagery of previously inspected objects in three-dimensional (3D) space. We show that participants also look back to relevant locations when they are free to move in 3D space. Furthermore, we found that looking back to relevant locations depends on individual differences in visual object imagery abilities. We suggest that object visualizers rely less on spatial information because they tend to process and represent the visual information in terms of color and shape rather than in terms of spatial layout. This finding indicates that eye movements during imagery are subject to individual strategies, and the immersive setting in 3D space made individual differences more likely to unfold.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Individualidade , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Rememoração Mental
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272531, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930580

RESUMO

Intralingual translation has long been peripheral to empirical studies of translation. Considering its many similarities with interlingual translation, also described as translation proper, we adopted eye-tracking technology to investigate the cognitive process during translation and paraphrase, an exemplification of intralingual translation. Twenty-four postgraduate students were required to perform four types of tasks (Chinese paraphrase, English-Chinese translation, English paraphrase, Chinese-English translation) for source texts (ST) of different genres. Their eye movements were recorded for analysis of the cognitive effort and attention distribution pattern. The result demonstrated that: (1) Translation elicited significantly greater cognitive efforts than paraphrase; (2) Differences between translation and paraphrase on cognitive effort were modulated by text genre and target language; (3) Translation and paraphrase did not differ strikingly in terms of attention distribution. This process-oriented study confirmed higher cognitive efforts in inter-lingual translation, which was likely due to the additional complexity of bilingual transfer. Moreover, it revealed significant modulating effects of text genre and target language.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Idioma , Cognição , Humanos , Traduções
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272349, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917377

RESUMO

Fluctuations in a person's arousal accompany mental states such as drowsiness, mental effort, or motivation, and have a profound effect on task performance. Here, we investigated the link between two central instances affected by arousal levels, heart rate and eye movements. In contrast to heart rate, eye movements can be inferred remotely and unobtrusively, and there is evidence that oculomotor metrics (i.e., fixations and saccades) are indicators for aspects of arousal going hand in hand with changes in mental effort, motivation, or task type. Gaze data and heart rate of 14 participants during film viewing were used in Random Forest models, the results of which show that blink rate and duration, and the movement aspect of oculomotor metrics (i.e., velocities and amplitudes) link to heart rate-more so than the amount or duration of fixations and saccades. We discuss that eye movements are not only linked to heart rate, but they may both be similarly influenced by the common underlying arousal system. These findings provide new pathways for the remote measurement of arousal, and its link to psychophysiological features.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Sacádicos , Piscadela , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2204754119, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939710

RESUMO

Sleep and sleep-like states are present across the animal kingdom, with recent studies convincingly demonstrating sleep-like states in arthropods, nematodes, and even cnidarians. However, the existence of different sleep phases across taxa is as yet unclear. In particular, the study of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is still largely centered on terrestrial vertebrates, particularly mammals and birds. The most salient indicator of REM sleep is the movement of eyes during this phase. Movable eyes, however, have evolved only in a limited number of lineages-an adaptation notably absent in insects and most terrestrial arthropods-restricting cross-species comparisons. Jumping spiders, however, possess movable retinal tubes to redirect gaze, and in newly emerged spiderlings, these movements can be directly observed through their temporarily translucent exoskeleton. Here, we report evidence for an REM sleep-like state in a terrestrial invertebrate: periodic bouts of retinal movements coupled with limb twitching and stereotyped leg curling behaviors during nocturnal resting in a jumping spider. Observed retinal movement bouts were consistent, including regular durations and intervals, with both increasing over the course of the night. That these characteristic REM sleep-like behaviors exist in a highly visual, long-diverged lineage further challenges our understanding of this sleep state. Comparisons across such long-diverged lineages likely hold important questions and answers about the visual brain as well as the origin, evolution, and function of REM sleep.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Retina , Sono REM , Aranhas , Animais , Retina/fisiologia , Aranhas/fisiologia
20.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 48(9): 987-1000, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925748

RESUMO

Visual attention and visual working memory (VWM) are interacting systems. Most research has been directed toward how a retained VWM load can influence visual search behavior. However, the relationship between the two is bidirectional. When performing a visual search while maintaining a VWM load, decreases in change detection accuracy are often seen. Woodman and Luck (2010) argued that this interference was due to the onset of the search display leading to disruption. The current work attempts to identify the exact component of visual search that leads to interference with VWM. Potentially interference could be due to an attentional component of the task or a procedural artifact of the dual-task paradigm. Over five experiments, different attentional tasks were completed in the retention period of a difficult change detection task. Memory interference was measured as accuracy decrements in these conditions compared to trials where no attentional task was completed. Over the five experiments, one factor was highlighted as a sufficient cause for interference: the addition of nontarget items in the attentional task. Procedural artifacts were ruled out as potential sources of interference including: response bindings, eye movements, nontarget variance, spatial shifts of attention, perceptual load, and the time it took to complete the attentional task. It is proposed that interference arises from the attentional selective process of choosing the target item out of the nontargets. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Visual , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
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