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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502773

RESUMO

People with severe disabilities require assistance to perform their routine activities; a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) will allow them to activate devices that respond according to their needs. In this work, an HMI based on electrooculography (EOG) is presented, the instrumentation is placed on portable glasses that have the task of acquiring both horizontal and vertical EOG signals. The registration of each eye movement is identified by a class and categorized using the one hot encoding technique to test precision and sensitivity of different machine learning classification algorithms capable of identifying new data from the eye registration; the algorithm allows to discriminate blinks in order not to disturb the acquisition of the eyeball position commands. The implementation of the classifier consists of the control of a three-wheeled omnidirectional robot to validate the response of the interface. This work proposes the classification of signals in real time and the customization of the interface, minimizing the user's learning curve. Preliminary results showed that it is possible to generate trajectories to control an omnidirectional robot to implement in the future assistance system to control position through gaze orientation.


Assuntos
Robótica , Algoritmos , Eletroculografia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5234, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475391

RESUMO

In spite of the reduced visual acuity, parafoveal information plays an important role in natural reading. However, competing models on reading disagree on whether words are previewed parafoveally at the lexical level. We find neural evidence for lexical parafoveal processing by combining a rapid invisible frequency tagging (RIFT) approach with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and eye-tracking. In a silent reading task, target words are tagged (flickered) subliminally at 60 Hz. The tagging responses measured when fixating on the pre-target word reflect parafoveal processing of the target word. We observe stronger tagging responses during pre-target fixations when followed by low compared with high lexical frequency targets. Moreover, this lexical parafoveal processing is associated with individual reading speed. Our findings suggest that reading unfolds in the fovea and parafovea simultaneously to support fluent reading.


Assuntos
Macula Lutea/fisiologia , Leitura , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Dev Psychol ; 57(7): 1025-1041, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435820

RESUMO

We extend decades of research on infants' visual processing by examining their eye gaze during viewing of natural scenes. We examined the eye movements of a racially diverse group of 4- to 12-month-old infants (N = 54; 27 boys; 24 infants were White and not Hispanic, 30 infants were African American, Asian American, mixed race and/or Hispanic) as they viewed images selected from the MIT Saliency Benchmark Project. In general, across this age range infants' fixation distributions became more consistent and more adult-like, suggesting that infants' fixations in natural scenes become increasingly more systematic. Evaluation of infants' fixation patterns with saliency maps generated by different models of physical salience revealed that although over this age range there was an increase in the correlations between infants' fixations and saliency, the amount of variance accounted for by salience actually decreased. At the youngest age, the amount of variance accounted for by salience was very similar to the consistency between infants' fixations, suggesting that the systematicity in these youngest infants' fixations was explained by their attention to physically salient regions. By 12 months, in contrast, the consistency between infants was greater than the variance accounted for by salience, suggesting that the systematicity in older infants' fixations reflected more than their attention to physically salient regions. Together these results show that infants' fixations when viewing natural scenes becomes more systematic and predictable, and that predictability is due to their attention to features other than physical salience. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Comportamental , Cognição , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
4.
J Sex Med ; 18(9): 1607-1614, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is regarded as a key factor underpinning hypersexuality like-conditions. However, impulsivity is a multifaceted construct, and existing research has not been capturing such complexity, which includes the effects of domain-general and domain-specific impulsivity in hypersexuality. AIM: The aim of this study was to test the predictive role of specific impulsivity domains, ie, domain-general and domain-specific, in hypersexuality and its associated consequences. METHODS: Fifty-five men and 58 women went through an emotional Go/-no-Go task (including sexual, high-valence positive, and neutral pictures), aimed at capturing domain-general and domain-specific impulsivity. Ocular metrics were further considered in order to increase the validity of the experimental task, and provide a metric of attention capturing. The study was carried out in a community sample. OUTCOMES: Self-reported (general)impulsivity and commission errors toward high-valence positive and sexual pictures (signaling domain-general and domain-specific impulsivity, respectively) were settled as independent variables, along with Time to First Fixation to stimuli, capturing early/uncontrolled attention. Scores on hypersexuality and negative consequences emerging from hypersexual behavior were settled as outcome variables. RESULTS: Self-reported (general)impulsivity was the only predictor of hypersexuality scores, while negative consequences were best accounted by higher fixation time to sexual pictures. In all, findings did not support the role of domain-specific impulsivity (ie, sexual impulsivity) in hypersexuality. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: Findings tentatively suggest that hypersexuality, as captured at the community level, may be best positioned within the general spectrum of psychopathology, thus influencing educational and clinical intervention protocols aimed at addressing hypersexuality related complaints. Protocols would be expected to primarily target general psychopathology phenomena, rather than specific sexual aspects. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: This study implemented an innovative approach to capture different impulsivity domains, thus adding to previous literature in the field. However, the current study precludes the generalization of findings to clinical samples, where psychological comorbidities are expected to impact results. Further, findings must be read with caution given to limited effect sizes. CONCLUSION: While hypersexuality was related to self-reported (general) impulsivity, findings on the negative consequences associated with hypersexual behavior mirrored response patterns found in depression. Such evidence aligns with the assumption that hypersexuality related phenomena might be better positioned in the psychopathology domain, rather than simply framed as a specific sexual problem. Carvalho J, Rosa PJ, Stulhofer A. Exploring Hypersexuality Pathways From Eye Movements: The Role of (Sexual) Impulsivity. J Sex Med 2021;18:1607-1614.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Transtornos Parafílicos , Comportamento Compulsivo , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372413

RESUMO

Gaze movement and visual stimuli have been utilized to analyze human visual attention intuitively. Gaze behavior studies mainly show statistical analyses of eye movements and human visual attention. During these analyses, eye movement data and the saliency map are presented to the analysts as separate views or merged views. However, the analysts become frustrated when they need to memorize all of the separate views or when the eye movements obscure the saliency map in the merged views. Therefore, it is not easy to analyze how visual stimuli affect gaze movements since existing techniques focus excessively on the eye movement data. In this paper, we propose a novel visualization technique for analyzing gaze behavior using saliency features as visual clues to express the visual attention of an observer. The visual clues that represent visual attention are analyzed to reveal which saliency features are prominent for the visual stimulus analysis. We visualize the gaze data with the saliency features to interpret the visual attention. We analyze the gaze behavior with the proposed visualization to evaluate that our approach to embedding saliency features within the visualization supports us to understand the visual attention of an observer.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Movimento , Percepção Visual
6.
Appl Ergon ; 97: 103523, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225106

RESUMO

Certain font features (e.g., letter width) can change the amount of space occupied by text in published works. Font styles/features are also known to affect reading eye movements (EM); however, few studies have examined these effects - and none used high-resolution displays. We examined the effects of font width on EMs by utilizing four fonts, from the Univers family, which varied in letter-width magnitude. Participants' (n = 25) reading speed, saccade velocity, and the duration/number of fixations and saccades were recorded. The Ultra Condensed font significantly influenced readability and yielded: fewer fixations and saccades; longer fixation durations than the Roman and Extended fonts; and shorter saccade durations, relative to the other fonts. Readers efficiently adjusted their EMs such that no reading-speed differences were observed. The eye-tracking metrics revealed two trade-off effects: (1) fewer and shorter EMs and (2) more and longer EMs, which were revealed by the font-width manipulation.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Leitura , Compreensão , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Movimentos Sacádicos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Int J Med Robot ; 17(5): e2313, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar laminectomy is a common neurosurgery that requires precise manipulation of power drills. We examined the fine movement controls of novice neurosurgeons in drilling tasks and compared its accuracy to expert surgeons' performance. METHODS: Four experts and three novice neurosurgeons performed a lumbar laminectomy on a three-dimensional printed spine model. Scene video and surgeons' eye movements were recorded. Independent sample t-Tests were conducted on the number of jump, total fixation durations, pre-jump fixation durations, post-jump fixation durations and jump distances over novice and expert surgeons. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were recorded in terms of total fixations and pre-jump fixation durations. However, novices had more jumping events, greater jump distances and longer post-jump fixation durations when compared to expert neurosurgeons. CONCLUSION: Differences in movement accuracy and eye measures were found between expert and novice neurosurgeons during a simulated microscopic lumbar laminectomy. A more comprehensive understanding of surgeon's fine movement control mechanism and eye-hand coordination in microsurgery is essential for us before building an enhanced training protocol for surgical residents in neurosurgery.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgia , Cirurgiões , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Microcirurgia , Neurocirurgiões
8.
Exp Brain Res ; 239(8): 2635-2648, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216231

RESUMO

Visual transients can interrupt overt orienting by abolishing the execution of a planned eye movement due about 90 ms later, a phenomenon known as saccadic inhibition (SI). It is not known if the same inhibitory process might influence covert orienting in the absence of saccades, and consequently alter visual perception. In Experiment 1 (n = 14), we measured orientation discrimination during a covert orienting task in which an uninformative exogenous visual cue preceded the onset of an oriented probe by 140-290 ms. In half of the trials, the onset of the probe was accompanied by a brief irrelevant flash, a visual transient that would normally induce SI. We report a time-dependent inhibition of covert orienting in which the irrelevant flash impaired orientation discrimination accuracy when the probe followed the cue by 190 and 240 ms. The interference was more pronounced when the cue was incongruent with the probe location, suggesting an impact on the reorienting component of the attentional shift. In Experiment 2 (n = 12), we tested whether the inhibitory effect of the flash could occur within an earlier time range, or only within the later, reorienting range. We presented probes at congruent cue locations in a time window between 50 and 200 ms. Similar to Experiment 1, discrimination performance was altered at 200 ms after the cue. We suggest that covert attention may be susceptible to similar inhibitory mechanisms that generate SI, especially in later stages of attentional shifting (> 200 ms after a cue), typically associated with reorienting.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimentos Sacádicos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Percepção Visual
9.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 65(5): 644-650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the effect of eye dominance on excyclotorsion in unilateral superior oblique palsy (USOP). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study METHODS: Objective excyclotorsion was measured as the disc-to-fovea angle by fundus photography OU. Subjective excyclotorsion was determined with a major amblyoscope based on the difference in the earth vertical and subjective visual vertical. Eye dominance was determined by the hole-in-the-card method. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. SUBJECTS: Data of 24 USOP patients were retrospectively collected. The diagnosis was mainly made by the Parks 3-step method, history and the presence of characteristic excyclotorsion. When possible, orbital magnetic resonance imaging findings were obtained. RESULTS: The median angle of objective excyclotorsion in the paretic eyes was significantly larger than in the nonparetic eyes. Both median angles of objective/subjective excyclotorsion in the dominant eye were significantly smaller than those of the non-dominant eye. Patients were subdivided into two groups: group A, those whose paretic eye was the dominant eye (n = 13); group B, those whose paretic eye was the non-dominant eye (n = 11). The objective/subjective excyclotorsional angles of the paretic eye were significantly larger than of the non-paretic eye only in group B. CONCLUSION: In USOP the angle of excyclotorsion in the dominant eye is smaller than in the non-dominant eye. This may imply that the vertical sense of visual space is mainly adapted to the dominant eye, keeping the subjective vertical close to the earth vertical.


Assuntos
Músculos Oculomotores , Estrabismo , Dominância Ocular , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Músculos Oculomotores/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia , Fotografação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/diagnóstico
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245980

RESUMO

When we follow a slowly moving target with our eyes, we perform smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). Previous investigations point to significantly and robustly reduced SPEM performance in the presence of a stationary background and at higher compared to lower target velocities. However, the reliability of these background and target velocity effects has not yet been investigated systematically. To address this issue, 45 healthy participants (17 m, 28 f) took part in two experimental sessions 7 days apart. In each session, participants were instructed to follow a horizontal SPEM target moving sinusoidally between ±7.89° at three different target velocities, corresponding to frequencies of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 Hz. Each target velocity was presented once with and once without a stationary background, resulting in six blocks. The blocks were presented twice per session in order to additionally explore potential task length effects. To assess SPEM performance, velocity gain was calculated as the ratio of eye to target velocity. In line with previous research, detrimental background and target velocity effects were replicated robustly in both sessions with large effect sizes. Good to excellent test-retest reliabilities were obtained at higher target velocities and in the presence of a stationary background, whereas lower reliabilities occurred with slower targets and in the absence of background stimuli. Target velocity and background effects resulted in largely good to excellent reliabilities. These findings not only replicated robust experimental effects of background and target velocity at group level, but also revealed that these effects can be translated into reliable individual difference measures.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209332

RESUMO

Most eye tracking methods are light-based. As such, they can suffer from ambient light changes when used outdoors, especially for use cases where eye trackers are embedded in Augmented Reality glasses. It has been recently suggested that ultrasound could provide a low power, fast, light-insensitive alternative to camera-based sensors for eye tracking. Here, we report on our work on modeling ultrasound sensor integration into a glasses form factor AR device to evaluate the feasibility of estimating eye-gaze in various configurations. Next, we designed a benchtop experimental setup to collect empirical data on time of flight and amplitude signals for reflected ultrasound waves for a range of gaze angles of a model eye. We used this data as input for a low-complexity gradient-boosted tree machine learning regression model and demonstrate that we can effectively estimate gaze (gaze RMSE error of 0.965 ± 0.178 degrees with an adjusted R2 score of 90.2 ± 4.6).


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ultrassonografia
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300425

RESUMO

Many gaze data visualization techniques intuitively show eye movement together with visual stimuli. The eye tracker records a large number of eye movements within a short period. Therefore, visualizing raw gaze data with the visual stimulus appears complicated and obscured, making it difficult to gain insight through visualization. To avoid the complication, we often employ fixation identification algorithms for more abstract visualizations. In the past, many scientists have focused on gaze data abstraction with the attention map and analyzed detail gaze movement patterns with the scanpath visualization. Abstract eye movement patterns change dramatically depending on fixation identification algorithms in the preprocessing. However, it is difficult to find out how fixation identification algorithms affect gaze movement pattern visualizations. Additionally, scientists often spend much time on adjusting parameters manually in the fixation identification algorithms. In this paper, we propose a gaze behavior-based data processing method for abstract gaze data visualization. The proposed method classifies raw gaze data using machine learning models for image classification, such as CNN, AlexNet, and LeNet. Additionally, we compare the velocity-based identification (I-VT), dispersion-based identification (I-DT), density-based fixation identification, velocity and dispersion-based (I-VDT), and machine learning based and behavior-based modelson various visualizations at each abstraction level, such as attention map, scanpath, and abstract gaze movement visualization.


Assuntos
Visualização de Dados , Fixação Ocular , Algoritmos , Atenção , Movimentos Oculares
13.
J Neural Eng ; 18(4)2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233315

RESUMO

Objective: Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently affects vergence eye movements interfering with the perception of depth and dimensionality critical for mitigating falls. We examined neural strategies that compensate for abnormal vergence and their mechanistic underpinning in PD.Approach:Thea priorihypothesis was that impaired vergence is compensated by incorporating rapid eye movements (saccades) to accomplish gaze shifts at different depths. Our experiments examined the hypothesis by simulating biologically plausible computational models of saccade-vergence interactions in PD and validating predictions in the actual patient data.Main results:We found four strategies to accomplish 3D gaze shift; pure vergence eye movements, pure saccadic eye movements, combinations of vergence followed by a saccade, and combination of saccade followed by vergence. The gaze shifting strategy of the two eyes was incongruent in PD. The latency of vergence was prolonged, and it was more so when the saccades preceded the vergence or when the saccades only made 3D gaze shift. Computational models predicted at least two possible mechanisms triggering saccades along with vergence. One is based on the lack of foveal accuracy when the vergence gain is suboptimal. The second mechanism reflects the noise in the gating mechanism, the omnipause neurons, for vergence and saccades. None of the two model predictions alone were completely supported by the patient data. However, a combined model incorporating both abnormal vergence velocity gain and impaired gating accurately simulated the results from PD patients.Significance:The combined strategy is biologically plausible for two reasons: (a) The basal ganglia that is prominently affected in PD projects to the vergence velocity neurons in the midbrain via the cerebellum. The projection directly affects the vergence velocity gain. (b) The basal ganglia, via superior colliculus, influences the pattern of omnipause neuronal activity. Abnormal basal ganglia activity may introduce noise in the omnipause neurons.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Simulação por Computador , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Neurônios , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Movimentos Sacádicos
14.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208524

RESUMO

To assist patients with restricted mobility to control wheelchair freely, this paper presents an eye-movement-controlled wheelchair prototype based on a flexible hydrogel biosensor and Wavelet Transform-Support Vector Machine (WT-SVM) algorithm. Considering the poor deformability and biocompatibility of rigid metal electrodes, we propose a flexible hydrogel biosensor made of conductive HPC/PVA (Hydroxypropyl cellulose/Polyvinyl alcohol) hydrogel and flexible PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) substrate. The proposed biosensor is affixed to the wheelchair user's forehead to collect electrooculogram (EOG) and strain signals, which are the basis to recognize eye movements. The low Young's modulus (286 KPa) and exceptional breathability (18 g m-2 h-1 of water vapor transmission rate) of the biosensor ensures a conformal and unobtrusive adhesion between it and the epidermis. To improve the recognition accuracy of eye movements (straight, upward, downward, left, and right), the WT-SVM algorithm is introduced to classify EOG and strain signals according to different features (amplitude, duration, interval). The average recognition accuracy reaches 96.3%, thus the wheelchair can be manipulated precisely.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hidrogéis , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Ondaletas , Algoritmos , Eletrodos , Eletroencefalografia , Eletroculografia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Cadeiras de Rodas
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208736

RESUMO

Processing visual stimuli in a scene is essential for the human brain to make situation-aware decisions. These stimuli, which are prevalent subjects of diagnostic eye tracking studies, are commonly encoded as rectangular areas of interest (AOIs) per frame. Because it is a tedious manual annotation task, the automatic detection and annotation of visual attention to AOIs can accelerate and objectify eye tracking research, in particular for mobile eye tracking with egocentric video feeds. In this work, we implement two methods to automatically detect visual attention to AOIs using pre-trained deep learning models for image classification and object detection. Furthermore, we develop an evaluation framework based on the VISUS dataset and well-known performance metrics from the field of activity recognition. We systematically evaluate our methods within this framework, discuss potentials and limitations, and propose ways to improve the performance of future automatic visual attention detection methods.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Computadores , Humanos , Visão Ocular
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201734

RESUMO

Most accidents in the aviation, maritime, and construction industries are caused by human error, which can be traced back to impaired mental performance and attention failure. In 1596, Du Laurens, a French anatomist and medical scientist, said that the eyes are the windows of the mind. Eye tracking research dates back almost 150 years and it has been widely used in different fields for several purposes. Overall, eye tracking technologies provide the means to capture in real time a variety of eye movements that reflect different human cognitive, emotional, and physiological states, which can be used to gain a wider understanding of the human mind in different scenarios. This systematic literature review explored the different applications of eye tracking research in three high-risk industries, namely aviation, maritime, and construction. The results of this research uncovered the demographic distribution and applications of eye tracking research, as well as the different technologies that have been integrated to study the visual, cognitive, and attentional aspects of human mental performance. Moreover, different research gaps and potential future research directions were highlighted in relation to the usage of additional technologies to support, validate, and enhance eye tracking research to better understand human mental performance.


Assuntos
Aviação , Indústria da Construção , Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Humanos , Tecnologia
17.
Chaos ; 31(4): 043129, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251266

RESUMO

The standard model of visual search dynamics is Brownian motion. However, recent research in cognitive science reveals that standard diffusion processes seem not to be the appropriate models of human looking behavior. In particular, experimental results confirm that the superdiffusive Lévy-type dynamics appears in this context. In this paper, we analyze the diffusive properties of human eye movement in a language comprehension task. We propose a model that is a combination of a Markov chain with a finite number of states and a Lévy walk. Our model fits well the experimental data and allows one to investigate the properties of the visual search dynamics using numerical simulations.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Difusão , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Movimento (Física) , Processos Estocásticos
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4145, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230474

RESUMO

Organisms have the capacity to make decisions based solely on internal drives. However, it is unclear how neural circuits form decisions in the absence of sensory stimuli. Here we provide a comprehensive map of the activity patterns underlying the generation of saccades made in the absence of visual stimuli. We perform calcium imaging in the larval zebrafish to discover a range of responses surrounding spontaneous saccades, from cells that display tonic discharge only during fixations to neurons whose activity rises in advance of saccades by multiple seconds. When we lesion cells in these populations we find that ablation of neurons with pre-saccadic rise delays saccade initiation. We analyze spontaneous saccade initiation using a ramp-to-threshold model and are able to predict the times of upcoming saccades using pre-saccadic activity. These findings suggest that ramping of neuronal activity to a bound is a critical component of self-initiated saccadic movements.


Assuntos
Controle da População , Rombencéfalo/patologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Animais , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular/psicologia , Larva , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 184, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272404

RESUMO

This manuscript presents GazeBase, a large-scale longitudinal dataset containing 12,334 monocular eye-movement recordings captured from 322 college-aged participants. Participants completed a battery of seven tasks in two contiguous sessions during each round of recording, including a - (1) fixation task, (2) horizontal saccade task, (3) random oblique saccade task, (4) reading task, (5/6) free viewing of cinematic video task, and (7) gaze-driven gaming task. Nine rounds of recording were conducted over a 37 month period, with participants in each subsequent round recruited exclusively from prior rounds. All data was collected using an EyeLink 1000 eye tracker at a 1,000 Hz sampling rate, with a calibration and validation protocol performed before each task to ensure data quality. Due to its large number of participants and longitudinal nature, GazeBase is well suited for exploring research hypotheses in eye movement biometrics, along with other applications applying machine learning to eye movement signal analysis. Classification labels produced by the instrument's real-time parser are provided for a subset of GazeBase, along with pupil area.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pupila , Leitura , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202025

RESUMO

As a component of the traffic control plan, traffic signs on highways offer drivers necessary information. Unfortunately, many signs are unfamiliar to or misunderstood by drivers, especially when lacking a setting method; this includes exit advance guide signs in tunnels. These are generally set in roadbed sections, but space limitations in tunnels dictate that they must be set differently. To evaluate the effect of the setting method, an experiment was designed and conducted, during which the eye movements of 44 drivers with different familiarity levels were tracked. Twenty-two of the drivers had not previously participated in any experiment involving exit advance guide signs in highway tunnels, while 22 of them had. Time period data were analyzed, including data from before the sign appeared, when it appeared, and when it disappeared. Based on area division and Markov theory, attributes related to gaze transition were obtained, including one- and two-step gaze transition probabilities and area gaze probabilities. The results showed that gaze transition was confirmed to be significantly different between the three periods and between the drivers. Features extracted from eye movement characteristics, gaze transition paths, and gaze areas demonstrated that visual attention is more dispersed in familiar drivers during the lane-change intention period. Therefore, signs should be placed on the left wall of the highway tunnel.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Movimentos Oculares , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Reconhecimento Psicológico
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