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2.
Mar Drugs ; 22(6)2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38921559

RESUMO

The skin of fish is a physicochemical barrier that is characterized by being formed by cells that secrete molecules responsible for the first defense against pathogenic organisms. In this study, the biological activity of peptides from mucus of Seriola lalandi and Seriolella violacea were identified and characterized. To this purpose, peptide extraction was carried out from epidermal mucus samples of juveniles of both species, using chromatographic strategies for purification. Then, the peptide extracts were characterized to obtain the amino acid sequence by mass spectrometry. Using bioinformatics tools for predicting antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, 12 peptides were selected that were chemically produced by simultaneous synthesis using the Fmoc-Tbu strategy. The results revealed that the synthetic peptides presented a random coil or extended secondary structure. The analysis of antimicrobial activity allowed it to be discriminated that four peptides, named by their synthesis code 5065, 5069, 5070, and 5076, had the ability to inhibit the growth of Vibrio anguillarum and affected the copepodite stage of C. rogercresseyi. On the other hand, peptides 5066, 5067, 5070, and 5077 had the highest antioxidant capacity. Finally, peptides 5067, 5069, 5070, and 5076 were the most effective for inducing respiratory burst in fish leukocytes. The analysis of association between composition and biological function revealed that the antimicrobial activity depended on the presence of basic and aromatic amino acids, while the presence of cysteine residues increased the antioxidant activity of the peptides. Additionally, it was observed that those peptides that presented the highest antimicrobial capacity were those that also stimulated respiratory burst in leukocytes. This is the first work that demonstrates the presence of functional peptides in the epidermal mucus of Chilean marine fish, which provide different biological properties when the fish face opportunistic pathogens.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Peixes , Muco , Animais , Muco/química , Chile , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação
3.
ACS Nano ; 18(26): 16701-16714, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885185

RESUMO

Biological barriers present a significant obstacle to treatment, especially when drugs are administered locally to increase their concentrations at the target site while minimizing unintended off-target effects. Among these barriers, mucus presents a challenge, as it serves as a protective layer in the respiratory, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts. Its role is to shield the underlying epithelial cells from pathogens and toxic compounds but also impedes the efficient delivery of drugs. Despite the exploration of mucolytic agents to improve drug delivery, overcoming this protective barrier remains a significant hurdle. In our study, we investigate an alternative approach involving the use of catalase-powered nanobots. We use an in vitro model that simulates intestinal mucus secretion to demonstrate the dual functionality of our nanobots. This includes their ability to disrupt mucus, which we confirmed through in vitro and ex vivo validation, as well as their self-propulsion to overcome the mucus barrier, resulting in a 60-fold increase compared with passive nanoparticles. Therefore, our findings highlight the potential utility of catalase-powered nanobots as carriers for therapeutic agents since they could enhance drug delivery efficiency by penetrating the mucus barrier.


Assuntos
Catalase , Muco , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/química , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/química , Humanos , Animais , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Camundongos
4.
Biophys J ; 123(13): 1838-1845, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824388

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a vast community of microorganisms, termed the gut microbiota. Large colonies can pose a health threat, but the gastrointestinal mucus system protects epithelial cells from microbiota invasion. The human colon features a bilayer of mucus lining. Due to imbalances in intestinal homeostasis, bacteria may successfully penetrate the inner mucus layer, which can lead to severe gut diseases. However, it is hard to tease apart the competing mechanisms that lead to this penetration. To probe the conditions that permit bacteria penetration into the inner mucus layer, we develop an agent-based model consisting of bacteria and an inner mucus layer subject to a constant flux of nutrient fields feeding the bacteria. We find that there are three important variables that determine bacterial invasion: the bacterial reproduction rate, the contact energy between bacteria and mucus, and the rate of bacteria degrading the mucus. Under healthy conditions, all bacteria are naturally eliminated by the constant removal of mucus. In diseased states, imbalances between the rates of bacterial degradation and mucus secretion lead to bacterial invasion at certain junctures. We conduct uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis to compare the relative impact between these parameters. The contact energy has the strongest influence on bacterial penetration, which, in combination with bacterial degradation rate and growth rate, greatly accelerates bacterial invasion of the human gut mucus lining. Our findings will serve as predictive indicators for the etiology of intestinal diseases and highlight important considerations when developing gut therapeutics.


Assuntos
Colo , Modelos Biológicos , Muco , Humanos , Colo/microbiologia , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal
5.
PeerJ ; 12: e17421, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827308

RESUMO

Background: Rainfall-induced coastal runoff represents an important environmental impact in near-shore coral reefs that may affect coral-associated bacterial microbiomes. Shifts in microbiome community composition and function can stress corals and ultimately cause mortality and reef declines. Impacts of environmental stress may be site specific and differ between coral microbiome compartments (e.g., tissue versus mucus). Coastal runoff and associated water pollution represent a major stressor for near-shore reef-ecosystems in Guam, Micronesia. Methods: Acropora pulchra colonies growing on the West Hagåtña reef flat in Guam were sampled over a period of 8 months spanning the 2021 wet and dry seasons. To examine bacterial microbiome diversity and composition, samples of A. pulchra tissue and mucus were collected during late April, early July, late September, and at the end of December. Samples were collected from populations in two different habitat zones, near the reef crest (farshore) and close to shore (nearshore). Seawater samples were collected during the same time period to evaluate microbiome dynamics of the waters surrounding coral colonies. Tissue, mucus, and seawater microbiomes were characterized using 16S DNA metabarcoding in conjunction with Illumina sequencing. In addition, water samples were collected to determine fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations as an indicator of water pollution. Water temperatures were recorded using data loggers and precipitation data obtained from a nearby rain gauge. The correlation structure of environmental parameters (temperature and rainfall), FIB concentrations, and A. pulchra microbiome diversity was evaluated using a structural equation model. Beta diversity analyses were used to investigate spatio-temporal trends of microbiome composition. Results: Acropora pulchra microbiome diversity differed between tissues and mucus, with mucus microbiome diversity being similar to the surrounding seawater. Rainfall and associated fluctuations of FIB concentrations were correlated with changes in tissue and mucus microbiomes, indicating their role as drivers of A. pulchra microbiome diversity. A. pulchra tissue microbiome composition remained relatively stable throughout dry and wet seasons; tissues were dominated by Endozoicomonadaceae, coral endosymbionts and putative indicators of coral health. In nearshore A. pulchra tissue microbiomes, Simkaniaceae, putative obligate coral endosymbionts, were more abundant than in A. pulchra colonies growing near the reef crest (farshore). A. pulchra mucus microbiomes were more diverse during the wet season than the dry season, a distinction that was also associated with drastic shifts in microbiome composition. This study highlights the seasonal dynamics of coral microbiomes and demonstrates that microbiome diversity and composition may differ between coral tissues and the surface mucus layer.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Microbiota , Estações do Ano , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiota/genética , Muco/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4764, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834561

RESUMO

Bacteriophage are sophisticated cellular parasites that can not only parasitize bacteria but are increasingly recognized for their direct interactions with mammalian hosts. Phage adherence to mucus is known to mediate enhanced antimicrobial effects in vitro. However, little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of mucus-adherent phages in vivo. Here, using a combination of in vitro gastrointestinal cell lines, a gut-on-a-chip microfluidic model, and an in vivo murine gut model, we demonstrated that a E. coli phage, øPNJ-6, provided enhanced gastrointestinal persistence and antimicrobial effects. øPNJ-6 bound fucose residues, of the gut secreted glycoprotein MUC2, through domain 1 of its Hoc protein, which led to increased intestinal mucus production that was suggestive of a positive feedback loop mediated by the mucus-adherent phage. These findings extend the Bacteriophage Adherence to Mucus model into phage therapy, demonstrating that øPNJ-6 displays enhanced persistence within the murine gut, leading to targeted depletion of intestinal pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Mucosa Intestinal , Mucina-2 , Animais , Escherichia coli/virologia , Camundongos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Aderência Bacteriana , Feminino , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/virologia , Colífagos/fisiologia , Fucose/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
mSphere ; 9(6): e0008124, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837404

RESUMO

In a healthy colon, the stratified mucus layer serves as a crucial innate immune barrier to protect the epithelium from microbes. Mucins are complex glycoproteins that serve as a nutrient source for resident microflora and can be exploited by pathogens. We aimed to understand how the intestinal pathogen, Clostridioides difficile, independently uses or manipulates mucus to its benefit, without contributions from members of the microbiota. Using a 2-D primary human intestinal epithelial cell model to generate physiologic mucus, we assessed C. difficile-mucus interactions through growth assays, RNA-Seq, biophysical characterization of mucus, and contextualized metabolic modeling. We found that host-derived mucus promotes C. difficile growth both in vitro and in an infection model. RNA-Seq revealed significant upregulation of genes related to central metabolism in response to mucus, including genes involved in sugar uptake, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and the glycine cleavage system. In addition, we identified differential expression of genes related to sensing and transcriptional control. Analysis of mutants with deletions in highly upregulated genes reflected the complexity of C. difficile-mucus interactions, with potential interplay between sensing and growth. Mucus also stimulated biofilm formation in vitro, which may in turn alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. Context-specific metabolic modeling confirmed differential metabolism and the predicted importance of enzymes related to serine and glycine catabolism with mucus. Subsequent growth experiments supported these findings, indicating mucus is an important source of serine. Our results better define responses of C. difficile to human gastrointestinal mucus and highlight flexibility in metabolism that may influence pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE: Clostridioides difficile results in upward of 250,000 infections and 12,000 deaths annually in the United States. Community-acquired infections continue to rise, and recurrent disease is common, emphasizing a vital need to understand C. difficile pathogenesis. C. difficile undoubtedly interacts with colonic mucus, but the extent to which the pathogen can independently respond to and take advantage of this niche has not been explored extensively. Moreover, the metabolic complexity of C. difficile remains poorly understood but likely impacts its capacity to grow and persist in the host. Here, we demonstrate that C. difficile uses native colonic mucus for growth, indicating C. difficile possesses mechanisms to exploit the mucosal niche. Furthermore, mucus induces metabolic shifts and biofilm formation in C. difficile, which has potential ramifications for intestinal colonization. Overall, our work is crucial to better understand the dynamics of C. difficile-mucus interactions in the context of the human gut.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Clostridioides difficile , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Muco , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Clostridioides difficile/fisiologia , Clostridioides difficile/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Muco/microbiologia , Muco/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia
9.
ACS Nano ; 18(25): 16166-16183, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867485

RESUMO

In the harsh gastrointestinal tract, helical bacteria with hierarchical chiral architectures possess strong abilities. Taking inspirations from nature, we developed a multichiral mesoporous silica nanoscrew (L/D-MCNS) as an efficient oral drug delivery platform by modifying the structural chiral silica nanoscrew (CNS) with L/D-alanine (L/D-Ala) enantiomers via the sequential application of a chiral template and postmodification strategies. We demonstrated that L-MCNS showed differential biological behaviors and superior advantages in oral adsorption compared to those of CNS, D-MCNS, and DL-MCNS. During the delivery, helical L/D-MCNS presenting distinctive topological structures, including small section area, large rough external surface, and a screw-like body, displayed multiple superiorities in mucus diffusion and mucosal adhesion. Meanwhile, the grafted chiral enantiomers enabled positive or negative chiral recognition with the biosystems. Once racemic flurbiprofen (FP) was encapsulated into the nanopores of L/D-MCNS (FP@L/D-MCNS), L/D-MCNS providing highly cross-linked and mesoscopic chiral nanochannels was beneficial for controlling the drug loading/release kinetics with chiral microenvironment sensitivity. Particularly, we noticed enantioselective absorption of FP in vivo, which could be attributed to the differential biological behaviors of L/D-MCNS. By simple design and regulation of the multilevel chirality of nanocarriers, L/D-MCNS can be employed for efficient oral drug delivery from the perspectives of material science, pharmacy, and bionics.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Dióxido de Silício , Dióxido de Silício/química , Administração Oral , Porosidade , Animais , Humanos , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/química , Flurbiprofeno/química , Flurbiprofeno/administração & dosagem , Flurbiprofeno/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Estereoisomerismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Sci Adv ; 10(24): eado4791, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865465

RESUMO

The stemness loss-associated dysregeneration of impaired alveolar type 2 epithelial (AT2) cells abolishes the reversible therapy of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We here report an inhalable mucus-penetrating lipid nanoparticle (LNP) for codelivering dual mRNAs, promoting realveolarization via restoring AT2 stemness for IPF treatment. Inhalable LNPs were first formulated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and our in-house-made ionizable lipids for high-efficiency pulmonary mucus penetration and codelivery of dual messenger RNAs (mRNAs), encoding cytochrome b5 reductase 3 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, respectively. After being inhaled in a bleomycin model, LNPs reverses the mitochondrial dysfunction through ameliorating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, which inhibits the accelerated senescence of AT2 cells. Concurrently, pathological epithelial remodeling and fibroblast activation induced by impaired AT2 cells are terminated, ultimately prompting alveolar regeneration. Our data demonstrated that the mRNA-LNP system exhibited high protein expression in lung epithelial cells, which markedly extricated the alveolar collapse and prolonged the survival of fibrosis mice, providing a clinically viable strategy against IPF.


Assuntos
Bleomicina , Muco , Nanopartículas , Animais , Nanopartículas/química , Camundongos , Muco/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Administração por Inalação , Lipídeos/química , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos
11.
Allergol Int ; 73(3): 349-350, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38906642
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14019, 2024 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890484

RESUMO

The mucus surface layer serves vital functions for scleractinian corals and consists mainly of carbohydrates. Its carbohydrate composition has been suggested to be influenced by environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, nutrients) and microbial pressures (e.g., microbial degradation, microbial coral symbionts), yet to what extend the coral mucus composition is determined by phylogeny remains to be tested. To investigate the variation of mucus carbohydrate compositions among coral species, we analyzed the composition of mucosal carbohydrate building blocks (i.e., monosaccharides) for five species of scleractinian corals, supplemented with previously reported data, to discern overall patterns using cluster analysis. Monosaccharide composition from a total of 23 species (belonging to 14 genera and 11 families) revealed significant differences between two phylogenetic clades that diverged early in the evolutionary history of scleractinian corals (i.e., complex and robust; p = 0.001, R2 = 0.20), mainly driven by the absence of arabinose in the robust clade. Despite considerable differences in environmental conditions and sample analysis protocols applied, coral phylogeny significantly correlated with monosaccharide composition (Mantel test: p < 0.001, R2 = 0.70). These results suggest that coral mucus carbohydrates display phylogenetic dependence and support their essential role in the functioning of corals.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Muco , Filogenia , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/metabolismo , Antozoários/classificação , Animais , Muco/química , Muco/metabolismo , Carboidratos/análise , Carboidratos/química , Monossacarídeos/análise
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304689, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875285

RESUMO

To explore cost-effective and efficient phytoremediation strategies, this study investigated the distinct roles of earthworm activity and mucus in enhancing Cd phytoextraction from soils contaminated by Festuca arundinacea, focusing on the comparative advantages of selective leaf harvesting versus traditional whole-plant harvesting methods. Our study employed a horticultural trial to explore how earthworm activity and mucus affect Festuca arundinacea' s Cd phytoremediation in soils using control, earthworm, and mucus treatments to examine their respective effects on plant growth and Cd distribution. Earthworm activity increased the dry weight of leaves by 13.5% and significantly increased the dry weights of declining and senescent leaves, surpassing that of the control by more than 40%. Earthworm mucus had a similar, albeit less pronounced, effect on plant growth than earthworm activity. This study not only validated the significant role of earthworm activity in enhancing Cd phytoextraction by Festuca arundinacea, with earthworm activity leading to over 85% of Cd being allocated to senescent tissues that comprise only approximately 20% of the plant biomass, but also highlighted a sustainable and cost-effective approach to phytoremediation by emphasizing selective leaf harvesting supported by earthworm activity. By demonstrating that earthworm mucus alone can redistribute Cd with less efficiency compared to live earthworms, our findings offer practical insights into optimizing phytoremediation strategies and underscore the need for further research into the synergistic effects of biological agents in soil remediation processes.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Festuca , Muco , Oligoquetos , Folhas de Planta , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Festuca/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Biomassa , Solo/química
14.
Molecules ; 29(12)2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38930951

RESUMO

The discovery and investigation of new natural compounds with antimicrobial activity are new potential strategies to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. The presented study reveals, for the first time, the promising antibacterial potential of two fractions from Cornu aspersum mucus with an MW < 20 kDa and an MW > 20 kDa against five bacterial pathogens-Bacillus cereus 1085, Propionibacterium acnes 1897, Salmonella enterica 8691, Enterococcus faecalis 3915, and Enterococcus faecium 8754. Using de novo sequencing, 16 novel peptides with potential antibacterial activity were identified in a fraction with an MW < 20 kDa. Some bioactive compounds in a mucus fraction with an MW > 20 kDa were determined via a proteomic analysis on 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and bioinformatics. High homology with proteins and glycoproteins was found, with potential antibacterial activity in mucus proteins named aspernin, hemocyanins, H-lectins, and L-amino acid oxidase-like protein, as well as mucins (mucin-5AC, mucin-5B, mucin-2, and mucin-17). We hypothesize that the synergy between the bioactive components determined in the composition of the fraction > 20 kDa are responsible for the high antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens in concentrations between 32 and 128 µg/mL, which is comparable to vancomycin, but without cytotoxic effects on model eukaryotic cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, a positive effect, by reducing the levels of intracellular oxidative damage and increasing antioxidant capacity, on S. cerevisiae cells was found for both mucus extract fractions of C. aspersum. These findings may serve as a basis for further studies to develop a new antibacterial agent preventing the development of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Muco , Peptídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Muco/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Propionibacterium acnes/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 50(7): 108373, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761511

RESUMO

For peritoneal metastases from a primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasm to exist, the thin wall of the appendix must perforate to allow mucus or mucus plus tumor cells to gain access to the peritoneal spaces. The proportion of specimens containing tumor cells within mucus as compared to mucus only outside the appendix may have prognostic significance. The histopathology of tumor masses was determined from the specimens resected at the cytoreductive surgery (CRS). The presence versus absence of tumor cells in mucus and the proportion of specimens with tumor cells was determined and correlated with the overall survival of these patients. In 418 patients with a complete cytoreduction for a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN), the cellularity of all resected specimens was determined. The hazard ratio of overall survival of patients whose specimens had no cells as compared to specimens with cells in mucus by histology was 4.41 (1.61, 12.1) (p = 0.0039). If overall survival of patients with all specimens without tumor cells was compared to patients with specimens with 1-99 % tumor and compared to patients with 100 % of specimens with tumor cells, the hazard ratios were 4.3 (1.34, 13.8) (p = 0.0143) and 9.62 (2.93, 31.6) (p = 0.0002), respectively. The cellularity of mucus within the specimens removed by a complete CRS has strong prognostic implications in LAMN patients. LAMN with acellular specimens (LAMNa) as compared to LAMN with tumor cells in specimens (LAMNb) should be staged as different histologic subtypes of mucinous appendiceal neoplasms.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso , Neoplasias do Apêndice , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Muco , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Humanos , Neoplasias do Apêndice/patologia , Muco/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Idoso , Gradação de Tumores , Adulto , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 136: 112329, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our team identified a new cardiac glycoside, Toxicarioside H (ToxH), in a tropical plant. Previous research has indicated the potential of cardenolides in mitigating inflammation, particularly in the context of NETosis. Therefore, this study sought to examine the potential of ToxH in attenuating allergic airway inflammation by influencing the immune microenvironment. METHODS: An OVA-induced airway inflammation model was established in BALB/c mice. After the experiment was completed, serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue samples were collected and further examined using H&E and PAS staining, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence observation, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with ToxH was found to be effective in reducing airway inflammation and mucus production. This was accompanied by an increase in Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-ß), and the Th17 cytokine IL-17, while levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß1) were decreased in both the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the CD45+ immune cells in the lungs. Additionally, ToxH inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and decreased the number of pulmonary CD44+ memory T cells, while augmenting the numbers of Th17 and Treg cells. Furthermore, the neutrophil elastase inhibitor GW311616A was observed to suppress airway inflammation and mucus production, as well as alter the secretion of immune Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokines in the lung CD45+ immune cells. Moreover, our study also demonstrated that treatment with ToxH efficiently inhibited ROS generation, thereby rectifying the dysregulation of immune cells in the immune microenvironment in OVA-induced allergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that ToxH could serve as a promising therapeutic intervention for allergic airway inflammation and various other inflammatory disorders. Modulating the balance of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 cells within the pulmonary immune microenvironment may offer an effective strategy for controlling allergic airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Pulmão , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Animais , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Feminino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Asma/imunologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(9): 7902-7914, 2024 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional bandages, gauze, and cotton balls are increasingly insufficient for addressing complex war injuries characterized by severe bleeding and diverse wound conditions. The giant salamander, a species of high medical value, secretes a unique mucus when stimulated, which has potential applications in wound care. MATERIALS: Giant salamander skin mucus gel dressing wrapped with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs-GSSM-gel) was prepared and validated. Skin wound injury of rabbit and mouse models were established. Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sirius red staining were performed. The platelet aggregation rate and coagulation items were measured. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to find potential differential expression genes. RESULTS: Preparation and characterization of BMSCs-GSSM-gel were performed, and BMSCs-GSSM-gel particles with a diameter of about 200 nm were obtained. BMSCs-GSSM-gel accelerated wound healing in both rabbit and mouse models. BMSCs-GSSM-gel significantly promoted hemostasis via increasing platelet aggregation rate and fibrinogen, but decreasing activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and prothrombin time. BMSCs-GSSM-gel treatment significantly impacted several genes associated with cell adhesion, inflammatory response, collagen-containing extracellular matrix, and the positive regulation of cell migration based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Integrin Subunit Beta 4 (ITGB4), Integrin Subunit Alpha 3 (ITGA3), and Laminin Subunit Beta 3 (LAMB3) might be involved in the wound healing process by BMSCs-GSSM-gel. CONCLUSIONS: We proved the BMSCs-GSSM-gel greatly improved the skin wound healing, and it might play a crucial role in the application fields of skin damage repair.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pele , Cicatrização , Animais , Coelhos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pele/lesões , Pele/metabolismo , Camundongos , Muco/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Integrinas/genética , Géis , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Masculino
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 16(10): 8472-8483, 2024 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway in PM2.5 in promoting the MUC5AC hypersecretion in airway and exacerbating airway inflammation. METHODS: By establishing rat model exposed to PM2.5, overexpressing miR-133b-5p and Claudin1, the content of IL-1 and TNF-α in serum were detected by ELISA, the pathology of lung tissue was observed by HE staining, p-EGFR, Claudin1, MUC5AC, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, p-p38 in rats lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemical and WB, the expression level of miR-133b-5p in rats lung tissue were detected by qPCR. RESULTS: After the rats were exposed to PM2.5, the content of inflammatory factors in serum increased, the inflammatory damage of lung tissues occurred, the expression of miR-133b-5p was down-regulated, and the expression of MUC5AC protein was increased. The ELISA test results showed that the expression of IL-1 and TNF-α in the model group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the model +AG1478 treatment group was down-regulated compared with the model group, and the +miR-133b-5p agomir treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group, the model group and the model +Claudin1 overexpression blank load group, and the model +Claudin1 overexpression group was down-regulated compared with the model group and the model +Claudin1 overexpression blank load group. The protein detection results showed that the expression of p-EGFR, MUC5AC, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK and p-p38 proteins was increased and the expression of Claudin1 protein was decreased in the model group compared with the control group. In the model + AG1478 treatment group, model + miR-133b-5p agomir treatment group and model + Claudin1 overexpression group, compared with the model group, p-EGFR, MUC5AC, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, p-p38 protein expression was down-regulated, and Claudin1 protein expression was up-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 inhibited the expression of miR-133b-5p to activate the EGFR/MAPK signal pathway, induce the hypersecretion of MUC5AC, thus aggravating PM2.5-related airway inflammation in rats.


Assuntos
Claudina-1 , Receptores ErbB , MicroRNAs , Mucina-5AC , Material Particulado , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Mucina-5AC/genética , Ratos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Claudina-1/genética , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Muco/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases
20.
Anal Chem ; 96(23): 9416-9423, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809415

RESUMO

A noninvasive sampling technology was conceived, employing a disposable acupuncture needle in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry (termed as noninvasive direct sampling extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, NIDS-EESI-MS) to scrutinize the epidermal mucus of Nile tilapia for insights into the metabolic dysregulation induced by polypropylene nano- and microplastics. This analytical method initiates with the dispensing of an extraction solvent onto the needles coated with the mucus sample, almost simultaneously applying a high voltage to generate analyte ions. This innovative strategy obliterates the necessitation for laborious sample preparation, thereby simplifying the sampling process. Employing this technique facilitated the delineation of a plethora of metabolites, encompassing, but not confined to, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, ketones, fatty acids, and their derivatives. Follow-up pathway enrichment analysis exposed notable alterations within key metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, lysine degradation, as well as the biosynthesis and metabolism of valine, leucine, and isoleucine pathways in Nile tilapia, consequent to increased concentrations of polypropylene nanoplastics. These metabolic alterations portend potential implications such as immune suppression, among other deleterious outcomes. This trailblazing application of this methodology not only spares aquatic life from sacrifice but also inaugurates an ethical paradigm for conducting longitudinal studies on the same organisms, facilitating detailed investigations into the long-term effects of environmental pollutants. This technique enhances the ability to observe and understand the subtle yet significant impacts of such contaminants over time.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Microplásticos , Muco , Polipropilenos , Animais , Microplásticos/análise , Polipropilenos/química , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/química , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
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